WorldWideScience

Sample records for spraberry trend field

  1. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  2. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  3. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  4. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  5. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  6. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2001-11-19

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO{sub 2} injection.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  10. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  12. Near Field Communication: Technology and Market Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Arcese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different hi-tech content domains, the telecommunications industry is one of the most relevant, in particular for the Italian economy. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC represents an example of innovative production and a technological introduction in the telecommunications context. It has a threefold function: card emulator, peer-to-peer communication and digital content access, and it could be pervasively integrated in many different domains, especially in the mobile payment one. The increasing attention on NFC technology from the academic community has improved an analysis on the changes and the development perspective about mobile payments. It has considered the work done by the GSMA (Global System for Mobile Communications Association and the NFC Forum in recent years. This study starts from an analysis of the scientific contributions to Near Field Communication and how the main researches on this topic were conceived. Our focus is on the diffusion rates, the adoption rates and the technology life cycle. After that, we analyze the technical-economical elements of NFC. Finally, this work presents the state of art of the improvements to this technology with a deeper focus on NFC technologies applied to the tourism industry. In this way, we have done a case analysis that shows some of the NFC existent applications linked to each stage of the tourism value chain.

  13. Liquid journalism: trends in amplification of the field

    OpenAIRE

    Rublescki, Anelise; Silva, Alexandre Rocha da

    2012-01-01

    This article derives from a broader investigation which discusses the metamorphoses that are established for the mediation and the capability for processing of the news in the culture of the convergence and digitalization. As a direct result of the investigation seven trends to enlarge the boundaries of the field are highlighted: 1) diffuse journalism, 2) residual recovery journalism, 3) deepening of journalism in collaboration, 4) predominance of news centered on the reader, 5) more value gi...

  14. Liquid journalism: trends in amplification of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rublescki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article derives from a broader investigation which discusses the metamorphoses that are established for the mediation and the capability for processing of the news in the culture of the convergence and digitalization. As a direct result of the investigation seven trends to enlarge the boundaries of the field are highlighted: 1 diffuse journalism, 2 residual recovery journalism, 3 deepening of journalism in collaboration, 4 predominance of news centered on the reader, 5 more value given to local content, 6 personalization of the fruition of the news, and 7 plurality of voices and framings with regard to the same fact. Methodologically, it is a theoretical and critical article, developed from review of the literature and empirical observation.

  15. Intelligent trend analysis for a solar thermal energy collector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuso, E. K.

    2018-03-01

    Solar thermal power plants collect available solar energy in a usable form at a temperature range which is adapted to the irradiation levels and seasonal variations. Solar energy can be collected only when the irradiation is high enough to produce the required temperatures. During the operation, a trade-off of the temperature and the flow is needed to achieve a good level for the collected power. The scaling approach brings temporal analysis to all measurements and features: trend indices are calculated by comparing the averages in the long and short time windows, a weighted sum of the trend index and its derivative detects the trend episodes and severity of the trend is estimated by including also the variable level in the sum. The trend index, trend episodes and especially, the deviation index reveal early evolving changes in the operating conditions, including cloudiness and load disturbances. The solution is highly compact: all variables, features and indices are transformed to the range [-2, 2] and represented in natural language which is important in integrating data-driven solutions with domain expertise. The special situations detected during the test campaigns are explained well.

  16. Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…

  17. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Wichro, Erika; Macheiner, Tanja; Schmid, Jasmin; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression a...

  18. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichro, Erika; Macheiner, Tanja; Schmid, Jasmin; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression and prognosis of obesity related liver diseases. Methodology. We analyzed finally 62 articles accounting for 157 cohorts and 45,288 subjects. Results. Despite the various approaches, most cohorts were considerably small and rarely comparable. Also, we found that the same standard parameters were measured rather than novel biomarkers. Diagnostics approaches appeared incomparable. Conclusions. Further collaborative investigations on harmonizing ways of data acquisition and identifying such biomarkers for clinical use are necessary to yield sufficient significant results of potential biomarkers.

  19. How Do Trend Researchers Conduct Research? The Production of Knowledge in a Controversial Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pfadenhauer

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The planned research project described in this article focuses on the methods of trend research—not only in a narrow literal sense of techniques of data collection and data evaluation but also in a broader understanding of the logic of knowledge production in this controversial field. Initially trend research can be appointed between market research on the one hand and futurology on the other hand. Criticism regarding trend research as well as its innovative potential is also mentioned. Following the recent studies, trend research is conceived as application-oriented research in a broad sense. As far as the methodology is concerned, the proposed study promises to be an empirically-founded contribution by integrating analysis from sources such as explorative and focused conversations, observations and expert interviews. The study uses the example of trend research and asks the question how research is actually "done" and if it is application oriented or not. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402366

  20. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  1. Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawyer, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been through major changes in the past 10 years. We have seen an activity high in the early 1980s, which was stimulated by oil price predictions that went as high as $70/bbl. By 1985 we saw oil prices plunge to $8/bbl, causing numerous reorganizations and mergers. Today we find ourselves in a business environment in which large oil companies are reducing their explorative budgets in the mature basins of the U.S. and Canada in favor of more-attractive opportunities in frontier plays, usually overseas. These same companies are taking a hard look at their existing fields with the objective of increasing operating efficiency by sales, trades, and purchases. Nonperforming properties are sold or exchanged for properties that are within the supported infrastructure. Before a property can be considered for divestment, it must be evaluated on the basis of current reserves and potential for additional reserves. This process of restructuring producing properties is often referred to as property enhancement. The result of property enhancement is the identification of core producing properties. Resources and efforts are then focused on the core properties to maximize production and reserves. This is today's business environment. Our challenge is to provide value-added technology that will support exploration and production business objectives. Expenditures for technology should be treated like any other expenditures, with calculations of expected payouts and anticipated rates of return. An evaluation of risk should also be made. In other words, solid economic justification is required. This justification is particularly true in production, where expenditures and results are more closely coupled

  2. A verification study and trend analysis of simulated boundary layer wind fields over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberg, Janna

    2011-07-01

    Simulated wind fields from regional climate models (RCMs) are increasingly used as a surrogate for observations which are costly and prone to homogeneity deficiencies. Compounding the problem, a lack of reliable observations makes the validation of the simulated wind fields a non trivial exercise. Whilst the literature shows that RCMs tend to underestimate strong winds over land these investigations mainly relied on comparisons with near surface measurements and extrapolated model wind fields. In this study a new approach is proposed using measurements from high towers and a robust validation process. Tower height wind data are smoother and thus more representative of regional winds. As benefit this approach circumvents the need to extrapolate simulated wind fields. The performance of two models using different downscaling techniques is evaluated. The influence of the boundary conditions on the simulation of wind statistics is investigated. Both models demonstrate a reasonable performance over flat homogeneous terrain and deficiencies over complex terrain, such as the Upper Rhine Valley, due to a too coarse spatial resolution ({proportional_to}50 km). When the spatial resolution is increased to 10 and 20 km respectively a benefit is found for the simulation of the wind direction only. A sensitivity analysis shows major deviations of international land cover data. A time series analysis of dynamically downscaled simulations is conducted. While the annual cycle and the interannual variability are well simulated, the models are less effective at simulating small scale fluctuations and the diurnal cycle. The hypothesis that strong winds are underestimated by RCMs is supported by means of a storm analysis. Only two-thirds of the observed storms are simulated by the model using a spectral nudging approach. In addition ''False Alarms'' are simulated, which are not detected in the observations. A trend analysis over the period 1961 - 2000 is conducted

  3. New trends in educational activity in the field of mechanism and machine theory

    CERN Document Server

    Castejon, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The First International Symposium on the Education in Mechanism and Machine Science (ISEMMS 2013) aimed to create a stable platform for the interchange of experience among researches of mechanism and machine science. Topics treated include contributions on subjects such as new trends and experiences in mechanical engineering education; mechanism and machine science in mechanical engineering curricula; MMS in engineering programs, such as, for example, methodology, virtual labs and new laws. All papers have been rigorously reviewed and represent the state of the art in their field.

  4. Current Technologies and its Trends of Machine Vision in the Field of Security and Disaster Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Fujino, Yozo

    Image sensing technologies are expected as useful and effective way to suppress damages by criminals and disasters in highly safe and relieved society. In this paper, we describe current important subjects, required functions, technical trends, and a couple of real examples of developed system. As for the video surveillance, recognition of human trajectory and human behavior using image processing techniques are introduced with real examples about the violence detection for elevators. In the field of facility monitoring technologies as civil engineering, useful machine vision applications such as automatic detection of concrete cracks on walls of a building or recognition of crowded people on bridge for effective guidance in emergency are shown.

  5. Study of Research Trend in Knowledge Management Field(2001-2010 and Mapping its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using scientometric and bibliometric methods, the present study will answer this question: What approach had paid the scientific output in the field of knowledge management at international level in the last decade? For this purpose the first, keywords and subdirectories in this field were identified and selected. Then advanced search of these words were performed in the Web of Science database. All the extracted data from WoS database were entered to the "Histcite" software in the form of 500 record files. After performing the necessary analysis on them, scientific map in this field in 2001-2010 periods was drawn by the software. The study showed average annual growth rate of WoS publications in the field of knowledge management in the last decade, was 10.9 percent. Scientific products of Iranian scientists were included 221 records, and were formed 0.4 percent of the total scientific outputs in this field, and the rank of it, was 35. The most frequent thematic trends were: support information technology like 'data mining' and also organizational, social and managerial elements of knowledge management.

  6. Recent trend in construction materials field. Kenzai bun[prime]ya ni okeru saikin no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    The Japanese construction industry, the construction market and the technical trend of construction materials made by Kawasaki Steel Group were described. The roles of the steel industry in the construction material market are to increase the ratio of steel used in construction, to manufacture steel products of high value added and to develop new applications. Appearance and good design are required to provide for the construction materials made of processed steel in addition to the necessary functions. In the construction material market, qualitative changes in needs are taking place, such as labor saving shortening of construction period and simplification of construction management. Kawasaki Steel Group intends to expand the integrated business such as system building, external wall materials for buildings made of metals, highly corrosion resistant stainless steel for metallic roof field, and roof materials of the heat insulation, good appearance and horizontally covering type based on the overall business strategy. In addition, Kawasaki Steel Group is expanding the Kawasaki Design Steel Plaza and its construction material research laboratory to cope with the trend of diversified functions and design of construction goods and of making kinds of construction material much more and to develop more rational construction techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  7. Development and trends in radiological protection and the NEA programme in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.; Wallauschek, E.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of radiological protection problems and achievements during the more than twenty years of existence of the Nuclear Energy Agency, are reviewed in the light of the Agency's involvement and activities in this field. Some current problems of specific concern to public health aithorities in Member countries are discussed. The areas covered include the application of the ICRP optimisation principle to practical cases, the occupational exposure trends in the nuclear industry, the protection of workers and the public and the measurement and dosimetry problems associated with the front-end of the uranium fuel cycle, the radiological implications of dumping low-level radioactive wastes into the oceans, and the long-term detriment associated with the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. (H.K.)

  8. Long-term aerosol climatology over Indo-Gangetic Plain: Trend, prediction and potential source fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Parmar, K. S.; Kumar, D. B.; Mhawish, A.; Broday, D. M.; Mall, R. K.; Banerjee, T.

    2018-05-01

    Long-term aerosol climatology is derived using Terra MODIS (Collection 6) enhanced Deep Blue (DB) AOD retrieval algorithm to investigate decadal trend (2006-2015) in columnar aerosol loading, future scenarios and potential source fields over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Satellite based aerosol climatology was analyzed in two contexts: for the entire IGP considering area weighted mean AOD and for nine individual stations located at upper (Karachi, Multan, Lahore), central (Delhi, Kanpur, Varanasi, Patna) and lower IGP (Kolkata, Dhaka). A comparatively high aerosol loading (AOD: 0.50 ± 0.25) was evident over IGP with a statistically insignificant increasing trend of 0.002 year-1. Analysis highlights the existing spatial and temporal gradients in aerosol loading with stations over central IGP like Varanasi (decadal mean AOD±SD; 0.67 ± 0.28) and Patna (0.65 ± 0.30) exhibit the highest AOD, followed by stations over lower IGP (Kolkata: 0.58 ± 0.21; Dhaka: 0.60 ± 0.24), with a statistically significant increasing trend (0.0174-0.0206 year-1). In contrast, stations over upper IGP reveal a comparatively low aerosol loading, having an insignificant increasing trend. Variation in AOD across IGP is found to be mainly influenced by seasonality and topography. A distinct "aerosol pool" region over eastern part of Ganges plain is identified, where meteorology, topography, and aerosol sources favor the persistence of airborne particulates. A strong seasonality in aerosol loading and types is also witnessed, with high AOD and dominance of fine particulates over central to lower IGP, especially during post-monsoon and winter. The time series analyses by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) indicate contrasting patterns in randomness of AOD over individual stations with better performance especially over central IGP. Concentration weighted trajectory analyses identify the crucial contributions of western dry regions and partial contributions from

  9. Temporal trends in arthropod abundances after the transition to organic farming in paddy fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru H Tsutsui

    Full Text Available Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming. Larval lepidopterans, Tetragnatha spiders, and some planthoppers and stink bugs showed non-linear increases over time, eventually reaching saturation, such as the abundance increasing for several years and then becoming stable after 10 years. This pattern can be explained by the effects of residual pesticides, the lag time of soil mineralization, and dispersal limitation. A damselfly (Ischnura asiatica did not show a particular trend over time, probably due to its rapid immigration from source habitats. Unexpectedly, both planthoppers and some leafhoppers exhibited gradual decreases over time. As their abundances were negatively related to the abundance of Tetragnatha spiders, increased predation by natural enemies might gradually decrease these insect populations. These results suggest that the consideration of time-dependent responses of organisms is essential for the evaluation of the costs and benefits of organic farming, and such evaluations could provide a basis for guidelines regarding the length of time for organic farming to restore biodiversity or the economic subsidy needed to compensate for pest damage.

  10. Trends of Abutment-Scour Prediction Equations Applied to 144 Field Sites in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Deshpande, Nikhil; Aziz, Nadim M.; Conrads, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration in which predicted abutment-scour depths computed with selected predictive equations were compared with field measurements of abutment-scour depth made at 144 bridges in South Carolina. The assessment used five equations published in the Fourth Edition of 'Evaluating Scour at Bridges,' (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18), including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. An additional unpublished equation also was assessed. Comparisons between predicted and observed scour depths are intended to illustrate general trends and order-of-magnitude differences for the prediction equations. Field measurements were taken during non-flood conditions when the hydraulic conditions that caused the scour generally are unknown. The predicted scour depths are based on hydraulic conditions associated with the 100-year flow at all sites and the flood of record for 35 sites. Comparisons showed that predicted scour depths frequently overpredict observed scour and at times were excessive. The comparison also showed that underprediction occurred, but with less frequency. The performance of these equations indicates that they are poor predictors of abutment-scour depth in South Carolina, and it is probable that poor performance will occur when the equations are applied in other geographic regions. Extensive data and graphs used to compare predicted and observed scour depths in this study were compiled into spreadsheets and are included in digital format with this report. In addition to the equation-comparison data, Water-Surface Profile Model tube-velocity data, soil-boring data, and selected abutment-scour data are included in digital format with this report. The digital database was developed as a resource for future researchers and is especially valuable for evaluating the reasonableness of future equations that may be developed.

  11. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898-2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Baggelaar, Paul K.; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStatistical trend analysis is applied to a 110 years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences presented here could be of interest world wide. Trendless concentration data series measured in the early years, which should bear the least anthropogenic influences, are selected to quantify the regional natural background concentration levels (NBLs) of groundwater resources at the depth of abstraction. Trends in the period 1960-2005, which contained a more homogeneous data set, are normalized to drinking water standards, mapped in planar view and cross sections, and used to identify the responsible hydrochemical processes. Seven representative trend bundles are defined by aggregation of trends for individual chemical parameters. Trend reversals due to either environmental sanitation measures or well field adaptation measures are identified by comparing significant trends obtained for two different periods within the time series. Natural background levels (NBLs) for individual PSWFs are upscaled to the national groundwater body level (as reported to EU), by aggregating them according to a PSWF typology based on a Hydrochemical System Analysis. This aggregation method groups together PSWFs that deliver waters of the same origin and similar hydrogeochemical environment. PSWFs delivering old groundwaters with a very stable quality are clearly differentiated from PSWFs pumping highly vulnerable aquifers characterized by strongly deteriorating water quality trends. Results are presented on national maps of The Netherlands with NBLs and water quality trends for selected major constituents. A normalized concentration change index (NCC) is defined and mapped to relate the quality difference between a recent survey (in 2008) and calculated NBLs, to the EU drinking water

  12. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898–2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendizabal, I.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Baggelaar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical trend analysis is applied to a 110. years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences

  13. Emerging Trends on the Topic of Information Technology in the Field of Educational Sciences: A Bibliometric Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valiente, Carlos Luis

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a bibliometric analysis on the topic of Information Technology (IT) in the field of Educational Sciences, aimed at envisioning the research emerging trends. The ERIC database is used as a consultation source; the results were subjected to productivity by authors, journals, and term co-occurrence analysis indicators for the…

  14. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  15. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  16. Recent progress in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise. Trends and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Matsui, T.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to identify recent research achievements, current trends in research, remaining gaps of knowledge and priority areas of future research in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise, recent research progress was reviewed. A search was performed in PubMed (search terms “noise AND

  17. Determining New Trends with Regard to the Studies in Curricula and Instruction Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Koruroglu, Ayten; Bahali, Sultan; Mercan, Naziyet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the new trends concerning curricula and instruction. The articles that are published in journals of SSCI and ERIC databases are taken into the scope of this study. The new trends regarding relevant literature are tried to be identified by analysing 3079 articles in total through the content analysis method.…

  18. Transparent thermal insulation - new developments in the field of building technology?; Transparente Waermedaemmung - neue Trends in der Gebaeudetechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 10 of the anthology about building control transparent thermal insulation is described as a possible new trend in the field of building technology. An answer is given to the question to which extent facades can be applied as technical building equipment. Furthermore the passive use of solar energy is discussed and the measuring results of a test cell building are presented. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 10 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control stellt die transparente Waermedaemmung als moeglichen neuen Trend der Gebaeudetechnik vor. In diesem Zusammenhang wird die Frage aufgeworfen, inwieweit Fassaden als Technische Gebaeudeausruestung eingesetzt und angesehen werden koennen. Ferner werden die passive Solarenergienutzungen angesprochen und Messergebnisse eines Testzellengebaeudes vorgestellt. (BWI)

  19. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  1. The history of sociology as a field of research and some recent trends in Brazilian social thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert

    2017-01-01

    The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.

  2. Solid reactors in sequential injection analysis: Recent trends in the environmental field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    -bead injection (SI-BI), used in either the jet-ring or lab-on-valve configurations, is presented as a front-end to many detectors. This article also outlines recent trends focused on exploiting SI as an automated tool for handling solid samples of environmental concern and accommodating dynamic fractionation...

  3. Detection of field significant long-term monotonic trends in spring yields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledvinka, O.; Lamačová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1463-1484 ISSN 1436-3240 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cross-correlation * Groundwater monitoring * Serial correlation * Spring yields * Trend analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2015

  4. Structural trends and spectral depth analysis of the residual field of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... latitude 8.63N the trend changes again to approximately NE-SW particularly at the southwest fringe of the map. A major lineament depicting the Romanche paleofracture zone was found in the area. The Pategi area has complex magnetic signature. Short to moderately long discontinuities were found in the magnetic map.

  5. Development Trends in the Fields of Education and Care for Vulnerable Groups in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobolt, Alenka; Pavel, Jana Rapus

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main developments in education and care for vulnerable groups of children and youth in Slovenia over the past twenty years. It describes the education system and provides an overview of the development of social pedagogy as a discipline and the practice of working with some groups of vulnerable young people. The trends can…

  6. Trends in measurement of solar vector magnetic fields using the Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Trends in spectropolarimetry as applied to the problem of Zeeman effect measurement are discussed. The use of detector arrays to improve observing efficiency is obtained. Which required new polarization modulation schemes that match the time required to read detector arrays. Another significant trend is narrowband filters, to improve angular and temporal coverage, and to Fourier transform spectrometers, to improve spectral coverage and precision. Low-polarization designs and improved methods for compensating instrumental polarization were developed. A requirement for high angular resolution suggests using adaptive optical devices to subdue the effects of bad seeing. The ultimate strategy to beat the seeing is to loft the telescope above the atmosphere such as is planned with a 30-cm telescope in 1985 and a 1250-cm telescope in 1990

  7. Trends in measurement of solar vector magnetic fields using the Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Trends in spectropolarimetry as applied to the problem of Zeeman effect measurement are discussed. The use of detector arrays to improve observing efficiency is obtained. Which required new polarization modulation schemes that match the time required to read detector arrays. Another significant trend is narrowband filters, to improve angular and temporal coverage, and to Fourier transform spectrometers, to improve spectral coverage and precision. Low-polarization designs and improved methods for compensating instrumental polarization were developed. A requirement for high angular resolution suggests using adaptive optical devices to subdue the effects of bad seeing. The ultimate strategy to beat the seeing is to loft the telescope above the atmosphere such as is planned with a 30-cm telescope in 1985 and a 1250-cm telescope in 1990.

  8. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  9. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    OpenAIRE

    Guangwei Shao; Zhongjun Ji; Bing Liu

    2017-01-01

    With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field ser...

  10. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field service is designed, and the future development direction of electric field wear can be forecasted.

  11. On the Nature of Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory.......A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory....

  12. A promising trend for field information collection: An air-ground multi-sensor monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Yawei Zhang; Du Chen; Shumao Wang; Lei Tian

    2018-01-01

    Timely identifying and quantifying significant spatial and temporal variability in agricultural field has been a crucial factor for improving agricultural production and management. This paper focuses on the mainstream techniques and applications can be adopted to improve the field information collection method. In this paper, the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and remote sensing (RS) technology were reviewed, especially the micro unmanned aerial vehicle (mUAV)-based WSNs and ...

  13. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases. PMID:28178318

  14. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  15. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI with an engineering-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay S Tripathi

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE. The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico, Forties (U.K., Midway-Sunset (U.S., Prudhoe Bay (U.S., and Wilmington (U.S.. Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER and external energy ratio (EER are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1 oil-only and (2 all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy. All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1 reduced petroleum production and (2 increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs. The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  16. Time-depth and velocity trend analysis of the Wasagu field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From this study of data sets from Wasagu field in the Niger Delta, it has been found ... relief) cause big difference in bed velocities or where anisotropy is severe. ... of seismic data and checkshot data sets, which lie three wells, a relationship ...

  17. Some current trends in nanotechnology, and the significance of apfim in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The worldwide interest that is currently being generated by nanotechnology is due to its potentially disruptive nature. In principle, it offers a host of completely new products, for example in the fields of information technology, communication, composite materials, sensors, medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Together with these exciting opportunities, there are also risks, associated in the short term mainly with the possible toxicity of nanoparticles and nanofilaments. In the longer term, a range of other societal and environmental factors need to be taken into account in the development of this technology. These include the potential invasion of privacy that could arise from the widespread introduction of ultra-small sensing and monitoring devices, and the biohazards that could arise if atomic manipulation techniques are used to re-engineer the basic molecules of life. How does the field emission area fit into this overall scene? The answer is that, for the successful commercial development of any technology, there are numerous generic issues that must be addressed. These include measurement, test and inspection of components; product specification and quality control; the development of machine tools for the manufacturing process; and the drawing up of a whole range of design protocols for the development of new devices. Viewed in this context, field emission techniques have a very important role to play in nanotechnology. Because the size of the products is so small, the range of methods available for their production, inspection and testing is limited. Both field electron and field ion emission techniques already play vital roles in nanofabrication. The atom probe technique has a unique contribution to make in the characterization of nanostructures of all kinds. An unexpected, but hugely important, area has arisen as a result of the convergence of three-dimensional atomic scale chemical analysis and three-dimensional atomistic computer

  18. Trend of field data on pipe wall thinning for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakii, Junichi; Hiranuma, Naoki; Hidaka, Akitaka

    2009-01-01

    Strongly motivated by every stakeholder not to repeat Mihama Nuclear Power Station pipe rupture accident in August 2004, JSME Main Committee on Codes and Standards on Power Generation Facilities immediately launched a special task force to develop Rules on Pipe Wall Thinning Management for BWR, PWR and fossil Power Plants respectively. The authors describes the process of the development of Rules for BWR Power Plans from the view point of collections and analysis of fields data of pipe wall thinning. Through its activities, the authors confirmed the existing findings, like the effect of Oxygen injection, turbulence and dependence on coolant temperature, derived from series of laboratory-scaled experiments in FAC and coolant velocities effects in LDI. Further based upon the said proven findings with field data, they explain the adequacy of major concept of the rule such as separate treatment of FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion) and LDI (Liquid Droplet Impingement). (author)

  19. Trends in Polymer and Particle Characterization by Microfluidic Field-Flow Fractionation Methods: Science or Business?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, Josef; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, 16 May (2014), s. 296-308 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Asymmetrical flow FFF * Electrical FFF * Field-flow fractionation * Flow FFF * Microelectrical FFF * Microfluidic channels * Microthermal FFF * Miniaturization and resolution * Polymers and particles separation * Sedimentation FFF * Technical benefits of microchannels * Thermal FFF Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

  20. [TRENDS IN HEALTH OF THE POPULATION IN THE AREA OF THE TENGIZ FIELD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessaryiev, U I; Yerzhanova, A E; Kenessary, D U; Amrin, M K; Dosmukhametov, A T; Baimukhamedov, A A

    2015-01-01

    At the present the Caspian oil and gas field became extremely important for the economy of Kazakhstan and it has entered a qualitatively new stage of its development. In connection with the intensive development of these fields the attention of both scientists and health practitioners is attracted by problems of populations' health. In the article there are presented data of a study of the quality of main objects of environment, health condition, demographic indices of and morbidity rate of the population of the Zhylyoi district of the Atyrau region. The population resides in the region of influence of the Tengiz oil and gas field. The level of mortality in Zhylyoi for the periodfrom 2006 to 2013 was establishe to decline, as birth rate rather increased. Indices of the population's structure retain the tendency to the progressive type, possibly in relation with urbanization and industrial migration of population, that increased in last years. The district mortality rates are below national, regional and urban values. Natural population growth in Zhylyoi has increased by 27.6%. The analysis of primary morbidity of the population of the Zhylyoi district in dynamics from 2006 to 2013 shows a some decrease. In the structure of the morbidity there was noted a decrease in the proportion of diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, respiratory diseases, digestive organs. However, the proportion of blood diseases, diseases of the hematopoietic system and blood flow has increased. Alongside this in the region there is clearly discernible the scarcity of doctors, qualified nurses and beds.

  1. THE MODERN TRENDS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF TRAINING FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELD OF HISTRIONIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sergeevna Skvortsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the specific ways of training specialists in the sphere of histrionic art, contemporary trends and special scientific experiments in the education of actors.We consider the traditional aspects of histrionic art specialists’ occupational fitness and modern requirements upon actor’s psycho-physical training.There also follows historical parallels in studying actor’s energy in the researches of K. Stanislavsky, M. Chekhov, T. Reebo, W. James, A. Maneggetty as well as in the modern researches of L. Gracheva.And there was proved the reason for including some Yoga elements and Academician M.Norbecov’s exercises system into the actors training practice.In the article Yoga for actors considers as a system of emotional and physical preparation to the artistic creative work, as a method of self-control that let an actor be really deep in his creative condition.There also was described an advantageous result of applying at our experimental laboratory of actors Yoga classes some exercises that reveal connection of person’s carriage and his condition in the process of working on the outward demonstration of this or that emotion in order to create appropriate inner state.Object: Studying the influence on the productivity of actors’ professional education of the Yoga elements included into the actors’ psycho-technique practice training.Methods: theoretical, experimental and observational methods of research.Results: After using these methods during the classes the rate of student’s psycho-physical APPARATUS has extremely increased.The area of application: the educational process at artistic creative high schools.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-52

  2. Unifying role of radial electric field shear in the confinement trends of transitionless regimes in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    2001-01-01

    Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)

  3. Unifying role of radial electric field shear in the confinement trends of transitionless regimes in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)

  4. Trends in residential exposure to electromagnetic fields from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitsch, J; Dechant, E

    2012-05-01

    After measuring extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF-EFs, ELF-MFs) and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) in 2006, a follow-up investigation was done in 2009. Overall, 130 measurements in bedrooms at identical and 83 at changed locations within the same or a neighbouring building were performed. The median of ELF-EFs decreased from 25.15 to 17.35 V m(-1) from 2006 to 2009. The median of all-night ELF-MFs from power supply decreased from 16.86 to 12.76 nT, whereas the arithmetic mean was almost unchanged (+0.1%). No difference in the medians of all-night ELF-MFs of railway current was observed. RF-EMFs increased from 41.35 to 59.56 µW m(-2). Increases primarily occurred in the frequency ranges of Global System for Mobile 900 MHz, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System and Wireless Local Area Network. Television changeover from analogue to digital resulted in a reduction within the Ultra-high Frequency-band from 0.47 to 0.35 µW m(-2). The base stations of the recently established terrestrial trunked radio system caused a median of 0.05 µW m(-2).

  5. Analysis of the R&D Trend and Features in the Field of Competitive Intelligence in China Based on Citespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Based on bibliometrics, this paper uses a CI method to conduct a research, which reviews previous research in the field of CI in China from 2006 to 2016 and tries to grasp R&D trends and the feature of CI. [Method/process] The samples data of this paper were collected from CNKI. This paper analyzed the main research institutions, core authors and their cooperation net and hot domain on CI. [Result/conclusion] It is concluded that the main research institutions control the resources of core authors and projects, leading the development of the hot domain. Key institutions should play a leading role in the development of CI, and should help to strengthen the cooperation between the academic community. Under the background of big data, interpersonal intelligence network, social network privacy detection and privacy protection, knowledge management and knowledge innovation has some research prospects.

  6. Current trends in ICE wear detection technologies: from lab to field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in internal combustion engine (ICE tribology has been an active topic during the last decades, driven by different interest: first, in order to improve thermodynamics and overall engine performance, while nowadays there is an interest in reducing engine losses, including friction, in order to cut down fuel consumption and also exhaust emissions. Tribology is a tri-vector science, where friction is the fundamental phenomena occurring between two surfaces, wear is the consequence of the occurrence of friction and lubrication is the solution for diminish friction and eliminate wear presence in the tribological system. During the development of ICE, different technologies and techniques have been applied for detection of ICE wear, focused in different parts of the engine life and also used for different purposes, including research or maintenance. In this work, a comprehensive look on this field is done, where several techniques are explained and their main application and pros and cons are highlighted. Reference Number: www.asrongo.org/doi:4.2017.2.1.32

  7. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (mining-affected tributaries and the main stem of Swatara Creek. As a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits, concentrations of suspended solids and total metals in the water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in pH to values approaching 5

  8. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in pH to values approaching 5.0 during storm flow events or declines in redox potential during burial of sediment could result in the remobilization of metals associated with suspended solids and streambed deposits.

  9. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camomilla, Valentina; Bergamini, Elena; Fantozzi, Silvia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-15

    Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers), technique analysis (163), activity classification (19), and physical demands assessment (61). Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59%) performing their sport in-field during training (62%) and competition (7%). Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%), water sports (16%), team sports (25%), and other outdoor activities (27%). Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  10. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Camomilla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017 were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers, technique analysis (163, activity classification (19, and physical demands assessment (61. Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59% performing their sport in-field during training (62% and competition (7%. Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%, water sports (16%, team sports (25%, and other outdoor activities (27%. Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  11. Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological, technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise, and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan. We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM.

  12. Current status and temporal trend of heavy metals in farmland soil of the Yangtze River Delta Region: Field survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Diwei; Zhan, Yu; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    While the spatial distributions of heavy metals in farmland soil of China have been comprehensively delineated, their temporal trends are rarely investigated but are important for environmental risk management. In this study, the current status and temporal trends of heavy metals in the farmland soil of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were evaluated through field survey and meta-analysis. The field survey conducted in 2014 showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the farmland topsoil were 0.23 ± 0.14, 37.63 ± 15.60, 25.83 ± 41.62, 88.38 ± 43.30, and 29.21 ± 12.41 mg kg -1 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The heavy metals showed relatively higher concentrations on the borders among Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. In the meta-analysis, we selected 68 published studies related to heavy metal pollution in farmland topsoil of YRD from 2000 to the year (2014) when the field survey was conducted. The results show an increasing trend for Cd (p soil remediation are needed to protect food safety and ecosystem from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The trend of governmental support from post-graduated Iranian students in medical fields to study abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Aa; Ghazi, M; Rafiee, Z; Afshari, M

    2013-01-01

    To explore the trend and composition of post-graduate Iranian students who received governmental scholarship during the last two decades. Detailed information about the awarded scholarships and also about the number of post graduate students in clinical and basic sciences in domestic universities were collected from the related offices within the ministry of health and medical education and their trends were triangulated. A sharp drop was observed in the number of awarded scholarships, from 263 in 1992 to 46 in 2009. In the beginning, almost all of scholarships fully supported students for a whole academic course; while in recent years most of scholarships supported students for a short fellowship or complementary course (more than 80%). Students studied in a wide range of colleges within 30 countries; more than 50% in Europe. Although one third of students studied in UK in the first years, only 4% of students selected this country in recent years. conversely, the number of scholarships to Germany and sweden have increased more than 10 and 3 times during this period. In parallel, the capacity of domestic universities for training of post-graduate students has been expanded dramatically. Although expanding post-graduate education has been one of the main strategic objectives of the ministry of health and medical education in last two decades, it was obtained using different approaches. By time, more attention was to expanding the capacities of Iranian universities, and choosing less but more targeted students to continue their studies abroad.

  14. Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Li, Wen-Hong; Cheng, Ying; Li, Feng-Liang; Ye, Zhao-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012–2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S. furcifera in Guizhou. Overall, S. furcifera from five regions in Guizhou showed a trend toward decreased susceptibility to isoprocarb (resistance ratio [RR] 0.82–3.59), susceptibility to low resistance against thiamethoxam (RR 0.27–9.69), susceptibility to moderate resistance to imidacloprid (RR 0.71–26.06), and decreased susceptibility to moderate resistance to chlorpyrifos (RR 4.63–19.58). The resistance to pymetrozine (RR 10.48–84.65) was moderate to high, and that to buprofezin (RR 6.36–412.43) was low to very high. In conclusion, the use of buprofezin and pymetrozine to control S. furcifera should be reduced in Guizhou Province, whereas prudent use at a reasonable frequency of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid can continue. Isoprocarb and thiamethoxam are the best choices for effective management of S. furcifera. Rotations using alternative insecticides with different modes of action are recommended for regions in which resistance is at a moderate level. PMID:28334150

  15. Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Jin, Dao-Chao; Li, Wen-Hong; Cheng, Ying; Li, Feng-Liang; Ye, Zhao-Chun

    2017-04-01

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012-2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S. furcifera in Guizhou. Overall, S. furcifera from five regions in Guizhou showed a trend toward decreased susceptibility to isoprocarb (resistance ratio [RR] 0.82-3.59), susceptibility to low resistance against thiamethoxam (RR 0.27-9.69), susceptibility to moderate resistance to imidacloprid (RR 0.71-26.06), and decreased susceptibility to moderate resistance to chlorpyrifos (RR 4.63-19.58). The resistance to pymetrozine (RR 10.48-84.65) was moderate to high, and that to buprofezin (RR 6.36-412.43) was low to very high. In conclusion, the use of buprofezin and pymetrozine to control S. furcifera should be reduced in Guizhou Province, whereas prudent use at a reasonable frequency of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid can continue. Isoprocarb and thiamethoxam are the best choices for effective management of S. furcifera. Rotations using alternative insecticides with different modes of action are recommended for regions in which resistance is at a moderate level. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Trends in Funding for Dissertation Field Research: Why Do Political Science and Sociology Students Win so Few Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Rina; Teitelbaum, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Despite the size and growth of political science and sociology relative to other disciplines, political science and sociology graduate students have received a declining share of funding for dissertation field research in recent years. Specifically, political science and sociology students are losing out to competitive applicants from…

  17. Are we leveling the playing field? Trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority youth in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Doull

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sports participation and physical fitness are widely beneficial for young people, yet activity levels among young people are declining. Despite growing popular media attention on the participation of sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in sports and various campaigns to improve the often homophobic climate of sports, there is limited evidence that sexual minority youth participate in sports. Our aim was to provide a current portrait of sports participation among 3 groups of sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual in British Columbia, Canada, as well as to document population trends. Methods: Pooled population-level data from British Columbia, Canada (n = 99,373 were used to examine trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority and heterosexual youth. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine changes in participation over time and disparities in participation over time (1998–2013. Results: We found an overall decline in sports participation and physical activity (PA for all youth. Sexual minority students were less likely to participate in formal sports (with a coach and informal sports (without a coach compared with their heterosexual peers. The disparity in participating in informal sports between heterosexual and sexual minority youth has narrowed over time for some sexual orientation groups, whereas the disparity in participating in formal sports has widened over time in some cases. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive examination of sports participation among sexual minority youth over the past 15 years. Despite changing societal attitudes and laudable efforts to reduce homophobia in sports, results suggest that there are continued barriers to participation for sexual minority youth. Further research is needed to understand the factors that limit sports participation for these youth and to inform program development. PA is critical to

  18. Resource recovery from end-of-life tyres in Greece: a field survey, state-of-art and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kasampalis, T

    2010-06-01

    Lack of consistent and available information for the entire tyre industry has often hindered adequate understanding of current and future issues that need to be addressed for improving the sustainable end-of-life tyre management. The aim of this paper is to review related best available technologies and techniques for Greece, ranging from simple mechanical processing, up to complex multistep, mechanochemical and/or thermal treatment. End-of-life tyre management guidelines in the form of a manual for supporting future entrepreneurs in this field are also discussed. Extensive data mining, classification and inventorying was performed, both in the field via questionnaires and in the literature, for the purpose of accurately determining Hellenic conditions, in order to pinpoint encountered problems, propose interventions and determine new entrepreneurship opportunities.

  19. EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF TRAINIG SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELDS OF MATHMATICAL METHODS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В С Томашевская

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of implementing educational programs for bachelors and masters with focus on areas of training in the field of computer science with the introduction into educational process modern technologies, attracting the largest enterprises-employers and experts of the subject domain. As an example of this approach, describes the implementation of educational programs at the intersection of information technology and health care, and especially their Information Technology Services.

  20. Local climate policy in practice. Use of the playing field, impact of trends and the integration of climate care in municipal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkveld, M.; Burger, H.; Kaal, M.B.T.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2001-10-01

    The result of the first research phase of the project was an outline of the playing field of local climate policy. The use of options and instruments from the playing field is examined on the basis of literature and interviews with local governments. In the process, barriers for the implementation of options are illustrated. The evaluation of the playing field in practise shows that local governments often only use part of their playing field. Even local governments that excel and are familiar throughout the country in relation to one particular task area ignore other task areas. The reasons why options and instruments are not fully utilised vary per task area: not enough internal support; lack of clear policy framework; climate policy must join in with other targets or local governments depend on cooperation of other actors. Nevertheless, generally speaking the success and failure factors in utilising options in the local government playing field are often related to the sphere of cooperation with other parties and the input of knowledge in the organisation of the local government. Moreover, the importance of climate is not made explicit enough in many task areas. The options in climate policy for local governments are influenced by social developments. In the study three trends are examined with respect to their influence: developments in the area of liberalisation of the energy market, the position of local governments in national environmental policy and changes in local democracy. These trends result in a complication of the role of local governments. Local governments must show more initiative than in the past. Liberalisation leads to a more business-oriented relationship with energy companies and probably lower energy prices. Larger freedom of policy results in more space for establishing local priorities, but does not necessarily result in more attention for local climate policy. Participation can result in a larger support for climate policy but also

  1. New trends in the field of nuclear standardization on national, European and international level with the background of the German 'Energiewende'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 'Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection') has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. (orig.)

  2. Current status and trend of the publication to the SCI and SCIE journals in the field of radiation oncology in Korea for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae

    2012-01-01

    We collected the data of Science Citation Index (SCI) and SCI Expended (SCIE) papers written by the members of the Korean Society of Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to analyze the current status and the future trend. We searched the database of SCIE for the period from 1981 to 2011 at the Web of Knowledge site. Articles, reviews or proceedings written by KOSRO members as the fi rst or corresponding authors were included. Search terms were the following combination of subject headings: therapeutical, oncology, Korea. For National Cancer Center, combined search terms such as natural cancer, Korea and the names of faculties were applied. The total number of SCIE papers was 547. Numbers of the published papers in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were increased continuously, which was 2, 14, 40, and 83, respectively. The average impact factor was 2.9. The papers were published at the 134 different journals. The proportion of 'International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics' was 23.4% of all the papers. The number and proportions of papers by subject categories were 87 (15.9%) in biology, 73 (13.3%) in physics and 387 (70.6%) in clinics. The papers of the top five institutions, based on the number of published papers, occupied 66.3%. The number of SCIE papers is increasing rapidly in the field of radiation oncology in Korea. To improve the quality of papers, multi-institutional retrospective or prospective randomized studies should be done for the common cancers in Korea.

  3. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  4. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  5. Trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Jones, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning

  6. Local Vegetation Trends in the Sahel of Mali and Senegal Using Long Time Series FAPAR Satellite Products and Field Measurement (1982–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brandt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Local vegetation trends in the Sahel of Mali and Senegal from Geoland Version 1 (GEOV1 (5 km and the third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g (8 km Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR time series are studied over 29 years. For validation and interpretation of observed greenness trends, two methods are applied: (1 a qualitative approach using in-depth knowledge of the study areas and (2 a quantitative approach by time series of biomass observations and rainfall data. Significant greening trends from 1982 to 2010 are consistently observed in both GEOV1 and GIMMS3g FAPAR datasets. Annual rainfall increased significantly during the observed time period, explaining large parts of FAPAR variations at a regional scale. Locally, GEOV1 data reveals a heterogeneous pattern of vegetation change, which is confirmed by long-term ground data and site visits. The spatial variability in the observed vegetation trends in the Sahel area are mainly caused by varying tree- and land-cover, which are controlled by human impact, soil and drought resilience. A large proportion of the positive trends are caused by the increment in leaf biomass of woody species that has almost doubled since the 1980s due to a tree cover regeneration after a dry-period. This confirms the re-greening of the Sahel, however, degradation is also present and sometimes obscured by greening. GEOV1 as compared to GIMMS3g made it possible to better characterize the spatial pattern of trends and identify the degraded areas in the study region.

  7. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  8. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  9. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  10. Nuclear imaging: Advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herk, G. van

    1986-01-01

    In this article, nuclear imaging instruments that are likely to be of interest to the nuclear medicine community of developing countries are emphasized. The advances, trends, developments, and future directions in the field of nuclear imaging are mentioned

  11. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  12. Analysis of trends in publications and citations of papers on nuclear science and technology field in Korea: Focusing on the Scopus Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The data on the top 20 journals in the Science Citation Index(Expanded) for 10 years from 2005 to 2014 indicated the first and second positions for Korean papers were occupied by the Korean journals, which implied the need for globalization of target journals to publish Korean papers. Further study is required for comparative analysis of the factors impacting on the number of papers and citations, which is the criteria for quality evaluation of papers, in other area than the Nuclear Energy and Engineering to which this study was limited. As the media for research process and results, papers play an important role in the evaluation of research projects. While the traditional methods for evaluation of research results have been focused on quantity aspects, the implication of quality aspect is increasingly recognized. Most national labs have begun to shift from quantity to quality in their criteria for overall evaluation of research results. It is therefore desired to maximize the quality level of the research papers for which the trends in citation as quality indicator could be analyzed as well as the quantity aspect. This paper looks at the trends in the number of citation and papers as the indicators of quality and quantify, as drawn from Scopus Data Base. It also suggest top 5 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in terms of increase rate in both number of papers and citations. The purpose is to compare them with top 20 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in which Korea Atomic Energy Research researchers have published their papers in the past 10 years from 2005 to 2014 were submitted. This paper looked at the trends in the number of papers and citations as an indicator of quality of the research papers in the area of Nuclear Energy and Engineering which is in fact a limitation to the key subject area, not covering the whole nuclear science and technology.

  13. Analysis of trends in publications and citations of papers on nuclear science and technology field in Korea: Focusing on the Scopus Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Choon

    2015-01-01

    The data on the top 20 journals in the Science Citation Index(Expanded) for 10 years from 2005 to 2014 indicated the first and second positions for Korean papers were occupied by the Korean journals, which implied the need for globalization of target journals to publish Korean papers. Further study is required for comparative analysis of the factors impacting on the number of papers and citations, which is the criteria for quality evaluation of papers, in other area than the Nuclear Energy and Engineering to which this study was limited. As the media for research process and results, papers play an important role in the evaluation of research projects. While the traditional methods for evaluation of research results have been focused on quantity aspects, the implication of quality aspect is increasingly recognized. Most national labs have begun to shift from quantity to quality in their criteria for overall evaluation of research results. It is therefore desired to maximize the quality level of the research papers for which the trends in citation as quality indicator could be analyzed as well as the quantity aspect. This paper looks at the trends in the number of citation and papers as the indicators of quality and quantify, as drawn from Scopus Data Base. It also suggest top 5 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in terms of increase rate in both number of papers and citations. The purpose is to compare them with top 20 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in which Korea Atomic Energy Research researchers have published their papers in the past 10 years from 2005 to 2014 were submitted. This paper looked at the trends in the number of papers and citations as an indicator of quality of the research papers in the area of Nuclear Energy and Engineering which is in fact a limitation to the key subject area, not covering the whole nuclear science and technology

  14. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  15. Editorial: New Trends in Connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Sporns

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Connectomics is an integral part of network neuroscience. The field has undergone rapid expansion over recent years and increasingly involves a blend of experimental and computational approaches to brain connectivity. This Focus Feature on “New Trends in Connectomics” aims to track the progress of the field and its many applications across different neurobiological systems and species.

  16. Research Trends in the Field of E-Learning from 2003 to 2008: A Scientometric and Content Analysis for Selected Journals and Conferences Using Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hermann; Khan, Muhammad Salman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a scientometric and content analysis of the studies in the field of e-learning that were published in five Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journals ("Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Computers & Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, Innovations in Education and Teaching…

  17. Study on recent research trends in the chemical fields; Kagaku bun`ya ni okeru saikin no kenkyu doko ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This research is conducted to search study themes of chemistry expected towards the 21st century. The complex compound in the fundamental chemistry field and the bio-medical materials in the applied chemistry field are taken up. Bio-medical materials are used for the restoration, rehabilitation, and treatment of the organ and the improvement of its functions. For implants such as hearts, anti-thrombin and anti-calcium precipitation effects and high endurance are required. In this field, special copolymers and bio-membrane-emulating surfaces are studied. For artificial organs, hybrid type materials combining cells, and physiologically active and artificial materials are also studied. There are studies on the missile therapy of drugs and DDS (drug delivery system). The complex compounds contain metallic elements, such as Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and groups known as ligands which combine these metal elements. They can have a variety of stereo-structures and physical properties. They also exhibit a diversity of functions including electron donor bonding, molecular recognition, chemical substitution, and pharmaceutical activity. These features open up a promising potential for their prospective use as physiologically active substances, cancerostats, new materials, artificial photosynthesis, memory elements, and complex catalysts. 88 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. FEOL technology trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taur, Y.; Ning, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Trends in front-end-of-line technology are discussed. At the chip level, many of the important parameters are published in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors in 1994. At the device and circuit level, both bipolar and CMOS are scalable. However, the large standby power of bipolar circuits severely limits the integration level of bipolar chips. The inherently low standby power of CMOS, on the contrary, allows the integration level of CMOS circuits to continue increasing with scaling. In reality, both the electric field and power density of CMOS devices have been gradually rising over the generations owing to non-scaling effects of thermal voltage and silicon bandgap. As power supply voltage reaches 1.5V and below, circuit performance can only be gained at the expense of higher active or standby power of the chip. Implications of device scaling on contact and silicide technology are addressed. Trends of local and global interconnect scaling are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Modern trends in contemporary chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, H.; Pervez, H.; Qadeer, R.

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of papers presented at symposium on M odern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry , that was held in Islamabad, Pakistan, March 6-8, 1990. The symposium was divided into five sections for presentation of about 55 scientific and technical papers and 6 review papers. The contents of these papers were of good quality in the widespread concern in new trends of chemistry. The six reviews papers covered fields of ortho metallation reactions, evaluation of heterogeneous electron transfer rate contents, macro reticular ion-exchange resins, spectrochemical analytical techniques, liquid crystal-high technology materials for practical applications and trends in advanced ceramics. (A.B.)

  20. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an “Internet of Things” (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city. PMID:27886087

  1. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-11-23

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an "Internet of Things" (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city.

  2. Online Marketing Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Horecká, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with online marketing trends. Its main goal is to define the latest online marketing trends, create a website with the free online marketing trends, and analyse their effectiveness. The theoretical part brings a thorough description of the latest online marketing trends. Moreover, it provides an insight into the latest trends in the website development. The chosen online marketing trends defined in the theoretical part are subsequently applied on a newly created website. All...

  3. Recent trend of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Present status and recent trend of diagnostic radiology have been reviewed. The interrelationships and Characteristics of various fields of radiology such as computed tomography, X-ray radiology, and nuclear medicine were discussed. The mevit of computed tomography and the promising use of short lived, accelerator produced radionuclides, and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine were emphasized. (author)

  4. Science Education Research Trends in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey and report on the empirical literature at the intersection of science education research in Latin American and previous studies addressing international research trends in this field. Reports on international trends in science education research indicate that authors from English-speaking countries are major…

  5. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  6. Regional Trends in Electromobility - Regional Study North America

    OpenAIRE

    Turrentine, Tom; Garas, Dhalia

    2015-01-01

    The subproject “Regional Trends in Electro mobility” aims at identifying and analyzing major trends in the field of electro mobility. The trend analysis will monitor research effort and upcoming technologies, policies, products and market developments in different focus regions around the world continuously to enable a systematic analysis of global trends. The regional trend analysis for electro mobility is a major keystone for the project success and therefore cooperation with...

  7. Trends in family tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike A. Schänzel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Families represent a large and growing market for the tourism industry. Family tourism is driven by the increasing importance placed on promoting family togetherness, keeping family bonds alive and creating family memories. Predictions for the future of family travel are shaped by changes in demography and social structures. With global mobility families are increasingly geographically dispersed and new family markets are emerging. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the trends that shape the understanding of families and family tourism. Design/methodology/approach – This paper examines ten trends that the authors as experts in the field identify of importance and significance for the future of family tourism. Findings – What emerges is that the future of family tourism lies in capturing the increasing heterogeneity, fluidity and mobility of the family market. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the understanding about the changes taking place in family tourism and what it means to the tourism industry in the future.

  8. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  9. Trends in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management.

  10. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1991-92 and 1994-95 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Geography...Visual and Performing Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative trend data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges and universities, based on two surveys, one of public and the other of private senior colleges and universities. For those institutions (223 public and 345 private) participating in both 1991-92 and 1994-95 surveys, trend data are provided. For each…

  12. Salary-Trend Studies for the Years 1993-94 and 1996-97 in the Following 27 Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting, Administrative Assistant/Secretarial Science, General;...Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 27 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  13. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1992-93 and 1995-96 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting, Art, General...Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 212 public and 337 private colleges and universities, based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1992-93 and the other for the "trend" year 1995-96. For each of the 25 disciplines, a summary review provides a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  14. Trends in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  15. Marketing Trends to Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  16. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  17. TRENDS IN ROMANIAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjol Florentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying

  18. Investigating English pronunciation trends and directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mompean, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest research in the field of 'English pronunciation', providing readers with a number of original contributions that represent trends in the field. Topics include sociophonetic or sound-symbolic aspects of pronunciation English pronunciation teaching and learning.

  19. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  20. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  1. NRSE technologies and trends workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, W S; Lee, T K; Jo, D K; Jeong, M W; Kim, H W; Yoon, K S [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The object of this workshop are to exchange scientific knowledge of exports, to collect the information on the current research trends and policies through the presentations of NRSE technologies and their case studies both at home and aboard. Another objects are to promote the international cooperation in the field of new and renewable energy research, and to provide a chance for taking new technologies to industries for the practical use or for commercialization. Research and development trends in NRSE technologies by major research institutions are investigated to make a comparative review as a reference for the future NRSE projects. Coupled with the government`s`s NRSE development policy, it has played an important role to make an increased public relations with the general public with respect to the development necessity of NRSE. The forum was very useful for an increased exchange of views on NRSE technologies of mutual interest between NRSE lectures and participants. (author)

  2. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    including breaking news, meme , and commemorative day, on the context patterns. Table 2 shows the example pattern of classifying context pattern feature...used the following rule to find the ‘ meme ’. If the trending topic contains ‘#’ AND ‘subject+verb’, then trending topic is ‘ Meme ’. Table 2 Context

  3. World trends from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing Anglo-American approach in prognosis, he starts with analysis of the world order changes, of EU trends, Middle, Far East and some trends regarding Africa. Author presents macro trends in North - West Pacific, in Israel-Palestine, in Syria, Iraq, in Europe.

  4. Digital watermarking techniques and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rosales, Hamurabi Gamboa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-arts application of digital watermarking in audio, speech, image, video, 3D mesh graph, text, software, natural language, ontology, network stream, relational database, XML, and hardware IPs. It also presents new and recent algorithms in digital watermarking for copyright protection and discusses future trends in the field. Today, the illegal manipulation of genuine digital objects and products represents a considerable problem in the digital world. Offering an effective solution, digital watermarking can be applied to protect intellectual property, as well as fingerprinting, enhance the security and proof-of-authentication through unsecured channels.

  5. New trends in shape optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Leugering, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This volume reflects “New Trends in Shape Optimization” and is based on a workshop of the same name organized at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg in September 2013. During the workshop senior mathematicians and young scientists alike presented their latest findings. The format of the meeting allowed fruitful discussions on challenging open problems, and triggered a number of new and spontaneous collaborations. As such, the idea was born to produce this book, each chapter of which was written by a workshop participant, often with a collaborator. The content of the individual chapters ranges from survey papers to original articles; some focus on the topics discussed at the Workshop, while others involve arguments outside its scope but which are no less relevant for the field today. As such, the book offers readers a balanced introduction to the emerging field of shape optimization.

  6. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    CERN Document Server

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  7. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  8. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  9. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  10. Dismantling technologies trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work dismantling technologies trends realized by the CEA are reviewed. There following technologies are presented: Data acquisition from facilities; Scenario studies; Remote handling and carriers; Dismantling techniques; Decontamination.

  11. World trends from 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing...

  12. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  13. Trends in Business Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...

  14. Trends in picture communication

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    In the past years significant progress was made with digital transmission of audiovisual services and most interesting trends are visible for the future. Such applications encompass interactive services, like videoconferencing, ISDN-videophone, storage of moving video and audio in computers or on CD, e.g. for multimedia applications. For distribution services, there is an unbroken trend from TV to HDTV. Strong emphasis is on compressed digital video even for transmission to the home.

  15. Trends in telemedicine utilizing artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Danica Mitch M.; Subido, Edwin D. C.; Bugtai, Nilo T.

    2018-02-01

    With the growth and popularity of the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in several fields and industries, studies in the field of medicine have begun to implement its capabilities in handling and analyzing data to telemedicine. With the challenges in the implementation of telemedicine, there has been a need to expand its capabilities and improve procedures to be specialized to solve specific problems. The versatility and flexibility of both AI and telemedicine gave the endless possibilities for development and these can be seen in the literature reviewed in this paper. The trends in the development of the utilization of this technology can be classified in to four: patient monitoring, healthcare information technology, intelligent assistance diagnosis, and information analysis collaboration. Each trend will be discussed and presented with examples of recent literature and the problems they aim to address. Related references will also be tabulated and categorized to see the future and potential of this current trend in telemedicine.

  16. New trends in computational collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Trawiński, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This book consists of 20 chapters in which the authors deal with different theoretical and practical aspects of new trends in Collective Computational Intelligence techniques. Computational Collective Intelligence methods and algorithms are one the current trending research topics from areas related to Artificial Intelligence, Soft Computing or Data Mining among others. Computational Collective Intelligence is a rapidly growing field that is most often understood as an AI sub-field dealing with soft computing methods which enable making group decisions and processing knowledge among autonomous units acting in distributed environments. Web-based Systems, Social Networks, and Multi-Agent Systems very often need these tools for working out consistent knowledge states, resolving conflicts and making decisions. The chapters included in this volume cover a selection of topics and new trends in several domains related to Collective Computational Intelligence: Language and Knowledge Processing, Data Mining Methods an...

  17. Statistical trend of radiation chemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the field of radiation chemistry, over 1,000 reports are published year after year. Attempt has been made to review the trends in this field for more than five years, by looking through the lists of papers statistically. As for the period from 1974 to 1978, Annual Cumulation with Keyword and Author Indexes in the Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry was referred to. For 1979, because of the unavailability of the Cumulation, Chemical Abstracts Search by Japan Information Center of Science and Technology was referred to. The contents are as follows: how far radiation chemistry is studied, what the trends of radiation chemistry is in recent years, who contributes to the advance of radiation chemistry, and where, the trend radiation chemistry takes in 1979. (J.P.N.)

  18. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  19. Trends and developments in computational geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some trends and achievements in computational geometry during the past five years, with emphasis on problems related to computer graphics. Furthermore, a direction of research in computational geometry is discussed that could help in bringing the fields of computational geometry

  20. Trends in physics data analysis algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides a new look at algorithmic trends in modern physics experiments. Based on recently presented material, it attempts to draw conclusions in order to form a coherent historical picture of the past, present, and possible future of the field of data analysis techniques in physics. The importance of cross disciplinary approaches is stressed

  1. NEW TRENDS IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, management have been facing a series of profound changes in trends coming and going, one being more productive than other or causing more damage when applied improperly. The paper focuses on the last trends in management that have evolved in the last years, trends that have been marked by a Darwinian business environment and made more unforgiving since the financial crisis and the innovations in technology, social media and management philosophy. The paper will present and describe the most important new trends in management that enabled select organisations to remain competitive and overcome the multiple difficulties caused by the ever-changing economy based on a qualitative research. From the “outside innovation” that is considered always to be the key in overcoming the obstacles facing an organization, to the new buzzword “design”, that is said to ensure the organization long-term competitive advantage, the paper will analyse new trends and also will be describing the impact they have on the welfare of the organization. The research has also shown that managers tend to put a greater accent on searching for innovation rather than efficiency in order to ensure a continuous progress in the organization and to maintain business sustainability. The paper will not be comparing the efficiency of these different philosophies, or the results they generated, as time will still be the ultimate judge.

  2. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  3. Integrated Project Delivery (IPD Research Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahvandi, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Project Delivery (IPD is introduced as a vibrant approach to enhance project implementation, having particular position in recent studies among construction researchers. This study analyzes the research trends on the field of IPD to provide an appropriate vision for future researchers in this specialized field. While so far no comprehensive research has been done in this field, this study provides a comprehensive review of existing studies through in-depth literature review method. This research evaluates studies conducted in the field of IPD, which is a basis for future researchers to improve conditions of IPD implementation in different countries. For that this study Using library studies, the trend of researches conducted on various concepts and domains during various years, has been investigated. Future studies can simply use the outputs of this research to shape their research flow on establishing continuing progress of IPD. The data obtained from descriptive analyses are illustrated quantitatively, followed by comprehensive analyses and discussion of the results. Moreover, this study concluded that during recent years, the trend of studies conducted about IPD has increased, particularly articles examined challenges. In the next step, more studies have been performed in the field of construction. Those articles are preferred that have evaluated principles, challenges, and solutions for resolving barriers. Proper IPD implementation facilitates enhanced share of information and early identification of stakeholders through a proper timing as vital keys to realize objectives of the construction projects, reduce risks, and increase the chance of project success.

  4. Trend curve data development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Simons, R.L.; Roberts, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Existing trend curves do not account for previous and more recently observed test and power reactor flux-level, thermal neutron and gamma-ray field-induced effects. Any agreement between measured data and trend curve predictions that does not adequately represent the important neutron environmental and temperature effects as well as the microstructural damage processes, therefore, could be fortuitous. Two principal questions asked concerning the metallurgical condition of the pressure vessel and its support structures are: What are the controlling variables; and What effects do they have on changing the metallurgical properties of the vessel and its support structures throughout their lifetimes

  5. Current Trends in Nuclear and Radiation Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harold R.; Quam, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of radiation detector history, a summary of the present state of the art, and some speculation on future developments in this field. Trends in the development of radiation detectors over the years are analyzed. Rapid progress in detection technology was experienced between WWII and the 1970s. Since then, fewer dramatic improvements have been seen. The authors speculate about the reasons for this trend and where the technology might take us in the next 20 years. Requirements for radiation detection equipment have changed drastically since 9/11; this demand is likely to accelerate detector development in the near future

  6. Travel and tourism trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  7. Trends in ICT 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Paul van; Rust, Christa

    2003-01-01

    The study "Trends in ICT 2003" surveyed Dutch managers about important IT aspects. Results of the study are presented in brief. Topics treated are security, privacy, e-commerce, use of intranet, monitoring of employee WWW use, who makes IT decisions, implementation of contingency plans, the cause of

  8. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  9. Trend Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carl F.

    A trend analysis statistical package and additional programs for the Apple microcomputer are presented. They illustrate strategies of data analysis suitable to the graphics and processing capabilities of the microcomputer. The programs analyze data sets using examples of: (1) analysis of variance with multiple linear regression; (2) exponential…

  10. Summary of Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Summary of Trends. Optical Ethernet: Direct Ethernet connectivity to businesses through optical fiber. Automation of network infrastructure: Cross-connects for interconnections; Intelligence through software for OA&M. New “data-centric” protection mechanisms ...

  11. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance...... of the new millennium in order to indicate how practice has evolved....

  12. [Development trend of nanomedicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since 2000, and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles.

  13. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  14. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  15. Technological trends in automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D

    1984-08-10

    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.

  16. Iowa Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, John L.; Johnson, Arthur H.

    The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development. Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…

  17. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  18. Optical Computing - Research Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  19. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  20. New trends in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Señorans, Javier; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    In this work some of the newest trends in food processing are reviewed. This revision intends to provide an updated overview (including works published until February 2001) on the newest food processes, including food manufacturing, preservation, and control. Modern processes for food and food ingredients manufacturing based on membrane technology, super-critical fluid technology, and some applications of biotechnology are presented, mainly applied to obtain functional foods, "all-natural" enriched foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Also included is a critical assessment concerning non-thermal preservation techniques used for food preservation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, hurdle systems, etc. Finally, a group of new analytical techniques (i.e., molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), food image analysis, and biosensors) and their use for food and process control is reviewed.

  1. Research and Trends in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning from 2006 to 2011: A Content Analysis of Quick Response Code (QR-Code) and Its Application in Selected Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Goh Bak; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd.; Zakaria, Abd. Razak; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of selected articles in the field of QR code and its application in educational context that were published in journals and proceedings of international conferences and workshops from 2006 to 2011. These articles were cross analysed by published years, journal, and research topics. Further analysis was…

  2. Trend curve data development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Simons, R.L.; Roberts, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Existing trend curves do not account for previous and more recently observed test and power reactor flux-level, thermal neutron and γ-ray field-induced effects. Any agreement between measured data and trend curve predictions that does not adequately represent the important neutron environmental and temperature effects as well as the microstructural damage processes, therefore, could be fortuitous. Empirically derived end-of-life (EOL) and life-extension-range (LER) trend curves are presented and discussed in this paper for high temperature [∼288 0 C (550 0 F)] irradiation of two weld, two plate, and two forging pressure vessel (PV) steels and low-temperature [∼60 0 C (140 0 F)] irradiation of one support structure-type steel

  3. Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes research to develop risk-based indicators of plant safety performance. One measure of the safety-performance of operating nuclear power plants is the unavailability of important safety systems. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation are evaluating ways to aggregate train-level or component-level data to provide such an indicator. This type of indicator would respond to changes in plant safety margins faster than the currently used indicator of safety system unavailability (i.e., safety system failures reported in licensee event reports). Trends in the proposed indicator would be one indication of trends in plant safety performance and maintenance effectiveness. This paper summarizes the basis for such an indicator, identifies technical issues to be resolved, and illustrates the potential usefullness of such indicators by means of computer simulations and case studies

  4. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  5. Trends in radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James; Tokuda, Yuji; Scardino, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The surgical treatment of prostate cancer ideally removes the entire cancer, avoids excessive blood loss or serious perioperative complications, and results in complete recovery of continence and potency. To achieve this, the surgeon must excise sufficient periprostatic tissue to cure the cancer while preserving the cavernosal nerves required for erectile function and the neuromusculature required for normal urinary and bowel function. Here we will examine recent trends in radical prostatectomy, focusing on surgical technique.

  6. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  7. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  8. Recent Trends in Counterfeiting

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Cowling

    2011-01-01

    Under the Reserve Bank Act 1959, the Reserve Bank has sole authority to issue banknotes in Australia. As such, a key responsibility of the Reserve Bank is to maintain public confidence in banknotes, so that they remain an effective payment mechanism and a secure store of wealth. This article examines how counterfeiting can impact on this confidence, and counterfeiting trends in Australia and overseas. The article also discusses the strategies the Reserve Bank employs to minimise the risks of ...

  9. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  10. The Trend Odds Model for Ordinal Data‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values (Peterson and Harrell, 1990). We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. PMID:23225520

  11. The trend odds model for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2013-06-15

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc NLMIXED and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Southern Hemisphere extratropical circulation: Recent trends and natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jordan L.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Southern Hemisphere (SH) westerly jet location, and magnitude are linked with changes in ocean circulation along with ocean heat and carbon uptake. Recent trends have been observed in these fields but not much is known about the natural variability. Here we aim to quantify the natural variability of the SH extratropical circulation by using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) preindustrial control model runs and compare with the observed trends in SAM, jet magnitude, and jet location. We show that trends in SAM are due partly to external forcing but are not outside the natural variability as described by these models. Trends in jet location and magnitude, however, lie outside the unforced natural variability but can be explained by a combination of natural variability and the ensemble mean forced trend. These results indicate that trends in these three diagnostics cannot be used interchangeably.

  13. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu KÖR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a young and interdisciplinary field, Knowledge Management (KM holds a crucial role in scientific research and development of knowledge-intensive economies.  This study elaborates on the methods used in previous studies regarding the research trends of KM and their contribution to the discipline by examining the KM literature. The purpose of the study is to determine the current research trends of KM by analysing KM citation classics and examining their characteristics as well as presenting a holistic framework of KM publications from the results of citation analysis. A total of 152 articles published in peer review journals between the years 2010-2014 were analysed. As a result of the analysis, a holistic KM framework was developed in order to contribute to a consensus of KM field. The results of the study reveals that the coverage of KM articles expanded into a broad spectrum of concepts, disciplines and environment.

  14. TREND MECHANISMS IN CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch.......Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch....

  15. Trends and highlights of VCI 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize the presentations given at this conference. Topics related to R&D of gaseous and solid state detectors clearly point to several trends in particle physics instrumentation. More established techniques are represented by reports on recent experiments and facilities which can be considered the highlights in this research field. The extension of these techniques to space, arctic ice and deep sea are opening new frontiers of particle physics.

  16. New trends in nuclear collective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    New Trends in Nuclear Collective Dynamics comprises reviews by well-known researchers from international centers of nuclear physics. This overview of recent advances concentrates on - order amd chaos in finite quantum systems - dissipation in heavy-ion collions - collective motion in warm nuclei - time-dependent mean-field theory with collision terms - nuclear fission and multi-dimensional tunneling - large scale collective motion see hints under the relevent topics. (orig.) With 90 figs

  17. Emerging trends in computing and communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kunal; Khan, Gitosree

    2014-01-01

    The book presents papers delivered by researchers, industrial experts and academicians at the Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication (ETCC 2014). As such, the book is a collection of recent and innovative works in the field Network Security and Cryptography, Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics, Data Mining and Data Warehouse, Communication and Nanotechnology and VLSI and Image Processing.

  18. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  19. Trends in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.

    2008-01-01

    Today's nuclear curricula have the purpose to fulfil labor requirements of the nuclear market, both power and applications, as well as keeping up the academic level required for research and development in nuclear sciences. This work analyses the power and applications markets and the situation of nuclear education in several countries, including Mexico, as well as collective efforts promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other organizations. Conclusions are obtained about the status and trends in nuclear education, emphasizing the role of the academic and users sectors to fit the future demand and the availability of skilled personnel. (author)

  20. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance......The concept of corporate environmental management has existed for the last two to three decades. Many companies have fully or partly adopted the concept in their efforts to eliminate or reduce the impacts on the natural environment caused by their business activities. The question is, however...

  1. Power reactor design trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade and Pulse Star represent new trends in ICF power reactor design that have emerged in the last few years. The most recent embodiments of these two concepts, and that of the HYLIFE design with which they will compare them, are shown. All three reactors depend upon protecting structural elements from neutrons, x rays and debris by injecting massive amounts of shielding material inside the reaction chamber. However, Cascade and Pulse Star introduce new ideas to improve the economics, safety, and environmental impact of ICF reactors. They also pose different development issues and thus represent technological alternatives to HYLIFE

  2. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  3. Measuring trends in leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Aguiar; Erik Hurst

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use five decades of time-use surveys to document trends in the allocation of time. We find that a dramatic increase in leisure time lies behind the relatively stable number of market hours worked (per working-age adult) between 1965 and 2003. Specifically, we show that leisure for men increased by 6-8 hours per week (driven by a decline in market work hours) and for women by 4-8 hours per week (driven by a decline in home production work hours). This increase in leisure corr...

  4. Social Network Gaming Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gathwright

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to determine how long the social network game Scratch-Offs, created by game development company Spice Rack Media, will remain financially viable. The game Scratch-Offs is a freeware game (users pay nothing for the actual software and is funded through micro transactions (users must pay small amounts of money to play actual games. This implies a relationship between total games played and revenue earned. Using data provided by Spice Rack, we were able to develop an exponential equation that accurately depicts usage trends over time. This equation was used to determine the date Scratch-Offs will no longer be profitable.

  5. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  6. New trends in the field of nuclear standardization on national, European and international level with the background of the German 'Energiewende'; Neuausrichtung der nationalen, europaeischen und internationalen Normung im Bereich der Kerntechnik vor dem Hintergrund der Energiewende in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Janine [DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung e.V., Berlin (Germany). Normenausschuss Materialpruefung (NMP)

    2014-04-15

    Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 'Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection') has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. (orig.)

  7. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  8. Trends, discovery, and people in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, David P

    2013-01-01

    Digital information is a constantly developing field. The first title in the Chandos Digital Information Review series, Trends, Discovery, and People in the Digital Age, summarises and presents key themes, advances and trends in all aspects of digital information today, exploring the impact of developing technologies on the information world. This book emphasises important contemporary topics and future developments from a global perspective. Dynamic contents by leaders in the field respond to what is happening in the field of digital information literacy, and anticipate future developments. T

  9. Trends in contemporary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a wide spectrum of hot topics and current trends in mathematics, including noncommutative algebra via deformation theory,  optimal transportation, nonlinear potential theory, kinetic theory and gas dynamics, geometric numerical integration, finite simple groups of small essential dimension, optimal control problems, extended Dynkin diagrams, spin glasses, aspherical closed manifolds, Boltzmann systems, birational geometry of projective varieties and directed graphs, nonlinear diffusion, geometric constructions of extremal metrics on complex manifolds, and Pell’s equation in polynomials. The book comprises a selection of contributions by leading international mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative dating back to 2004 at which the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics are presented.

  10. Trends: cyborg games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Yeoman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Wearable technologies are a near future concept and cyborgs are in fact reality. The authors’ proposition is how cyborgisation could and will occur. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – The approach used by this paper is a general review. Findings – The authors explain how the line between humans and technology is becoming more and more blurred as this trends paper explores the concepts of singularity and cyborgs as a future state highlighting the world's first cyborg games. Originality/value – The paper contributes to our understanding that science fiction is fiction to some but reality to others depending on a person's cognition and insight.

  11. World trends in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of some recent, important and characteristic trends in the field of wind energy all over the world. China, with 30,8 GW of newly installed capacities in 2015 has just overtaken the European Union as far as the total installed power is concerned (145 GW against 142 GW). Job growth in the wind energy sector has reached 20 per cent in the USA in 2015. In this country, major companies held 52 per cent of the market in 2015 while a new American research plan has been approved for the development of offshore wind energy. In South Africa, a German company specialised in blade inspection and repair will provide the Obelisk group with its services on blades and towers for wind turbines. As far as the UK is concerned, the article outlines and comments the continuing decrease of production costs. In India, General Electric is about to launch a new technology of digital wind farm which is supposed to improve production by simulating availability and productivity over the farm lifetime while reducing costs. In Norway, a Norwegian company proposes a new battery-based storage solution, Batwind, for offshore wing energy

  12. Applications and development trend of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radiopharmaceuticals applications and the trend of the development are extensively reviewed and discussed. The followings are manifested: a) Among the various radionuclides, those of short lived, accelerator produced, and having moderate radiation energies are becoming popular. b) Diagnosis using various labelled molecules are considered to be the most active field in nuclear medicine. c) Development of radiopharmaceuticals for tumor localization studies is one of the trends. d) The use of various convenient kits of both in-vitro radioligand assay, and in-vivo instant labelling is now an enormous domain in nuclear medicine. A great stride is also made in the development of automation technique. Upon it, an urgent development of some new radiopharmaceuticals having local characteristics is proposed. (author)

  13. Data Centre Technology and Market Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; GUERRI, Marco; GRIGORE, Alexandru; BONFILLOU, Eric; VALSAN, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    In this ITTF session we will provide an overview of data center technologies and market trends in the fields of server processors, memory architectures, server platforms, storage technology (both solid state and spinning media), Intel future roadmaps, Open Compute Project hardware and server-side networking. We will begin with a peek into the evolution of processors over the last 40+ years and provide an outlook into future processor trends. The highlights of the most recent Intel server processor generation (Xeon E5-2600 v3, Haswell-EP) will be presented together with the specifics of the new generation of DDR memory technology employed. Alternative processor architectures from contenders like ARM Holdings (with their AArch64 architecture) and IBM (with their OpenPOWER initiative) will be discussed. An overview of existing enterprise solid state technology will be given, showing the kind of performance provided by the currently available enterprise SSD drives and future directions for non volatile memory b...

  14. Recent trends in fracture and damage mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zybell, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in fracture and damage mechanics. It presents historical perspectives as well as recent innovative developments, presented by peer reviewed contributions from internationally acknowledged authors.  The volume deals with the modeling of fracture and damage in smart materials, current industrial applications of fracture mechanics, and it explores advances in fracture testing methods. In addition, readers will discover trends in the field of local approach to fracture and approaches using analytical mechanics. Scholars in the fields of materials science, engineering and computational science will value this volume which is dedicated to Meinhard Kuna on the occasion of his 65th birthday in 2015. This book incorporates the proceedings of an international symposium that was organized to honor Meinhard Kuna’s contributions to the field of theoretical and applied fracture and damage mechanics.

  15. Workplace spirituality: A tool or a trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J.W. Schutte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace spirituality is a construct widely discussed over the past few decades and it is a much-disputed inquiry field which is gaining the interest of practitioners and scholars. Some clarifications regarding concepts and definitions are necessary in order to structure and direct the current debate. The aim of this conceptual article is to gain a better understanding regarding the direction in which this field of study is progressing and to put the question on the table namely, whether workplace spirituality is only a new tool to be used in leadership development or is it a trend to be taken seriously? The results showed that this field has potential to further development. This article can be used as foundation for future studies within the knowledge area of practical theology.

  16. [Trends in hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Neto, Gonzalo; Malik, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses trends in the delivery of hospital services in Brazil, considering the setting, the current situation and its challenges, examining what still remains to be done. The variables studied for the analysis of the setting are: demography, epidemiological profile, human resources, technology, medicalization, costs, review of the role of the citizen, legislation, equity, hospital-centricity and regionalization, care fractioning and bed availability. The Brazilian setting was studied through the supplementary healthcare model, financing and the healthcare area production chain. The observations of the current situation present external evaluation models, outsourcing, public-private relationships, de-hospitalization and financing. The analysis of the challenges examines the need for long range planning, the quest for new legal models for the 'business', the use of information and information systems, cost controls and the need for enhanced efficiency and compliance with legal directives, guaranteed universal access to full healthcare facilities, the inclusion of primary prevention in healthcare procedures, integrating the public and private sectors and engaging physicians in solving problems.

  17. Future trends in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper about future trends in reprocessing essentially reflects French experience and points of view as an example of countries which, like England and Japan, consider that reprocessing is the best solution for the back end of the fuel cycle. In order to know what the future will be, it is necessary to look back at the past and try to find what have been the main reasons for evolution in that period. For reprocessing, it appears that these motivations have been 'safety and economics'. They will remain the motivations for the future. In addition, new motivations for development are starting to appear which are still imprecise but can be expressed as follows: 'which guarantees will public opinion require in order to be convinced that solutions for waste management, proposed by specialists shall ensure that a healthy environment is preserved for the use of future generations'. Consequently the paper examines successively the evolution of reprocessing in the recent past, what the immediate future could be and finally what should be necessary in the long term. (Author)

  18. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  19. Trends in GCC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoe, L.E.; Ip, S.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last next decade, a combination of technical, environmental, and economic trends will encourage the commercial deployment of gasification combined cycle (GCC) technology. In the near-term, gas-fired combined cycles will likely be the economic and environmental technology of choice due to currently attractive natural gas prices. As gas prices increase over the next decade, GCC plants will become competitive and, in many cases, more economic than gas-fired options. This paper reports that the degree of penetration of GCC technology into the market will depend to some extent on the successful demonstration of a variety of technology enhancements. Many of these advancements will be proven in projects currently in progress, while others are still on the drawing boards. The first wave of GCC projects will likely take advantage of niche situations or benefit from government funding. but as GCC economics become more widely favorable, the plants will benefit from their flexibility to match grassroots, repowering, refueling, cogeneration, and chemical coproduction opportunities

  20. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  1. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  2. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  3. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic as...

  4. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  5. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  6. Selected Trends of the Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Požár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution paid particular attention to trends of the cybercrime in future period dedicated to combating negative phenomena in the context of cyberspace. The structure of article concern of definition of cybercrime, its legal classification especially choosing trends of cybercrime in future period.

  7. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  8. Business trend analysis by simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Jian, J.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Pernici, B.

    2010-01-01

    Business processes are constantly affected by the environment in which they execute. The environment can change due to seasonal and financial trends. For organisations it is crucial to understand their processes and to be able to estimate the effects of these trends on the processes. Business

  9. [New trends in tonometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, J A; Schwenteck, T; Ruokonen, P C

    2006-10-01

    Though the knowledge about the risk of elevated intraocular pressure for pathogenesis for development and progress of glaucoma is more than 400 years old. It took another 300 years before by means of tonometry this elevation could be quantified. After discussion of the key words it is our aim to demonstrate the latest trends in tonometry, specifically by use of modern electronics for instrument design. Goldmann was the founder of the "applanation tonometry", measuring the corelation of applanated area and applied force. Here, the next step was the development of instruments, measuring independent of position or gravity to allow application also at the lying patient. Electronic area detection was the next step to avoid examinor's error. Also important was the introduction of automatic UV-desinfection to avoid contamination of the other eye or other patients. Other tonometers control the force applied by an inductive method, which also allows application independent of position. Airpuff-tonometry uses completely different measuring principles - the resulting change of corneal curvature indicates the intraocular pressure. The impedance principle is applied even through the closed eye lid. The shock waves resulting shall be measured. Direct application of a surface sensor incorporated into a concave surface contact body shall allow direct measurement of intraocular pressure independent of corneal thickness, curvature, astigmatism. This method has been tried for more than 20 years. Also exposition of the eye to count waves of different frequency was an early attempt. Here also change of reflectivity is used to calculate intraocular pressure. Even after use of modern electronic technology the precision of many of these new devices does not lead to better results. This specifically is shown by modern calibration methods.

  10. Which Trend is your Friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Ari; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically, that these......Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically......, that these trend indicators are closely related. In fact, they are equivalent representations in their most general forms. They also capture many other types of filters, such as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter, the Kalman filter, and all other linear filters. We show how these filters can be represented through...

  11. Trends in physics 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janta, J.; Pantoflicek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The second volume of conference proceedings contains 56 papers in the following fields: phase diagram and structure of coulomb fluids; lattice calculations in condensed matter and paticle physics; localisation and disorder in two-dimensional electron systems; new methods for surface physics; total energy and dielectric properties of semiconductors; organic superconductors; electronic properties of polymers and applications; sensor research and technology; teaching physics for understanding or application; public awareness of physics; a catastrophic view of planet Earth; physics and agriculture. Three documents were inputted in INIS dealing with hadron spectroscopy using the Monte Carlo method in lattice gauge theory, with surface studies by sputtering and with ice ages. (M.D.)

  12. Review of WAG Field Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, A.

    2001-01-01

    well spacing is in the order of 1000 m. For the fields reviewed, a common trend for the successful injections is an increased oil recovery in the range of 5 to 10% of the oil initially in place (OIIP). Very few field trials have been reported as unsuccessful, but operational problems are often noted...

  13. Trends in urological stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Keoghane, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    To summarize the changes in prevalence and treatment of upper urinary tract stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. Data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) website (http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk) were extracted, summarized and presented. The number of upper urinary tract stone hospital episodes increased by 63% to 83,050 in the 10-year period. The use of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating all upper tract stones increased from 14,491 cases in 2000-2001 to 22,402 cases in 2010 (a 55% increase) with a 69% increase in lithotripsy for renal stones. There was a 127% increase in the number of ureteroscopic stone treatments from 6,283 to 14,242 cases over the 10-year period with a 49% increase from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. There was a decline in open surgery for upper tract stones from 278 cases in 2000/2001 to 47 cases in 2009/2010 (an 83% reduction). Treatment for stone disease has increased substantially in comparison with other urological activity. In 2009/2010, SWL was performed almost as frequently as transurethral resection of the prostate or transurethral resection of bladder tumour, ureteroscopy for stones was performed more frequently than nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy and cystectomy combined, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed more frequently than cystectomy. The present study highlights the increase in prevalence and treatment of stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. If this trend continues it has important implications for workforce planning, training, service delivery and research in the field of urolithiasis. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  14. Trends in applications of mathematics to mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanelli, Ulisse; Truskinovsky, Lev; Visintin, Augusto

    2018-01-01

    This volume originates from the INDAM Symposium on Trends on Applications of Mathematics to Mechanics (STAMM), which was held at the INDAM headquarters in Rome on 5–9 September 2016. It brings together original contributions at the interface of Mathematics and Mechanics. The focus is on mathematical models of phenomena issued from various applications. These include thermomechanics of solids and gases, nematic shells, thin films, dry friction, delamination, damage, and phase-field dynamics. The papers in the volume present novel results and identify possible future developments. The book is addressed to researchers involved in Mathematics and its applications to Mechanics.

  15. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  16. EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL TRENDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CIUTACU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with demographic trends in Romania and their influence on the labour market. In this context, unemployment and emigration are factors that play a significant role in the economy. The decline in employment weakens the social security system as employers and employees have to pay greater contributions. Also, the diminution in workforce and in the number of people in paid employment and the shortage of professionals working in specialized fields of health and education are issues requiring urgent clarification.

  17. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  18. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  19. Trends and progress in system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Eykhoff, Pieter

    1981-01-01

    Trends and Progress in System Identification is a three-part book that focuses on model considerations, identification methods, and experimental conditions involved in system identification. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with a discussion of model method in system identification, citing four examples differing on the nature of the models involved, the nature of the fields, and their goals. Subsequent chapters describe the most important aspects of model theory; the """"classical"""" methods and time series estimation; application of least squares and related techniques for the e

  20. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  1. Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulyma, S.I., E-mail: kiw_88@mail.ru; Tanygin, B.M., E-mail: b.m.tanygin@gmail.com; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.

    2016-10-15

    Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.

  2. Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulyma, S.I.; Tanygin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.

  3. Otolaryngology Education: Recent Trends in Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Nathan D; Okland, Tyler S; Rodriguez, Kenny; Mann, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Objectives (1) Evaluate peer-reviewed publications regarding education in otolaryngology since 2000. (2) Analyze publication trends as compared with overall otolaryngology publications. Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods A search for articles regarding education in otolaryngology from 2000 to 2015 was performed with MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, yielding 1220 articles; 362 relevant publications were categorized by topic, subspecialty, subject, article type, and funding source. Impact factors for each journal by year were obtained, and trends of each category over time were analyzed. These were then compared with publication numbers and impact factors for all otolaryngology journals. Results From 2000 to 2015, publications in otolaryngology education increased more rapidly than the field of otolaryngology overall. The most published topics included operative skills training, surgical simulation, and professionalism/career development. Recently there has been a decline in publications related to residency administration and duty hours relative to other topics. Only 12.2% of publications reported a funding source, and only 12.2% of studies were controlled. Conclusion Recent trends in otolaryngology literature reflect an increasing focus on education; however, this work is underfunded and often lacks high-quality evidence.

  4. Projection display technology and product trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    1999-05-01

    Major technology and market trends that could generate a 20 billion dollar electronic projector market by 2010 are reviewed in the perspective of recent product introductions. A log linear analysis shows that the light outputs of benchmark transportable data video projectors have increased at a rate of almost 90 percent per year since 1993. The list prices of these same projectors have decreased at a rate of over 40 percent per year. The tradeoffs of light output vs. resolution and weight are illustrated. Recent trends in projector efficacy vs. year are discussed. Lumen output per dollar of list price is shown to be a useful market metric. Continued technical advances and innovations including higher throughput light valve technologies with integrated drivers, brighter light source, field sequential color, integrated- and micro-optical components, and aerospace materials are likely to sustain these trends. The new technologies will enable projection displays for entertainment and computer applications with unprecedented levels of performance, compactness, and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  6. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  7. Recent trends in combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Griggs, Jerrold; Hogben, Leslie; Musiker, Gregg; Tetali, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents some of the research topics discussed at the 2014-2015 Annual Thematic Program Discrete Structures: Analysis and Applications at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications during Fall 2014, when  combinatorics was the focus. Leading experts have written surveys of research problems, making state of the art results more conveniently and widely available. The three-part structure of the volume reflects the three workshops held during Fall 2014. In the first part, topics on extremal and probabilistic combinatorics are presented; part two focuses on additive and analytic combinatorics; and part three presents topics in geometric and enumerative combinatorics. This book will be of use to those who research combinatorics directly or apply combinatorial methods to other fields.

  8. Emerging and continuing trends in psychotherapy: views from an editor's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J

    2011-06-01

    It is proposed that six major trends in psychotherapy have continued or emerged over the course of the author's editorship of Psychotherapy, the past seven years. These trends are (a) the increasing integration of techniques and the therapeutic relationship; (b) increasing focus on theoretical integration; (c) increasing efforts at research-practice integration; (d) increases in more specific, integrative reviews; (e) integration of biological, neuroscience understandings; and (f) integration of diversity and cultural considerations into psychotherapy. Each trend is described and its impact on the field is discussed. Cautions about each trend are also noted. The six trends are discussed in the context of integration.

  9. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  10. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  11. Modern trends in superconductivity and superfluidity

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject...

  12. Agroforestry trends in Punjab, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The main objectives of the study pertain to agro forestry trend in Punjab, ... further increase it, if the government revives financial/technical incentives and marketing facilities. ...... their socioeconomics, land ownership and sustainable life.

  13. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Trends in the Information Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The current president of the American Society for Information Science shares his observations about the information industry, identifying positive and negative trends, and discusses the role ASIS can play in the continuing growth of the industry. (Author/CLB)

  16. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  17. In praise of quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1989-08-01

    A comprehensive discussion of several topics vital for the structure of a modern Quantum Field Theory are discussed, namely: physical content of the notion of a Quantum Field; meaning of infinite renormalization; renormalizability as quantizability; the influence of several principles of quantum nature (quantizability, gauge dynamics, supersymmetry) on quantum fields dynamics; main trends of QFT evolution; present status of QFT and its frontier role in physics. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig

  18. Trends in researching the socioeconomic influences on mathematical achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Meaney, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the topic of socioeconomic influences on mathematical achievement through an overview of existing research reports and articles. International trends in the way the topic has emerged and become increasingly important in the international field of mathematics education research are ou...

  19. The modern trends in radiochemistry and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.; Furnari, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry is described, particularly with respect to nuclear analytical techniques and radioisotope applications in several fields. Especially, and in connections with the recent advances of Nuclear Medicine, the present contributions of Radiopharmacy, linked to both diagnostic and therapeutic methods, are outlined. The modern trends and their future are discussed. (authors). [es

  20. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  1. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  2. Elementary particles and basic interactions. Trends and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baton, J.P.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1992-06-01

    This lesson given to Physics teachers, takes stock of actual knowledge and trends in Particle Physics: basic interactions and unification, elementary particles (lepton-quarks), fields theories, boson and gluon discovery. It reminds the operating principle of different large accelerators established in the world and associated particle detectors. It includes also a glossary

  3. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  4. Contemporary Trends in Farmer-Based Tree Management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the contemporary trends in tree growing and management in the context of changing farmer livelihood systems in southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected in 1998-99 through a field survey involving interviews with 160 households drawn from 8 rural communities across the different agroecological ...

  5. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. World's trends in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.

    2005-01-01

    Since the exhort of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in 1955, to promote the pacific uses of nuclear energy, countries that had developed military nuclear programs extended their research and training programs to cover pacific uses. Consequently, many programs on Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Chemistry were established in those countries as well as in many others interested exclusively in the civil applications. Obviously, the new graduated curricula had the purpose to fulfil the manpower requirements of the growing nuclear market, so much in the power as in the applications fields, always keeping the high academic level required by the research and development of this technology. The slowing down in the nuclear power demand, evident in the nineties, caused a diminution in the matriculation in Nuclear Engineering degrees while that in Nuclear and Radiochemistry remained almost constant. Anyway, countries with defined nucleo electric programs took the necessary steps calling, frequently, for foreign personnel. Besides the nuclear power stagnation, the global growing of environmental pollution compelled several countries to transform their old Nuclear Centers in new Centers for Energy and Environmental Research, with the purpose to promote the research and development of all types of primary energy; in general, these new centers maintain their support to Nuclear and Radiochemistry activities. An important characteristic of these organisations (discussed in this work) is the collaboration they offer to universities for thesis work and experimental courses in these increasingly related fields. In fact, before the immediate world's problems of greenhouse and water scarcity, as well as the future demand of electricity, nuclear power returns as the long term solution and a bridge toward the Hydrogen Economy; however, better reactor's designs are required to fulfil such objectives. By now, analytical nuclear methods have proved their usefulness for pollutants

  7. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  8. Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordan S.A. Williams; Trent S. Hodgson; Fernando D. Goldenberg; Rimas V. Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Aim:Aneed for Neurologists exists in the USA.The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors provide an overview of the contemporary state of Neurology subspecialty training in the USA. A clearer understanding of subspecialty training allows for anticipation of workforce surpluses and deficits.

  9. TRENDS IN CROATIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of theworld. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study oftrends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. Thepurpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one ofthe most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paperaims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering areview of the recent trends of demand and the directions of hotel industrydevelopment. The importance of hotel industry on both micro and macro, i.e.global level is increasing. Besides a series of theoretical representations andconclusions, this paper brings some concrete data and examples frompractice in hotel management.

  10. Current trends in nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-06-01

    To explore current trends in nursing theories through an integrated literature review. The literature related to nursing theories during the past 10 years was searched through multiple databases and reviewed to determine themes reflecting current trends in nursing theories. The trends can be categorized into six themes: (a) foci on specifics; (b) coexistence of various types of theories; (c) close links to research; (d) international collaborative works; (e) integration to practice; and (f) selective evolution. We need to make our continuous efforts to link research and practice to theories, to identify specifics of our theories, to develop diverse types of theories, and to conduct international collaborative works. Our paper gives implications for future theoretical development in diverse clinical areas of nursing research and practice. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Technological trends in energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moyano, R.

    1995-01-01

    According to the usual meaning, technological trends are determined by main companies and leading countries with capacity for the development and marketing of technology. Presently, those trends are addressed to: the development of cleaner and more efficient process for fossil fuels utilization (atmospheric and pressurized fluidized beds, integrated gasification in combined cycle, advanced combined cycles, etc), the development of safer and more economic nuclear reactors; the efficiency increase in both generation and utilisation of energy, including demand side management and distribution automation; and the reduction of cost of renewable energies. Singular points of these trends are: the progress in communication technologies (optical fibre, trucking systems, etc.); the fuel cells; the supercritical boilers; the passive reactors; the nuclear fusion; the superconductivity; etc. Spain belongs to the developed countries but suffer of certain technology shortages that places it in a special situation. (Author)

  12. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  13. Emerging trends in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear energy is faltering in many places - especially in the USA: should it be written off. The author sees underlying trends that justify a more optimistic view of nuclear energy's future - the continuing tendency for the electricity intensity of economic activity to rise while the total energy intensity falls; a consistently favourable price trend for electricity compared with energy prices generally - a trend that may become more favourable if his judgment that nuclear plants will turn out to be very long-lived is borne out by events; the substitution of electricity-based processes in industry for older processes; and the development of ultra-safe reactors which will remove once and for all the fears of accidents such as the one that occurred at Three Mile Island. (author)

  14. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  15. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  16. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  17. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  18. Emerging trends in ICT security

    CERN Document Server

    Akhgar, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Emerging Trends in ICT Security, an edited volume, discusses the foundations and theoretical aspects of ICT security; covers trends, analytics, assessments and frameworks necessary for performance analysis and evaluation; and gives you the state-of-the-art knowledge needed for successful deployment of security solutions in many environments. Application scenarios provide you with an insider's look at security solutions deployed in real-life scenarios, including but limited to smart devices, biometrics, social media, big data security, and crowd sourcing. Provides a multidisciplinary approach

  19. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ...; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS): 2015 Recruitment and Field... of Collection: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS): 2015 Recruitment and... Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of fourth and eighth grade students...

  20. Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Akgun-Ozbek, Ela; Yilmazel, Sibel; Erdogdu, Erdem; Ucar, Hasan; Guler, Emel; Sezgin, Sezan; Karadeniz, Abdulkadir; Sen-Ersoy, Nazife; Goksel-Canbek, Nil; Dincer, Gokhan Deniz; Ari, Suleyman; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to explore the current trends in the field of distance education research during the period of 2009-2013. The trends were identified by an extensive review of seven peer reviewed scholarly journals: "The American Journal of Distance Education" (AJDE), "Distance Education" (DE), "The European Journal of…

  1. Trends driving the hotel industry global evolution. Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa-Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tourism field is well known for the dynamic of changes over recent years. We witness the continous growth of the number of tourists, the increase of consumers demands, the development of new markets and the changes determined by information technologies implementation and adaptations and innovations supported at the level of tourism business. Being a defining component in the tourism industry, the hotel field is individualized through specific evolutions and significant adjustments in relation to the general rate of changes and development trends recorded. In this framework, through this article, the author aims to assess which are the most relevant changes recorded in the Romanian hotel industry and the degree in which this specific activity field follow the trend of changes recorded at international level.

  2. Demand for luxury cars in China: development, trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis was to investigate what is demand for luxury cars in People's Republic of China and how it has developed, what trends there are and what direction development is going currently. The topic of this thesis was selected based on how interesting it is and how current the topic is at the moment. Objective was to find out what is the demand of luxury cars in China, what kind of buyers Chinese consumers are in field of luxury cars, what trends there are and what are the charac...

  3. Trends in environmental science using microscopic X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) is a versatile tool in environmental analysis. We review work done in this field from 2008 to 2010 and highlight new aspects. Overall, there is a strong trend to combine fluorescence data with other data like diffraction or absorption spectroscopy. Also, the use of laboratory based instrumentation has become wide spread as more commercial instruments are available. At laboratories and synchrotron sites the trend towards higher spatial resolution is still persistent hitting sub micrometer values in case of synchrotron set ups.

  4. Trends in environmental science using microscopic X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Falkenberg, Gerald [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) is a versatile tool in environmental analysis. We review work done in this field from 2008 to 2010 and highlight new aspects. Overall, there is a strong trend to combine fluorescence data with other data like diffraction or absorption spectroscopy. Also, the use of laboratory based instrumentation has become wide spread as more commercial instruments are available. At laboratories and synchrotron sites the trend towards higher spatial resolution is still persistent hitting sub micrometer values in case of synchrotron set ups.

  5. Modern trends in hypercomplex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kähler, Uwe; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the session "Quaternionic and Clifford Analysis" at the 10th ISAAC Congress held in Macau in August 2015. The covered topics represent the state-of-the-art as well as new trends in hypercomplex analysis and its applications.

  6. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  7. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  8. Branding trends in Asian markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Diederich; Segers, Rien

    This chapter examines current branding trends in significant Asian markets, namely Japan, South Korea, and India, with a special focus on one emerging branding nation, China. No generalizations towards the whole of Asia can be drawn from this research. However, research identified some aspects in

  9. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  10. Higher Education Trends and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Charts and graphs illustrate trends in (1) values of college employee pension money invested in the stock market since 1990; (2) college spending on a variety of faculty fringe benefits in 1992-93, by institution type; and (3) the relationship between faculty salaries and the cost of living, 1986-87 to 1992-93. (MSE)

  11. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig

  12. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  13. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  14. Trends in Surgical Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of acute and chronic wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades. Unfortunately, improvement in clinical practice has not followed suit, although new trends and developments have improved the outcome of wound treatment in many ways. This review focuse...

  15. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  16. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  17. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  18. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  19. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  20. Recent Trends in Karst Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends related to the karst processes and the evolution of karst landscapes are discussed. The hydrochemical processes responsible for the origin of karst are expanded on to illustrate the present scope of karst studies. These geomorphological studies are combined with concepts and techniques from hydraulics, chemistry, and mathematics. (JN)

  1. New trends in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Cigošová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The thesis i about new forms of marketing communications and new approaches to the use of older forms. It focuses on internet, as the the major new medium used in communication. Last part analyses new trends in customer insights to advertising, advertisment spendings for different kinds of media and augmentation of the number of internet users according to results of marketing researches.

  2. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  3. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  4. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  5. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. The history, hotspots, and trends of electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Tong, Yun-Hai; Yan, Hong; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Wang, Hong-Bo; Tan, Shao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) has broad applications in clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. Many researchers have contributed to its progressive development. To commemorate those pioneers, and to better study and promote the use of ECG, we reviewed and present here a systematic introduction about the history, hotspots, and trends of ECG. In the historical part, information including the invention, improvement, and extensive applications of ECG, such as in long QT syndrome (LQTS), angina, and myocardial infarction (MI), are chronologically presented. New technologies and applications from the 1990s are also introduced. In the second part, we use the bibliometric analysis method to analyze the hotspots in the field of ECG-related research. By using total citations and year-specific total citations as our main criteria, four key hotspots in ECG-related research were identified from 11 articles, including atrial fibrillation, LQTS, angina and MI, and heart rate variability. Recent studies in those four areas are also reported. In the final part, we discuss the future trends concerning ECG-related research. The authors believe that improvement of the ECG instrumentation, big data mining for ECG, and the accuracy of diagnosis and application will be areas of continuous concern.

  7. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  8. Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Milken Institute Review The overwhelming defeat of President Pervez Musharraf ’s party in parliamentary elections earlier this year was no surprise, inside Pakistan or out. But explanations for his thumping at the polls vary, and how one interprets the return to democracy matters a lot in predicting how this politically unstable, ethnically divided, nuclear-armed country will react to continuing stresses.

  9. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  10. Concepts and trends in healthcare information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsouris, Dionysios-Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    ​Concepts and Trends in Healthcare Information Systems covers the latest research topics in the field from leading researchers and practitioners. This book offers theory-driven research that explores the role of Information Systems in the delivery of healthcare in its diverse organizational and regulatory settings. In addition to the embedded role of Information Technology (IT) in clinical and diagnostics equipment, Information Systems are uniquely positioned to capture, store, process, and communicate timely information to decision makers for better coordination of healthcare at both the individual and population levels. For example, data mining and decision support capabilities can identify potential adverse events for an individual patient while also contributing to the population's health by providing insights into the causes of disease complications. Information systems have great potential to reduce healthcare costs and improve outcomes. The healthcare delivery systems share similar characteristics w...

  11. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  12. New trends in species distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.

  13. Trends in exotic-atom research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Horvath, D.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze the trends in the development of exotic-atom research on the basis of a recently compiled bibliography. The analysis of nearly 4000 publications demonstrated that: (1) exotic atoms are nuclear probes used in every field of physics, from the test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) to chemical physics, to materials sciences; (2) the role of nuclear and atomic physics in exotic atom research is decreasing (although it is still significant), while that of materials sciences and chemial physics is exponentially increasing; and (3) prior to 1980 most investigators were mainly interested in atoms with negative muons, while during the last few years the positive muon (μSR) studies have dominated exotic atom research

  14. New trends and developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It uses radiation as the initiator of chemical reactions. Practical applications of radiation chemistry today extend to many fields, including health care, food and agriculture, manufacturing, industrial pollution abatement, biotechnology and telecommunications. The important advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used to produce, and study, almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reactions, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. The techniques are applicable to gaseous, liquid, solid, and heterogeneous systems. By combining different techniques of radiation chemistry with analytical chemistry, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions are studied. In November 1988 in Bologna, Italy, the IAEA convened an advisory group meeting to assess new trends and developments in radiation chemistry. The present publication includes most of the contributions presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future.

  16. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  17. Field transformations to multivalued fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, H [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Changes of field variables may lead to multivalued fields which do not satisfy the Schwarz integrability conditions. Their quantum field theory needs special care as is shown in an application to the superfluid and superconducting phase transitions.

  18. Two-dimensional orthonormal trend surfaces for prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, D. D.; Selvaraj, J. B.

    Orthonormal polynomials have distinct advantages over conventional polynomials: the equations for evaluating trend coefficients are not ill-conditioned and the convergence power of this method is greater compared to the least-squares approximation and therefore the approach by orthonormal functions provides a powerful alternative to the least-squares method. In this paper, orthonormal polynomials in two dimensions are obtained using the Gram-Schmidt method for a polynomial series of the type: Z = 1 + x + y + x2 + xy + y2 + … + yn, where x and y are the locational coordinates and Z is the value of the variable under consideration. Trend-surface analysis, which has wide applications in prospecting, has been carried out using the orthonormal polynomial approach for two sample sets of data from India concerned with gold accumulation from the Kolar Gold Field, and gravity data. A comparison of the orthonormal polynomial trend surfaces with those obtained by the classical least-squares method has been made for the two data sets. In both the situations, the orthonormal polynomial surfaces gave an improved fit to the data. A flowchart and a FORTRAN-IV computer program for deriving orthonormal polynomials of any order and for using them to fit trend surfaces is included. The program has provision for logarithmic transformation of the Z variable. If log-transformation is performed the predicted Z values are reconverted to the original units and the trend-surface map generated for use. The illustration of gold assay data related to the Champion lode system of Kolar Gold Fields, for which a 9th-degree orthonormal trend surface was fit, could be used for further prospecting the area.

  19. Trends in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Adrian; Ondrus, Jan

    Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

  20. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.

  1. Energy demand: Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B; Lapillonne, B

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and energy demand is investigated in this book. It gives a detailed analysis of the energy demand dynamics in industrialized countries and compares the past evolution of the driving factors behind energy demand by sector and by end-uses for the main OECD countries: residential sector (space heating, water heating, cooking...), tertiary sector, passenger and goods transport by mode, and industry (with particular emphasis on the steel and cement industry). This analysis leads to a more precise understanding of the long-term trends of energy demand; highlighting the influence on these trends of energy prices, especially after the oil price shocks, and of the type of economic development pattern.

  2. Fashion and death: Trends Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Jakemiu Araújo Bortolon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion is composed of cycles subpostos trends that seek to eliminate the past for a new one, which makes it ephemeral and eternal at the same time. This study investigates how is the relationship between these cycles of trends over time, through a brief history of fashion, considering the theoretical rules of Simmel, Crane and Caldas. They will still be used concepts proposed by Agamben, such as: device, in order to classify the system of the fashion; contemporaneidade, to understand the action of that factor in relation to the time and profanation, to identify the capacity to maintain in the society. It is ended that the fashion, as well as the death, renews the society, it destroys and it creates the new, as a system naturalized artificially

  3. Demographic structure and macroeconomic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Yunus; Basso, H.S.; Smith, Ronald; Grasl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in demographic structure on long term\\ud trends of key macroeconomic variables using a Panel VAR for 21 OECD economies from 1970-2014. The panel data variation assists the identification of demographic effects, while the dynamic structure,\\ud incorporating multiple channels of influence, uncovers long-term effects.\\ud We propose a theoretical model, relating demographics, innovation and\\ud growth, whose simulations match our empirical findings. The current\\ud...

  4. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  5. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new...... procedures are considered, with emphasis on measurements approaching the nanometre scale. Examples of new instruments and promising innovations for roughness measurement and surface integrity characterisation are presented. The new needs for tolerancing, traceability and calibration are also addressed....

  6. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  8. Increased Materialistic Trends Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Shama Mazahir, Afsheen Masood, Rubab Musarrat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  9. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Afsheen Masood; Rubab Musarrat; Shama Mazahir

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  10. Global trends in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalco, G.

    2003-01-01

    There will be a brief introduction of the companies of MDS serving the Medical, Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical sectors worldwide. MDS Nordion will be introduced in more detail focused on the products and services of our Nuclear Medicine and Ion Technologies business units. World Trends and issues in Radiation Processing will be discussed on: Sterilization of Medical Devices, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics and Consumer products and finally I will present an overview on Food Irradiation progress worldwide

  11. Microlearning an Evolving Elearning Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Luminiţa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the meanings of the micro-learning trend, as they have emerged and developed over the last few years. Exploring how the term micro-learning is used to organize and order a set of pedagogical and technological phenomena and concepts in new and interesting ways, it is brought into focus the most popular and widely used learning management platforms that embrace this concept.

  12. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  13. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  14. Std trends in chengalpattu hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy V

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective data analysis was carried out to find the trends in frequency and distribution of different STDs at Chengalpattu during 1988-1994. Of the 4549 patients who attended the clinic 3621 (79.6% were males and 928 (20.4% were females. The commonest STD was Chancroid (24.4% in men and Syphillis (29% in women. Balanoposthitis (11.4% ranked third among STDs in males. Though the STD attendance showed a declining trend, most diseases showed a constant distribution. The percentage composition of secondary and latent syphillis, Genital Warts, Genital Herpes and the Non-Venereal group showed an increased composition in recent years. Primary syphillis in females showed a definite declining trend. The HIV sero-positive detection rate was 2.06%. Of the 1116 patients screened for HIV antibody, 23 patients were detected sero-positive. Time Series Regression Analysis was used to predict the number of patients who would attend the STD clinic with various STDs in 1995 and 1996 to help in the understanding of the disease load and pattern in future, in resources management and in developing and evaluating preventive measures.

  15. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  16. Evaluation and adjustment of altimeter measurement and numerical hindcast in wave height trend estimation in China's coastal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuiqing; Guan, Shoude; Hou, Yijun; Liu, Yahao; Bi, Fan

    2018-05-01

    A long-term trend of significant wave height (SWH) in China's coastal seas was examined based on three datasets derived from satellite measurements and numerical hindcasts. One set of altimeter data were obtained from the GlobWave, while the other two datasets of numerical hindcasts were obtained from the third-generation wind wave model, WAVEWATCH III, forced by wind fields from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The mean and extreme wave trends were estimated for the period 1992-2010 with respect to the annual mean and the 99th-percentile values of SWH, respectively. The altimeter wave trend estimates feature considerable uncertainties owing to the sparse sampling rate. Furthermore, the extreme wave trend tends to be overestimated because of the increasing sampling rate over time. Numerical wave trends strongly depend on the quality of the wind fields, as the CCMP waves significantly overestimate the wave trend, whereas the CFSR waves tend to underestimate the trend. Corresponding adjustments were applied which effectively improved the trend estimates from the altimeter and numerical data. The adjusted results show generally increasing mean wave trends, while the extreme wave trends are more spatially-varied, from decreasing trends prevailing in the South China Sea to significant increasing trends mainly in the East China Sea.

  17. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  18. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  19. Detection and attribution of nitrogen runoff trend in China's croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xikang; Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhou, Feng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Gu, Baojing; Reis, Stefan; Wu, Yali; Liu, Hongbin; Piao, Shilong; Tang, Yanhong

    2018-03-01

    Reliable detection and attribution of changes in nitrogen (N) runoff from croplands are essential for designing efficient, sustainable N management strategies for future. Despite the recognition that excess N runoff poses a risk of aquatic eutrophication, large-scale, spatially detailed N runoff trends and their drivers remain poorly understood in China. Based on data comprising 535 site-years from 100 sites across China's croplands, we developed a data-driven upscaling model and a new simplified attribution approach to detect and attribute N runoff trends during the period of 1990-2012. Our results show that N runoff has increased by 46% for rice paddy fields and 31% for upland areas since 1990. However, we acknowledge that the upscaling model is subject to large uncertainties (20% and 40% as coefficient of variation of N runoff, respectively). At national scale, increased fertilizer application was identified as the most likely driver of the N runoff trend, while decreased irrigation levels offset to some extent the impact of fertilization increases. In southern China, the increasing trend of upland N runoff can be attributed to the growth in N runoff rates. Our results suggested that increased SOM led to the N runoff rate growth for uplands, but led to a decline for rice paddy fields. In combination, these results imply that improving management approaches for both N fertilizer use and irrigation is urgently required for mitigating agricultural N runoff in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of nuclear physics: Future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear physics and energy research depends on and advances science and technology outside of the nuclear field. Perhaps the most commonly perceived benefits to society from nuclear and particle physics are those derived from particle beam technology. Charged particle accelerators play an increasing role in applications in industry and medicine. Neutrons produced with a high power proton accelerator in a spallation process are used from basic research, radiography in automotive industry (example fuel cell development) to transmutation of highly radioactive fission products. Production and acceleration of ultra cold neutrons provide intense and almost mono-energetic neutrons to study soft matter. Heavier radioisotopes are used in a wide field ranging from medicine to semiconductor industry (ion implantation for doping or coating technologies). Concrete examples and future trends will be given. Detailed understanding of ion physics at low energy allows the design of compact accelerator mass spectroscopy (close to table top size). The ability to measure concentrations of specific radioactive isotopes even below the natural radioactivity widens the scope of applications from archaeology, climate research to food industry. Such a compact device is close to commercialisation. (author)

  1. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  2. Radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis - recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent trends of radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis are discussed. Novel developments include the application of cyclic and pulsed activation, better energy resolution with hyperpure germanium detectors, and use of pulse processing systems allowing extremely high count rates of very short-lived isotopes. Further development is anticipated in the field of speciation in biological and environmental studies. Radiochemical methods have led to accurate determinations at the ng/g level. A promising future is expected for neutron activation techniques. (orig.)

  3. Publishing trends for the Cycadales, the most threatened plant group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N. Cascasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in published cycad research within various fields of study were determined using proceedings from international conferences on cycad biology and Google Scholar to access the primary literature.  Both search methods indicated that phylogeny, systematics and ecology are strongly represented in recent cycad literature, while there is a need for more research in horticulture and pathology, reviews and clarification of correspondence between current and discontinued species designations.  

  4. The main trends of work on lifetime management of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu.; Kurakov, Yu.

    1995-01-01

    The major trends of works on NPP lifetime management are discussed: Co-ordinating and organizational activities; studying the degradation processes and residual life; elaboration and implementation of the measures to maintain/enhance safety level of NPPs operating within design life; development of control principals of advanced NPPs aging and safe life; creation and development of regulations in the field of NPP aging and life management. 7 figs

  5. Trends in Digital Cultural Heritage Management and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    We present some recent trends in the field of digital cultural heritage management and applications including digital cultural data curation, interoperability, open linked data publishing, crowd sourcing, visualization, platforms for digital cultural heritage, and applications. We present some examples from research and development projects of MUSIC/TUC in those areas. The Fourth International Conference on Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage—DiPP2014 ...

  6. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied to iso...

  7. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are

  8. Trends in food choice and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    'Trends' in the way we eat are discussed in this chapter. Three potential trends are taken as points of departure, namely health concerns, convenience, and process characteristics. Some of the evidence provided may not necessarily be evidence of a trend itself, but can be regarded as indicators o...

  9. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  10. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  11. Emerging trends in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art in communication networks with the help of illustrative diagrams and recent references published in reputed journals and magazines. The book gives readers a glimpse into the next generation of communication networks. It explores topics that are currently in the research phase and/or are expected to be deployed in recent future such as LTE networks and IPv6 networks. This book is written for students/researchers who wish to come up to date with the recent trends in telecommunications.

  12. Glaucoma treatment trends: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Ronan; Saheb, Hady; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing. The aim of the present review is to describe the current medical and surgical treatment trends in the management of open-angle glaucoma. There has been an increase in the availability of glaucoma medications and the use of laser trabeculoplasty over the past decade, with a subsequent decrease in invasive incisional surgery. In addition, a new class of glaucoma procedures, termed microinvasive glaucoma surgery, has emerged, which aims to fill the gap between conservative medical management and more invasive surgery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    Collection of papers produced by tutors involved in a master´s degree course for teacher in Ethiopia offers an important challenge to the dominant neo-liberal agenda that has taken over educational reform throughtout the world. The project was based on the practice of critical practitioner inquiry...... and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  14. Present trends in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the current trends of nuclear energy in Europe, the issue of radioactive waste management, the modern technical solutions for building new nuclear power plants and, also, the nuclear power long term prospects. The following trends and methods of reducing costs are addressed: - upgrading the availability of nuclear power units; since 1990 till now in Europe the availability factor has risen from 74 % to 84%; - extending the operation life of nuclear power plants from 30 - 40 years to 60 years; - stable reduction of the duration of annual planned outages necessary for maintenance and nuclear fuel re-loading; it is noteworthy the performance of Unit 2 Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, that was shutdown for annual outage and fuel re-loading for a 7 days only; - stable cuts of nuclear fuel cost by using advanced nuclear fuel and by increasing the fuel burnup; over the last years, nuclear fuel cost share in the operation costs has constantly decreased to values of about 0.5 USD cent/KWh e; - increase of the rated capacity of the existing in Europe nuclear power units, through upgrading programs that contribute to enhancing their efficiency. In the year 2002 Generation IV International Forum (GIF) finalized the technological strategy in the field, identifying the most promising nuclear power systems for which the research will continue. This strategy also identifies the main objectives that must by pursued within the research-development programs out of which one mentions the following: - identifying sustainable solution for generating electricity; - minimizing the radioactive waste and its management; - optimization of operation costs; - reducing the financial risk comparable to other energy solutions; - excellence in nuclear safety and reliability; - increasing resistance to proliferation; - ruling out the emergency solutions. Finally, the paper mentions the international engagement, representing a new approach in nuclear power, namely the transition to the use

  15. Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth's surface is extremely difficult, largely because numerous factors contribute to surface temperature forcing with only a small signal-to-noise ratio relative to long-term effects. In the long term, no part of the atmosphere can be considered individually because the evolution will be a function of all states of all portions. A large surface greenhouse signal might ultimately be expected, but the analysis of surface temperature may not be particularly useful for early detection. What is suggested here is not an analysis of trends in the surface temperature field or any of its spatial averages, but rather an integrating factor or integrator, a single measure of global change that could be considered a test of significant change for the entire global system. Preferably, this global change integrator would vary slowly and would take into account many of the causes of climate change, with a relatively large signal-to-noise ratio. Such an integrator could be monitored, and abrupt or accelerated changes could serve as an early warning signal for policy makers and the public. Earlier work has suggested that temperature has much less short-term and small-scale noise in the lower stratosphere, and thus the global warming signal at that level might be more easily deconvoluted, because the cooling rate near the 200-mb level is almost constant with latitude. A study of the temperature signal at this pressure level might show a clearer trend due to increased levels of greenhouse gases, but it would yield information about the troposphere only by inference

  16. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  17. Modern trends in activation analysis. Vols. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkelmann, R; Kim, J I; Lux, F; Staerk, H; Zeisler, R [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Two volumes contain 164 special papers presented at the international conference on activation analysis, including five plenary lectures which give a general survey of modern trends and possibilities of applications in fields where activation analysis is capable of solving problems which are hitherto unsolved. The emphasis during this meeting is put on applications, though other subjects (e.g. sampling, homogeneity of samples, instrumental development, computer evaluation of gamma spectra, comparisons with other analytical methods) are also dealt with. The proceedings contain lectures on applications in the fields of biology, biomedicine, archaeology, the arts, forensic sciences, environmental research, ecology, materials research, geo- and cosmo-sciences, and other individual applications.

  18. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  19. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  20. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  1. Occupational dose trends in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)

  2. Oil prices: Breaks and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, José

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of the stationarity of financial time series and the literature on oil and macroeconomics in several ways. First, it uses Kejriwal and Perron (2010) sequential procedure to endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices without facing the circular testing problem between structural changes and stationary assumptions of previous tests. Second, it performs a diagnostic check to detect the significance and magnitude of the potential breaks. Third, it uses the above information to test for the existence of stochastic trends in real oil prices, and fourth, it speculates about possible explanations for the break dates found in order to encourage further work and discussions. The exercise uses monthly data from January 1861 to August 2011. - Highlights: ► The model endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices. ► The methods used does not face the circular testing problem. ► It also detect the significance and magnitude of the breaks detected. ► It tests for the existence of stochastic trends. ► It explains the reasons for the break dates found

  3. Changing Trends in Modeling Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Munjal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenal increase in the number of wireless devices has led to the evolution of several interesting and challenging research problems in opportunistic networks. For example, the random waypoint mobility model, an early, popular effort to model mobility, involves generating random movement patterns. Previous research efforts, however, validate that movement patterns are not random; instead, human mobility is predictable to some extent. Since the performance of a routing protocol in an opportunistic network is greatly improved if the movement patterns of mobile users can be somewhat predicted in advance, several research attempts have been made to understand human mobility. The solutions developed use our understanding of movement patterns to predict the future contact probability for mobile nodes. In this work, we summarize the changing trends in modeling human mobility as random movements to the current research efforts that model human walks in a more predictable manner. Mobility patterns significantly affect the performance of a routing protocol. Thus, the changing trend in modeling mobility has led to several changes in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks. For example, the simplest opportunistic routing protocol forwards a received packet to a randomly selected neighbor. With predictable mobility, however, routing protocols can use the expected contact information between a pair of mobile nodes in making forwarding decisions. In this work, we also describe the previous and current research efforts in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks.

  4. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  5. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  6. The Trend of Women in Nuclear Security in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithole, P.; Chipuru, J.

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in the use of radiation technologies, each country now has a potential risk from nuclear related offenses or malicious use of radioactive material. Despite the major advancements women have made in becoming a significant part of the workforce in all the other fields, women in the field of Nuclear Security are underrepresented in Zimbabwe. Nuclear security contributes to global security and there are a number of things that constitute this field. In the past 10 years, in developing countries, a few women have been taking part in Nuclear Security activities at Major Public events. Less than 1% of women in Zimbabwe are employed and take part in Nuclear Security related work. This study provides the trend in statistics of women employed in the field of Nuclear Security in Zimbabwe and it has identified possible factors why women are underrepresented in that field. It shows the trend of women taking part in Nuclear Security related activities for the past 10 years. Women’s experiences of employment and career development in nuclear security were studied. The factors which hinder or support the career development of women employees in Nuclear Security or related work were identified. Practices which encourage and support women’s involvement in Nuclear Security were explored. A statistical analysis of local authority employment, using the Ministry of Labour, census of women in science and nuclear security related studies in the Population of Zimbabwe, and other relevant sources was carried out. This was to describe the wider context of women’s employment in Nuclear Security. A self-completion questionnaire to get information on personal attributes, age and preferred career paths for women was used. Solutions to the trend are suggested in the study. (author)

  7. Teaching the Evolution of the Mind: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…

  8. Revealing Fact or Fiction in Spitzer Exoplanet Phase Curve Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Parmentier, Vivien; Mansfield, Megan; Cowan, Nicolas; Kempton, Eliza; Desert, Jean-Michel; Swain, Mark; Dang, Lisa; Bell, Taylor; Keating, Dylan; Zellem, Robert; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Stevenson, Kevin

    2018-05-01

    The constraints on energy transport in exoplanet atmospheres from phase curve observations is sure to be one of Spitzer's enduring legacies. However, with phase curves for 17 planets now observed we find that the previously observed trends are not coming into sharper focus. Instead, these trends in hot spot offset and day-night flux contrast vs. the fundamental planetary parameters expected to control the energy transport (e.g., irradiation and rotational period) are becoming more uncertain due to the recent discovery of outliers. At the same time, there is a growing understanding that a number of factors like magnetic fields, aerosols, and molecular chemistry could be confounding the search for these correlations. We propose a final phase curve program to advance our understanding of energy transport in transiting exoplanet atmospheres and to cement Spitzer's legacy on this topic. This program tackles the outstanding questions in this area with a comprehensive, two-pronged approach: (1) a survey of an additional 10 high signal-to-noise planets that span a broad parameter space and (2) a search for magnetic field-induced variability in the planet HAT-P-7b. The expanded survey will bring additional statistical power to the search for trends and will enable us to determine if the recently-detected outliers are indeed oddities or are instead actually representative of the intrinsic sample diversity. The variability search will test the hypothesis that the atmospheric dynamics of the partially ionized atmospheres of close-in planets are influenced by magnetic fields, which could explain the observed scatter around the existing trends. All observations will be performed at 4.5 microns, which is the consensus best channel for these measurements. The dataset from this program will provide vital context for JWST observations and will not be superseded until ARIEL flies more than a decade from now.

  9. Trends in aircraft engines. Trends in aircraft gas turbines and subsonic engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashima, Kanji

    1988-06-10

    While the emphasis of commercial, large aircraft engines is placed on low fuel consumption at high subsonic flight and the turbofan engines with high bypass ratio are dominating, high speed turboprop (ATP) of Mach 0.85 class with low fuel consumption are emerging. UHB with bypass ratio of 15 - 20 are planned with expection for application to intermediate size commercial planes. The pressure ratio is continuously rizing for improved cycle efficiency, reaching 35 - 40 in highest cases. Trends in design technique include: Use of computational aerodynamics and application of two-dimensional structural analysis and the digital simulation of engine characteristics. In the field of large, high bypass turbofan, serious competition is seen between GE and PNA at the thrust level of 5 - 60,000 pounds. Several engines for fighting planes have been approved in the type test and accepted as candidates for next generation of fighting planes including Japan. (15 figs, 36 refs)

  10. Revisiting the coupling between NDVI trends and cropland changes in the Sahel drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaoye; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Hiernaux, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The impact of human activities via land use/cover changes on NDVI trends is critical for an improved understanding of satellite-observed changes in vegetation productivity in drylands. The dominance of positive NDVI trends in the Sahel, the so-called re-greening, is sometimes interpreted...... as a combined effect of an increase in rainfall and cropland expansion or agricultural intensification. Yet, the impact of changes in land use has yet to be thoroughly tested and supported by empirical evidence. At present, no studies have considered the importance of the different seasonal NDVI signals...... of cropped and fallowed fields when interpreting NDVI trends, as both field types are commonly merged into a single ‘cropland’ class. We make use of the distinctly different phenology of cropped and fallowed fields and use seasonal NDVI curves to separate these two field types. A fuzzy classifier is applied...

  11. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  12. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  13. International trends in curriculum research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    of the western school systems (especially within natural science and mathematics), the PISA-study has also been followed by school and curriculum radical reforms. The inspiration for the European reforms was taken in the so called accountability policy that during the 1990s had been developed in the USA...... is at the same time a centralization and a decentralization strategy: centralization at the input and the output side and decentralization of processes. The basic idea is that those responsible for the processes (principals and teachers) are held responsible for the outcomes. In the USA outcomes are related...... of their first generation goals as well of their national test systems. A trend in international school reform policy seems to be a break with the New Public Management and accountability philosophy that has played a major role over the last two decades. It is probably too early to say that these strategies...

  14. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  15. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  16. Research trends in neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The trends in neutron research are discussed from the viewpoints of development of pulsed neutron sources, the ingenuity of specialization of instrumentation and experimental techniques, and research programs. The latter comprise the large and still expanding requirements of nuclear data for nuclear power technology, the requirements of other fundamental sciences, and the experimental and theoretical developments required for a more fundamental understanding of the subject of neutron and related nuclear reactions itself. The general conclusion is that high energy resolution coupled with high intensity for detecting weak reactions provides the key to further progress, and that (provided financial limitations do not stifle the further development of experimental facilities, particularly neutron sources) the subject of neutron physics still has a long and fruitful future

  17. Technology guide. Principles - applications - trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullinger, Hans-Joerg (ed.) [Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Use this TECHNOLOGY GUIDE to - find descriptions of today's most essential global technologies, clearly structured and simply explained in over 100 expert contributions; - gain an understanding of the principles behind each technology, - the latest applications, the challenges ahead, and future trends; - see how and where technologies and topics are interlinked, with cross-references and further sources of information; - broaden your general knowledge of technology, presented in a comprehensive reference format that invites even the casual reader to explore the stimulating innovative ideas it contains. This guide is a useful companion for readers with a lively interest in technology. It serves as a reference work for corporate and public-sector decision makers, as well as those involved in media and government. (orig.)

  18. Quality Improvement Practices and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens J.; Hartz, Ove; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    professor, as well as key individuals from various industries. In addition to the above activities, Rick will be working with the European Foundation for Quality Management on their "European Master's Programme in Total Quality Management." That program involves a consortium of European universities. Rick......The following article, "Quality Improvement Practices and Trends in Denmark," is the first in a series of papers arranged for and co-authored by Dr. Rick L. Edgeman. Rick is a member of QE's Editorial Board and is on sabbatical from Colorado State University. During the year, Rick and his family...... has begun the process of developing a comparable consortium of American universities for the same purpose-- an activity which is cosponsored by the Education Division of the American Society for Quality (ASQ)....

  19. New trends in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-10-01

    The introduction of new concepts such as the effective dose equivalent, the collective dose and the dose commitment, and the application of the basic principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation has had a major impact on the planning and implementation of radiation protection during the last few years. The basic principles are summarized in ICRP Publication 26. It is a chalenge to research in radiobiology, genetics and health physics to explore the scientific foundation of the current principles of radiation protection. The most interesting trend to-day, however, is the observation that the principles applied in radiation protection have now been generally recognized and accepted to the extent that they become utilized in the protection of man against non-radioactive carcinogenic substances and environmental pollutants. (author)

  20. Future trends in image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ali

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a discussion on the future of image data compression in the next two decades. It is virtually impossible to predict with any degree of certainty the breakthroughs in theory and developments, the milestones in advancement of technology and the success of the upcoming commercial products in the market place which will be the main factors in establishing the future stage to image coding. What we propose to do, instead, is look back at the progress in image coding during the last two decades and assess the state of the art in image coding today. Then, by observing the trends in developments of theory, software, and hardware coupled with the future needs for use and dissemination of imagery data and the constraints on the bandwidth and capacity of various networks, predict the future state of image coding. What seems to be certain today is the growing need for bandwidth compression. The television is using a technology which is half a century old and is ready to be replaced by high definition television with an extremely high digital bandwidth. Smart telephones coupled with personal computers and TV monitors accommodating both printed and video data will be common in homes and businesses within the next decade. Efficient and compact digital processing modules using developing technologies will make bandwidth compressed imagery the cheap and preferred alternative in satellite and on-board applications. In view of the above needs, we expect increased activities in development of theory, software, special purpose chips and hardware for image bandwidth compression in the next two decades. The following sections summarize the future trends in these areas.

  1. Driving systems: innovations - trends - mechatronics; Antriebssysteme: Innovationen - Trends - Mechatronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energiewandlung; Doppelbauer, M. [SEW-Eurodrive GmbH und Co.KG, Bruchsal (DE). Entwicklung und Konstruktion Motoren (EML); Gold, P.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente und Maschinengestaltung; Hofmann, W. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe

    2007-03-15

    Short overview on this special meeting with interdisciplinary topics of connection between mechanical and electrical engineering: mechatronics. The main topics are covered by the fields motion control, simulation of drives, monitoring, gears, motors engineering/-design, converter systems, industrial applications and drives for wind turbines. (GL)

  2. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  3. Current trends in offshore technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  4. Global Energy Trends - 2016 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Based on its 2015 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends of the world energy markets. The full report presents in-depth information on the energy markets as well as upcoming trends for all energies in the G20. With over 400 premium sources, Enerdata analysts highlight major developments in 2015 concerning global demand, supply and key indicators across the globe. Key Points: 2.8%: The weakest economic growth since 2002: If the economic activity of OECD countries improved slightly (USA, EU...), that of non - OECD countries slowed down, particularly in China, and with some even declining (Brazil and Russia). +0.5%: Near stagnation of energy consumption: As with last year, 2015 saw weak growth in energy consumption for G20 countries (10.8 Gtoe, or +0.5%, while the 10-year average exceeds 2%). Within the OECD, consumption declined slightly. In non-OECD countries, the evolution becomes historic with an increase limited to 1.3%, compared to a 10-year average of 5%. Besides the direct impact of the economic downturn mentioned above, this result comes largely from China where the near stagnation of energy consumption confirms a trend beginning in 2014 towards a less energy-intensive economy. 0: Stability of CO_2 emissions - cyclical or structural?: After the surprising slowdown in 2014, 2015 also saw a stable level of CO_2 -energy emissions (27 GtCO_2). A direct result from the stagnation in energy consumption, this figure also results from a slight modification in the power mix, in particular from the decline in coal consumption (China, USA..). -3 %: Decrease in the carbon intensity of the economy: In 2015 we acknowledge a 3% decrease in carbon intensity compared to an historical average of -1.5%/year; this progress comes from a decrease in China (stability of energy consumption and decrease of coal share in the mix) and in the USA (more gas, less coal). A trend still far away from climate change targets set at the COP21: On the climate side, the stagnation

  5. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Popovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  6. Phase field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)

  7. Trends in Biobanking: A Bibliometric Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrin, Jonas J; Betsou, Fay

    2016-02-01

    Biobanks have become indispensable tools for a wide array of life and environmental sciences, and biotechnology. To evaluate trends in biobanking, 20,000 bibliographic records were retrieved and analyzed between 1939 and 2014 from the Scopus database using a series of biobank-related search terms within titles and keywords. Since the 1990s, the field of biobanking has been, and still is, experiencing above-average growth in terms of publications, journals, and thematic orientations. Almost two-thirds of all indexed biobanking documents have been published in the last decade, with now >1,000 publications in 600 distinct journals per year. Around 50,000 individual authors can be identified who have so far contributed to the field of biobanking, with an average of 1.5 publications per author. Author affiliations follow an uneven distribution: 42% of the authors are based in Europe, 33% in North America, 13% in Asia, 5% in South America, 4% in Australasia, and 2% in Africa. Analyzing the most common title words revealed (as did the journals) a strong focus on blood banking, but other biospecimen types-especially seeds, cells, and tissues-have been gaining increasing weight recently. Among medical applications, transfusion dominates, followed by transplantation. While a noticeable increase in disease and especially health occurred at the beginning of the millennium, cohort and consent seem to have become high-relevance topics only in this decade. In terms of banked organisms, human dominates, followed by viruses and plants (especially represented through seed banking). A very rough estimate based on subject categories suggests that a third of all publications in biobanking focus on organisms other than humans. However, animal, fungal, and microbial biobanking are still underrepresented, especially when considering their shares in global biodiversity.

  8. SOME TRENDS IN MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Klyuchko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research is to demonstrate some trends of development of modeling methods for biotechnology according to contemporary achievements in science and technique. At the beginning the general approaches are outlined, some types of classifications of modeling methods are observed. The role of mathematic methods modeling for biotechnology in present époque of information computer technologies intensive development is studied and appropriate scheme of interrelation of all these spheres is proposed. Further case studies are suggested: some mathematic models in three different spaces (1D, 2D, 3D models are described for processes in living objects of different levels of hierarchic organization. In course of this the main attention was paid to some processes modeling in neurons as well as in their aggregates of different forms, including glioma cell masses (1D, 2D, 3D brain processes models. Starting from the models that have only theoretical importance for today, we describe at the end a model which application may be important for the practice. The work was done after the analysis of approximately 250 current publications in fields of biotechnology, including the authors’ original works.

  9. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Panwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals.Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally soundapproach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.Keywords: MEDICAL EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, CHALLENGES

  10. Field Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    2012-01-01

    This field report expresses perfectly the kind of confusion almost all of us experience when entering the field. How do we know whether what we’re doing is “right” or not? What in particular should we record when we don’t have time to write down everything among all the myriad impressions thrusting...

  11. New trend in electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Harada, Ken; Murakami, Yasukazu; Niitsu, Kodai; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sugawara, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Electron holography using a coherent electron wave is a promising technique for high-resolution visualization of electromagnetic fields in and around objects. The capability of electron holography has been enhanced by the development of new technologies and has thus become an even more powerful tool for exploring scientific frontiers. This review introduces these technologies including split-illumination electron holography and vector-field electron tomography. Split-illumination electron holography, which uses separated coherent waves, overcomes the limits imposed by the lateral coherence requirement for electron waves in electron holography. Areas that are difficult to observe using conventional electron holography are now observable. Exemplified applications include observing a singular magnetic domain wall in electrical steel sheets, local magnetizations at anti-phase boundaries, and electrostatic potentials in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Vector-field electron tomography can be used to visualize magnetic vectors in three dimensions. Two components of the vectors are reconstructed using dual-axis tomography, and the remaining one is calculated using div B   =  0. A high-voltage electron microscope can be used to achieve precise magnetic reconstruction. For example, magnetic vortices have been visualized using a 1 MV holography electron microscope.

  12. Do economic players shape up fashion trends?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of following the most in vogue and admired styles of dressing has been there since the ancient times. With time, people have moved on with the rapid change in the surroundings. Both the genders acknowledge fashion. Fashion is an extension of regular clothing. This paper investigates the role of economical players which includes per capita income and inflations in shaping up the various trends/ fashion trends/ trends in clothing and their consumptions for Pakistan, India, United S...

  13. Recent and prospective population trends in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W; Tan, P C

    1985-09-01

    Recent population trends in Malaysia are reviewed, with the focus on Peninsular Malaysia. Separate consideration is given to population growth between 1970 and 1980; mortality trends; period and cohort fertility trends; factors affecting fertility, including changes in age structure, nuptiality, and other socioeconomic and demographic changes; and the recent development of a pro-natalist policy involving a goal of a population of 70 million by 2050.

  14. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  15. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  16. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  17. New trend in electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sugawara, Akira; Harada, Ken; Niitsu, Kodai; Shindo, Daisuke; Murakami, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Electron holography using a coherent electron wave is a promising technique for high-resolution visualization of electromagnetic fields in and around objects. The capability of electron holography has been enhanced by the development of new technologies and has thus become an even more powerful tool for exploring scientific frontiers. This review introduces these technologies including split-illumination electron holography and vector-field electron tomography. Split-illumination electron holography, which uses separated coherent waves, overcomes the limits imposed by the lateral coherence requirement for electron waves in electron holography. Areas that are difficult to observe using conventional electron holography are now observable. Exemplified applications include observing a singular magnetic domain wall in electrical steel sheets, local magnetizations at anti-phase boundaries, and electrostatic potentials in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Vector-field electron tomography can be used to visualize magnetic vectors in three dimensions. Two components of the vectors are reconstructed using dual-axis tomography, and the remaining one is calculated using div B   =  0. A high-voltage electron microscope can be used to achieve precise magnetic reconstruction. For example, magnetic vortices have been visualized using a 1 MV holography electron microscope. (paper)

  18. Trends and Issues in Distance Education: International Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan EROGLU

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Trends and Issues in Distance Education: International Perspectives Edited by Yusra Laila Visser, Lya Visser, Michael Simonsın, & Ray Amirault, 2005, United States of America: Information Age Publishing, Inc. pp. 315. ISBN 1-59311-212-2 Reviewed by Dr. Erhan EROGLU Anadolu University Eskisehir, TURKEY In this book, the terms of “distance education” has been discussed from different perspectives. The term “distance education” conjures up in many minds the image of modern, computer-enabled technology that has blossomed in only the last twenty years. Many of the lessons learned over the last century of distance education research and practice have been implemented in a wide variety of distance education programs worldwide, from higher education online learning programs in the United States to rural, radio-based instructional programs in developing countries. Distance education is truly international discipline. While it is true that the term “distance education” has a universal definiton, local distance ducation experiences are often quite idiosyncratic. This idiosyncratic nature emerges from the need to integrate distance education within the constraints, oppurtunities, and realities of spesific cultural and geographic contexts. From these local distance education experiences, educators are developing new understandings of the broader field of distance education, including the trends and issues present in the field. ORGANIZATION OF THE SECTIONS This book has been organized by thematic content into four main sections. Each of these sections represents a unique level of analysis for trends and issues in distance education. Part I presents five distinct perspectives on the state of distance education and the trends and issues of the field. First perspective of five distinct perpectives is “a survey of progressive and conservative trends in education with implications for distance education practice.” Second perspective is

  19. TRENDS IN FLOODS AND LOW FLOWS IN THE UNITED STATES: IMPACT OF SPATIAL CORRELATION. (R824992,R826888)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trends in flood and low flows in the US were evaluated using a regional average Kendall's S trend test at two spatial scales and over two timeframes. Field significance was assessed using a bootstrap methodology to account for the observed regional cross-correlation of streamflow...

  20. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2006-01-01

    contribution to the wind speed turbulence intensity for a number of representative locations. A linear de-trending process has been implemented during indexing of the time-series. The observed de-trended turbulence intensities are reduced 3 – 15 % compared to the raw turbulence intensity. This reduction...... depends primarily on site characteristics and local mean wind speed variations. Reduced turbulence intensity will result in lower design fatigue loads. This aspect of de-trending is discussed by use of a simple heuristic load model. Finally an empirical model for de-trending wind resource data...

  1. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  2. Signal trend identification with fuzzy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Wang, X.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuzzy-logic-based methodology for on-line signal trend identification is introduced. Although signal trend identification is complicated by the presence of noise, fuzzy logic can help capture important features of on-line signals and classify incoming power plant signals into increasing, decreasing and steady-state trend categories. In order to verify the methodology, a code named PROTREN is developed and tested using plant data. The results indicate that the code is capable of detecting transients accurately, identifying trends reliably, and not misinterpreting a steady-state signal as a transient one

  3. FASHION TREND FOR A SILHOUETTE: BALENCIAGA CASE

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Nilay; özüdoğru, şakir

    2014-01-01

    Fashion, in broad and accepted definition, is any temporary preference or a temporary new thing in any area of human life, which prevails for a certain period of time. The issue of how fashionable products would look like in a particular season is discussed under the concept of fashion trends. The main purpose of this study is to discuss the concept of fashion trends and the studies on predictions in fashion trends, to conduct a sample trend survey for a silhouette and observe whether or not ...

  4. American families: trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  5. Vegetariánství jako spotřebitelský trend

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is a complete analysis of vegetarianism, as a consumer trend, including forecasts of future potential of this trend for the field of retailing in the Czech Republic. The thesis deals with the influence of various aspects of vegetarianism on the market in the Czech Republic. First, vegetarianism as such is characterized. The next chapter describes the supply side of vegetarian products on the Czech market, labeling of vegetarian food and its availability. Then, t...

  6. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  7. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Since falls are a major public health problem among older people, the number of systems aimed at detecting them has increased dramatically over recent years. This work presents an extensive literature review of fall detection systems, including comparisons among various kinds of studies. It aims to serve as a reference for both clinicians and biomedical engineers planning or conducting field investigations. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection have been identified after the reviewing work. The number of studies using context-aware techniques is still increasing but there is a new trend towards the integration of fall detection into smartphones as well as the use of machine learning methods in the detection algorithm. We have also identified challenges regarding performance under real-life conditions, usability, and user acceptance as well as issues related to power consumption, real-time operations, sensing limitations, privacy and record of real-life falls. PMID:23829390

  8. Fast breeder reactors: Experience and trends. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on ''Fast Breeder Reactors: Experience and Future Trends'' was held, at the invitation of the Government of France, in Lyons, France, on 22-26 July 1985. It was hosted by the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique and Electricite de France. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained so far in the field of LMFBRs, taking into account the constructional, operational, technological, economic and fuel cycle aspects, and to consider the developmental trends as well as the international co-operation in fast breeder reactor design and utilization. The Symposium was attended by almost 400 participants (340 participants, 35 observers and 20 journalists) from 25 countries and five international organizations. More than 80 papers were presented and discussed during six regular sessions and four poster sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  9. Emerging trends in neuro engineering and neural computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kendall; Garmestani, Hamid; Lim, Chee

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on neuro-engineering and neural computing, a multi-disciplinary field of research attracting considerable attention from engineers, neuroscientists, microbiologists and material scientists. It explores a range of topics concerning the design and development of innovative neural and brain interfacing technologies, as well as novel information acquisition and processing algorithms to make sense of the acquired data. The book also highlights emerging trends and advances regarding the applications of neuro-engineering in real-world scenarios, such as neural prostheses, diagnosis of neural degenerative diseases, deep brain stimulation, biosensors, real neural network-inspired artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the predictive modeling of information flows in neuronal networks. The book is broadly divided into three main sections including: current trends in technological developments, neural computation techniques to make sense of the neural behavioral data, and application of these technologie...

  10. New content, design, and marketing trends in commercial publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Blažević

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the actual status of book publishing in Croatia, envisage the trends of its future development and, by analyzing the current state of affairs and new book marketing trends, draw conclusions as to which directions the publishing companies should take in order to survive on the market. The aims stated as such result from the author’s research and review of the business operations of the ‘Naklada Ljevak’ publishing company, and from the monitoring of relevant home and foreign literature in the field of marketing in general as well as specialized book marketing literature. In the introductory part the author defines publishing and its amphibious nature that lies in the fact that publishing is at the same time the process of creation and distribution of knowledge and culture, as well as a business resulting in education, as well as in entertainment. The following chapter offers an explanation of the most important facts required to understand the current publishing marketing (globalization, huge sales chains, fierce competition, ever lower standard of living in Croatia… and lists the marketing programme elements applicable to publishing. Further on, the focus shifts on the book as a product and a part of publishing marketing. It mentions the economic and business trends that have affected the development of publishing as an industry over the past sixty years, and the book as a product. New book content trends have been elaborated as well: novels on exotic countries, current affairs issues, autobiographies and biographies, self-help manuals and titles offering ‘instant-knowledge’. There is a definition and explanation of trends that relate to the book as a material product such as cover design, format, binding, types of print paper and technical features such as layout, margins, font size and spacing. 

  11. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  12. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  13. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  14. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  15. Sources, sinks, trends, and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Each year the emission of greenhouse gases commits the earth to a warming of 0.02 to 0.06 degrees C. Many of these gases are released as by-products of fossil fuel combustion. The remainder are produced as a result of forest clearing in the tropics or agriculture or industrial activities. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most important greenhouse gas, contributing about half of global heating. In addition, there are what are known as the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases: methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), freon CFC-12 (CF 2 Cl 2 ), freon CFC-11 (CF 3 Cl), and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ). Carbon monoxide and the nitrogen gases, increase the amount of methane and ozone in the troposphere. There are also about 15 or 20 other greenhouse gases of lesser importance. This paper reviews the sources of some of these greenhouse gases, analyzes trends in their emissions, and suggests means through which greenhouse gas emissions can be limited

  16. Asset management trends and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijks, E. [Continuon, Arnhem (Netherlands); Ford, G.L. [PowerNex Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Sanchis, G. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    Recent business and regulatory changes in the electric power industry have affected the operation of electric utilities. Most have accepted competition and commercialization. Various strategies have emerged as companies strive to improve performance and retain profitability in an environment where competition or regulatory pressure is reducing revenues at a time when customer expectation is increasing. As focus shifts away from engineering excellence towards commercial performance, the new business ideology for electric utilities is to optimize asset management. This paper identified asset management technology trends, opportunities and challenges. Although many utilities are currently comfortable with their existing asset management processes, regulators are increasingly scrutinizing utilities as they seek approval for rates and investments in aging infrastructure. Much more rigorous financial analysis methods are needed to justify the large investments that are needed. In addition, the credibility of the processes and methods used by utilities will be increasingly questioned. In recognition of the growing importance of asset management, several initiatives have been launched to provide forums for sharing information and to provide a unifying force to asset management methods. The International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) was one of the first to recognize the importance of asset management. This paper summarized recent CIGRE activities as well as the developments of publicly available specification (PAS) 55 in the United Kingdom. It was concluded that utilities that adopt standardized approaches will be more credible in the eyes of regulatory authorities. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  18. Biobanking trends, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    To review the different interests and needs of industry and academic users of human biomaterials. A review of the current literature and interviews with involved parties. Questionnaires were e-mailed to assess current attitudes towards biobanking and opinions of trends and implications for the future. The organisations included commercial biobanks, charitable foundations, academic biobanks, and hospital sites. Biobanks have the potential to have a critical impact across several industrial sectors, and their future success will depend on satisfying the differing needs of each group. There is a growing need for greater collaboration between researchers and biobanks, and if the involvement of industry is not sought by biobanks to create conditions that support the effective use of resources, there is a risk that samples will not be collected or used to the best advantage. It is evident that industry can play a vital role in the innovation process of biobanking, both in terms of the collecting and processing methods and the nature of the disease and sample types collected. With this feedback, biobanks can be utilised effectively to advance research to the benefits of all to the best advantage.

  19. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have begun intensive recruitment of foreign qualified female healthcare workers, which has led to the point that nurse migration today presents a very intense, and by many accounts specific migration flow. Female migrating work force is often in pursuit of low-wage and lowqualified work. Nurse migration is actually an example of motion of qualified female migrants in pursuit for better employment opportunities. While such a way of filling up the vacant positions works for the “importing” countries as a temporary solution, departure of trained female personnel presents a significant loss for the originating countries. In this paper we pay special attention to the countries who are the main “importers”, but also to those who are “exporters” of nursing personnel, and to specific national strategies these countries have applied.

  20. Intelligent robot trends for 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The use of these machines in factory automation can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. This paper presents a discussion of recent technical and economic trends. Technically, the machines are faster, cheaper, more repeatable, more reliable and safer. The knowledge base of inverse kinematic and dynamic solutions and intelligent controls is increasing. More attention is being given by industry to robots, vision and motion controls. New areas of usage are emerging for service robots, remote manipulators and automated guided vehicles. Economically, the robotics industry now has a 1.1 billion-dollar market in the U.S. and is growing. Feasibility studies results are presented which also show decreasing costs for robots and unaudited healthy rates of return for a variety of robotic applications. However, the road from inspiration to successful application can be long and difficult, often taking decades to achieve a new product. A greater emphasis on mechatronics is needed in our universities. Certainly, more cooperation between government, industry and universities is needed to speed the development of intelligent robots that will benefit industry and society.

  1. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  2. Trends in PDE constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Benner, Peter; Engell, Sebastian; Griewank, Andreas; Harbrecht, Helmut; Hinze, Michael; Rannacher, Rolf; Ulbrich, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Optimization problems subject to constraints governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) are among the most challenging problems in the context of industrial, economical and medical applications. Almost the entire range of problems in this field of research was studied and further explored as part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program 1253 on “Optimization with Partial Differential Equations” from 2006 to 2013. The investigations were motivated by the fascinating potential applications and challenging mathematical problems that arise in the field of PDE constrained optimization. New analytic and algorithmic paradigms have been developed, implemented and validated in the context of real-world applications. In this special volume, contributions from more than fifteen German universities combine the results of this interdisciplinary program with a focus on applied mathematics.   The book is divided into five sections on “Constrained Optimization, Identification and Control”...

  3. Driving systems: trends - innovations - mechatronics; Antriebssysteme: Trends - Innovationen - Mechatronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energiewandlung; Wick, A. [Siemens A und D (Germany); Gold, P.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Short overview on this special meeting with interdisciplinary topics of connection between mechanical and electrical engineering: mechatronics. The main topics are covered by the fields motion control, simulation of drives, monitoring, gears, motors engineering/-design, converter systems, industrial applications and drives for wind turbines. (GL) [German] Zeitgemaesse Planung und Entwicklung von Antriebssystemen bedarf eines interdisziplinaeren Vorgehens zwischen Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau. Die erstmalig von VDE und VDI gemeinsam abgehaltene Tagung mit ca. 70 Fachbeitraegen ist folglich bewusst als interdisziplinaere Konferenz an der Nahtstelle von Maschinenbau und Eletrotechnik konzipiert worden. Die Schwerpunktthemen decken dabei die Bereiche Motion Control, Antriebsstrangmodellierung, Monitoring, Getriebetechnik, Motorentechnik/-bemessung, Umrichtertechnik, industrielle Antriebsapplikationen und Antriebe in der Windenergie ab. (orig.)

  4. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s.

  5. Field Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is a mobile application for capturing images , data, and geolocation for USAID projects in the field. The data is then stored on a server in AllNet. The...

  6. Work/Family Interactions: Trends and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, JoAnn D.; Nies, Joyce I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss five trends and how family life educators can address them. The trends are (1) women's labor force participation, (2) growth of the service sector, (3) recognition that work and family life affect each other, (4) space sharing by work and family life, and (5) aging of the work force. (CH)

  7. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  8. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    are tested using the new members of the EU in Eastern Europe and the candidate country of Croatia as cases. There is no coherent panel data, but by categorizing specific trends in each country and then combining the different trend variables it is possible to identify the most important factors influencing...

  9. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  10. [Internal migration trends and regional dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, M

    1992-01-01

    This study concerns aspects of regional development in Tunisia. It specifically considers how economic factors affect income differentials among regions, and ways in which these in turn influence trends in internal migration. The effect of these trends on urbanization is also explored.

  11. Fysieke veiligheid. Enkele trends en dilemma's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menno van Duin

    2012-01-01

    In dit artikel ligt het zwaartepunt bij het thema fysieke veiligheid (ongevallen, rampen, crises). Ik schets enkele ontwikkelingen, trends en dilemma’s op het betreffende terrein. Daarbij wil ik niet de suggestie wekken in dit artikel alle trends en dilemma’s op het onderhavige terrein te

  12. Markov Trends in Macroeconomic Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMany macroeconomic time series are characterised by long periods of positive growth, expansion periods, and short periods of negative growth, recessions. A popular model to describe this phenomenon is the Markov trend, which is a stochastic segmented trend where the slope depends on the

  13. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile. The results do not provide support for a uniformly extension of pension age for all....

  14. Top Four Trends in Student Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The modern student information systems (SIS) is a powerful administrative tool with robust functionality. As such, it is essential that school and district administrators consider the top trends in modern student information systems before going forward with system upgrades or new purchases. These trends, described herein, are: (1) Support for…

  15. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as .... Commercial kidney transplants: Trends and outcomes. (22,2%), diabète post-greffe dans sept (15 .... (42.2%) with UTI as the commonest infection, which is in keeping with the known fact that UTI.

  16. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  17. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master Lévy measure and the associated Lévy-Itô representation. We give the dilation criterion for selfdecomposa......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master Lévy measure and the associated Lévy-Itô representation. We give the dilation criterion...... for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a Lévy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued Lévy processes, give the Lévy-Itô representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of Lévy...

  18. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master L\\'evy measure and the associated L\\'evy-It\\^o representation. We give the dilation criterion for selfdec......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master L\\'evy measure and the associated L\\'evy-It\\^o representation. We give the dilation criterion...... for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a L\\'evy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued L\\'evy processes, give the L\\'evy-It\\^o representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of L...

  19. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  20. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  1. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  2. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  3. Marketing: Trends and behaviour patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order for marketing to act proactively, it must acknowledge the trends (mega and metatrends which anticipate future changes reagrding the customer as well as changes in consumption, regarding products and rivals. From yesterday's industrial era, through space conquering era and today's dominating information era, the world is turning toward 'the era of the man'. Human potential (talent, innovativeness, creativity grows to be the main determinant of economic development will have to face new reality which will have higher importance for management companies and individuals, as well. Societies and economies underlay significant transformations on a daily basis which occur randomly. Whatsoever, it might seem to the observer that these transformations are almost tangible. For example, the presently overwhelming business models are shored to be redefined in the forecoming period. Present models that rose out of the recent recession have imposed hard times to societies which will probably strengthen them. It will be necessary to reconcept the social system and redefine values. In marketing and business the upcoming of new power calls for new conceptions and practice. Marketers understand the need for a full, cohesive approach that leaves behind traditional marketing. This new holistic conception is based on development, design and realization of marketing programmes, processes and activities by which the width and interrelatedness of effects are acknowledged, e.g. that everything has its importance in marketing and that a wide, integrated perspective is necessary. Changes regarding the customer are headed towards searching for one's identity, while behaviour aims at the way the customer wants himself/herself to be seen by the environment.

  4. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  5. Quality assurance tracking and trending system (QATTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, The Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) Quality Assurance (QA) Division recognized a need to modify the existing quality finding tracking program to generate a nuclear trending program that could detect trends of PECo-initiated findings that were not detectable to a day-to-day observer. Before 1984, each quality organization in PECo had a separate tracking system. An adequate quality trending program demanded that all findings be tracked in a common data base. The Quality Assurance Tracking and Trending System (QATTS) is divided into two parts, an on-line subsystem that provides access to QATTS data via corporate computer data screens and a reports and graphics subsystem that connects commercially available reports and graphic software computer packages to the QATTS data base. The QATTS can be accessed from any terminal connected to the main frame computer at PECo headquarters. The paper discusses the tracking system, report generation, responsible organization commitment tracking system (ROCT), and trending program

  6. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2007-01-01

    based on time series statistics only. The performance of the proposed de-trending algorithm is assessed using huge number of time series recorded at different types of terrain and orography. The strategy is the following: Based on the available time series information a conventional (linear) time series...... de-trending is performed and subsequently compared with the prediction from the proposed algorithm. The de-trended turbulence intensities are reduced in the range of 3 – 15 % compared to the raw turbulence intensity. The performed analysis shows that the proposed model, based on statistical...... this requires access to the basic time-series. However, including a suitable modelling of the mean wind speed time variation, it is possible to estimate an approximate (linear) trend correction based on statistical data only. This paper presents such an algorithm for de-trending of turbulence standard deviation...

  7. Ionospheric Trend Over Wuhan During 1947-2017: Comparison Between Simulation and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Hu, Lianhuan; Wei, Yong; Wan, Weixing; Ning, Baiqi

    2018-02-01

    Since Roble and Dickinson (1989), who drew the community's attention about the greenhouse gas effect on the ionosphere, huge efforts have been implemented on ionospheric climate study. However, direct comparison between observations and simulations is still rare. Recently, the Wuhan ionosonde observations were digitized and standardized through unified method back to 1947. In this study, the NCAR-TIEGCM was driven by Mauna Loa Observatory observed CO2 level and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) geomagnetic field to simulate their effects on ionospheric long-term trend over Wuhan. Only March equinox was considered in both data analysis and simulation. Simulation results show that the CO2 and geomagnetic field have comparable effect on hmF2 trend, while geomagnetic field effect is stronger than CO2 on foF2 trend over Wuhan. Both factors result in obvious but different diurnal variations of foF2/hmF2 long-term trends. The geomagnetic field effect is nonlinear versus years since the long-term variation of geomagnetic field intensity and orientation is complex. Mean value of foF2 and hmF2 trend is (-0.0021 MHz/yr, -0.106 km/yr) and (-0.0022 MHz/yr, -0.0763 km/yr) for observation and simulation, respectively. Regarding the diurnal variation of the trend, the simulation accords well with that of observation except hmF2 results around 12 UT. Overall, good agreement between observation and simulation illustrates the good quality of Wuhan ionosonde long-term data and the validity of ancient ionosphere reconstruction based on realistic indices driving simulation.

  8. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  9. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Argirova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern information society in ever increasing business projects and time limits to achieve the objectives at minimum cost leads to a search for ways to manage them. Today, more and more managers use IT tools for project management, and the term itself is associated with software solutions for the optimization and management of projects in different fields of human activity. The paper examines the main characteristics of project management by means of information technology. Key tasks and processes in the project implementation and management are discussed.

  10. Field theories with subcanonical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The properties of quantum field theories with spinor fields of dimension less than the canonical value of 3/2 are studied. As a starting point for the application of common perturbation theory we look for the linear version of these theories. A gange-interaction is introduced and with the aid of power counting the renormalizability of the theory is shown. It follows that in the case of a spinor-field with negative dimension renormalization can only be attained if the interaction has a further symmetry. By this symmetry the theory is determined in an unequivocal way. The gange-interaction introduced in the theory leads to a spontaneous breakdown of scale invariance whereby masses are produced. At the same time the spinor-field operators can now be separated in two orthogonal sections with opposite norm. It is proposed to use the section with negative (positive) norm to describe hadrons (leptons) respectively. (orig./WL) [de

  11. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  12. Evolution in franchising: Trends and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Varotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchising as a legal or marketing concept was not new. It arose as a structured business system in the US, around 1860´s when The Singer Company established a network of resellers for sewing machines. Nowadays franchising is one of the fastest developing forms of business in the world. The evolution of theories that seek to explain franchise systems have been published in academic journals from time to time, but until now there was not a study that have established a social network analysis to quantify the degree of centrality and cohesion of the relationship between the main authors, journals, methods and theories in franchise. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to extend the knowledge about franchising through an extensive research on its main theoretical perspectives into relevant international academic journals, showing the evolution of the field, highlighting the principal issues, authors and methods. Through a selection of 130 articles ranging from 1966 to 2015 the study investigates five relevant theories in franchising: (1 Resource Acquisition Theory, (2 Agency Theory, (3 Transaction Cost Analysis, (4 Signaling Theory, and (5 Property Rights Theory. A descriptive statistical analysis was done in order to identify the main authors and trends with the most used associated theories in franchise papers. The findings show agency theory and signaling theory, and resource scarcity theory as the main perspectives used in studies about franchising, but other perspectives have been increasing its presence, mainly the institutional theory and resource based-view perspective. The main dependent and independent variables cover a wide range of constructs, but ownership, performance, age, size, growth, geographical dispersion, and internationalization have been the most cited.

  13. Laser isotope and isomer separations: History and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letok'ov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    Paper will review history and principles of laser isotope and nuclear isomer separation: laser multistep photoionization of isotopic and isomeric atoms, laser IR-UV two-step photodissociation of molecules, laser IR multiphoton photodissociation of polyatomic molecules. The comparison and areas of applications of these methods will be considered. Paper will discuss a present state of art of technology of these methods in practical scale in various countries. In conclusion the trends of research in this field including applications of laser-separated isotopes and isomers will be considered

  14. Case studies in intelligent computing achievements and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Issac, Biju

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of intelligent systems has grown rapidly in recent years, there has been a need for a book that supplies a timely and accessible understanding of this important technology. Filling this need, Case Studies in Intelligent Computing: Achievements and Trends provides an up-to-date introduction to intelligent systems.This edited book captures the state of the art in intelligent computing research through case studies that examine recent developments, developmental tools, programming, and approaches related to artificial intelligence (AI). The case studies illustrate successful ma

  15. History of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghini, V G; Conroy, T R

    1966-01-01

    This discussion of the history of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend in Michigan includes the location and development history, geology and reservoir characteristics, drilling and completion methods, production and history of both the Albion and Scipio Fields, production operation, and workover procedure. Maps, illustrations, and graphs of the topics discussed are included. The largest drilling problem encountered was lost circulation causing several blowouts, 2 of which resulted in spectacular fires. Production problems include paraffin deposition, corrosion and brine disposal. Well workovers have been performed in an attempt to correct one or more of 3 problems--high gas- oil ratio, high water cut, and low capacity.

  16. Information technology research and development critical trends and issues

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Information Technology Research and Development: Critical Trends and Issues is a report of the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Government on the research and development in the area of information technology. The report discusses information technology research and development - its goals, nature, issues, and strategies; environment and its changes; the roles of the participants; and the health of its field. The book then goes on to four selected case studies in information technology: advanced computer architecture; fiber optic communications; software engineering; and ar

  17. Analysis of gravity data using trend surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Asimopolos, Laurentiu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we have developed algorithms and related software programs for calculating of trend surfaces of higher order. These methods of analysis of trends, like mobile media applications are filtration systems for geophysical data in surface. In particular we presented few case studies for gravity data and gravity maps. Analysis with polynomial trend surfaces contributes to the recognition, isolation and measurement of trends that can be represented by surfaces or hyper-surfaces (in several sizes), thus achieving a separation in regional variations and local variations. This separation is achieved by adjusting the trend function at different values. Trend surfaces using the regression analysis satisfy the criterion of least squares. The difference between the surface of trend and the observed value in a certain point is the residual value. Residual sum of squares of these values should be minimal as the criterion of least squares. The trend surface is considered as regional or large-scale and the residual value will be regarded as local or small-scale component. Removing the regional trend has the effect of highlighting local components represented by residual values. Surface analysis and hyper-surfaces principles are applied to the surface trend and any number of dimensions. For hyper-surfaces we can work with polynomial functions with four or more variables (three variables of space and other variables for interest parameters) that have great importance in some applications. In the paper we presented the mathematical developments about generalized trend surfaces and case studies about gravimetric data. The trend surfaces have the great advantage that the effect of regional anomalies can be expressed as analytic functions. These tendency surfaces allows subsequent mathematical processing and interesting generalizations, with great advantage to work with polynomial functions compared with the original discrete data. For gravity data we estimate the depth of

  18. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer.

  19. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Reddy, S; Prakash, M [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  20. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.

    1998-01-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  1. Gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1978-01-01

    In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)

  2. RepoTREND. The program package for the integrated long term safety analysis of final repository systems. Version 4.5 (State March 2016); RepoTREND. Das Programmpaket zur integrierten Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse von Endlagersystemen. Version 4.5 (Stand Maerz 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Tatiana

    2016-04-15

    The long-term safety analysis is the analysis of final repository behavior after closure includes the spreading of pollutants into the biosphere (mobilization and release of pollutants into the near field, radionuclide migration through the geosphere, radiation exposure in the biosphere) and the radiological consequences. The report describes the program package RepoTREND, the respective modules (near field, GeoTREND, BioTREND and probabilistic analyses), sequencing and postprocessing and the quality management.

  3. Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.

  4. Trends in dermatology practices and the implications for the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Alison; Kostecki, James; Olkaba, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) practice profile surveys have been conducted for more than a decade to gauge trends in our workforce supply and demand. To update the trends and current workforce issues for the field of dermatology. The AAD Practice Profile Survey is sent by both e-mail and postal mail to a random sample of practicing dermatologists who are AAD members. Shifts are noted in the primary practice setting; fewer dermatologists are in solo practice and more are in group practices than in previous years. Teledermatology use trended upward from 7% to 11% between 2012 and 2014. The implementation of electronic health records increased from 51% in 2011 to 70% in 2014. There is potential for response bias and inaccurate self-reporting. Survey responses collected may not be representative of all geographic areas. The demand for dermatology services remains strong. Shifts in the practice setting may be related to increases in overhead costs that are partially associated with the implementation of technology-based medical records. Integration of electronic health records and utilization of telemedicine are increasing. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research.

  6. Health care units and human resources management trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Adriana Maria; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench; Santelle, Odete

    2013-02-01

    To identify factors producing new trends in basic health care unit management and changes in management models. This was a prospective study with ten health care unit managers and ten specialists in the field of Health in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The Delphi methodology was adopted. There were four stages of data collection, three quantitative and the fourth qualitative. The first three rounds dealt with changing trends in management models, manager profiles and required competencies, and the Mann-Whitney test was used in the analysis. The fourth round took the form of a panel of those involved, using thematic analysis. The main factors which are driving change in basic health care units were identified, as were changes in management models. There was consensus that this process is influenced by the difficulties in managing teams and by politics. The managers were found to be up-to-date with trends in the wider context, with the arrival of social health organizations, but they are not yet anticipating these within the institutions. Not only the content, but the professional development aspect of training courses in this area should be reviewed. Selection and recruitment, training and assessment of these professionals should be guided by these competencies aligned to the health service mission, vision, values and management models.

  7. Trends in innovation management development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of technological progress generations of innovation can be found. Each of them is implemented as a process in which the idea of a change is born, and only after that the change is commercialized, this leading to its adoption by a wider range of users. Therefore, innovation management is organized as a set of management activities which results in innovation, thus gaining its importance. This paper briefly presents conducted theoretical desktop research, in order to determine the character of the innovative management development. The results suggest three key stages in the development of innovation management, namely: Management of individual technological innovation, Portfolio Innovation Management and Total Innovation management. The latest findings in the field of innovation management indicate that it is necessary to revise the concept of innovation in terms of its perception as an ecosystem. The paper points out the possible ways of further research in innovation management.

  8. Trends In Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Shaerpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes different Android malware detection techniques from several research papers, some of these techniques are novel while others bring a new perspective to the research work done in the past. The techniques are of various kinds ranging from detection using host based frameworks and static analysis of executable to feature extraction and behavioral patterns. Each paper is reviewed extensively and the core features of each technique are highlighted and contrasted with the others. The challenges faced during the development of such techniques are also discussed along with the future prospects for Android malware detection. The findings of the review have been well documented in this paper to aid those making an effort to research in the area of Android malware detection by understanding the current scenario and developments that have happened in the field thus far.

  9. Price trends and project viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the remarkable changes that have occurred in the oil and gas industry over about the past 25 years. In the past ten years alone, technology and politics have brought new ways of working together and the recovery of resources once thought of as impossible. Cooperation appears to be a key word. The paper was presented under the sub-headings of the environment, global energy outlook, technological drivers and the challenge ahead. The current low price of oil will inevitably slow down exploration and field development but the author remains optimistic despite the tough challenges. The paper contains many diagrams relating to production, costs, efficiency, exploration, reserves, price forecasts and exploration technology

  10. New trends in nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Siemon, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview on the status and function of current spectrometry hardware, of detectors having energy-dispersive (spectrometric) properties as well as of the latest developments in quantitative spectrometry software is presented. Making extensive use of modern computing power, new strategies in high-precision spectrum analysis have been developed which enhance the quality of results and also open new fields of spectrometric applications. Three principles have been newly introduced to spectrum analysis software: -use no approximations in modelling (Physics, no numerology) -apply all available models to find a solution (Fuzzy Logic) -repeat complete analyses for iterative improvement (Learn from results). -- Highlights: ► We present an overview of MCA hardware and detectors for nuclear spectrometry. ► Physics-oriented descriptions, Fuzzy Logic and multiple repetitive analyses lead to improved results in spectrum analysis. ► New strategies allow the successful deconvolution of spectra that could not be analysed before

  11. Trends in accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1984-04-01

    Over the years, we have seen a revolution in control systems that has followed the ever decreasing cost of computer power and memory. It started with the data gathering, when people distrusted the computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer system to provide a convenient remote look and adjust facility, to the present day, when more and more emphasis is being placed on using a computer system to simulate or model all or parts of the accelerator, feed in the required performance and calling for the computers to set the various parameters and then measure the actual performance, with iteration if necessary. The progress that has been made in the fields of architecture, communications, computers, interface, software design and operator interface is reviewed

  12. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  13. On-line signal trend identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambouratzis, T.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.

    2004-01-01

    An artificial neural network, based on the self-organizing map, is proposed for on-line signal trend identification. Trends are categorized at each incoming signal as steady-state, increasing and decreasing, while they are further classified according to characteristics such signal shape and rate of change. Tests with model-generated signals illustrate the ability of the self-organizing map to accurately and reliably perform on-line trend identification in terms of both detection and classification. The proposed methodology has been found robust to the presence of white noise

  14. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. TRENDS OF ROMANIAN BANKING NETWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, two trends occurred in the banking world: downsizing of personnel, on the one hand and the reduction of retail units held, on the other hand. The first trend was most notable in countries with unstable or weak economy. The effects were seen immediately. Reducing of the operating costs and more applied of the territorial structure and staff was a decision that credit institutions in Romania took relatively late. Worldwide banks began a restructuring otherwise dictated by this time not so economic crises new market trends - increasing access to the internet for the population and use of the internet in a growing proportion of internet banking

  16. Challenges, opportunities and trends in engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Many challenges and opportunities face the engineering profession and engineering education. The engineering profession advances best if challenges are properly addressed, opportunities beneficially exploited and reasoned speculation made on future trends. In this article, the author presents his views on some of the challenges and opportunities facing the engineering education, and possible future trends, with the objective of fostering continued discussion of and action on these issues. This topic is of great importance because the development of engineering education is strongly influenced by the challenges and opportunities it faces and how it responds, and by anticipated future trends. (author)

  17. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  18. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    Climate change has an important role in the current scientific research because of its possible future negative consequences. Concerning the climate change in the coastal engineering field, the apparent sea level rise is one of the key parameters as well as the wave height and the wave direction temporal variations. According to the IPCC (2007), during the last century the sea level has been increasing with a mean rate of 1.7 ± 0.5 mm/yr. However, at local/regional scale the tendency significantly differs from the global trend since the local pressure and wind field variations become more relevant. This appears to be particularly significant in semi-enclosed areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Cushman-Roisin et al., 2001). Even though the existing unsolved questions related to the sea level rise, the uncertainty concerning the wave height is even larger, in which stormy conditions are especially important because they are closely related to processes such as coastal erosion, flooding, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to identify possible existing tendencies of storm related parameters. In many studies, only the maximum wave height and storm duration are analysed, remaining the wave direction in a second term. Note that a possible rotation of the mean wave direction may involve severe consequences since most beach and harbour defence structures have been designed assuming a constant predominant wave incidence. Liste et al. (2004) illustrated this fact with an example in which a rotation of only 2 degrees of the mean energy flux vector could produce a beach retreat of 20 m. Another possible consequence would be a decrease of the harbour operability: increased frequency of storms in the same direction as the harbour entrance orientation would influence the navigability. The present study, which focuses in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea), aims to improve the present knowledge of the wave storminess variations at regional scale, specially focusing on the wave

  19. International guidance, evolution and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lopez, C.

    2010-01-01

    safety objective, the protection of future generations and the consideration of 'undue burden to future generations'. The 2006 document applies to all phases of nuclear activities and facilities and the argumentation of the fundamental safety objective on protection of future generations is more general and less restrictive than in the 1995 document. The requirement of avoiding burden to future generations is now interpreted in the sense of seeking safe and environmentally acceptable solutions while not impeding moving the national programme forward. Finally, C Ruiz gave an overview of the IAEA's WS-R-4 requirements document focussing on the capability and features of the disposal system to comply with the safety functions for the containment and isolation of the waste as well as on the requirements for confidence in safety. A trend is shown towards the development and use of safety-oriented criteria, and not just radiological-compliance standards

  20. ) Ima Field: A Type Marginal Field-Challenges and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    The IMA Field is located in the south-eastern Niger Delta in approximately 30' of water. Discovered in 1972 by Japan Petroleum, commercial accumulation was not established until 1994 by the AMNI/Abacan Joint Venture, with the drilling of ima-3 well, which discovered the major reservoirs in the C and D sands. Recoverable Reserve of 48MMBO. Ten wells have been drilled on the IMA structure to date, with a cumulative production of 16 Million barrels of condensates.The IMA Field is a typical Niger Delta rollover anticlinal structure trending northeast southwest with a regional tilt to the northeast. The major trapping mechanism is the anticline.The sediments of IMA Field are Miocene Agbada Fm. They are deltaic deposits with high sand/shale ratio. The reservoirs are loosely compacted sandstones with porosity values ranging from 21% to 27% while permeability is generally measured in darcies.The development of IMA Field posed financial and logistical challenges since the partners had decided to fast track this process, and since neither had the resources to drill the development wells, assemble/install the crude processing and storage facilities; a mixture of debt financing and contractor financing arrangements were made.The prospects in IMA Field are to be found in early realisation of the limitations of a marginal field, particularly the management of cash flow. Workers and field development funding is financed by current production. Appraisal and exploration drilling within the same lease have required equity financing (participation)

  1. Current trends in geomorphological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    , and in the near future also morphogenetic information. As a result, these new opportunities have changed the workflows for geomorphological mapmaking, and their focus have shifted from field-based techniques to using more computer-based techniques: for example, traditional pre-field air-photo based maps are now replaced by maps prepared in a digital mapping environment, and designated field visits using mobile GIS / digital mapping devices now focus on gathering location information and attribute inventories and are strongly time efficient. The resulting 'modern geomorphological maps' are digital collections of geomorphological information layers consisting of georeferenced vector, raster and tabular data which are stored in a digital environment such as a GIS geodatabase, and are easily visualized as e.g. 'birds' eye' views, as animated 3D displays, on virtual globes, or stored as GeoPDF maps in which georeferenced attribute information can be easily exchanged over the internet. Digital geomorphological information layers are increasingly accessed via web-based services distributed through remote servers. Information can be consulted - or even build using remote geoprocessing servers - by the end user. Therefore, it will not only be the geomorphologist anymore, but also the professional end user that dictates the applied use of digital geomorphological information layers.

  2. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  3. A Bottom-up Trend in Research of Management of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ishino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of Technology (MOT is defined as an academic discipline of management that enables organizations to manage their technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage. MOT covers a wide range of contents including administrative strategy, R&D management, manufacturing management, technology transfer, production control, marketing, accounting, finance, business ethics, and others. For each topic, researchers have conducted their MOT research at various levels. However, a practical and pragmatic side of MOT surely affects its research trends. Finding changes of MOT research trends, or the chronological transitions of principal subjects, can help understand the key concepts of current MOT. This paper studied a bottom-up trend in research fields in MOT by applying a text-mining method to the conference proceedings of IAMOT (International Association for Management of Technology. First, focusing on only nouns found several keywords, which more frequently emerge over time in the IAMOT proceedings. Then, expanding the scope into other parts of speech viewed the keywords in a natural context. Finally, it was found that the use of an important keyword has qualitatively and quantitatively extended over time. In conclusion, a bottom-up trend in MOT research was detected and the effects of the social situation on the trend were discussed.Keywords: Management of Technology; Text Mining; Research Trend; Bottom-up Trend; Patent

  4. Biosensors in the small scale: methods and technology trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru U; Tigli, Onur

    2013-03-01

    This study presents a review on biosensors with an emphasis on recent developments in the field. A brief history accompanied by a detailed description of the biosensor concepts is followed by rising trends observed in contemporary micro- and nanoscale biosensors. Performance metrics to quantify and compare different detection mechanisms are presented. A comprehensive analysis on various types and subtypes of biosensors are given. The fields of interest within the scope of this review are label-free electrical, mechanical and optical biosensors as well as other emerging and popular technologies. Especially, the latter half of the last decade is reviewed for the types, methods and results of the most prominently researched detection mechanisms. Tables are provided for comparison of various competing technologies in the literature. The conclusion part summarises the noteworthy advantages and disadvantages of all biosensors reviewed in this study. Furthermore, future directions that the micro- and nanoscale biosensing technologies are expected to take are provided along with the immediate outlook.

  5. Bioprinting toward organ fabrication: challenges and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Yu, Yin

    2013-03-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope for bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3-D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. Organ printing, which is defined as computer-aided additive biofabrication of 3-D cellular tissue constructs, has shed light on advancing this field into a new era. Organ printing takes advantage of rapid prototyping (RP) technology to print cells, biomaterials, and cell-laden biomaterials individually or in tandem, layer by layer, directly creating 3-D tissue-like structures. Here, we overview RP-based bioprinting approaches and discuss the current challenges and trends toward fabricating living organs for transplant in the near future.

  6. Time Delay Systems Methods, Applications and New Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Vyhlídal, Tomáš; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian; Pepe, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the control and dynamics of time delay systems; a research field with at least six-decade long history that has been very active especially in the past two decades. In parallel to the new challenges emerging from engineering, physics, mathematics, and economics, the volume covers several new directions including topology induced stability, large-scale interconnected systems, roles of networks in stability, and new trends in predictor-based control and consensus dynamics. The associated applications/problems are described by highly complex models, and require solving inverse problems as well as the development of new theories, mathematical tools, numerically-tractable algorithms for real-time control. The volume, which is targeted to present these developments in this rapidly evolving field, captures a careful selection of the most recent papers contributed by experts and collected under five parts: (i) Methodology: From Retarded to Neutral Continuous Delay Models, (ii) Systems, S...

  7. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Substandard and Counterfeit Antimicrobials: Recent Trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trends in the availability of substandard and counterfeit antimicrobials in the global market ... Literature search using PubMed and Medline databases and Google search engine was conducted to identify related publications on the subject.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. NCI Dictionary | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Latest Trends in German Political Socialisation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Bernhard

    1979-01-01

    Presents an overview of the most notable among recent books on political socialization in West Germany and indicates trends among these publications in areas of research methodology, objectives, stress on empirical studies, and theoretical models. (Author/DB)

  14. Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. ... include the practice of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC); which is ... promotions, events marketing, etc, in carrying out a promotional campaign.

  15. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Hit Record Trends, 1940-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines trends in popular music by analyzing the number one recordings from 1940 to 1977 in terms of the relationships among four variables: manufacturer (market concentration), song type (musical genre), artist type (performance mode), and lyric content (vocal message). (JMF)

  17. Trends in risk management in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock

    1996-01-01

    Safety management may be classified into three dimensions: risk management, accident management, and emergency management. This paper addresses the recent trends of safety management in nuclear industry, focussing on risk management and accident management

  18. Trends in the Teaching of Typewriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Trends in typewriting instruction are discussed in the following areas: vocational opportunities for typists, present enrollment in typewriting, approach to teaching typewriting, typing numbers, justification of typewriting costs, and the teaching load of the typewriting teacher. (TA)

  19. A trending database for human performance events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective Operations Experience program includes a standardized methodology for the investigation of unplanned events and a tool capable of retaining investigation data for the purpose of trending analysis. A database used in conjunction with a formalized investigation procedure for the purpose of trending unplanning event data is described. The database follows the structure of INPO's Human Performance Enhancement System for investigations. The database screens duplicate on-line the HPES evaluation Forms. All information pertaining to investigations is collected, retained and entered into the database using these forms. The database will be used for trending analysis to determine if any significant patterns exist, for tracking progress over time both within AECL and against industry standards, and for evaluating the success of corrective actions. Trending information will be used to help prevent similar occurrences

  20. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Custom Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Secondhand Smoke Exposure | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. The Performing Arts: Trends and Their Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... and contributions needed to meet expenses. How can these stories be reconciled? What are the overall trends affecting the performing arts in the last few decades, and what do they imply about the future of arts in America?

  7. Current Trends in Science | Overview | Publications | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emerging trends at the interface of Chemistry and Biology: Applications to the design of human therapeutics ... Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex chemical systems ... A tutorial introduction to financial engineering.

  8. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  9. Trends in der IT-Sicherheit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Claudia

    Ich möchte Ihnen einen Überblick geben über Trends, Challenges, offene Fragestellungen sowie Lösungsansätze aus dem Bereich der IT-Sicherheit. Meine Vorredner haben mir schon eine wunderbare Basis dafür geschaffen, indem sie wichtige Trends im Bereich IT bereits angesprochen haben. Deshalb werde ich auf diese Trends, nämlich das Internet of Things and Services nur noch einmal kurz eingehen, um daran dann die IT-Sicherheitsthemen, die sich aus diesen IT-Trends ergeben, zu skizzieren und anschließend Lösungen vorstellen, die insbesondere im Forschungsumfeld entwickelt werden, aber schon reif sind, auch in die unternehmerische Praxis übernommen zu werden.

  10. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  11. Internal dosimetry - its evolution and new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, Luiz

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some discussions on the developments and trends of metabolic models and dosimetry and their associated parameters, which have been adopted by ICRP to evaluate intakes of radionuclides

  12. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that ...

  15. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  16. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  17. Internet of Things in Health Trends Through Bibliometrics and Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Billis, Antonis; Wharrad, Heather; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    Recently a new buzzword has slowly but surely emerged, namely the Internet of Things (IoT). The importance of IoT is identified worldwide both by organisations and governments and the scientific community with an incremental number of publications during the last few years. IoT in Health is one of the main pillars of this evolution, but limited research has been performed on future visions and trends. Thus, in this study we investigate the longitudinal trends of Internet of Things in Health through bibliometrics and use of text mining. Seven hundred seventy eight (778) articles were retrieved form The Web of Science database from 1998 to 2016. The publications are grouped into thirty (30) clusters based on abstract text analysis resulting into some eight (8) trends of IoT in Health. Research in this field is obviously obtaining a worldwide character with specific trends, which are worth delineating to be in favour of some areas.

  18. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  19. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods

  20. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.