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Sample records for spp thrips thysanoptera

  1. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  2. Effects of heat stress on survival of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J C; Zhang, B; Wang, J P; Li, H G; Wang, S F; Sun, L J; Zheng, C Y

    2014-08-01

    Temperature is known to play a crucial role in the population dynamics of insects. Insects have evolved different mechanisms to resist unfavorable extreme temperatures. In recent years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), have caused significant damage to vegetable crops. Because of global warming and expanding areas of vegetable cultivation, a study of the effects of heat stress on these thrips species is warranted. We exposed the various developmental stages of western flower thrips and onion thrips to temperatures of 41, 43, or 45 degrees C for 2, 6, 12, 24, or 36 h to determine the effects of heat stress on survival. Our results showed that the heat resistance of nonadult western flower thrips was greater than that of the nonadult onion thrips, and that the natural heat resistant ability was the primary factor in heat resistance in western flower thrips. In contrast, the heat resistance of adult onion thrips was greater than that of the adult western flower thrips, which was primarily the result of the ability of searching suitable microenvironment that enabled the onion thrips to mitigate the effects of high temperatures more efficiently than the western flower thrips. Our analysis of the differences in heat resistance between western flower thrips and onion thrips provides important information for the development of thermal treatments for controlling western flower thrips and onion thrips.

  3. Agroecological niches and thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dynamics

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    Michael E. Irwin

    1991-01-01

    In 1975, Illinois experienced an exceptionally mild winter, followed by a warm spring. This sequence of climatic events resulted in a massive outbreak of the soybean thrips, Sericothrips variabilis (Beach), along with large numbers of the flower thrips, Frankliniella tritici (Fitch). The outbreak covered an area of over 600...

  4. Checklist of terebrantian thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded from India

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    R. R. Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A consolidated systematic list of 333 species of terebrantian thrips, belonging to 118 genera (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded so far from India, is provided in this article.  The list reveals that the family Thripidae has the lion’s share of 307 species, while Aeolothripidae, Melanthripidae, Merothripidae and Stenurothripidae contain very few species.  Further, analysis of the present study shows that around 40% of the listed 333 terebrantian species appear to be endemic based on the comparison of Indian fauna with that of the published data of thrips of adjoining regions.  Reports on the occurrence of exotic flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande and Neohydatothrips samayunkur (Kudo are of concern to the country, as they are notorious for damage to the cultivated plants.  

  5. Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) preference for thrips-damaged leaves over fresh leaves enables uptake of symbiotic gut bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; Vos, R.A.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the evolution of insect gut symbionts it is important to determine how they are passed on to the next generation. We studied this process in Erwinia species bacteria that inhabit the gut of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This is

  6. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

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    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  7. RECONOCIMIENTO E IDENTIFICACION DE TRIPS FITOFAGOS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE Y DEPREDADORES (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASOCIADOS A CULTIVOS COMERCIALES DE AGUACATE Persea spp. EN LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DE CALDAS Y RISARALDA (COLOMBIA RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPHAGOUS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE AND PREDATORS (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL CULTIVATIONS OF AVOCADO Persea spp. IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF CALDAS AND RISARALDA, COLOMBIA

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    Fernando Echeverri Florez

    2004-06-01

    , halos blanquecinos. En flores: Abundante caída y flores necrosadas. En hojas lamina foliar deforme y manchas rojizas y en ramas: Deformaciones, reducción de la longitud de entrenudos, hiperplasia y la llamada "rama látigo”. Con relación a la susceptibilidad de los diferentes materiales a la acción del daño, la variedad Santana fue en la que más se perciben los síntomas de afección atribuidos a los trips, y las variedades Choquette y Fucsia las que presentaron menores síntomas de afección.Three commercial avocado (Persea sp. cultivars were studied in the municipalities of Palestine (Caldas and Pereira and Marseilles (Risaralda, evaluating trees in production of ages of five to eight years, including for the three places the varieties Santana, Choquette, Booth 8, Trinidad and Trapp. Also, in the orchard of Pereira the variety Fuchsia was included. In all, the damage and distortions attributed to the action of thrips was verified. For the material considered, ten samples were made in each locality with a biweekly frequency, choosing in each sample one tree per variety. In each tree selected, 36 samples were taken as follows: three per stratum (high, intermediate and low, four per cardinal point (north, south, east and west, and from three structures of the plant (tender leaves, flowers, and developing fruits, for a total of 360 samples for each avocado variety in each of the three sampling localities. Thrips were extracted from each sample, separating the morphs according to a reference collection previously established; morphs were quantified and the identification process was undertaken. In total, four morphs associated with avocado cultivation were identified; including two phytophagous species: Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard and Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, the latter a new report for a phytophagous species associated with avocado, according to Mound (1998, and the genera Leptothrips and Karnyothrips with predatory habits. A widespread prevalence of F

  8. Chromosomal diversity and phylogenetic inferences concerning thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) in a semi-arid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R O; Affonso, P R A M; Silva, J C

    2010-11-16

    The order Thysanoptera is composed of cosmopolitan phytophagous and predaceous insects with diverse life histories, behaviors and habits. This order is currently thought to form a trichotomy with Hemiptera and Psocodea; Hemiptera and Thysanoptera are considered to be sister groups. The interrelationships within Thysanoptera remain unclear and cytotaxonomic studies are scarce in thrips. We report, for the first time, chromosomal data on seven species of thrips collected from a semi-arid region in the States of Bahia and Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil). A distinctive chromosomal pattern was observed in Thysanoptera when compared to other members within the infraclass Paraneoptera. Considerable karyotypic differences were also found within genera and species of Thysanoptera. Based on these data, we suggest that Paraneoptera forms a polyphyletic group and that Terebrantia and Tubulifera should be regarded as sister groups. The high chromosomal variability observed in Thysanoptera indicates that chromosomal rearrangements have played a key role in their speciation pathways.

  9. Habitat-specific population structure in native western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera).

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    Brunner, P C; Frey, J E

    2010-04-01

    Invasions by pest organisms are among the main challenges for sustainable crop protection. They pose a serious threat to crop production by introducing a highly unpredictable element to existing crop protection strategies. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera) managed to invade ornamental greenhouses worldwide within < 25 years. To shed light on possible genetic and/or ecological factors that may have been responsible for this invasion success, we studied the population genetic structure of western flower thrips in its native range in western North America. Analysis of nucleotide sequence variation and variation at microsatellite loci revealed the existence of two habitat-specific phylogenetic lineages (ecotypes) with allopatric distribution. One lineage is associated with hot/dry climates, the second lineage is restricted to cool/moist climates. We speculate that the ecological niche segregation found in this study may be among the key factors determining the invasion potential of western flower thrips.

  10. Electromagnetic treatment of New Zealand flower thrips (Thrips obscuratus, Thysanoptera:Thripidae) in deionized water.

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    van Epenhuijsen, C W; Bodger, P S; Koolaard, J P; Woudberg, J J; Johnstone, P T

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of an electromagnetic field on thrips, New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus (Crawford), were contained in a pipette that was suspended in an acrylic cylinder containing deionized water. Electrodes, set 85 mm apart at each end of the cylinder, were in contact with the water. Voltages of between 10 and 100 kV d.c., as impulses or in steady state, were applied to the electrodes. Voltages of 10 and 15 kV applied in steady state did not kill all of the thrips. Only 2% of thrips remained alive when a voltage of 20 kV was applied for 10 sec. Complete mortality was achieved with 25 or 30 kV for 5 and 10 sec. None of the impulse trains, varying from 50 to 100 kV and 20 to 60 impulses, killed thrips or caused thrips to become moribund. Thrips were killed when exposed to 20 kV and 10 pulses when electrodes were modified and placed very close together.

  11. Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta).

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    Arakaki, N.; Miyoshi, T.; Noda, H.

    2001-01-01

    Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They cause thelytoky, which is a form of parthenogenesis in which females produce females without males, in hymenopteran insects. Infection of this parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia has been restricted to the order Hymenoptera, but was found in another insect order, Thysanoptera. A parthenogenetic colony of a predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Aeolothripidae) possessed B-group Wolbachia. Male progeny were produced from this thrips by heat and tetracycline treatments. Males produced motile sperm, which were transferred to the female spermatheca by mating. However, the mating did not affect the sex ratios of the next generation, suggesting that the sperm do not fertilize the eggs. PMID:11375084

  12. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

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    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  13. Biotic resistance limits the invasiveness of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

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    Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai

    2016-04-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has resulted in the world-wide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. It is hypothesized that frequent exposure to insecticides in intensive agriculture selected for resistant populations, which allowed invasive populations in the eastern USA to overcome biotic resistance from the native community of species. Research conducted in Florida to understand the role of biotic factors in limiting the abundance of the western flower thrips is reviewed. Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are effective predators that suppress populations of thrips on crop and non-crop hosts in southern and northern Florida. Orius are more effective predators of the western flower thrips than the native flower thrips, F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan). The native species are competitors of the western flower thrips. Excessive fertilization and the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in crop fields further enhances populations of the western flower thrips. Interactions with native species clearly limit the abundance of western flower thrips in Florida, but populations are abundant in fertilized crop fields where application of insecticides excludes predators and competitor species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) contains triplicate putative control regions.

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    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Fan, Jiaqin

    2012-09-10

    To investigate the features of the control region (CR) and the gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Thysanoptera insects, we sequenced the whole mt genome of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The mt genome is a circular molecule with 14,889 nucleotides and an A+T content of 76.6%, and it has triplicate putative CRs. We propose that tandem duplication and deletion account for the evolution of the CR and the gene translocations. Intramitochondrial recombination is a plausible model for the gene inversions. We discuss the excessive duplicate CR sequences and the transcription of the rRNA genes, which are distant from one another and from the CR. Finally, we address the significance of the complicated mt genomes in Thysanoptera for the evolution of the CR and the gene arrangement of the mt genome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  16. Injuries caused by frankliniella spp. (thysanoptera: thripidae on seedless grapes

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    Andréa Nunes Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thrips of the genus Frankliniella cause significant reduction on grape production. Little is known about its decision making approach in integrated pest management and information on thrips injuries to the vine is scarce, hindering the control of this pest. This study aimed to determine the species of thrips and injuries that cause damage to berries in seedless grapes clusters. The trial was conducted in an area cultivated with Vitis vinifera L., variety Thompson Seedless, using a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of artificial infestation (zero, two, four and eight thrips per inflorescence, and treatment determined by the monitoring system of the grower. Each replication consisted of three plants with 10 inflorescences, which were artificially infested with thrips and covered with nonwoven fabric bags. During the cluster thinning, pre-harvest cleaning and harvest, the numbers of injuried berries and the berries with injuries were evaluated. The thrips species identified were: Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, and Frankliniella sp. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of injuries per fruit and the level of thrips infestation, obtained by the equation y = 2.55 + 48.54x (F= 59.98; P= 0.0001; r²= 0.51. The results suggest that the presence of a whitish halo around a small scar on fruit is associated with the presence of adult Frankliniella spp.

  17. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV.

  18. Sampling Plans for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Three Lettuce Varieties.

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    Silva, Alisson R; Rodrigues-Silva, Nilson; Pereira, Poliana S; Sarmento, Renato A; Costa, Thiago L; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-12-05

    The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important lettuce pest worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the first step in implementing decision-making systems into integrated pest management programs. However, this tool is not available for F. schultzei infesting lettuce crops. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a conventional sampling plan for F. schultzei in lettuce crops. Two sampling techniques (direct counting and leaf beating on a white plastic tray) were compared in crisphead, looseleaf, and Boston lettuce varieties before and during head formation. The frequency distributions of F. schultzei densities in lettuce crops were assessed, and the number of samples required to compose the sampling plan was determined. Leaf beating on a white plastic tray was the best sampling technique. F. schultzei densities obtained with this technique were fitted to the negative binomial distribution with a common aggregation parameter (common K = 0.3143). The developed sampling plan is composed of 91 samples per field and presents low errors in its estimates (up to 20%), fast execution time (up to 47 min), and low cost (up to US $1.67 per sampling area). This sampling plan can be used as a tool for integrated pest management in lettuce crops, assisting with reliable decision making in different lettuce varieties before and during head formation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  20. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Aplikasi fosfin formulasi cair terhadap Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae pada bunga potong krisan

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    Taufan Tanto Setyawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum as one of horticultural commodities has a good prospect to be developed as source of country revenue. The export of cut flowers of chrysanthemum from Indonesia tends to increase year by year. However, Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae which is major insect pest of chrysanthemum often attacks this flower in the field until postharvest causing the decrease of quality of flowers. The poor quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemum including the presence of T. parvispinus will be rejected by foreign businesses. Therefore, control measures of this insect pest by quarantine officers are important. Treatment can be done using liquified formulation phosphine fumigant. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of liquified formulation phosphine and exposure time which will were effectively kill T. parvispinus and to evaluate the quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemums treated with phosphine fumigant. T. parvispinus was exposed to liquied formulation phosphine at 9 concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 ppm with 3 exposure times (1, 3, and 6 hours. Moreover,  validation test of concentration nd exposure time of liquified formulation phosphine on cut flowers of chrysanthemum was conducted to evaluate the quality of chrysanthemum cut flowers of treated with phosphine fumigant. Results showed that liquified formulation of phosphine at concentration  of 200 ppm  and on 1 hour of exposure time completely killed T. parvispinus by 100%  mortality. At 200 ppm and exposure time until 6 hours did not affect the quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemum.

  2. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.Espécies de tripes (Insecta, Thysanoptera associadas à cultura do morangueiro em dois sistemas de produção no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tripes são insetos diminutos responsáveis pela redução da qualidade dos frutos do morangueiro. O trabalho objetivou registrar e quantificar a tisanopterofauna presente em dois sistemas de produção de morangueiro, túnel baixo e semihidropônico. Folhas, flores e frutos foram coletados semanalmente, de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006 em Caxias do Sul e Bom Princípio, RS. Foram coletados 664 indivíduos pertencentes a duas famílias, quatro gêneros e 10 espécies: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910

  3. Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Feeding Promotes Infection By Pantoea ananatis in Onion.

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    Grode, Ari; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-12-05

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a primary insect pest of onions (Allium cepa) worldwide. Onion thrips cause feeding damage by destroying epidermal tissue. They are also vectors of Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, the bacteria that causes center rot. Onions with center rot develop white streaks with water-soaked margins along the onion leaves, which turn necrotic and lead to bulb rot during storage. The role of thrips feeding on the establishment and progression of bacterial infection in onions has not been investigated. Onions infested with thrips and inoculated with P. ananatis had more necrotic tissue and symptoms were more severe with increasing thrips density. We conducted a fluorescence microscopy study that examined how P. ananatis (expressing a fluorescence protein gene) colonized a control group of onions without thrips in comparison to a test group of onions with thrips. We found that P. ananatis colonized some onions in the control group because of naturally existing wounds in the epidermal tissue but more colonization was found in the thrips infested group because of the increased presence of entry points caused by thrips feeding. Overall, our results demonstrate that wounds caused by thrips feeding facilitate center rot development by providing entry sites for the bacteria into leaf tissue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Biological control of thrips pests (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in a commercial greenhouse in Hungary

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    Farkas Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous thrips, like western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and onion thrips Thrips tabaci, are major pests in various ornamental and vegetable crops in greenhouses throughout the world. In Hungary, both of these polyphagous thrips species frequently cause severe damage in many greenhouse crops, especially in commercial sweet pepper. Chemical control is not always feasible because of certain ecological characteristics of these thrips species. The commercially available phytoseiid predatory mites like Amblyseius swirskii and anthocorid flower bugs like Orius laevigatus are often used simultaneously for the biological control of severe thrips infestation in sweet pepper cultivation in Hungary. Our observations demonstrated that the polyphagous thrips assemblages were effectively controlled by the combined release of natural enemies, despite the fact that the establishment of O. laevigatus did not seem to be successful in the first year. Overall, the thrips population density remained below the economic threshold in both years. However, the low infestation level of thrips suggests that a single predator release strategy could be applied effectively and still maintain the thrips below the damage threshold in greenhouse sweet pepper.

  5. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen

    1991-01-01

    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  6. Tactics for management of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Pappu, H R

    2004-10-01

    Four studies were conducted in Georgia during spring 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 to evaluate various management tactics for reducing thrips and thrips-vectored tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and their interactions relative to fruit yield. Populations of thrips vectors of TSWV, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were determined using flower and sticky trap samples. The management practices evaluated were host plant resistance, insecticide treatments, and silver or metallic reflective mulch. Averaged over all tests, the TSWV-resistant tomato 'BHN444' on silver mulch treatment had the largest effect in terms of reducing thrips and spotted wilt and increasing marketable yield. Of the insecticide treatments tested, the imidacloprid soil treatment followed by early applications of a thrips-effective foliar insecticide treatment provided significant increase in yield over other treatments. Tomato yield was negatively correlated with the number of F. fusca and percentage of TSWV incidence. F. occidentalis per blossom was positively correlated with percentage of TSWV incidence, but not with yield. No significant interactions were observed between cultivar reflective mulch main plot treatments and insecticide subplot treatments; thus, treatment seemed to be additive in reducing the economic impact of thrips-vectored TSWV. Control tactics that manage thrips early in the growing season significantly increased tomato yield in years when the incidence of TSWV was high (>17%).

  7. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

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    Romana Iftikhar

    Full Text Available Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27% at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%. BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci, and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  8. The anatomy of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and its specific features caused by miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, Alexey A; Shmakov, Alexey S

    2016-09-01

    A new set of data on the internal and external structure of the adult and larva of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833) is presented. The structure of the internal systems of this thrips was revealed using modern methods of 3D computer modelling. The changes in shape and relative size are discussed as an outcome of miniaturization in comparison to the supposed ancestor of this species. The layout of the internal systems of thrips is compared to those of other insects similar in size: beetles of the families Ptiliidae and Corylophidae and wasps of the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

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    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  10. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Space, time and thrips: biogeographic issues in the evolutionary ecology of Thysanoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Grehan

    1991-01-01

    Most participants of this symposium will be concerned with understanding thrips ecology primarily in order to develop practical and effective control strategies. Questions dealing with historical aspects (evolution) may seem of only isolated "theoretical" interest with little significance for everyday pragmatic concerns. Evolutionary theory is widely...

  12. Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera) to colored sticky traps in a Florida olive grove

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in four plots within a newly established olive grove in Florida to compare efficacy of colored sticky traps for surveillance of pests and to compare with other direct sampling methods. Over 99% of thrips collected were Frankliniella bispinosa with occasional collections of pred...

  13. Sternal gland structures in males of bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, and Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus, in comparison with those of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sevgan; Niassy, Saliou; Moritz, Gerald B

    2015-09-01

    Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E. americanus and M. sjostedti males, in comparison with those of Frankliniella occidentalis using light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates of F. occidentalis were ellipsoid and medial on sternites III-VII, while in E. americanus they were distributed as multiple micro pore plates on sternites III-VIII. In M. sjostedti they appeared as an extremely small pore in front of the posterior margin of each of sternites IV-VII. Pore plate and pore plate area were distributed similarly on sternites III-VII in F. occidentalis. However, in E. americanus the total pore plate area increased significantly from sternites III to VIII. Ultrastructure of cells associated with sternal glands showed typical characteristics of gland cells that differ in size, shape and number. The function of sternal glands is further discussed on the basis of morphological comparisons with other thrips species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thysanoptera (thrips) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, and species on vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  15. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  16. Seasonal abundance and biology of sporophagous thrips and notes on other thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) on the Mediterranean oak, Quercus rotundifolia L. in Navarra (N Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldarazena, A.; Mound, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paperrecords the seasonal abundance of four species of sporophagous thrips collected on the Mediterranean oak, Quercus rotundifolia L., in the Mediterranean area of Navarra (N Spain). The life cycles of Cornpsothrips albosignatus (Reuter), Priesneriella clavicornis (Knechtel); Megalothrips bonannii Uzel and Cryptohrips nigripes (Reuter) are reported, and notes given about habitat specificity and wing development. Notes about host specific Terebrantia thrips of the Mediterranean oak are a...

  17. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

  18. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers.

  19. FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL Y ESPECIES DE THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA ASOCIADOS A CALABAZA EN NAYARIT, MÉXICO

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    Rita Dinora Valenzuela-Garc\\u00EDa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron identificar las especies de thrips asociados al cultivo de calabaza y determinar la fluctuación poblacional de thrips. Se llevó a cabo en la Unidad Académica de Agricultura de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit en Xalisco, Nayarit, en el cultivo de calabaza japonesa Cucurbita moschata var. Chirimen. Cada siete días, durante tres meses (septiembre a noviembre de 2008, se realizaron dos tipos de muestreo: trampas azules y aspirado de plantas. Por este último método se recolectaron 153 thrips adultos de los cuales se montaron y examinaron 100 especímenes, y con las trampas se contabilizaron un total de 334 thrips (140 en invernadero y 194 en campo. Se identificaron nueve especies: cuatro de hábitos depredadores (Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, F. vespiformis D.L Crawford, Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande, Leptothrips mcconelli D.L. Crawford, dos consideradas fitófagas (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, Haplothrips sp. y tres de las que se desconoce su tipo de alimentación (Plesiothrips perplexus Beach, Bregmatothrips sp. nov., Microcephalothrips sp. nov. En cuanto a la fluctuación poblacional, la mayor captura de thrips se registró en campo con un total de 50 especímenes (29 de octubre 2008; en invernadero se presentaron dos picos, uno el 24 de septiembre (20 especímenes y el otro el 5 de noviembre (21 especímenes. La población de thrips aumentó en el periodo de ausencia de precipitación (22 de octubre al 26 de noviembre.

  20. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  1. The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Katis, N.I.

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds

  2. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  3. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  4. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  5. Companion Cropping as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phasealous Vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasina, J.

    2002-01-01

    Six companion crops, (Tagetes spp L. (African marigold), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Brassica spp. L. kale), capsicum spp L. (chilli) and Zea mays (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips, (Frankliniella occidentals (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers for use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  6. Companion Cropping as an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phaseaolus Vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasina, J.

    2002-01-01

    Six companion crops,(Targets spp L. (African marigold), Daucus corona L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriandar),Brassica spp. L. (kale), Capsicum spp L. (Chilli) and Zea mays L. (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips,(Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Franklieniella schultzie (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers fro use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  7. Application strategy for the chemical control of pea (Pisum sativum L. crops against Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera

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    Pobożniak Maria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland chemical control of thrips in pea crops currently relies on insecticides with several modes of action, including pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and neonicotinoids. The first insecticide treatment is recommended to be applied during the full bloom of pea plants and the second two repeated at intervals of 7 days. Field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station in Mydlniki (near Kraków, southern Poland over two years (2011 and 2012. Acetamiprid (neonicotinoid (trade name Mospilan 20 SP was used to control thrips on peas in the experiment. The results suggest that the conventional spray regime consisting of one weekly application of Mospilan 20 WP starting at full flowering can be replaced by one treatment at the beginning of flowering.

  8. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DE INSETICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO Thrips tabaci LIND., 1888 (THYSANOPTERA, THRIPIDAE NA CULTURA DO ALHO AGRONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INSECTICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF Thrips tabaci LIND., 1888 (THYSANOPTERA, THRIPIDAE ON GARLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Caetano Braz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi conduzido em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil, entre maio e agosto de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar a eficiência agronômica dos inseticidas thiacloprid 480 SC, methiocarb 500 SC, imidacloprid 200 SC, betacyflutrin 50 EC, thiametoxan 25 WG e chlorpirifos 450 EC no controle de tripés (Thrips tabaci, na cultura do alho. Os produtos foram aplicados três vezes consecutivas a partir do surgimento do inseto, com intervalos de dez dias. As avaliações foram realizadas aos dois, sete e quinze dias após a terceira pulverização. Concluiu-se que, com exceção do chlorpirifos 450 EC, todos os demais inseticidas foram eficientes no controle do tripes, até quinze dias após a última aplicação. Destacaram-se o methiocarb nas duas dosagens avaliadas, 250 e 375 g.ha-1 do ingrediente ativo, que apresentaram, em média, 95% e 97,3% de eficiência, respectivamente, e o betacyflutrin 50 EC, com 95,7% de eficiência média.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; tripes; controle químico.

    A trial was carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, to test the efficiency of insecticides in controlling onion thrips (Thrips tabaci on garlic. The treatments applied were thiacloprid 480 SC; methiocarb 500 SC; imidacloprid 200 SC; betacyfluthrin 50 EC; thiametoxan 25 WG; chlorpiriphos 450 EC, plus an untreated check. The insecticides were sprayed three times at ten-day intervals. Data showed that thiacloprid, methiocarb, imidacloprid, betacyfluthrin and thiametoxan were efficient in controlling the T. tabaci up to 15 days after treatment application. Chlorpiriphos with the tested dosage did not control the T. tabaci efficiently.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; thrips; chemical control.

  9. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  11. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Field-evolved resistance to insecticides in the invasive western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Li, Bing-Yan; Chen, Jin-Cui; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Lin; Reitz, Stuart; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of the invasive western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in China, the responses of six field populations to six commonly used insecticides, i.e. spinosad, spinetoram, cyantraniliprole, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, were evaluated in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain. Field populations tended to be less susceptible than the laboratory strain. The population from Shouguang, Shandong Province, showed the lowest levels of susceptibility. A 15.64-fold and 17.29-fold resistance to spinosad and spinetoram was detected in the Shouguang population. A 11.74-fold and 13.64-fold resistance to cyantraniliprole was detected in populations from Daxing in the Beijing area and Shouguang. All populations showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, except for the Shouguang population, which was 127.58-fold more resistant to pyriproxyfen. Variations in resistance to the tested insecticides were observed among the sampled population. Spinosad and spinetoram were the most efficient insecticides and are recommended for use in an integrated management programme. Resistance management strategies should be implemented to reduce the potential for resistance evolving. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  14. Records of thrips on bamboo, take and sasa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in the Kyoto Botanical Garden, with a special reference to ovoviviparity in Phlaeothripinae (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAO, Shiro; MASUMOTO, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Thrips on the bamboo, take, and sasa plants in the Kyoto Botanical Garden at Shimogamo in Kyoto City were collected in May and July of 2016. A total of 9 species was collected, five species were reported here for the first time from Kyoto Prefecture, and four of them seem to have close association with various bamboo, take, and sasa plants. Several species of thrips recorded here are predators of small arthropods. We mentioned that some predaceous or omnivorous tuburiferan thrips in Phlaeothr...

  15. Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

  16. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de E.J.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar

  17. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ? 1? C and 70 ? 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar...

  18. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  19. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  20. Relative population levels of citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-15

    Mar 15, 1989 ... sth. Afr. 49: 159--161. MOUND, L.A. & PITKIN, B.R. 1972. Microscopic whole mounts of thrips (Thysanoptera). Entomologist's Gaz. 23: 121-125. SAMWAYS, M.J. 1986. Spatial distribution of Scirtothrips aurantii Faure (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and threshold levels for one per cent damage on citrus fruit ...

  1. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed.

  2. Thrips Species (Thysanoptera thripidae more common in cut flower greenhouse in Bogotá plateau Especies de trips (Thysanoptera:Thripidae mas comunes en invernaderos de flores de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor Dario

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We report sorne species found in and around greenhouses at the Bogotá plateau, whith keys and drawings to make an easier identification. Three genera were found: Taeniothrips, Thrips and
    FrankDniella; this last genus has the highest number of species found inthe greenhouses. A key to identify F. occidentalis, F. auripes, F.panamensís, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex and thrips tabaci, and a list of hosts for each species in and out of the greenhouses are presented.Se registran algunas especies de trips hallados dentro y alrededor de invernaderos en la sabana de Bogotá, se proponen claves y esquemas para facilitar su determinación. Se encontraron tres géneros a saber: Taeniothrips, Thrips y Frank#niella; este último género presenta el mayor número de especies en los invernaderos de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se propone una clave para las especies de F. occidentaKs, F.
    auripes, F. panamensis, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex y Thrips tabaci. También, se presenta una lista de plantas hospedantes para cada especie de trips, dentro y fuera de invernaderos.

  3. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  4. TRIPS (THYSANOPTERA ASOCIADOS A AGALLAS DE Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE EN LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE COLOMBIA GALL THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA OF Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE IN CENTRAL REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sepúlveda Cano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia han sido utilizados ampliamente árboles de Ficus benjamina como ornamentales en zonas verdes urbanas. En los últimos años, se ha observado en estas plantas un incremento en los síntomas de ataque de trips (hojas plegadas y necrosadas; pero a pesar de ello, es poco lo que se conoce sobre las especies que se encuentran presentes. Por esta razón, se realizó un reconocimiento de la entomofauna en varias ciudades del país, encontrando las especies de trips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (fitófago y Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (depredador, ambas reportadas por primera vez para Colombia. Adicionalmente, se recolectó el chinche depredador Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton asociado a estas agallas. Se presentan las diagnosis de las dos especies de trips apoyadas en fotografías de microscopía electrónica, con el ánimo de mostrar en detalle la morfología de estos insectosThe ficus tree Ficus benjamina has been introduced in Colombia as an ornamental in urban settings. In the last years an increment on symptoms of thrips attack (rolled and necrotic leaves have been more evident; however, little is known about the species of thrips causing such damage. This work is a preliminary survey in several cities of Colombia. The species of thrips resgistered were: Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (phytophagous and Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (predator. Also was found a predatory true bug Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton associated with the galls produced by thrips. Some SEM photographs are present to show morphology details of two species of thrips associated with this tree.

  5. Reflective mulch and acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments relative to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus incidence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Joseph, S V; Srinivasan, R

    2012-08-01

    Management of thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt (TSW) virus typically relies on tactics that either reduce the thrips vector numbers or change the plant's response to the virus to reduce economic loss. We attempted to quantify the interaction between two such tactics, reflective mulch and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), respectively, on a TSW-susceptible tomato hybrid. A split plot experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 where main-plots were three types of plastic mulch (two metalized reflective vs. black) and subplots consisted of a range of plant defense activator applications. TSW pressure varied over year with 80% of untreated plants having TSW in 2009 where as black mulch. Seasonal averages of thrips and fruit yield differed significantly among treatments of acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, there was a significant acibenzolar-S-methyl by mulch interaction relative to TSW incidence. In 2009, a minimum of acibenzolar-S-methyl at transplant plus foliar treatments at 10 and 20 d after transplant was required to significantly reduce TSW incidence compared with untreated plants before harvest. Under lower TSW pressure in 2010, average TSW incidence was significantly less in all plots treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl treated plots compared with the check. Acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments functioned better with the thrips reducing tactic, ultraviolet-reflective mulch. We propose that acibenzolar-S-methyl is less effective than metalized reflective mulch in reducing the incidence of TSW in tomato.

  6. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  7. Plant odours with potential for a push-pull strategy to control the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; James, D.E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of four plant essential oils to repel onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in the presence of an attractive odour, ethyl iso-nicotinate in a pasture field. Four horizontal white sticky plates were placed adjacent to (directions: N, S, E, W) a

  8. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...

  10. A new genus of gall-dwelling thrips from Costa Rica (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae: Phlaeothripinae Un género nuevo de tisanóptero morador de agallas en Costa Rica (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae: Phlaeothripinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Soto-Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of thrips, Fourbethrips fiorella, inhabiting stems, petioles and leaf vein galls of a Melastomataceae from Costa Rica is described. The galls are induced by an unidentified gall midge larva (Cecidomyiidae. This new thrips can be distinguished from other genus and species of Phlaeothripinae by the shape of the pelta, the position of maxillary stylets in the head, the reduced and acute anterior pair of postocular setae, the long and capitate posterior pair of postocular setae, the presence of a group of minute setae, and a pair of short ventral setae in the middle area of the abdominal sternites II-VII. The tergites II-VII have a pair of campaniform sensillae.Se describen una especie y un género nuevos de tisanóptero, Fourbethrips iorella, que habita en agallas en tallos, peciolos y venas de la hoja de una Melastomataceae de Costa Rica. Las agallas son inducidas por una especie no identificada de Cecidomyiidae. Este nuevo tisanóptero se puede diferenciar de otros géneros y especies de Phlaeothripinae por la forma de la pelta, la posición de los estiletes maxilares en la cabeza, la presencia de 2 pares de setas postoculares, 1 par reducido y de puntas agudas y 1 par posterior largo y capitado, la presencia de un grupo de setas pequeñas y 1 par de setas cortas en los esternitos abdominales II-VII. Los terguitos con un par de sensilas campaniformes.

  11. COMBINING EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES AND RESISTANT CULTIVARS ON REDUCING THE INCIDENCE OF Meloidogyne spp. AND Thrips palmy Karny ON POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. and melon thrips (Thrips palmy Karny are two serious pests on potato. These pests are conventionally controlled with synthetic pesticides. Cultural practices based on integrated pest management (IPM are alternative methods to control these pests. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined applications of cultural practices and potato cultivars in reducing the incidences of nematode and thrips. Treatments evaluated were methods of nematode and thrips control by implementing IPM and conventional practices. A split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications was  sed. The main plots were IPM or cultural practices (subsoiling, soil solarization and use of trap crop of marigold Tagetes erecta and conventional practices using synthetic pesticides. The subplots were five potato cultivars, i.e. No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17, 720050/Kikondo, 676068/ I.1085, Granola, and Atlantic. The results showed that applications of cultural practices in combination with potato cultivars reduced Meloidogyne spp. population and potato tuber damage by 53.70% and 61.36%, respectively, as well as a significantly decreased thrips population. In the cultural control plots, thrips populations were below the action threshold (10.0 nymphs per leaf, therefore no single application of pesticide was used. This was in contrast to the conventional control treatments where insecticide was spayed 10 times until harvest. The subsoiling and solarization cut off the life cycle of the thrips and any survive thrips were trapped by marigold plant. Population of T. palmi on the five potato cultivars differed significantly; the lowest population was found on the cultivars No. 095 (Herta x FLS-17 and 676068/I.1085. The cultural control practices combined with potato cultivar No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17 were the best treatment for controlling Meloidogyne spp. and T. palmi on potato and also produced the highest yield (31.01 t

  12. KUNCI IDENTIFIKASI ORDO THYSANOPTERA PADA TANAMAN PANGAN DAN HORTIKULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartiami

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Thysanoptera is a minute insect. It acts as pest, plant virus vector and predator. In this research, the thrips on crop and horticulture have been collected at Bogor and its surrounding. The result of this research was found 16 specieses which is consist of two suborders, that are Tubulifera and Terebrantia. On this two subordos, there are three families, Phalaeothripide, Aeolothripidae and Thripidae. This research also present an identification key of Thysanoptera which is built from these 16 specieses. The images of thrips characters were captured with digital camera to complete the explanation of identification key

  13. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  15. Investigation of thysanoptera populations in Hungarian greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed on sweet pepper and on weeds in their surroundings from 2005 to 2007 in the Jászság region, on different vegetables and ornamentals from 2015 to 2016 throughout Hungary, and on some indoor ornamental plants in Budapest and Kecskemét in 2017. These studies were carried out in greenhouses. The main objectives of this work was to clarify the consistency of Thysanoptera populations in these greenhouses and, secondly, as part of the official monitoring of Thrips palmi Karny and Thrips setosus Moulton, the study also focused on the first appearance of these pests in Hungary. An important additional aim was to determine which reservoirs were significant in the risk of Thysanoptera species transmitting tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. Regarding the surveys conducted, the most frequent Thysanoptera species present in large numbers during the investigation period in every greenhouse was Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Also, a significant amount of Echinothrips americanus Morgan was found on ornamentals in southern Hungary, whereas on indoor ornamental plants only Hercinothrips femoralis O. M. Reuter was found.

  16. The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzman, A.; Gera, A.; Raccah, B.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura

  17. Intraguild predation among plant pests: western flower thrips larvae feed on whitefly crawlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, R.; Broufas, G.; Oveja, M.F.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Omnivores obtain resources from more than one trophic level, and choose their food based on quantity and quality of these resources. For example, omnivores may switch to feeding on plants when prey are scarce. Larvae of the western flower thrips Frankiniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera:

  18. Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...

  19. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  20. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Egbert J; van der Wurff, André W G; Jacobs, Gerrit; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar bacterial symbionts, the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, was studied because, like F. occidentalis, it is phytophagous. Contrary to F. occidentalis, T. tabaci is endemic in Europe and biotypes have been described. Bacteria were isolated from the majority of populations and biotypes of T. tabaci examined. Bacteria were present in high numbers in most individuals of the populations studied. Like F. occidentalis, T. tabaci contained one type of bacterium that clearly outnumbered all other types present in the gut. This bacterium was identified as an Erwinia species, as was also the case for F. occidentalis. However, its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence differed from the bacteria present in F. occidentalis.

  1. RNA interference tools for the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, Ismael E; Rotenberg, Dorith; Schneweis, Brandi A; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-05-01

    The insect order Thysanoptera is exclusively comprised of small insects commonly known as thrips. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is an economically important pest amongst thysanopterans due to extensive feeding damage and tospovirus transmission to hundreds of plant species worldwide. Geographically-distinct populations of F. occidentalis have developed resistance against many types of traditional chemical insecticides, and as such, management of thrips and tospoviruses are a persistent challenge in agriculture. Molecular methods for defining the role(s) of specific genes in thrips-tospovirus interactions and for assessing their potential as gene targets in thrips management strategies is currently lacking. The goal of this work was to develop an RNA interference (RNAi) tool that enables functional genomic assays and to evaluate RNAi for its potential as a biologically-based approach for controlling F. occidentalis. Using a microinjection system, we delivered double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directly to the hemocoel of female thrips to target the vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B (V-ATPase-B) gene of F. occidentalis. Gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significant reductions of V-ATPase-B transcripts at 2 and 3 days post-injection (dpi) with dsRNA of V-ATPase-B compared to injection with dsRNA of GFP. Furthermore, the effect of knockdown of the V-ATPase-B gene in females at these two time points was mirrored by the decreased abundance of V-ATPase-B protein as determined by quantitative analysis of Western blots. Reduction in V-ATPase-B expression in thrips resulted in increased female mortality and reduced fertility, i.e., number of viable offspring produced. Survivorship decreased significantly by six dpi compared to the dsRNA-GFP control group, which continued decreasing significantly until the end of the bioassay. Surviving female thrips injected with dsRNA-V-ATPase-B produced

  2. Symbiotic bacteria (Erwinia sp.) in the gut of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) do not affect its ability to transmit tospovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; van de Wetering, F.; van der Hoek, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most harmful plant viruses and one of its most important vectors is the western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)]. Recently, we reported the close association of Erwinia sp. gut bacteria with this species of

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags for Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, D; Whitfield, A E

    2010-08-01

    Thrips are members of the insect order Thysanoptera and Frankliniella occidentalis (the western flower thrips) is the most economically important pest within this order. F. occidentalis is both a direct pest of crops and an efficient vector of plant viruses, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Despite the world-wide importance of thrips in agriculture, there is little knowledge of the F. occidentalis genome or gene functions at this time. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from first instar thrips and 13 839 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Our EST data assembled into 894 contigs and 11 806 singletons (12 700 nonredundant sequences). We found that 31% of these sequences had significant similarity (Eoccidentalis and other thrips species with regards to vital biological processes, studying the mechanism of interactions with the viruses harboured and transmitted by the vector, and identifying new insect gene-centred targets for plant disease and insect control.

  4. Characterization of bacterial symbionts in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbusarakum, Lisa; Ullman, Diane

    2008-11-01

    Many insects have associations with bacteria, although it is often difficult to determine the intricacies of the relationships. In one such case, facultative bacteria have been discovered in a major crop pest and virus vector, the Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Several bacterial isolates have been studied in Netherlands greenhouse thrips populations, with molecular data indicating that these bacteria were similar to Escherichia coli, although biochemical properties suggested these microbes might actually be most similar to plant pathogenic bacteria in the genus Erwinia. We focused on the bacterial flora of the Hawaiian Islands thrips population where these gut bacteria were first reported in 1989. We also analyzed a German population and a 1965 California population preserved in ethanol. Culture and culture-independent techniques revealed a consistent microflora that was similar to the Netherlands isolates studied. The similarity among thrips microbes from multiple populations and environments suggested these bacteria and their hosts share a widespread association. Molecular phylogeny based on the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical analysis of thrips bacteria suggested two distinctive groups of microbes are present in thrips. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed support for one thrips bacterial group having a shared ancestry with Erwinia, whereas the second group of thrips bacteria fell out with E. coli, but without support. Although species-specific relationships were indeterminable due to the conservative nature of 16S, there is strong indication that thrips symbionts belong to two different genera and originated from environmental microbes.

  5. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  6. Holopothrips molzi sp.n. (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae): natural history and interactions in Myrtaceae galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mariana Flores; Mendonça, Milton De Souza Jr; Cavalleri, Adriano

    2016-05-23

    Holopothrips molzi sp. n. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is described from southern Brazil inducing leaf galls on Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae). Field observations revealed that the numbers of this thrips were highly variable within galls, and two other insect species were recorded living in these galls: Myrciathrips variabilis Cavalleri et al. (Phlaeothripidae) and an eulophid wasp (Hymenoptera). We investigated here if morphological traits of leaf and gall and abundance of the invader thrips were correlated with the gall inducer's abundance. In order to determine the feeding habit and behaviour of M. variabilis and its interactions with the gall inducer we performed observations ad libitum and attack simulation tests on both thrips species to observe their response to possible invaders. Our results showed that leaf size is not related to H. molzi abundance, and gall size is relevant only when total numbers of both thrips species are considered. Myrciathrips variabilis was observed feeding on gall tissues, and no direct antagonistic interactions between the two thrips were recorded. The results of the behavioural tests simulating attacks were remarkably different in the two thrips species, indicating different strategies when threatened or disturbed. The interaction between the two thrips species is probably a case of inquilinism.

  7. Variation within and between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R.; Funderburk, Joseph E.; Olson, Steve M.

    2011-01-01

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

  8. Polyploidy versus endosymbionts in obligately thelytokous thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong T; Spooner-Hart, Robert N; Riegler, Markus

    2015-02-22

    Thelytoky, the parthenogenetic development of females, has independently evolved in several insect orders yet the study of its mechanisms has so far mostly focussed on haplodiploid Hymenoptera, while alternative mechanisms of thelytoky such as polyploidy are far less understood. In haplodiploid insects, thelytoky can be encoded in their genomes, or induced by maternally inherited bacteria such as Wolbachia or Cardinium. Microbially facilitated thelytoky usually results in complete homozygosity due to gamete duplication and can be reverted into arrhenotoky, the parthenogenetic development of males, through treatment with antibiotics. In contrast, genetically encoded thelytoky cannot be removed and may result in conservation of heterozygosity due to gamete fusion. We have probed the obligate thelytoky of the greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), a significant cosmopolitan pest and a model species of thelytoky in the haplodiploid insect order Thysanoptera. Earlier studies suggested terminal fusion as a mechanism for thelytoky in this species, while another study reported presence of Wolbachia; later it was speculated that Wolbachia plays a role in this thrips' thelytokous reproduction. By using PCR and sequence analysis, we demonstrated that global population samples of H. haemorrhoidalis were not infected with Wolbachia, Cardinium or any other known bacterial reproductive manipulators. Antibiotic treatment of this thrips did also not result in male production. Some individuals carried two different alleles in two nuclear loci, histone 3 and elongation factor 1 alpha, suggesting heterozygosity. However, the majority of individuals had three different alleles suggesting that they were polyploid. Genetic diversity across both nuclear loci was low in all populations, and absent from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, indicating that this species had experienced genetic bottlenecks, perhaps due to its invasion biology or a switch to thelytoky

  9. Physic Nut Thrips Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Asbani, Nur; Sartiami, Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a relatively new agricultural crop commodity in Indonesia. Hence, the thrips associated with this plant are not well recognized. The research objective was to provide information and tool for identification of thrips associated with physic nut. Survey method was conducted in some areas of Java, Madura, and Lombok island. The results showed that 10 species of thrips were found associated with physic nut. They belonged to nine genera and three family i.e. Thri...

  10. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Distribution and ecology of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) bacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbusarakum, Lisa J; Ullman, Diane E

    2009-08-01

    Bacterial populations in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) collected in diverse California environments consisted of two bacterial symbionts: BFo-1 and BFo-2 (B = bacteria, Fo = Frankliniella occidentalis, numbers reflect different types). Dual infections of BFo-1 and BFo-2 were found in 50% of the thrips, 18% had neither bacterium, and 24 and 8% were infected solely with BFo-1 and BFo-2, respectively. No other bacteria consistently infected F. occidentalis. Dual infections occurred more often in male thrips and in thrips of both sexes from southern mountain and valley sites. As average collection year or month minimum temperature decreased, infections of BFo-1, alone or in dual infections, increased significantly. As yearly precipitation increased, infection with BFo-1 alone also increased. F. occidentalis color morphology did not affect bacterial infection. BFo-1 created weak biofilms at 25 and 32 degrees C; BFo-2 made strong biofilms at 25 degrees C and no biofilms at 32 degrees C. When the bacteria were grown in culture together, weak biofilms formed at both temperatures studied, although there was no way to determine what each bacterium contributed to the biofilm. BFo-1 and BFo-2 grew at similar rates at 25 and 30 degrees C. Our data show BFo-1 and BFo-2 occur in natural populations of F. occidentalis and support the hypothesis BFo have a symbiotic relationship with F. occidentalis. Regional differences in bacterial prevalence suggest bacterial infection is associated with environmental conditions, and altitude, temperature, and precipitation may be important factors.

  12. Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  13. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

  14. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-03-01

    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  15. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05. Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05, but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05. The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H΄, Pielou eveness index (J, and Simpson dominance index (D. All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude.

  16. Complex pollination of a tropical Asian rainforest canopy tree by flower-feeding thrips and thrips-feeding predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Sen; Tani, Naoki; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Okuda, Toshinori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    In tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, a highly fecund thrips (Thrips spp.) responds rapidly to the mass flowering at multiple-year intervals characteristic of certain species such as the canopy tree studied here, Shorea acuminata, by feeding on flower resources. However, past DNA analyses of pollen adherent to thrips bodies revealed that the thrips promoted a very high level of self-pollination. Here, we identified the pollinator that contributes to cross-pollination and discuss ways that the pollination system has adapted to mass flowering. By comparing the patterns of floral visitation and levels of genetic diversity in adherent pollen loads among floral visitors, we evaluated the contribution of each flower visitor to pollination. The big-eyed bug, Geocoris sp., a major thrips predator, was an inadvertent pollinator, and importantly contributed to cross-pollination. The total outcross pollen adhering to thrips was approximately 30% that on the big-eyed bugs. Similarly, 63% of alleles examined in S. acuminata seeds and seedlings occurred in pollen adhering to big-eyed bugs; about 30% was shared with pollen from thrips. During mass flowering, big-eyed bugs likely travel among flowering S. acuminata trees, attracted by the abundant thrips. Floral visitation patterns of big-eyed bugs vs. other insects suggest that these bugs can maintain their population size between flowering by preying upon another thrips (Haplothrips sp.) that inhabits stipules of S. acuminata throughout the year and quickly respond to mass flowering. Thus, thrips and big-eyed bugs are essential components in the pollination of S. acuminata. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Impact of production system on development of insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J

    2008-10-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most difficult insects to control in the intensive agriculture of southeastern Spain. However, resistance problems are quite different in two neighboring areas, Murcia and Almeria, with distinct production systems. Thirty-six field populations of western flower thrips from sweet pepper crops were collected in two different dates in Murcia and Almeria in 2005 and 2006. Western flower thrips populations collected were exposed to a diagnostic concentration of spinosad, methiocarb, acrinathrin, and formetanate. The results allowed the recognition of higher levels of resistance in Almeria compared with Murcia throughout the growing season. The mortality at the diagnostic concentration for spinosad (120 ppm) in western flower thrips populations ranged from 34 to 81% in Almeria, and from 73 to 100% in Murcia. The mortalities at the diagnostic concentration to acrinathrin (800 ppm) and formetanate (8000 ppm) were 17-31% in Almeria and 77-100% in Murcia, and 14-41% in Almeria and 48-99% in Murcia, respectively, indicating large geographic variations. Toxicity of methiocarb was higher for western flower thrips populations from both areas. However, mortality at the diagnostic concentration of methiocarb (2000 ppm) varied from 56 to 90% in Almeria, and it was from 94 to 100% in Murcia. The impact of production systems and agricultural practices of each area on the development and stability of insecticide resistance is discussed.

  18. Natural history of G ynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae in galls of Ficus benjamina (Rosales, Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz S. Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls induced by thrips are simple structures when compared to those of other groups of arthropods, and little is known regarding many of their aspects. This study aimed to investigate aspects of the natural history of Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann, 1900 in galls of Ficus benjamina L., 1753 using seasonal sampling (summer and winter. Twenty trees were sampled and divided into quadrants. From each of them, five galls were collected, forming a total of 400 galls per collection. Thrips showed greater abundance at higher temperatures (25.7°C and no precipitation. Sex ratio was biased towards females (0.022 males per female, pointing to an inbred mating structure. Arthropod fauna associated with galls was more abundant (N=798 in winter, and it included representatives of the orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Araneae, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera and Blattodea.

  19. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

  20. New Compound catches more thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    An odour to attract western flower thrips, as well as onion thrips, has been tested successfully, resulting in a new patented product to improve the monitoring and application of integrated pest management. Thrips is an important pest that affects many different crops and causes direct feeding

  1. A preliminary study on fauna of Thysanoptera in Qazvin province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mirab-balou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Thysanoptera was studied in Qazvin Province, during 2013–2014. In this study, 38 species from 4 families and 20 genera were collected and identified; of which 27 species are recorded for fauna of Qazvin Province for the first time, that shown by asterisks (*. Amongst them, 5 species are predator and other species are phytophagous; and among phytophagous species, Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella intonsa are widely distributed. Their scientific names are as follow: I. Suborder TEREBRANTIA: Family AEOLOTHRIPIDAE: Aeolothrips albicinctus Haliday*, A. collaris Priesner*, A. fasciatus (L.*, A. intermedius Bagnall; Family MELANTHRIPIDAE: Melanthrips fusus (Sulzer*, M. knechteli Priesner*; Family THRIPIDAE: Dendrothrips phyllirea (Bagnall*, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche*, Neohydatothrips gracilipes Hood*, Anaphothrips obscures (Muller, A. sudanensis Trybom*, Aptinothrips elegans Priesner*, A. rufus (Haliday*, Chirothrips kurdistanus zur Strassen*, Ch. manicatus (Haliday*, Ch. meridionalis Bagnall*, Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel*, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, F. occidentalis (Pergande, F. pallid (Uzel, F. tenuicornis (Uzel*, Limothrips transcaucasicus Savenko*, Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford*, Mycterothrips tschirkunae (Yakhontov*, M. weii Mirab-balou, Shi & Chen*, Odontothrips confusus Priesner, Rubiothrips vitis (Priesner*, Scolothrips longicornis Priesner*, Tenothrips discolor (Karny*, T. frici (Uzel, Thrips atratus Haliday*, T. hawaiiensis (Morgan*, T. meridionalis (Priesner*, T. tabaci L., T. trehernei Priesner; II. Suborder TEREBRANTIA: Family PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE: Bagnalliella yuccae (Hinds*, Haplothrips reuteri (Karny, and Haplothrips tritici (Kurdjumov.

  2. Understanding trophic interactions of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in lettuce crops by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Polo, Priscila; Alomar, Oscar; Castañé, Cristina; Aznar-Fernández, Thaïs; Lundgren, Jonathan G; Piñol, Josep; Agustí, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where Orius spp. are common generalist predators. Predation by Orius spp. was studied in a lettuce plot by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR analyses using specific primers of both main pests. Also, high-throughput sequencing was used to have a wider approach of the diet of these predators in natural field conditions. Molecular analyses indicated a higher predation on N. ribisnigri in spring and on F. occidentalis in summer. Predation on alternative prey, like Collembola, was also found in both seasons. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR in showing the target trophic links, whereas high-throughput sequencing revealed predation on other natural enemies - intraguild predation (IGP), showing other trophic interactions of Orius majusculus within the studied ecosystem. This study gives important information about the trophic relationships present in Mediterranean lettuce crops in different periods of the year. The detected predation by Orius spp. on alternative prey, as well as on other natural enemies, should be further investigated to clarify whether it adds or detracts to the biological control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of "Hidden Break" in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

    2015-01-01

    With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a "hidden break" which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the "hidden break" is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of "hidden break" was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species.

  5. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mexican marigold (Tagetus minuta L.), tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca Graham) and Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.) were tested for their controlling effect on onion thrips. The population dynamics of the thrips was monitored and population counts were made before and after the application of each of the treatments.

  6. Thrips management program for horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article presents a systems approach for managing key thrips pests including western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) known to cause millions of dollars loss annually. Thrips small size (1-2 mm), thigmotactic behavior, high reproductive rate an...

  7. Prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii between first instar western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and nymphs of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.

  8. Real-time PCR assay for distinguishing Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi Arnika Przybylska, Żaneta Fiedler, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska, Arnika; Fiedler, Żaneta; Frąckowiak, Patryk; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Thrips palmi and Frankliniella occidentalis (order Thysanoptera) are thrips species that represent major plant pests. They are polyphagous insects capable of adversely affecting crop production. As such, in the European Union, these thrips species should be regulated as quarantine organisms. T. palmi and F. occidentalis can cause considerable damage to susceptible plants by feeding on them and transmitting several viruses responsible for serious plant diseases. Successful pest control strategies are based on an early, fast, and reliable diagnosis, which precedes the selection of appropriate steps to limit the effects of harmful organisms. We herein describe a novel diagnostic approach that enables the sensitive and species-specific detection (and differentiation) of these pests in a duplex polymerase chain reaction assay, which was adapted for both standard and real-time quantitative assays. Our method is based on the amplification of a 5.8S-internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA fragment that is conserved between T. palmi and F. occidentalis.

  9. Thrips biocontrol: opportunities for use of natural enemies against the pear thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick J. Mills

    1991-01-01

    Thrips have been considered as both target pests and control agents in biological control. The main emphasis of this paper concerns the natural enemies of thrips and an appraisal of the potential for biological control of the pear thrips on sugar maple in the northeastern United States. Previous attempts at biological control of thrips pests have been confined to the...

  10. Clave ilustrada para los géneros de Thysanoptera y especies de Frankliniella presentes en cuatro zonas hortícolas en Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Soto R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una clave ilustrada para 15 géneros de Thysanoptera que han sido localizados en 4 zonas hortícolas de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se encontró 2 géneros de Aeolothripidae: Franklinothrips y Erythrothrips. También se encontró 2 géneros de Panchaetothripinae (Heliothrips y Selenothrips, 6 géneros de Thripinae (Bregmatothrips, Chirothrips, Neohydatothrips, Microcephalothrips, Frankliniella y Thrips y 5 géneros de Tubulifera (Karnyothrips, Haplothrips, Leptothrips, Liothrips y Adraneothrips. Se incluye una clave ilustrada para 5 especies de Frankliniella (parvula, fallaciosa, insularis, invasor y cubensis.

  11. Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of Agriculture, Shimoga, India during kharif (September 2003 to January 2004) and summer (March-June) 2004. After proving its pathogenicity, the potential of the mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum was evaluated under field conditions using the popular chilli variety "Byadagi". Different combinations of Fusarium semitectum formulations with monocrotophos (0.025% and 0.05%) were tested. Oil-emulsion and dust-water formulations (DWF) at 1x 10(8) spore/ml, DWF with monocrotophos and 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) were evaluated. Population of S. dorsalis, P. latus, predatory mite Amblyseius ovalis and damage index were estimated. Populations of thrips, mite and the predatory mite were estimated at 15 days interval after 30 days of transplanting. Damage index was assessed using a visual rating method. Plant height, fruit length and dry chilli yield of each treatment were also taken. Among the treatments, oil-emulsion formulation and dust water formulation of F. semitectum in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) reduced the population of thrips significantly over other treatments. Dust water formulation was achieved a significant decline of thrips population in chilli plants after 60 days of transplanting. This reduction of thrips population could be achieved due to the effect of second spraying, which was given at 50 days after transplanting. Chilli plant height and fruit length did not vary significantly among the treatment in both seasons. The highest dry chilli yield of 512 and 1058 kg/ha was recorded in dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) followed by oil formulation (432 kg/ha and 763 kg/ha) in Kharif and summer seasons, respectively

  12. Comparison of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Vectors for a Peanut Strain of Tomato Spotted Wilt Orthotospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Steven P; Heinz, Kevin M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2018-03-27

    Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) is a major disease in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., across peanut producing regions of the United States and elsewhere. Two thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are considered important vectors of TSWV in peanut in the Southeast. We compared the efficiency of acquisition (by larvae) and transmission (adults) of both thrips species for TSWV (Texas peanut-strain) to leaf disks of peanut (Florunner), as well as to Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. (Dwarf White Baby) and Petunia hybrida Juss. 'Fire Chief' using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both species were competent TSWV vectors in peanut and Impatiens, although F. fusca was the more efficient vector overall, i.e., virus acquisition and transmission rates for F. fusca averaged over several bioassays were 51.7 and 26.6%, respectively, compared with 20.0 and 15.3% for F. occidentalis. Neither species effectively transmitted this TSWV strain to Petunia (i.e., ≤3.6% transmission). We found statistically similar virus acquisition and transmission rates between both sexes for each species. We also detected no differences in TSWV-acquisition and transmission frequency between macropterous and brachypterous (short-wing) forms of F. fusca collected from a field population in south Texas. DAS-ELISA failed to detect low levels of TSWV in a few thrips that subsequently proved to be competent vectors.

  13. Thysanoptera biodiversity in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence A. Mound

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that descriptive taxonomy of thrips must be integrated into biological studies if we are to understand patterns of evolutionary and ecological diversity. Collecting and describing new taxa is easy, but understanding their position in ecosystems and how they have contributed to the origin and maintenance of biological diversity is more important yet more difficult. Many authors fail to appreciate that individual thrips species are commonly highly polymorphic, both within and between sexes, with the result that 20% of species names and 30% of generic names are currently placed into synonymy. The biological significance of such polymorphism has been little studied, but the presence of large and small males in a species is presumed to indicate some form of male/male competition for resources; this is particularly common in fungus feeding species. Amongst phytophagous species, the recognition of the host plants on which thrips actually breed is a prerequisite to understanding patterns of diversity, some thrips lineages being associated with particular groups of plants whereas others exploit a diverse range of plants. Attempts to understand the diversity of thrips, including the application of cladistic methods, are severely limited by the lack of studies on the biology of individual species, although thrips exhibit a wide range of interesting biological phenomena, including various levels of sociality, gallinduction, specific pollination associations, virus transmission, and ectoparasitismSe ha sugerido que la taxonomía descriptiva de los tisanopteros (trips debe integrarse dentro de los estudios biológicos si queremos ser capaces de entender los patrones de diversidad evolutiva y ecológica. Recolectar y describir nuevos datos es fácil, pero entender su posición en los ecosistemas y como ellos contribuyen al origen y mantenimiento de la diversidad biológica es más importante y aún más difícil. Muchos autores han fallado al

  14. Development of Near-Isogenic Lines in a Parthenogenetically Reproduced Thrips Species, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangdi; Wan, Yanran; Li, Xiaoyu; He, Bingqing; Zhang, Youjun; Xu, Baoyun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    Although near-isogenic lines (NILs) can standardize genetic backgrounds among individuals, it has never been applied in parthenogenetically reproduced animals. Here, through multiple rounds of backcrossing and spinosad screening, we generated spinosad resistant NILs in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with a haplo-diploid reproduction system. The resultant F. occidentalis NIL-R strain maintained a resistance ratio over 30,000-fold, which was comparable to its parental resistant strain, Spin-R. More importantly, F. occidentalis NIL-R shared 98.90% genetic similarity with its susceptible parental strain Ivf03. By developing this toolset, we are able to segregate individual resistance and facilitate the mechanistic study of insecticide resistances in phloem-feeding arthropods, a group of devastating pest species reproducing sexually as well as asexually.

  15. Insects’ RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaline Wanjiru Macharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With an exception of aphids, insects’ 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a “hidden break” which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect’s RNA, the “hidden break” is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of “hidden break” was depicted in whiteflies’ 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect’s 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species.

  16. Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

    2015-01-01

    With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a “hidden break” which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the “hidden break” is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of “hidden break” was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species. PMID:25767721

  17. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    the highest effect in reducing thrips pest population in year one, though was on par with that of dimethoate, did well in the second year contributing to significant yield improvement against the control. There was no statistically significant difference among treatments in plant height, leaf number and bulb weight. From among ...

  19. Detection of the quarantine species Thrips palmi by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnika Przybylska

    Full Text Available Thrips palmi (from the order Thysanoptera is a serious insect pest of various crops, including vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants, causing significant economic losses. Its presence constitutes a double threat; not only does T. palmi feed on the plants, it is also a vector for several plant viruses. T. palmi originated in Asia, but has spread to North and Central America, Africa, Oceania and the Caribbean in recent decades. This species has been sporadically noted in Europe and is under quarantine regulation in the European Union. For non-specialists its larval stages are indistinguishable morphologically from another widespread and serious insect pest Frankliniella occidentalis (a non-quarantine species in the European Union as well as other frequently occurring thrips. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification protocol to amplify rDNA regions of T. palmi. The results were consistent whether isolated DNA or crushed insects were used as template, indicating that the DNA isolation step could be omitted. The described method is species-specific and sensitive and provides a rapid diagnostic tool to detect T. palmi in the field.

  20. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  1. Leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion that damages leaves and bulbs, reduces yields, and transmits important diseases such as iris yellow spot virus and bacterial rots. Growers would benefit from onions resistant to thrips in order to reduce insecticide applications and provide more sust...

  2. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

  3. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality.

  4. Repellency of essential oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as affected by type of oil and polymer release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Isabelle; Hollingsworth, Robert G; Salmieri, Stéphane; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Eight essential oils [0.125-1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24-120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactum also showed repellency values > or = 90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops.

  5. Variation in preference and performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on three strawberry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya

    2010-10-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of strawberry, causing substantial yield loss through direct feeding on the flowers and fruit. Insecticides are the main method used for its control; however, F. occidentalis has developed resistance to insecticides from all major chemical classes. Chemical control is not a long-term strategy and integrated pest management is required. This study determined whether F. occidentalis damage could be reduced by host plant resistance or tolerance in three commercial strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa [Rosaceae]: 'Albion', 'Camarosa', and 'Camino Real'). Determination of resistance or tolerance to F. occidentalis was based on olfactory response, feeding damage, ovipositional preference, and host suitability for reproduction on leaves. F. occidentalis adults preferred to feed on Camarosa; however, if leaves had been fed on previously by conspecifics, there was no difference in feeding preference. Camarosa was the most preferred cultivar for oviposition, and more eggs were laid by F. occidentalis on Camarosa than either Albion or Camino Real. More larvae hatched and adults were reared from Camarosa than either Albion or Camino Real. The percentage of unhatched eggs, larvae, and pupae that died was highest on Camino Real. Survival rate was highest on Camarosa. Egg incubation, prepupation, pupation, and total developmental periods were shortest on Camarosa, but the larval period was longest on Camarosa. Camarosa was the most favorable cultivar for F. occidentalis population growth on leaves.

  6. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  7. Thrips on stone fruits: formative stage of pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry A. Payne; Carroll E. Yonce; Ramona J. Beshear; Dan L. Horton

    1991-01-01

    Thrips populations and injury attributed to their feeding on nectarine and peach fruit surfaces were monitored in sprayed and unsprayed orchards in central Georgia from 1983-1988. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), the eastern flower thrips; F. occidentalis (Pergande), the western flower thrips; and Neohydatothrips...

  8. Oral toxicity of bacterial toxins against thrips species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Visser, J.H.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The oral toxicity of excretion products of several Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus strains was tested on two thrips species: Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci. Out of 46 Photorhabdus isolates and 6 Xenorhabdus isolates only 6 North American P. temperata isolates were toxic to the thrips

  9. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna, Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Management programs for onion thrips.

  10. Structure of the mouthparts of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Childers; Diann S. Achor

    1991-01-01

    Thrips are increasingly recognized as potentially serious pests in a number of different agricultural, ornamental and sylvan commodities worldwide as indicated by the papers presented at this conference. The small size of thrips, their large numbers, capacity for flight and wind dispersal, wide host ranges, poorly understood life histories and probable potential for...

  11. Effect of different temperatures on consumption of two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, eggs by the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...... Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15º C to 37º C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L......:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 ºC to 37 ºC, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower...

  12. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Shigemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande] is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage.

  13. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    . occidentalis utilizan la planta en forma temporal y oportunista en Prepuna, mientras que la presencia de F. gemina en Puna es esporádica. Se amplía el número de especies de tisanópteros asociadas al cultivo de haba en ArgentinaThysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina. The different phenological stages of Vicia faba provide food resources and substrates for the development of a significant diversity of insects. This study aimed to identify the complex of anthophyllous thrips, analyze the species population fluctuations, to obtain some bioecological aspects and the role they play in this association. The study and sampling was conducted during the flowering-fruiting bean crop stages in two phytogeographical regions of Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479m asl on a weekly basis, from October-December 1995-1996 and Puna (3 367m asl every two weeks, from December 2007-March 2008. Each sample consisted of 25 flowers taken at random; only at Prepuna a complementary sampling of three hits per plant (n=10 plants was conducted. Observations were made on oviposition sites, admission to the flower, pupation sites, feeding behavior and injuries caused. In Prepuna, the Thysanoptera complex consisted of Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei and Thrips tabaci; in Puna, the specific diversity was restricted to F. australis and F. gemina. Although the planting-harvest period in both areas did not match, the fluctuations in populations showed the same pattern: as flowering progressed, the number of thrips coincided with the availability of food resources. In both areas, F. australis was the dominant species and maintained successive populations; it layed eggs in flower buds, and larvae hatched when flowers opened; feeding larvae and adults brought about silvery stains with black spots. In Prepuna, F. australis went through the mobile immature stages on flowers, while quiescent stages were on the ground; in the Puna, all

  14. The fossil species Merothrips dietrichi (Schliephake) comb.n. redescribed and transferred from the genus Heterothrips (Thysanoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulitzka, Manfred R; Mound, Laurence

    2017-02-13

    Identifying and describing fossil thrips (Thysanoptera) sometimes touches the limits of feasibility. Complications handling these tiny fossils are not only caused by their size, their position or fragmentary nature, but also by the state and condition of the matrices surrounding them. Due to poor preservation in some matrices (such as lime, potash and lignite) their identification often remains uncertain (Ulitzka 2015a). Amber, however, considered as a window on times past (Gröhn et al. 2015), presents a wide range of insect inclusions in excellent condition. Nevertheless, many problems can impede our visibility through this 'window'. Fissures, opacity or clouding in the fossil resin, as well as inclusions or bubbles of air, can cover specific characteristics of an included specimen. Curvature of the amber surface results in optical distortions that can impede a reliable assessment of certain features, and the deeper an inclusion is in the amber the greater are the problems. For these reasons cutting or grinding the amber as close as possible to a specimen is essential. In the future, synchrotron X-ray microtomography may be an alternative (Henderickx et al. 2012; van de Kamp et al. 2014), but at present is too complex and expensive.

  15. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  16. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae em morangueiro Biology and fertility life table of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nondillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae, considerando que no Brasil quase nada se sabe sobre a fauna de tripes associada à cultura do morangueiro. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas em placas de Petri contendo uma flor ou um folíolo de morangueiro, mantidas em câmaras climatizadas (25 ± 1 ºC; 60 ± 10% U.R.; fotofase de 12 horas e observadas diariamente até a morte. A duração média do período de larva-adulto e a viabilidade não diferiram entre os insetos mantidos em flores (8,49 ± 0,18 e 68,52% e folíolos (8,85 ± 0,15 e 75,47%. A fecundidade média diária e a total foram mais elevadas quando flores foram fornecidas como alimento (7,4 ± 0,69 e 70,0 ± 9,18 ovos/fêmea respectivamente, em comparação com folíolos (2,4 ± 0,35 e 8,5 ± 1,13 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente. A duração média, em dias, do período embrionário foi distinta entre os indivíduos mantidos em flores (3,7 ± 0,03 e em folíolos (4,4 ± 0,09. A viabilidade dos ovos depositados sobre flores e folíolos foi de 65,5 ± 0,01 e 74,3 ± 0,03%, respectivamente. Com base na tabela de vida de fertilidade, o desempenho dos indivíduos de F. occidentalis que se desenvolveram em flores foi melhor, com uma geração (ovo-adulto completada a cada 20,92 dias, a 25 °C.This work aimed to study biological aspects of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae considering that almost nothing is known about the thrips fauna associated with strawberry crop. Newly hatched larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, containing a flower or a foliole of strawberry and kept in chambers (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH; 12 hours photophase. Daily observations were conducted until the insect death. The average time of the biological cycle (larva-adult and viability did not differ between the insects maintained in flowers (8.49 ± 0.18 and 68.52% and folioles (8.85 ± 0.15 and

  17. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed; Ansari Mohammad Shafiq; Basri Rabiya

    2017-01-01

    Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna), Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Managemen...

  18. Thrips pests of China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips are among the most significant agricultural pests in China and the United States. Thrips can damage crops by their direct feeding and oviposition damage, and by the ability of some species to vector plant viruses. Four highly invasive species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Scirtoth...

  19. Effect of new and old pesticides on Orius armatus (Gross) - an Australian predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sonya; Harrison, Jessica; Rahman, Touhidur

    2014-03-01

    Orius armatus (Gross) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Australian glasshouse grown sweet pepper. The failure of O. armatus to establish in some glasshouses has been attributed to the use of newer, more non-selective pesticides, some of which are regarded to be compatible with integrated pest management. The residual toxicity (via direct and indirect contact) of several older and newer chemistry pesticides were evaluated. In addition, the effect of several systemic insecticides through insecticide-treated food-chain uptake was tested. Older chemistry pesticides (methamidophos, dimethoate) were toxic to Orius armatus, except pirimicarb which was non-toxic. Newer chemistry pesticides differed in their suitability. Abamectin was toxic to adults and nymphs. Chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid and spirotetramat were non-toxic. Spinosad and spinetoram were moderately toxic to O. armatus. Spinosad also reduced fecundity by 20% compared to the untreated control. Pymetrozine was non-toxic, but females exposed to treated beans produced 30% fewer eggs and 20% fewer nymphs hatched compared to the untreated control. The selective pesticides do not necessarily facilitate the conservation of beneficials, and further assessment of the various developmental stages and other sub-lethal effects of chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, pymetrozine, spinetoram, and spirotetramat is recommended. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Development and Characterization of 18 Novel EST-SSRs from the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yue Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang. The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang significantly deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE. Pairwise FST analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < FST < 0.032 among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies.

  1. The First Report of miRNAs from a Thysanopteran Insect, Thrips palmi Karny Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

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    K B Rebijith

    Full Text Available Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is the sole vector of Watermelon bud necrosis tospovirus, where the crop loss has been estimated to be around USD 50 million annually. Chemical insecticides are of limited use in the management of T. palmi due to the thigmokinetic behaviour and development of high levels of resistance to insecticides. There is an urgent need to find out an effective futuristic management strategy, where the small RNAs especially microRNAs hold great promise as a key player in the growth and development. miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs involved in regulation of gene expression either by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. We identified and characterized a total of 77 miRNAs from T. palmi using high-throughput deep sequencing. Functional classifications of the targets for these miRNAs revealed that majority of them are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, nucleotide binding and signal transduction. We have also validated few of these miRNAs employing stem-loop RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and Northern blot. The present study not only provides an in-depth understanding of the biological and physiological roles of miRNAs in governing gene expression but may also lead as an invaluable tool for the management of thysanopteran insects in the future.

  2. Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global F ST = 0.043, Poccidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

  3. Development and characterization of 18 novel EST-SSRs from the western flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang). The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (H(O)) and expected (H(E)) heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Pairwise F(ST) analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < F(ST) < 0.032) among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies.

  4. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

  5. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  6. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

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    Wei-Te Chen

    Full Text Available Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding, feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  7. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  8. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  9. A metabolomics approach to thrips resistance in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Romero González, Roman Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Western flower thrips is one of the most serious crop pests worldwide. Its control relies mainly on pesticides whose excessive use leads to resistance development and environmental contamination. As an alternative, in this thesis host-plant resistance in wild and domesticated tomatoes was studied using metabolomics. Different resistance mechanisms in which mechanical and chemical defenses work coordinately to fend thrips off were observed and contrasted. In all cases resistance was associated...

  10. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  11. Una especie nueva de tisanóptero del género Frankliniella (grupo cephalica;Thysanoptera:Thripidaede Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Frankliniella para el grupo cephalica: Frankliniella morerai. La nueva especie es similar a F. sandovalensis en el cuerpo translúcido, pero se distingue por las setas io III en posición 1/2, su peine completo en el segmento abdominal VIII, los segmentos antenales sin coloración y la seta po IV de mayor longitud. Se encontró en baja densidad en cultivos de chile, tomate, lechuga, camote y culantro. Se presenta un cuadro comparativo con las especies del grupo y se incluyen ilustraciones de la nueva especieA new species of thrip,genus Frankliniella (group cephalica ; Thysanoptera: Thripidae from Costa Rica. A new species of the Frankliniella cephalica group, from Central Costa Rica, is described under the name "Frankliniella morerai n.sp.". It is closely related to Frankliniella sandovalensis. Both species have translucent bodies, but the new species can be distinguished by these characteristics: setae io III in position 1/2, a complete comb on abdominal segment VIII, antennal segments without coloration and setae po IV longer. It was found in low density in crops of chilli, tomato, lettuce, sweet potato and coriander. A comparative table with other species of this group is included to facilitate diagnosis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:191-194.Epub 2005 Jun 24

  12. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and non-treated trap plants for the management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in greenhouse ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, J Les; Jandricic, Sarah; Murphy, Graeme; Short, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of trap cropping as an integrated control strategy against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was explored in potted chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev), greenhouse crops. The efficacy of flowering chrysanthemum trap plants, either treated with the insecticide spinosad or untreated, to regulate F. occidentalis populations was tested at different spatial scales (small cage, large cage and commercial greenhouse) and for different time periods (1 or 4 weeks). It was demonstrated that flowering chrysanthemums as trap plants lower the number of adult F. occidentalis in a vegetative chrysanthemum crop and, as a result, reduce crop damage. In the 4 week large-cage trial and the commercial trial, significant differences between the control and the trap plant treatments started to appear in the third week of the experiment. Larvae were only significantly reduced by the presence of trap plants in the 1 week small-cage trials. There were no significant differences between treatments with spinosad-treated and untreated trap plants in the number of F. occidentalis on the crop. This suggests that there was minimal movement of adult F. occidentalis back and forth between the trap plants and the crop to feed and oviposit. It is concluded that the trap plant strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management against F. occidentalis in greenhouses. 2007 Crown in the right of Canada

  13. Plant genotype effects on a host specific thrips and the impact on biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A promising thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini (Phlaeothripidae) has been considered for biological control of the invasive weed Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthifolius. This thrips was originally collected from a southern region of Brazil where it was frequently found associated with significant da...

  14. How predictable are the behavioral responses of insects to herbivore induced changes in plants? Responses of two congeneric thrips to induced cotton plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Silva

    Full Text Available Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate.

  15. How Predictable Are the Behavioral Responses of Insects to Herbivore Induced Changes in Plants? Responses of Two Congeneric Thrips to Induced Cotton Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J.; Wilson, Lewis J.; Walter, Gimme H.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

  16. Biochemical analysis of leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a serious insect pest of onion and is a vector for Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Lower amounts of epicuticular waxes on onion leaves have been associated with fewer thrips, less feeding damage, and lower incidence of IYSV. In this study, 10 onion selections that showed les...

  17. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of

  18. Inheritance of resistance to acrinathrin in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Fernández, Esther; Grávalos, Carolina; Abellán, Jaime; Cifuentes, Dina

    2008-05-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest. The genetic basis of acrinathrin resistance was investigated in WFT. The resistant strain, selected in the laboratory for acrinathrin resistance from a pool of thrips populations collected in Almeria (south-eastern Spain), showed a high resistance to acrinathrin (43-fold based on LC(50) values) compared with the laboratory susceptible strain. Mortality data from reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible thrips indicated that resistance was autosomal and not influenced by maternal effects. Analysis of probit lines from the parental strains and reciprocal crosses showed that resistance was expressed as a codominant trait. To determine the number of genes involved, a direct test of monogenic inheritance based on the backcrosses suggested that resistance to acrinathrin was probably controlled by one locus. Another approach, which was based on phenotypic variances, showed n(E), or the minimum number of freely segregating genetic factors for the resistant strain, to be 0.79. The results showed that acrinathrin resistance in WFT was autosomal and not influenced by maternal effects, and was expressed as a codominant trait, probably controlled by one locus. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  20. Invasion genetics of the Western flower thrips in China: evidence for genetic bottleneck, hybridization and bridgehead effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Yang

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global F(ST = 0.043, P<0.001 among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China.

  1. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  2. Identification of Chlorogenic Acid as a Resistance Factor for Thrips in Chrysanthemum[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A.; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora). We identified thrips-resistant chrysanthemums applying bioassays. Subsequently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolome of thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums. NMR facilitates wide-range coverage of the metabolome. We show that thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums can be discriminated on basis of their metabolomic profiles. Thrips-resistant chrysanthemums contained higher amounts of the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid. Both phenylpropanoids are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores as well as pathogens. Thus, chlorogenic and feruloyl quinic acid are the compounds of choice to improve host plants resistance to thrips in ornamentals and crops. The effect of chlorogenic acid on thrips was further studied in bioassays with artificial diets. These experiments confirmed the negative effects on thrips. Our results prove NMR to be an important tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants. PMID:19448039

  3. Potential causes of the pear thrips outbreak in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Schultz

    1991-01-01

    No one knows what caused the 1988 outbreak of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in the northeastern United States. As an entomologist and ecologist who knows even less about this insect than most of the authors of this volume, I cannot presume to understand the causes of this...

  4. Relative population levels of citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii Faure is a serious economic pest in southern Africa. It is indigenous, breeding on many wild hosts as well as on citrus. In this northern Transvaal lowveld study, bush containing known host plants of S. aurantii was not the source of early infestation of a navel orange orchard by adult citrus ...

  5. A metabolomics approach to thrips resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero González, Roman Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Western flower thrips is one of the most serious crop pests worldwide. Its control relies mainly on pesticides whose excessive use leads to resistance development and environmental contamination. As an alternative, in this thesis host-plant resistance in wild and domesticated tomatoes was studied

  6. Western flower thrips, a serious pest of floricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Robb; Michael P. Perella

    1991-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has recently become one of the most serious pest problems facing the ornamental industry (Robb & Parrella 1988). It is polyphagous and has been collected from plants of almost every order of the Spermatophyta in California (Watson 1923, Bailey 1933, Bryan & Smith 1956). However...

  7. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and Thrips tabaci by leaf sucking. The F. occidentalis experiments also included feeding on pollen prior to feeding on PSTVd-infected leaf. No thrips-mediated transmission of PSTVd was recorded. The possibility of PSTVd transmission by Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris during their feeding...

  8. Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

    2005-12-01

    In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for

  9. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  10. Observations on the flight pattern of some Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species by using suction trap in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal flight activity of the Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species was studied by using suction trap, in South-East Hungary, in the years 2000 and 2004 from April to October. The flight period of two dominant species, namely Haplothrips angusticornis Priesner and Haplothrips aculeatus Fabricius (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae, was observed in high number in Europe. Also, it was the first record of mass flight observation of H. angusticornis. In addition, the effect of meteorological factors, such as temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, air pressure, and their influences, were evaluated.

  11. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    to have modest value for detecting resistance to methiocarb in field populations of F. occidentalis. The particular host plant of a polyphagous insect population may affect activity of detoxification enzymes and tolerance to insecticides. Another part of this study investigated the possible effects......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  12. Greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, in California avocado orchards: biological control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. McMurtry; Mohammad H. Badii

    1991-01-01

    Greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche), on avocado in California, is another case, like pear thrips, of a species being present for many decades but only recently increasing to major pest status. Damaging infestations, previously occurring only sporadically and mainly in areas within a few kilometers of the coast, now are common in...

  13. Population dynamics of thrips prey and their mite predators in a refuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhaes, S.; van Rijn, P.C.J.; Montserrat Larrosa, M.; Pallini, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Prey refuges are expected to affect population dynamics, but direct experimental tests of this hypothesis are scarce. Larvae of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis use the web produced by spider mites as a refuge from predation by the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Thrips incur a

  14. Population dynamics of thrips prey and their mite predators in a refuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, S.; Van Rijn, P.C.J.; Montserrat, M.; Pallini, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Prey refuges are expected to affect population dynamics, but direct experimental tests of this hypothesis are scarce. Larvae of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis use the web produced by spider mites as a refuge from predation by the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Thrips incur a

  15. Orius insidiosus (Say) and entomopathogens as possible biological control agents for thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Oetting; Ramona J. Beshear

    1991-01-01

    The entomology program in ornamental floriculture at the University of Georgia places primary emphasis on commercial production of flowering and foliage plants under greenhouse conditions. Thrips management is a major part of that program. Several species of foliage and flower inhabiting species are pests on greenhouse crops. The western flower thrips, ...

  16. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  17. Flight movement and spatial distribution of immunomarked thrips in onion, potato, and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thrips in different crops, and the correlation between meterological parameters and the flight movements of this pest, using immunomarking. The experiment was conducted in cultivated areas, with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, and onion (Allium cepa; and non-cultivated areas, with weedy plants. The areas with tomato (100 days, potato (20 days, and weeds were sprayed with casein, albumin, and soy milk, respectively, to mark adult thrips; however, the areas with onion (50 days and tomato (10 days were not sprayed. Thrips were captured with georeferenced blue sticky traps, transferred into tubes, and identified by treatment area with the Elisa test. The dependence between the samples and the capture distance was determined using geostatistics. Meteorlogical parameters were correlated with thrips density in each area. The three protein types used for immunomarking were detected in different proportions in the thrips. There was a correlation between casein-marked thrips and wind speed. The thrips flew a maximum distance of 3.5 km and dispersed from the older (tomato to the younger crops (potato. The immunomarking method is efficient to mark large quantities of thrips.

  18. Growth and Transmission of Gut Bacteria in the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a polyphagous insect with global distribution, has a permanent association with a near Erwinia species TAC bacterium in its hindgut. Since this bacterium is able to grow outside the thrips, it is a facultative symbiont that is not completely

  19. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansiddhi, K.; Siriphontangmun, S.

    1999-01-01

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  20. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  1. Thrips collected in watermelon crops in the semiarid of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewerton Marinho Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From August to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon production area with 10,000m2, using 20 Moericke traps. We captured a total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thripidae and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin (Phlaeothripidae. This is the first report of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil

  2. Unexpected High Intragenomic Variation in Two of Three Major Pest Thrips Species Does Not Affect Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 Utility for Thrips Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCO1 and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2 are among the most widely used molecular markers for insect taxonomic characterization. Three economically important species of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi, and Frankliniella occidentalis were selected to examine the extent of intragenomic variation within these two marker regions in the family Thripidae, and determine if this variation would affect the utility of markers in thrips molecular diagnostics. For each species, intragenomic (within individual variation and intergenomic (among individuals variation was assessed by cloning and sequencing PCR-amplified copies. Intergenomic variation was generally higher than intragenomic variation except in cases where intergenomic variation was very low, as in mtCO1 from S. dorsalis and F. occidentalis. Intragenomic variation was detected in both markers in all three of the thrips species, however, 2–3 times more intragenomic variation was observed for ITS2 than mtCO1 in both S. dorsalis and T. palmi. Furthermore, levels of intragenomic variation were low for both of the genes in F. occidentalis. In all of the three thrips species, no sex-based clustering of haplotypes was observed in either marker. Unexpected high intragenomic variation in ITS2 for two of three thrips species did not interfere with thrips diagnostics. However, caution should be taken in applying ITS2 to certain studies of S. dorsalis and T. palmi when high levels of intragenomic variation could be problematic or confounding. In such studies, mtCO1 may be a preferable marker. Possible reasons for discrepancies in intragenomic variation among genomic regions are discussed.

  3. Resolving cryptic species with morphology and DNA; thrips as a potential biocontrol agent of Brazilian peppertree, with a new species and overview of Pseudophilothrips (Thysanoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular and morphological evidence is presented to support the description of a second species of Pseudophilothrips in Brazil in association with Schinus terebinthifolius, an invasive weedy tree in North America. Pseudophilothrips is here recognized as a weakly defined genus comprising 13 describe...

  4. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  5. Temperature influence on the life cycle and forming of various forms of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Slobodenyuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results of forming various forms of the western flower thrips in greenhouse’s vegetable phytocenoses and of the temperature influence on the life cycle of Frankliniella occidentalis are presented. It was established that dark forms of the thrips species predominate in phytocenosis of Lycopersicon genus but light forms of the pest predominate in phytocenosis of Cucumis genus. It was proved experimentally in laboratory that when the temperature decreases, the percentage of the dark forms of Frankliniella occidentalis substantially increases and full development cycle from an egg to imago becomes longer.

  6. Insects’ RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaline Wanjiru Macharia; Fidelis Levi Ombura; Erick Onyango Aroko

    2015-01-01

    With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a ?hidden break? which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under ...

  7. A new leaf-galling Holopothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the structural alterations on Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Nina Castro; Cavalleri, Adriano; Bedetti, Cibele Souza; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2016-11-27

    Holopothrips striatus sp. n. is described inducing leaf-galls on Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae) in Southern Brazil. The thrips is one of the few species of Holopothrips known to have the metanotum with striate rather than reticulate sculpture. The galls are green with brownish spots, and are characterised by a mix of folding and rolling of the leaf lamina upwards.

  8. Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis and its relatives, with one new species and one new genus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Steve; O'donnell, Cheryle A; Mound, Laurence A

    2015-09-29

    Heliothrips similis sp.n. is described as a close relative of the greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. This is the third species recognized here in the Neotropical genus Heliothrips. A pest species described from South Africa as Heliothrips sylvanus is transferred to a new genus, Neoheliothrips gen.n., as Neoheliothrips sylvanus (Faure) comb.n.

  9. Flower visitation and oviposition behaviour of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Balkema-Boomstra, A.; Mollema, C.

    2000-01-01

    Oviposition behaviour of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis(Pergande) on greenhouse cucumber, Cucumis satifus(L.) was investigated. Most eggs were laid in the leaves, along veins and under leaf hairs, with only a few on plant stems and flowers. Oviposition rate was higher during the

  10. Use of Geospatial Technologies to Understanding Invasion Processes to Mitigate the Invasion of Chilli Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) is a relatively new pest species in Florida. Nonetheless, interest in chilli thrips continues to grow due to the ease of spread in field and ornamental crops, and its potential negative impacts on yield and economic returns. The highest reported detections i...

  11. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Resistance Mechanism Against Chlorpyrifos in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan-Kan; Hu, Min; Tang, Yun-Xia; Fan, Jia-Qin

    2015-08-01

    The western flower thrips is an economically important worldwide pest of many crops, and chlorpyrifos has been used to control western flower thrips for many years. To develop a better resistance-management strategy, a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of western flower thrips (WFT-chl) was selected in the laboratory. More than 39-fold resistance was achieved after selected by chlorpyrifos for 19 generations in comparison with the susceptible strain (WFT-S). Proteome of western flower thrips (WFT-S and WFT-chl) was investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification technique and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technologies. According to the functional analysis, 773 proteins identified were grouped into 10 categories of molecular functions and 706 proteins were presented in 213 kinds of pathways. Comparing the proteome of WFT-chl with that of WFT-S, a total of eight proteins were found up-regulated and three down-regulated. The results from functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses indicated that the differentially expressed protein functions in binding, catalyzing, transporting, and enzyme regulation were most important in resistance development. A list of proteins functioning in biological processes of metabolism, biological regulation, and response to stimulus was found in WFT-chl, suggesting that they are possibly the major components of the resistance mechanism to chlorpyrifos in western flower thrips. Notably, several novel potential resistance-related proteins were identified such as ribosomal protein, Vg (vitellogenin), and MACT (muscle actin), which can be used to improve our understanding of the resistance mechanisms in western flower thrips. This study provided the first comprehensive view of the complicated resistance mechanism employed by WFT-S and WFT-chl through the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification coupled

  12. Imidacloprid effects on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2005-10-01

    The effects of tomato, Lycopersicum spp., leaves treated with imidacloprid on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergrande) were examined using an electrical penetration graph technique and an intact leaf bioassay. For each experiment, thrips were subjected to nontreated plants and plants treated with either of two rates of imidacloprid: 7.81 and 41.55 microg [(AI)] per plant. F. fusca probed less frequently on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with the nontreated plants. The duration of F. fusca noningestion probing waveforms and ingestion was shorter on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with that on nontreated plants. In contrast, F. occidentalis probed longer and more frequently on plants treated with either the low or high imidacloprid rates compared with nontreated plants. They also ingested more frequently and for longer durations on plants treated with the high rate compared with nontreated plants. The duration and frequency of noningesting probing waveforms were greater on the imidacloprid-treated plants compared with the nontreated plants. F. occidentalis probed and ingested more frequently and for a longer duration than F. fusca on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid. F. fusca ingested more frequently and the duration of ingestion was longer than F. occidentalis in untreated plants. F. fusca and F. occidentalis settling behavior differed within the first 30 min in a choice bioassay. F. fusca preferred settling on leaves of nontreated plants, whereas F. occidentalis showed no preference in an intact leaf choice bioassay.

  13. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores Effect of different species of border plants on the population density of thrips and syrphids predators in onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes e cv. Brasília; cebola + milho (Zea mays L.; cebola + rúcula (Eruca sativa L. + vegetação espontânea. O plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais em bordadura não provocou diferenças significativas na incidência de tripes e sirfídeos predadores. A produtividade comercial de bulbos de cebola foi similar em sistema de monocultivo e diversificado, sugerindo ser possível adotar tais sistemas sem perdas em rendimento.The effect of planting different species of border plants on the population density of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind, and syrphid predators (Toxomerus spp., population density were evaluated at EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The research was carried out from August to December 1998. The treatments were onion monoculture; onion intercropped with buck wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Poligonaceae; onion intercropped with fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; onion intercropped with carrots (Daucus carota L. Nantes and Brasília cultivars; onion intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.; onion intercropped with Eruca sativa and weed. The onion thrips and syrphid predators population density were similar in onion monoculture and policulture. The yields were similar in onion monoculture and policulture, suggesting the possibility to intercrop onion without losses.

  14. Evaluation of Dicyphus hersperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, J L; Wang, K

    2006-04-01

    The effectiveness of inoculative releases of the mirid predator Dicyphus hesperus Knight for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on greenhouse tomatoes was evaluated in terms of suppression of the population densities of F. occidentalis and associated fruit damage in the presence of the predator over two seasonal trials. An inoculative release of one D. hesperus per plant (approximately 0.1:10 predator:prey ratio) at a high F. occidentalis population density (140 thrips per plant) suppressed the thrips population density to a significantly lower level, compared with the nonrelease greenhouse, but not below a thrips level that caused economic fruit damage. As the predator:prey ratio increased to approximately 0.5:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis, the mean percentage of the thrips-damaged fruit in the D. hesperus release greenhouse decreased to 1.6%. However, the amount of fruit feeding by D. hesperus was highly correlated to the availability of prey (or predator:prey ratio) under greenhouse conditions. D. hesperus-induced fruit damage occurred when the predator:prey ratio was >1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis. Considering the potential risk of fruit damage by D. hesperus and the need for effective control of F. occidentalis, a 0.5-1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis ratio is recommended when the thrips population density is in the range of 60-150 thrips per plant.

  15. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  16. Functional response of predatory thrips to two-spotted spider mite - influence of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    A leaf disc bioassay was used to investigate the effects of abamectin and fenpropathrin on the functional response of an acarophagous thrips, Scolothrips longicornis Priesner, to eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch at 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 h (L:D). The type of the functional response differed....... The theoretical maximum number of prey attacked by the thrips was 49.67 and 23.67 eggs per day for females and males, respectively; both maxima were attained in the control treatment. These values were reduced for males exposed to full doses of either pesticide and for females exposed to both half and full doses...

  17. Cross-resistance and baseline susceptibility of spirotetramat in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Navarro, Miguel; Bielza, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest all over the world. New products against thrips are necessary, as there are few effective compounds exhibiting cross-resistance among them. Lethal effects, cross-resistance, and baseline susceptibility to spirotetramat were evaluated in this study. A new bioassay method for testing thrips against spirotetramat was developed. Spirotetramat showed a significant mortality effect on larvae after 7 d of exposure, but a low effect was observed on adults. Baseline results for larval instars showed LC50 values ranging from 11.59 to 49.81 mg AI/liter, with a low natural variability (3.2-fold). Cross-resistance studies showed overlapping confidence limits of the LC50 values for laboratory-selected (against acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate, and spinosad) resistant and susceptible strains, and low resistance factors, from 0.5 to 1.9, suggesting no cross-resistance to conventional insecticides previously used. A slight ovicidal effect (21-40% reduction) was also detected. Despite presenting low effects on adults, spirotetramat showed high but slow efficacy on F. occidentalis larvae. Field populations in southeast Spain showed a consistent susceptibility to spirotetramat. Given the scarcity of effective products and the lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides, spirotetramat can be considered as a good chemical tool to control F. occidentalis.

  18. Ocorrência de Frankliniella schultzei (trybom (thysanoptera: thripidae em plantas daninhas Ocurrence of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae at weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. A. Lima

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se levantamentos de plantas daninhas, no Campus da UNESP em Jaboticabal/SP, com o objetivo de identificar espécies de plantas daninhas hospedeiras do tripes Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. As plantas foram coletadas semanalmente utilizando-se o método de ensacamento. A separação dos tripes foi feita mediante emprego do funil de Berlese. Entre as 43 espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas nas áreas amostradas, 19 são hospedeiras do tripes. Rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., nabiça (R. raphanistrum L. e mostarda (Sinapsis arvensis L. foram as que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de F. schultzei, 45, 27 e 17% do total de fêmeas coletadas respectivamente.A monitoring of weeds was carried out on the UNESP Campus in Jaboticabal, SP, with the objective of indentifying host weed species of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. The plants were collected weekly and transported to the laboratory inside paper bags. The Berlese funnel method was used to separate the insects from the plants. Thrips were found in 19 of the 43 weed species studied: Raphanus sativus L., R. raphanistrum L., and Sinapsis arvensis L. presented the highest percentage of thrips, consisting of 45, 27, and 17% respectively of the total females that were collected.

  19. Towards protease inhibitor mediated resistance to western flower thrips in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.

    2001-01-01

    Dendranthema grandiflora (chrysanthemum) is a cutflower grown across the world, with an acreage similar to roses. Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) is a major pest against a large number of crops, including chrysanthemum, in

  20. Stability and extent of resistance of cowpea lines to flower bud thrips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is a legume attacked by several field insect pests, with flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom) being the most damaging. It causes 20 to 100% yield losses. Cowpea constitutes an important source of protein for resource poor households in Africa. The objective of this study was ...

  1. stability and extent of resistance of cowpea lines to flower bud thrips

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-02-17

    Brown (1.50), MU20B ... NE67 (1.69), and NE51 (1.71)) were the most resistant and stable across locations. However, thrips damage was ... grain yield potential on-station is 3 t ha-1 but in farmers' fields, yields average a miserly ...

  2. Biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols, derivatives and conjugates in plants : roles in resistance to western flower thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is one of the most serious pests in several vegetable and flower crops worldwide. It is a highly polyphagous insect and a vector of several plant viruses of which the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and the Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus are the most

  3. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus by Thrips tabaci populations originating from leek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Nagata, T.; Katis, N.I.; Peters, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) by Thrips tabaci collected from leek was studied using the petunia local-lesion leaf-disc assay. After an acquisition-access period of 72 h given to newborn larvae up to 8 h old, the efficiency of transmission by adults was determined in

  4. Biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols, derivatives and conjugates in plants : roles in resistance to western flower thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is one of the most serious pests in several vegetable and flower crops worldwide. It is a highly polyphagous insect and a vector of several plant viruses of which the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and the Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus

  5. Seasonality and potential of Ceranisus menes for control of thrips on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonality and potential of Ceranisus menes for control of thrips on French beans. LM Gitonga. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol. 10 (1) 2008: pp. 56-69. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Evolution of asexuality via different mechanisms in grass thrips (Thysanoptra: Aptinothrips)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J.; Schwander, Tanja

    Asexual lineages can derive from sexual ancestors via different mechanisms and at variable rates, which affects the diversity of the asexual population and thereby its ecological success. We investigated the variation and evolution of reproductive systems in Aptinothrips, a genus of grass thrips

  7. Within plant interspecific competition does not limit the highly invasive thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Competitive superiority is often cited as the main reason for the success of an invasive species. Although invaded ecosystems are often examined, few have studied areas in which an invasive species has failed to invade. 2. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is a damaging pest ...

  8. Use of controlled atmospheres to enhance essential oil fumigant toxicity against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Oosterhaven, J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of selected essential oils was assessed against the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Adult females and larvae were exposed to combinations of essential oil doses and increased carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen levels. Application of such combinations were

  9. Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

    2005-12-01

    Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test.

  10. Population structure and genetic diversity in Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): is there a correlation between genetic and geographic proximity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, A L S; Waldschmidt, A M; Silva, J C

    2015-08-19

    Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is a minuscule insect species, which forms galls, is subsocial, and parthenogenetic. It is associated with Ficus benjamina L. (Moraceae) and has a pantropical occurrence. The paucity of genetic studies on the order Thysanoptera led us to use inter-simple sequence repeat molecular marker to assess intra- and inter-gall, as well as intra- and inter-site, genetic variability and population structure of G. uzeli. Analyses indicated low genetic variability, probably related to haplodiploidy, genetic drift, the galling habit, and the low dispersal ability of G. uzeli. Populations were highly structured, with higher variation within populations than among them. Geographic distance does not appear to affect structure and genetic diversity, the latter being influenced by G. uzeli's bioecological traits, by numerous introductions during a short period, and by a possible recent, common ancestry.

  11. Biolog??a, comportamiento y manejo de heliothrips haemorrhoidalis bouch?? (thysanoptera: Thripidae) en el cultivo del palto (Persea Americana Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    AUTOR: Nure??a Ruiz, Juana Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Se realiz?? el presente trabajo de investigaci??n con el objetivo de evaluar la biolog??a, comportamiento y manejo de Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouch?? (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) en el cultivo del palto (Persea americana Mill), en el Campus II del Fundo UPAO, Trujillo ??? La Libertad, durante los meses de Julio 2012 a Marzo del 2013. Para ello, se confinaron adultos de la especie, en hojas y frutos de palto de las variedades ???Hass??? y ???Fuerte??? y una semana ...

  12. Evaluation of Alternatives to an Organophosphate Insecticide with Selected Cultural Practices: Effects on Thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and Incidence of Spotted Wilt in Peanut Farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2018-04-07

    Peanut growers use a combination of tactics to manage spotted wilt disease caused by thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). They include planting TSWV-resistant cultivars, application of insecticides, and various cultural practices. Two commonly used insecticides against thrips are aldicarb and phorate. Both insecticides exhibit broad-spectrum toxicity. Recent research has led to the identification of potential alternatives to aldicarb and phorate. In this study, along with reduced-risk, alternative insecticides, we evaluated the effect of conventional versus strip tillage; single versus twin row seeding pattern; and 13 seed/m versus 20 seed/m on thips density, feeding injury, and spotted wilt incidence. Three field trials were conducted in Georgia in 2012 and 2013. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injuriy, and incidence of spotted wilt were less under strip tillage than under conventional tillage. Reduced feeding injury from thrips was observed on twin-row plots compared with single-row plots. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injury, and incidence of spotted wilt did not vary by seeding rate. Yield from twin-row plots was greater than yield from single-row plots only in 2012. Yield was not affected by other cultural practices. Alternative insecticides, including imidacloprid and spinetoram, were as effective as phorate in suppressing thrips and reducing incidence of spotted wilt in conjunction with cultural practices. Results suggest that cultural practices and reduced-risk insecticides (alternatives to aldicarb and phorate) can effectively suppress thrips and incidence of spotted wilt in peanut.

  13. Effects of leaf compounds, climate and natural enemies on the incidence of thrips in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Germano Leão Demolin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rainfall, temperature, sunlight and relative humidity, as well as predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition and levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium on the intensity of Scirtothrips manihoti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae attack on cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz var. Cacau. The leaf compounds (E-farnesene/trans-farnesol and D-friedoolean-14-en-3-one correlated significantly with the population of S. manihoti. Insect population decreased in the dry and cold season probably due to leaf senescence. Significative correlation was observed between Syrphidae with S. manihoti populations.

  14. APPLICATION OF FRUIT BAGGING, SANITATION, AND YELLOW STICKY TRAP TO CONTROL THRIPS ON MANGOSTEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi Affandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scars on mangosteen fruits caused by thrips are the most prominent constraint in Indonesian export of mangosteen. Most of the exported mangosteen are rejected due to scar appearance. This research aimed to study the effects of fruit bagging, sanitation, and sticky trap application on the scar intensity on mangosteen. The research was conducted at a farmer's polycultured mangosteen orchard in Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra, Indonesia from September 2006 to February 2007. The mangosteen trees were cultured with cacao and coconut. To study the effects of bagging on the number of scars, the fruits were individually bagged at different time points starting from the time of calyx falling down (0 followed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks later. Each treatment was replicated six times. The experiment of sanitation (SNT and yellow fluorescent sticky trap (YST application was designed in a completely randomized design with six replications, except for the control which was replicated only three times. Four treatments studied were SNT, YST, combination of SNT+YST, and control. The sanitation was applied by removing all weeds under the canopy of mangosteen trees followed with soil tillage and fogging. The sticky trap was nailed on woody sticks and placed on 3 m above the ground at four different positions around the tree canopy. Parameters observed were the percentage and intensityof scars and number of thrips caught on the sticky traps. The results showed that application of early bagging, SNT, YST, and SNT+YST were effective to reduce intensity and percentage of scars. However, combination of SNT+YST demonstrated the best results in reducing the intensity and percentage of scars by 32.14% and 42.82%, respectively. Combination of SNT+YST also drastically decreased thrips population as indicated by thelow number of thrips catched after five biweekly observations. Since the fifth observation, the thrips population was low (less

  15. Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and Sulphobacillus spp. mixed strains for use in cobalt and copper removal from water. ... Such findings suggest that if optimal conditions for biosorption of the metals by micro-organisms are achieved, this should afford a cost-effective method of removing metal ...

  16. Compatibility of spinosad with predaceous mites (Acari) used to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya

    2011-08-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide widely used for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). It is reported to be non-toxic to several predatory mite species used for the biological control of thrips. Predatory mites Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha), Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) have been used for control of F. occidentalis. This study investigated the impact of direct and residual toxicity of spinosad on F. occidentalis and predatory mites. The repellency of spinosad residues to these predatory mites was also investigated. Direct contact to spinosad effectively reduced the number of F. occidentalis adults and larvae, causing > 96% mortality. Spinosad residues aged 2-96 h were also toxic to F. occidentalis. Direct exposure to spinosad resulted in > 90% mortality of all three mite species. Thresholds for the residual toxicity (contact) of spinosad (LT25 ) were estimated as 4.2, 3.2 and 5.8 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. When mites were simultaneously exposed to spinosad residues and fed spinosad-intoxicated thrips larvae, toxicity increased. Residual thresholds were re-estimated as 5.4, 3.9 and 6.1 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. Residues aged 2-48 h repelled T. montdorensis and H. miles, and residues aged 2-24 h repelled N. cucumeris. Predatory mites can be safely released 6 days after spinosad is applied for the management of F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Spatial pattern detection modeling of thrips (Thrips tabaci on onion fields Detecção de padrões espaciais na ocorrência do tripes (Thrips tabaci na cultura da cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Jr

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables in Brazil and its importance is due to the large laborforce involved. One of the main pests that affect this crop is the Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci, but the spatial distribution of this insect, although important, has not been considered in crop management recommendations, experimental planning or sampling procedures. Our purpose here is to consider statistical tools to detect and model spatial patterns of the occurrence of the onion thrips. In order to characterize the spatial distribution pattern of the Onion Thrips a survey was carried out to record the number of insects in each development phase on onion plant leaves, on different dates and sample locations, in four rural properties with neighboring farms under different infestation levels and planting methods. The Mantel randomization test proved to be a useful tool to test for spatial correlation which, when detected, was described by a mixed spatial Poisson model with a geostatistical random component and parameters allowing for a characterization of the spatial pattern, as well as the production of prediction maps of susceptibility to levels of infestation throughout the area.A cebola é uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas e consumidas no Brasil e sua importância social se deve à grande demanda por mão-de-obra. Uma das principais pragas que afeta essa cultura é o tripes do prateamento (Thrips tabaci e sua distribuição espacial, embora importante, não tem sido considerada nas recomendações de manejo da cultura, planejamento de experimentos ou estudos amostrais. O objetivo desse artigo foi considerar métodos estatísticos para detectar e modelar padrões espaciais na ocorrência do tripes do prateamento da cebola. Para caracterizar o padrão espacial da dispersão do tripes do prateamento da cebola foi feito um levantamento anotando-se o número de insetos por fase de desenvolvimento em folhas de plantas de

  18. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  19. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  20. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  1. Colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of Thrips tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvea, Alexander M; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci.

  2. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.) after thrips infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiongbing; Liu, Zhongkuan; Zhang, Zehua

    2018-01-01

    Background Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (−T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, ‘GN-1’ (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and ‘WL323’ (America) was defined ...

  3. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOPES ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.

  4. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  5. Pesticide-mediated interspecific competition between local and invasive thrips pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyin; Reitz, Stuart R.; Yuan, Huiguo; Lei, Zhongren; Paini, Dean Ronald; Gao, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Competitive interactions between species can be mitigated or even reversed in the presence of anthropogenic influences. The thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are highly invasive and damaging agricultural pests throughout the world. Where the species co-occur, one species tends to eventually predominate over the other. Avermectin and beta-cypermethrin are commonly used insecticides to manage thrips in China, and laboratory bioassays demonstrated that F. occidentalis is significantly less susceptible than T. tabaci to these insecticides. In laboratory cage trials in which both species were exposed to insecticide treated cabbage plants, F. occidentalis became the predominant species. In contrast, T. tabaci completely displaced F. occidentalis on plants that were not treated with insecticides. In field trials, the species co-existed on cabbage before insecticide treatments began, but with T. tabaci being the predominant species. Following application of avermectin or beta-cypermethrin, F. occidentalis became the predominant species, while in plots not treated with insecticides, T. tabaci remained the predominant species. These results indicate that T. tabaci is an intrinsically superior competitor to F. occidentalis, but its competitive advantage can be counteracted through differential susceptibilities of the species to insecticides. These results further demonstrate the importance of external factors, such as insecticide applications, in mediating the outcome of interspecific interactions and produce rapid unanticipated shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. PMID:28084404

  6. Population abundance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and natural enemies on plant hosts in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Renato; Funderburk, Joe; Rodriguez, Fernando; Espinoza, Fernanda; Mound, Laurence

    2009-04-01

    Populations of the invasive Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) are serious pests of agricultural crops in the Aconcagua Valley of central Chile. An extensive survey was conducted of 55 plant species in 24 families to identify plant hosts of F. occidentalis and to determine its relative abundance on each host during each season. A more intensive study was conducted on selected plant species serving as reproductive hosts to determine the population dynamics of F. occidentalis and to evaluate the potential importance of Orius species and other natural enemies for controlling F. occidentalis. Adults of F. occidentalis were active during each season of the year inhabiting the flowers of 91% of the sampled plant species in 22 families, and 86% of these plant species in 19 families served as reproductive hosts. The number of host plant species used was greatest in the spring and least in the winter. All of the hosts except Medicago sativa L. were used only when flowering. Populations of F. occidentalis were significantly aggregated in M. sativa in the terminal buds over the leaves when the host was not flowering, and in the flowers, followed by the terminal buds, followed by the leaves when the host was flowering. Larvae were 1.3-2.3 times more abundant on dates when M. sativa was flowering. There were no identifiable patterns in plant hosts based on endemicity or plant family. Most of the plant species used by F. occidentalis were inferior quality hosts where populations either declined or were stable. Populations of F. occidentalis on low-quality hosts generally escaped predation by Orius species and competition by other species of thrips. Only 25% of the food hosts and 28% of the reproductive hosts for F. occidentalis in the extensive survey, respectively, were host plants for Orius. Parasitoids and other predators were not found to be important in suppressing thrips on any of the plant hosts. Populations of F. occidentalis increased on only a few hosts, including M

  7. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TS WV, weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in the Andean region of Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everth E Ebratt R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of the TSWV, weeds and thrip vectors in major tomato producing areas in the Andean department of Cundinamarca (Oriente, Sumapaz and Ubate provinces were assessed with the DAS ELISA technique, evaluating the presence of the TSWV in tomato tissue, associated thrips and weeds. High incidences were observed in different provinces of the Andean department of Cundinamarca. The average viral incidence reached 23.3% in Sumapaz, 19.4% in Oriente and 4% in Ubate. The symptoms observed were: brown spots and concentric rings in the leaf area, stems and fruits; browning and spotting in the flower; and wilting in the leaves, stems and flowers. The thrip species with the highest presence were Frankliniella occidentalis, followed by Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. We determined the important role of weeds as inoculum sources and vector reservoirs for the species Emilia sonchifolia and Amaranthus dubius

  8. Use of gamma irradiation as a quarantine control method for Frankliniella australis (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, J.E.; Curkovic, T.; Cayo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The black flower thrips, Frankliniella australis (Morgan), a Chilean species, causes quarantine rejections of fresh fruits for export. Today, fumigation with CH3Br is efficient to avoid these rejections, but is questioned because it affects the ozone layer, irradiation of foods being an alternative. The effect of gamma irradiation was studied in the laboratory on F. australis adults, at dosages of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Gy, followed by storage at 0-5 deg C to simulate shipping conditions. Mortality immediately after irradiation was low (1.5 to 22.3% at 250 and 1000 Gy, respectively), but increased an hour later (15.8, 33.4, 44.5, and 51.7% with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Gy, respectively). In this evaluation, mortality with the greatest dosage was significantly larger than with 500 and 250 Gy, while results with 750 and 500 Gy were not different between them but different with the smallest dosage. At 24 hours, mortality with all dosages surpassed 91%, although only that at 1000 Gy was significantly greater than at 250 Gy. At day 4th (96 hours) there was at least 98.8% mortality for the irradiation treatments, with significant differences with the control, which then presented only 12.8% mortality. Using logit regression with results up to day 4, a probit 9 (LD99.9968) for adults was estimated at 188 Gy. This dosage is slightly less to those indicated in the literature for control of other thrips, which may be explained because of the combined use of cold storage, although more studies are necessary of this technology under commercial conditions to verify its applicability for quarantine control of F. australis. (author) [es

  9. Comparison of life history parameters of two Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) strains in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M-C; Teulon, D A J; Chapman, R B; Butler, R C; Drayton, G M; Philipsen, H

    2010-04-01

    Two strains of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), are reputedly found in New Zealand. One strain was recorded in 1934, and it is most common in flowers of Lupinus arboreus outdoors (lupin strain); the other strain was first recorded in New Zealand in 1992 and is found mostly indoors on greenhouse crops (greenhouse strain). Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the life history parameters of these two strains. Thrips from each strain were fed sucrose solution and capsicum or lupin pollen and reared at 25 degrees C, >60% RH, and 16 L:8 D photoperiod. Significant differences in life history parameters were found. Preoviposition time was significantly shorter, and oviposition rate and fecundity were markedly higher (four-fold) for the greenhouse than for the lupin strain. The lupin strain performed significantly better on the capsicum pollen, laying more than twice as many eggs than on the lupin pollen over a 14-d period. The greenhouse strain development time from larvae to adult was marginally faster (0.7-1.1 d less) than the lupin strain because of a shorter prepupal and a marginally shorter pupal development time. Females of the greenhouse strain lived on average 69% longer than females from the lupin strain. Large differences in the intrinsic growth rate (r(m)) were found, with r(m) being 1.4-1.8 times higher for the greenhouse strain than the lupin strain, depending on pollen source. The results are discussed in relation to different ecological requirements and pest status of the two strains.

  10. Demographic analysis of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis and bisexual reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tianbo; Chi, Hsin; Gökçe, Ayhan; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Bin

    2018-02-20

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a serious pest that is capable of bisexual and arrhenotokous reproduction. In arrhenotokous reproduction, virgin females initially produce male offspring; later, when their sons are sexually mature, the mothers begin bisexual reproduction by carrying out oedipal mating with their sons. Because a virgin female produces many male offspring before oedipal mating occurs, multiple oedipal mating is common. In this study, we investigated the effect of multiple oedipal mating on the population growth of F. occidentalis by using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. In the arrhenotokous cohorts, all unfertilized eggs developed into males. In the bisexual cohorts, the offspring sex ratio was significantly female biased with the mean number of female offspring and male offspring being 72.68 and 29.00, respectively. These were the same as the net reproductive rate of female offspring and male offspring. In arrhenotokous cohorts, the number of males available for oedipal mating significantly affected the production of female offspring. The number of female offspring increased as the number of sons available for oedipal mating increased. Correctly characterizing this unique type of reproduction will provide important information for predicting the timing of future outbreaks of F. occidentalis, as well as aiding in formulating successful management strategies against the species.

  11. Taqman real-time quantitative PCR for identification of western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) for plant quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K S; Lee, S E; Yeh, Y; Shen, G S; Mei, E; Chang, C M

    2010-08-23

    Western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major global pest of agricultural products. It directly damages crops through feeding, oviposition activity or transmission of several plant viruses. We describe a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR detection system, which can rapidly identify F. occidentalis from thrips larvae to complement the traditional morphological identification. The data showed that our detection system targeted on the ribosomal RNA gene regions of F. occidentalis has high sensitivity and specificity. The rapid method can be used for on-site testing of samples at ports-of-entry in the future.

  12. The Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShuQi, He; Ying, Lin; Lei, Qian; ZhiHua, Li; Chao, Xi; Lu, Yang; FuRong, Gui

    2017-06-01

    Development and fecundity were investigated in an invasive alien thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and a related native species, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), under high CO2 concentration. Results show that the two thrips species reacted differently toward elevated CO2 concentration. Developmental duration decreased significantly (11.93%) in F. occidentalis at the CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter; survival rate of all stages also significantly increased (e.g., survival rate of first instar increased 17.80%), adult longevity of both female and male extended (e.g., female increased 2.02 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were higher at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter than at 400 µl/liter. Developmental duration of F. intonsa decreased, insignificantly, at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter. Unlike F. occidentalis, survival rate of F. intonsa declined considerably at higher CO2 concentration level (e.g., survival rate of first instar decreased 19.70%), adult longevity of both female and male curtailed (e.g., female reduced 3.82 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were reduced to 24.86 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that there exist significant differences between the two CO2 levels. Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of sticky traps and insecticides to prevent gall induction by Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) on Ficus benjamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, David W; Boyd, David W

    2008-02-01

    Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman was first detected in North America from galls on weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) in 2003. It has been reported from ten states in the continental United States, Hawaii, Trinidad and Costa Rica. Adult thrips induce leaves to fold permanently along the midvein, making it a significant pest of weeping fig. Studies were initiated to determine monitoring methods and establish control recommendations. Comparison of captures of adult G. uzeli on blue, yellow, white and green sticky traps found yellow to be the most effective color. Yellow traps were effective for capturing adult Thripastichus gentilei (del Guercio), a larval parasitoid of G. uzeli. Thrips were first captured around 10:00 h. Captures peaked around 15:00-16:00 h and typically ceased by 21:00 h. Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides applied to container media were ineffective against adult G. uzeli feeding on foliage, and foliar applications of these products provided or = 14 days residual control of adults. This paper represents the first report of monitoring phlaeothripids with sticky traps. Data from multiple trials suggest that products effective against other thrips have limited use against G. uzeli.

  14. Life History Characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-06-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are sympatric pests of many greenhouse and field crops in Korea. We compared the influence of constant (27.3°C) and fluctuating temperatures (23.8-31.5°C, with an average of 27.3°C) on the life table characteristics of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa held at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and 45±5% relative humidity. The development times of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa were significantly affected by temperature fluctuation, species, and sex. The development time from egg to adult of F. intonsa was shorter than that for F. occidentalis at both constant and fluctuating temperatures. Survival of immature life stages was higher under fluctuating than constant temperature for both thrips species. The total and daily production of first instars was higher in F. intonsa (90.4 and 4.2 at constant temperature, and 95.7 and 3.9 at fluctuating temperatures) than that of F. occidentalis (58.7 and 3.3 at constant temperature, and 60.5 and 3.1 at fluctuating temperatures) under both constant and fluctuating temperatures. The percentage of female offspring was greater in F. intonsa (72.1-75.7%) than in F. occidentalis (57.4-58.7%) under both temperature regimes. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was higher at constant temperature than at fluctuating temperature for both thrips species. F. intonsa had a higher rm value (0.2146 and 0.2004) than did F. occidentalis (0.1808 and 0.1733), under both constant and fluctuating temperatures, respectively. The biological response of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa to constant and fluctuating temperature was found to be interspecifically different, and F. intonsa may have higher pest potential than F. occidentalis based on the life table parameters we are reporting first here. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A case to study population dynamics of bemisia tabaci and thrips tabaci on bt and non-bt cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Hafeez, F.; Farooq, M.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the performance of eight bt and five non-bt cotton genotypes against whitefly and thrips and impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation of these sucking pests, at cotton research station, multan, during 2010 and 2011. The results exhibited that bt genotypes found more susceptible host for the whitefly and thirps than non-bt genotypes, during the course of years of study. Among bt genotypes, maximum and minimum temperature showed significant and positive effect on whitefly population whereas relative humidity exerted negative effect during 2010. During 2011, the effect of all the factors was non significant. On cumulative basis, there was positive correlation between population of whitefly and minimum temperature. But in case of non-bt, it has negative with maximum temperature whereas relative humidity had a positive effect on whitefly population. similar trend was observed for thrips population on bt varieties during both years but on non-bt varieties only minimum temperature exerted strong positive impact on thrips population. Hierarchical regression models for whitefly and thrips revealed that minimum temperature was the most important factor (Bt and non-Bt varieties). Maximum temperature was the major contributing factor for whitefly fluctuation on bt varieties during 2010. (author)

  16. Efficacy of spray applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips infesting greenhouse impatiens under variable moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy tests of three entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, and Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. strain ESC-1) were conducted against thrips infesting greenhouse crops of single impatiens under variable moisture conditions. Fungal conidia suspended in 0...

  17. Influence of plant culture conditions on efficacy of foliar applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of greenhouse tests was conducted to assess the efficacy of foliar applications of two commercially available entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, against western flower thrips infesting potted impatiens grown with subirrigation. Unformu...

  18. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates.

  19. Pyrethrins protect pyrethrum leaves against attack by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Wiegers, Gerrie; Mao, Jing; Wang, Caiyun; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2012-04-01

    Pyrethrins are active ingredients extracted from pyrethrum flowers (Tanacetum cinerariifolium), and are the most widely used botanical insecticide. However, several thrips species are commonly found on pyrethrum flowers in the field, and are the dominant insects found inside the flowers. Up to 80% of western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) adults died within 3 days of initiating feeding on leaves of pyrethrum, leading us to evaluate the role of pyrethrins in the defense of pyrethrum leaves against WFT. The effects of pyrethrins on WFT survival, feeding behavior, and reproduction were measured both in vitro and in planta (infiltrated leaves). The lethal concentration value (LC50) for pyrethrins against WFT adults was 12.9 mg/ml, and pyrethrins at 0.1% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) had significantly negative effects on feeding, embryo development, and oviposition. About 20-70% of WFT were killed within 2 days when they were fed chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.01-1% pyrethrins. Chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.1% or 1% pyrethrins were significantly deterrent to WFT. In a no-choice assay, the reproduction of WFT was reduced significantly when the insects were fed leaves containing 0.1% pyrethrins, and no eggs were found in leaves containing 1% pyrethrins. Our results suggest that the natural concentrations of pyrethrins in the leaves may be responsible for the observed high mortality of WFT on pyrethrum.

  20. Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, S; Maniania, N K; Subramanian, S; Gitonga, L M; Mburu, D M; Masiga, D; Ekesi, S

    2012-06-01

    Larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis are known to be refractory to fungal infection compared with the adult stage. The objective of this study was to identify promising fungal isolate(s) for the control of larval stages of F. occidentalis. Ten isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and eight of Beauveria bassiana were screened for virulence against second-instar larvae of F. occidentalis. Conidial production and genetic polymorphism were also investigated. Metarhizium anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7, ICIPE 20, ICIPE 69 and ICIPE 665 had the shortest LT(50) values of 8.0-8.9 days. ICIPE 69, ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20 had the lowest LC(50) values of 1.1 × 10(7), 2.0 × 10(7) and 3.0 × 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 produced significantly more conidia than M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20. Internally transcribed spacers sequences alignment showed differences in nucleotides composition, which can partly explain differences in virulence. These results coupled with the previous ones on virulence and field efficacy against other species of thrips make M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 a good candidate. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 can be suggested for development as fungus-based biopesticide for thrips management. © International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Identification and pest status of Holopothrips fulvus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G.A. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae.

  2. Control integrado de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) con insecticidas y liberaciones de Orius insidiosus (Say)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) sobre pimiento en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Viglianchino, Liliana Ester; Viglianchino, Liliana Ester

    2015-01-01

    El "trips de las flores", Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: thripidae), es el principal vector del virus de la "marchitez manchada del tomate" (TSWV), y la "chinche" Orius insidiosus (Say) es un eficiente predador. Para evaluar el control de F. occidentalis, con insecticidas y liberaciones inoculativas de O. insidiosus en cultivos de pimiento bajo cubierta, durante 2009-2010, se estudió la fluctuación poblacional del predador-presa con las temperaturas reinantes en invernade...

  3. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest of a wide range of crops grown throughout the world. Insecticide resistance has been documented in many populations of WFT. Biological and behavioural characteristics and pest management practices that promote insecticide resistance are discussed. In addition, an overview is provided of the development of insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis populations and the resistance mechanisms involved. Owing to widespread resistance to most conventional insecticides, a new approach to insecticide resistance management (IRM) of F. occidentalis is needed. The IRM strategy proposed consists of two parts. Firstly, a general strategy to minimise the use of insecticides in order to reduce selection pressure. Secondly, a strategy designed to avoid selection of resistance mechanisms, considering cross-resistance patterns and resistance mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  5. Anatomía de la agalla en Ficus benjamina (Moraceae asociada a "thrips" (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las agallas son reconocidas generalmente como crecimientos anormales de los tejidos afectados por insectos cuando estos realizan la deposición de los huevecillos o se alimentan de los tejidos de la planta. En Ficus benjamina la acción del thrips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi al alimentarse de los tejidos de la hoja, provoca una agalla que consiste en el doblamiento de la hoja. En este trabajo se analizó la ultraestructura de secciones de hojas sanas y hojas con agallas de F. benjamina mediante el uso de la microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se analizó la cantidad de estomas por área y no se determinó alteración significativa, aunque se observa menor cantidad de cera cuticular en la superficie del área afectada por la agalla. En la zona de la hoja afectada por G. garitacambroneroi se observó bacilos y hongos y huevecillos de otros organismos, aparentemente invasores. Además, en los tejidos internos de las hojas con agallas se pudo determinar problemas de diferenciación de los mesófilos de empalizada y esponjoso, observándose sólo tejido parenquimático.Anatomy of the gall in Ficus benjamina (Moraceae associated with thrips (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae. The galls are generally recognized as abnormal growths of tissues affected by insects when lay the eggs or feed on plant tissues. In, Ficus benjamina the insect Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi, when feeding on leaf tissues, causes a gall which consists on the bending of the leaves. In this paper we analyzed the ultrastructure of sections of healthy leaves, and leaves with galls of F. benjamina using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We analyzed the number of stomata per area and found no significant changes, although there is less cuticular wax on the surface of the affected area by the barb. In the leaf area affected by G. garitacambroneroi, bacilli and fungi were observed and eggs of other organisms as possible invaders. Moreover, the inner tissues of leaves with galls had some

  6. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  7. Anatomía de la agalla en Ficus benjamina (Moraceae asociada a "thrips" (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las agallas son reconocidas generalmente como crecimientos anormales de los tejidos afectados por insectos cuando estos realizan la deposición de los huevecillos o se alimentan de los tejidos de la planta. En Ficus benjamina la acción del thrips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi al alimentarse de los tejidos de la hoja, provoca una agalla que consiste en el doblamiento de la hoja. En este trabajo se analizó la ultraestructura de secciones de hojas sanas y hojas con agallas de F. benjamina mediante el uso de la microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se analizó la cantidad de estomas por área y no se determinó alteración significativa, aunque se observa menor cantidad de cera cuticular en la superficie del área afectada por la agalla. En la zona de la hoja afectada por G. garitacambroneroi se observó bacilos y hongos y huevecillos de otros organismos, aparentemente invasores. Además, en los tejidos internos de las hojas con agallas se pudo determinar problemas de diferenciación de los mesófilos de empalizada y esponjoso, observándose sólo tejido parenquimático.

  8. Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ho; Yi, Chang-Geun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Soon Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Kim, Jun-Ran

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50 0.0055 mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2-fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm(-3) ). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0.0095 mg cm(-3) ), (±)-camphor (0.0097 mg cm(-3) ) and 1,8-cineole (0.0167 mg cm(-3) ). Moderate toxicity was produced by camphene, 3-carene, (-)-menthone, (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, α-terpineol and (-)-α-thujone (0.0215-0.0388 mg cm(-3) ). Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LD50 9.0 × 10(-10) mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LD50 values of these compounds ranged from 0.0127 to >0.23 mg cm(-3) . Based upon the selective toxicity ratio, the compounds described are more selective than dichlorvos. The basil oil compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides for control of T. palmi in greenhouses because of their generally lower toxicity to O. strigicollis and their greater activity as a fumigant than dichlorvos. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Esterase inhibition by synergists in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soler, Neus; Cervera, Amelia; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael; Garcerá, Maria Dolores

    2011-12-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is among the most important crop pests in the south-eastern region of Spain. Its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. Use of synergists to inhibit the enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification is widely used to determine their responsibility for insecticide resistance. However, they do not always act as intended or expected, and caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results. Laboratory-selected strains of WFT were used to analyse the effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and methiocarb on total esterase activity. Significant differences were found, indicating esterase activity inhibition by DEF, a lower effect for methiocarb and a small inhibition of the activity by PBO. Esterase isoenzyme inhibition by these compounds showed a similar result; this assay revealed an extreme sensitivity of Triplet A (resistance-associated esterases) to DEF. In an in vivo assay carried out with these compounds at different incubation times, only DEF caused posterior in vitro esterase activity inhibition, with a maximum effect 1 h after treatment. In this work, only DEF shows true synergistic inhibition of WFT esterases. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Intra- and Interspecific Competition Between Western Flower Thrips and Sweetpotato Whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Jun; Hou, Wen-Jie; Li, Fei; Xu, Bao-Yun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, You-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), are both invasive insect pests and are present in most of the same agricultural crops without a clear dominance of either species. Here, intra- and interspecific competition in B. tabaci and F. occidentalis was determined under controlled experiments. The results showed that intraspecific competition was distinct in F. occidentalis and that the co-occurrence of B. tabaci had a strong effect on F. occidentalis , resulting in a decrease in oviposition. Significant intraspecific competition was found in B. tabaci , and the coexistence of F. occidentalis had limited effect on the oviposition of B. tabaci . In a selective host plant preference experiment, both F. occidentalis and B. tabaci preferred eggplants most, followed by cucumbers and tomatoes. On cucumber plants, B. tabaci was predominant, whereas on eggplant and tomato plants, F. occidentalis and B. tabaci exhibited comparative competitive abilities during the initial stage. However, over time, higher numbers of B. tabaci than that of F. occidentalis were found on the two host plants. Our in vitro and potted plant experiments indicate that B. tabaci is competitively superior to F. occidentalis , which might help to explain their differential distribution patterns in China. PMID:25480973

  11. A new attractant for monitoring western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zayed S; Greenfield, Bethany Pj; Ficken, Katherine J; Taylor, James Wd; Wood, Martyn; Butt, Tariq M

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of pest populations is an essential component of integrated pest management. An early warning system helps growers decide when best to take control measures, or when to alter them, should a control method prove inadequate. Studies have shown that adding chemical attractants to sticky cards can increase trap catch of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a global pest of agriculture and horticulture, giving more accurate accounts of population size and dynamics, thus leading to more efficient monitoring. We identify a novel semiochemical to the species, (S)-(-)-verbenone, showing that addition of this compound to sticky traps significantly increased F. occidentalis catch in two geographically distinct populations, infesting two unrelated crops of global economic importance. We validate through field trials that (S)-(-)-verbenone is highly attractive to F.occidentalis and can be used with blue sticky traps to enhance trap catch, leading to better estimations of pest population densities. The compound may be used in other control methods against F.occidentalis such as lure and kill, mass trapping and push-pull.

  12. Identification of the cuticular lipid composition of the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołebiowski, Marek; Maliński, Edmund; Nawrot, Jan; Szafranek, Janusz; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2007-06-01

    The Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis effectively resists many insecticides, but it can be controlled by the use of bioinsecticides such as entomopathogenic fungi. The epicuticular chemistry of these insects is therefore of great interest, and accordingly, the cuticular lipid composition of F. occidentalis was analysed. It was found that the cuticular lipids of both the adult and larval stages of F. occidentalis consist of two groups of compounds--hydrocarbons and free fatty acids. The same hydrocarbon pattern was found in both adults and larvae, with the exception of n-hentriacontane, which was detected only in adult insects. The following homologous series were identified: n-alkanes from C-25 to C-29 (31) with the marked dominance of odd numbers of carbon atoms, 3-methylalkanes with 26 and 28 carbon atoms, and branched monomethylalkanes (branched at C-9, -11, -13 and -15) with 26, 28 and 30 carbon atoms. The chemical composition of the free fatty acids consists of two homologous series: saturated (C(14:0), C(16:0), C(18:0)) and unsaturated fatty acids (C(16:1) and C(18:1)). This analysis confirmed the lack of potential inhibitors of entomopathogenic fungi in the cuticular lipids of this insect species.

  13. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies.

  14. Optimizing Western Flower Thrips Management on French Beans by Combined Use of Beneficials and Imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson O. Nyasani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, is an important pest of vegetable crops worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. The predatory mites Neoseiulus (=Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., and an insecticide (imidacloprid were tested for their efficacy to reduce WFT population density and damage to French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pods under field conditions in two planting periods. Metarhizium anisopliae was applied as a foliar spray weekly at a rate of one litre spray volume per plot while imidacloprid was applied as a soil drench every two weeks at a rate of two litres of a mixture of water and imidacloprid per m2. Neoseiulus cucumeris was released every two weeks on plant foliage at a rate of three mites per plant. Single and combined treatment applications reduced WFT population density by at least three times and WFT damage to French bean pods by at least 1.7 times compared with untreated plots. The benefit-cost ratios in management of WFT were profitable with highest returns realized on imidacloprid treated plots. The results indicate that M. anisopliae, N. cucumeris, and imidacloprid have the potential for use in developing an integrated pest management program against WFT on French beans.

  15. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  16. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  17. Life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and two factitious food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Busoli, Antônio Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis Moreira, Klompen and Moraes preying on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a serious cosmopolitan pest of different crops, as well as on Protorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae), prospective factitious foods for the mass rearing of the predator. Experiments were conducted in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH and in the dark. Total immature development (egg-adult) was completed in 12.3 ± 5, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.1 ± 0.6 on F. occidentalis, Protorhabditis sp. and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Fecundity and intrinsic rate of increase were higher on Protorhabditis sp. (71.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female; 0.28 female/female/day) than on F. occidentalis (63.8 ± 14.8; 0.23) and T. putrescentiae (43.1 ± 8.9; 0.23). Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis and its larval stages can be completed without feeding. Protonymphs and deutonymphs can survive in the absence of food for about a month, and adults for almost 2 months. It was concluded that C. jaboticabalensis is a promising biological control agent of F. occidentalis and that it may be mass reared with the use of Protorhabditis sp. or T. putrescentiae.

  18. Influence of a short exposure to teflubenzuron residues on the predation of thrips by Iphiseius degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Brown, Alison S; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Wally M

    2003-11-01

    A short duration (24h) leaf-disc bioassay was used to determine the effects of teflubenzuron residues on the predation levels of two predators, Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) and Orius laevigatus (Fieber), foraging on nymphs of two species of thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche), on a range of different species of plant. Teflubenzuron did cause thrips mortality during the 24-h bioassay; it was more active against H haemorrhoidalis than F occidentalis. Teflubenzuron did not cause significant mortality to either species of predator, although on some plants the effectiveness of both predators was reduced in the presence of teflubenzuron.

  19. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, .... 40 plants. Seeds were grown in a greenhouse and seedlings were transplanted three months later to the experiment station in Hebei province ..... latitude range (from northern latitude 29° to northern.

  20. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective study undertaken at Hillbrow. Hospital in Johannesburg during a 3-month period. All patients from whose sputum cultures Klebsiella spp. were isolated in significant growth on primary blood agar plates following culture of fresh sputum specimens were entered into the study (2+ grO\\:vth was equal to.

  1. Relationship between esterase activity and acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance in field populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymó, Ana C; Cervera, Amelia; Dolores Garcerá, M; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael

    2006-12-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a serious pest in the south-east of Spain owing to its direct feeding on crops, transmission of the tomato spotted wilt virus and its very high level of resistance to insecticides. Mechanisms of resistance were examined using field populations of F. occidentalis with different susceptibilities to acrinathrin, methiocarb (selective insecticides), endosulfan, metamidophos and deltamethrin (broad-spectrum insecticides). Esterase activity towards alpha-naphthyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl acetate in resistant strains was significantly higher than in the reference strain (MLFOM) for both model substrates. This higher activity was significantly correlated with acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae......) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90......%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio...

  3. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus; Wiegers, Gerrie; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the plastids of chrysanthemum plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The volatiles of FaNES1 chrysanthemum leaves were strongly dominated by linalool, but they also emitted small amount of the C11-homoterpene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, a derivative of nerolidol. Four nonvolatile linalool glycosides in methanolic extracts were found to be significantly increased in the leaves of FaNES1 plants compared to wild-type plants. They were putatively identified by LC-MS-MS as two linalool-malonyl-hexoses, a linalool-pentose-hexose and a glycoside of hydroxy-linalool. A leaf-disc dual-choice assay with western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) showed, initially during the first 15 min of WFT release, that FaNES1 plants were significantly preferred. This gradually reversed into significant preference for the control, however, at 20-28 h after WFT release. The initial preference was shown to be based on the linalool odour of FaNES1 plants by olfactory dual-choice assays using paper discs emitting pure linalool at similar rates as leaf discs. The reversal of preference into deterrence could be explained by the initial nonvolatile composition of the FaNES1 plants, as methanolic extracts were less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Species composition and structure of Thysanoptera communities in different microhabitats at the Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Pinent

    Full Text Available Although thrips are known as inhabitants of flowers, they are also abundant and diverse in other microhabitats. There is an information gap concerning them, especially related to the native fauna in southern Brazil. The structure and composition of the thysanopteran community in different microhabitats was studied at the "Parque Estadual de Itapuã" (30° 22' S 51° 02' W, RS, southern Brazil. Between June 1999 and May 2001, branches (n = 1,274, flowers (n = 774, grass tussocks (n = 596 and leaf litter (n = 603 were sampled systematically in 20 points of four trails (T1 - Pedreira beach, T2 - Araçá beach, T3 - Lagoinha, and T4 - Grota hill. We found 2,197 adult thrips determined in 73 species in 41 genera, of which 37 could be nominated. Four families are represented, Thripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Heterothripidae and Merothripidae, with the first the most abundant (N = 1,599 and with the highest species richness (S = 32. The highest thrips abundance occurred in flowers N = 1,224 and the highest number of exclusive species occurred in the leaf litter (27. Frankliniella rodeos Moulton, 1933, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, 1919 and Smicrothrips particula Hood, 1952 comprise 49.4% of the total sampled. Regarding T2, we obtained the highest abundance (N = 935 and highest species richness (S = 43. The composition of the faunas in each kind of environment proved very particular.

  5. Thrips developmental stage-specific transcriptome response to tomato spotted wilt virus during the virus infection cycle in Frankliniella occidentalis, the primary vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E; Rotenberg, Dorith

    2017-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner. Little is known about thrips vector response to TSWV during the infection process from larval acquisition to adult inoculation of plants. Whole-body transcriptome response to virus infection was determined for first-instar larval, pre-pupal and adult thrips using RNA-Seq. TSWV responsive genes were identified using preliminary sequence of a draft genome of F. occidentalis as a reference and three developmental-stage transcriptomes were assembled. Processes and functions associated with host defense, insect cuticle structure and development, metabolism and transport were perturbed by TSWV infection as inferred by ontologies of responsive genes. The repertoire of genes responsive to TSWV varied between developmental stages, possibly reflecting the link between thrips development and the virus dissemination route in the vector. This study provides the foundation for exploration of tissue-specific expression in response to TSWV and functional analysis of thrips gene function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  7. Preferencia de los Trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae Hacia Trampas de colores en un Invernadero de Flores de la Sabana de Bogotá Color preference of Trhips (Thysanoptera: tripidae in crysanthemum crops at the Bogotá plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con un total de 36 trampas, 6 colores y 6 replicaciones por color, se les adicionó un pegante y se distribuyeron completamente al azar dentro de un invernadero comercial ubicado en Chía Cundinamarca. Los colores probados fueron: blanco, morado, amarillo, rojo, naranja y verde, Los colores blanco y morado mostraron la más alta eficiencia en la captura de adultos de Frsnkliniette oeeidentalis (Pegande
    mientras que el color verde capturó el menor número de esta especie. Se capturaron además adultos de F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood y Thrips tabaei Lindeman pero en menor cantidad.White, violet, yellow, red, orange and green colors with six replicates were tried. This study was done in a green house
    grown chrysantemum crop. White and violet showed the highest efficiency by capturing the greatest number of adults of Frankliniella oeeidentalis, the most abundant species during the experimento Green color captured the lowest number of F. oeeidentalis. Other species captured were F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood and Tbrips tabaei Lindeman.

  8. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  10. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  11. Tomato plant and leaf age effects on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2008-02-01

    The effect of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., plant and leaf age on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) was studied using electrical penetration graph technique and whole plant bioassays. Male and female F. fusca probed and ingested more and for longer periods of time on 3- and 4-wk-old plants compared with 6- and 8-wk-old plants. Female F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently than males in the plant age experiment, but not in the leaf age experiment. F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently on 2- and 4-wk-old leaves compared with 1-wk-old leaves. Plant age did not affect the probing frequency or duration of F. occidentalis; however, males probed and ingested longer than females in the plant age experiment and on the oldest leaf in the leaf age experiment. Both thrips species preferred to settle on 3-wk-old plants. F. fusca preferred to settle on 4-wk-old leaves after settling randomly for an hour. F. occidentalis showed no settling preference relative to leaf age. The preference of F. fusca for young plants suggests that this species could attack tomato plants at a very early stage, which is important for understanding its role as a vector in the transmission of Tospovirus in the field.

  12. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  13. [Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R; Botton, Marcos; Pinent, Silvia M J; Gitz, Rogério

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 degrees C) in controlled conditions (70 +/- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 masculineC and 28 masculineC. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 masculineC and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  14. Preferences of the peripheral olfactory system of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis towards stereoisomers of common plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zayed S; Butt, Tariq M

    Stereochemistry plays a significant role in structure-activity relationships of messenger chemicals. The ability to distinguish between enantiomers and geometric isomers, however, may be limited to certain stereoisomeric substances, depending on the receiver. In this study, we assessed the preference of the peripheral olfactometry system of Western Flower Thrips, F. occidentalis towards ubiquitously expressed host compounds, with a goal of establishing whether particular stereoisomers enhance host odour recognition. We demonstrate that the peripheral olfactory system of a highly polyphagous thysanopteran insect has evolved to become highly sensitive to a type of green leaf volatile, which is highly ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. We show that there is a significantly greater antennal response to the cis isomer, more so than the isomerisation by-product trans -3-hexen-1-ol. We demonstrate that the antennae of a highly polyphagous insect are capable of detecting common plant secondary metabolites in both enantiomeric forms.

  15. X-ray Irradiation Control of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Exportation of Freshly Cut Lily Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2017-04-01

    Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is the most representative bulb flower, and it is the third most important flower in the flower industry of South Korea after rose and chrysanthemum. To determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation for use in quarantine processing, two species of flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) were placed in the top, middle, and bottom locations of lily boxes and irradiated with different X-ray doses. After irradiation with an X-ray dose of 150 Gy, the egg hatching of the two flower thrips was completely inhibited at every location in the lily boxes, and the irradiated F. intonsa and F. occidentalis nymphs failed to emerge as adult in every location of the lily boxes. When the adults were irradiated at 150 Gy, the fecundity of the two flower thrips was markedly lower than that of the untreated control groups. The F1 generation failed to hatch at the top and middle locations, whereas the F1 generation of both F. intonsa and F. occidentalis was not suppressed at the bottom locations, even at 200 Gy. However, hatching was perfectly inhibited at 300 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Also, X-rays did not affect the postharvest physiology of cut lilies. Therefore, a minimum dose of 300 Gy is recommended for the control of F. intonsa and F. occidentalis for the exportation of lily. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Doses of ash from carbonized rice husk on the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity and yield of onion under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ash from carbonized rice husk on the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity, yield, onion postharvest performance and chemical characteristics of the soil in organic system. The study was conducted in the field at Epagri, Experimental Station of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The cultivar used was Epagri 362 Crioula Alto Vale. The treatments were doses of carbonized rice husk ash 5 t ha-1, 10 t ha-1, 15 t ha-1 and untreated check. Randomized blocks design with five replications was used. The treatments do not affect the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity, leaf potassium content, yield and onion postharvest yield. Doses of ash influence the content of potassium in the soil in a positive quadratic relation and does not change the pH, organic matter, P, Ca, Al, Mg, and Na.

  17. Evaluation of Varietal Resistance as a Management Strategy for Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) Trybom and Frankliniella Occidentals Peragande) on French Bean (Phaseolus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambua, E.M

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of 9 French bean varieties was undertaken during the period of November 2001 to April 2002 to evaluate the resistance of these varieties to thrips (Megaluthrothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design with four replicates in each phase. It was evident from the study that there are significant differences in resistance to thrips by these varieties. Monel variety was found to be the most susceptible and Impala the least. Frankliniella was more abundant than Megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M. sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1:5 and 1:7 during 1 s t and 2 n d planting respectively

  18. Leaf trichomes and foliar chemistry mediate defence\\ud against glasshouse thrips; Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis\\ud (Bouché) in Rhododendron simsii

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Brown, Alison S.; Gregory, Tom; Farrell, Iain W.; Stevenson, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Herbivore defence mechanisms are a costly diversion of resources away from growth and reproduction. Thus time-limited and tissue specific expression in critical plant parts is more efficient as defined by optimal defence theory. Surprisingly little is known about Rhododendron herbivore defence but it may be mediated by combined chemical and physical mechanisms. Rhododendron simsii Planch. survives cyclic infestations of a leaf-feeding thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, which severely damage...

  19. A male-predominant cuticular hydrocarbon, 7-methyltricosane, is used as a contact pheromone in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Oladele A; Sudhakar, Akella V S; Drijfhout, Falko P; Dublon, Ian A N; Hall, David R; Hamilton, James G C; Kirk, William D J

    2013-04-01

    In a laboratory bioassay, adult female Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) spent more time near filter paper disks that had been exposed to adult males than near unexposed disks; this effect was not observed on disks exposed to adult females. The response could only partly be explained by the known male-produced aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, suggesting the presence of an unknown male-produced compound. In gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses, 7-methyltricosane was detected on disks exposed to males, but not on disks exposed to females. Extracts of cuticular lipids also showed relatively large amounts of 7-methyltricosane on males, whereas only trace amounts were found on females and none on larvae. Bioassays of synthetic 7-methyltricosane showed that adults responded only after contact. The response to this compound was clearly different from that to n-tricosane or hexane-only controls. Females that contacted 7-methyltricosane on glass beads stayed in the vicinity and frequently raised the abdomen, a behavior that rejects mating attempts by males. Males stayed in the vicinity and wagged the abdomen sideways, a behavior used in fighting between males. This is the first identification of a contact pheromone in the order Thysanoptera.

  20. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  1. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

  2. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  3. Remote sensing to detect the movement of wheat curl mites through the spatial spread of virus symptoms, and identification of thrips as predators of wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Abby R.

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits three viruses to winter wheat: wheat streak mosaic virus, High Plains virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. This virus complex causes yellowing of the foliage and stunting of plants. WCMs disperse by wind, and an increased understanding of mite movement and subsequent virus spread is necessary in determining the risk of serious virus infections in winter wheat. These risk parameters will help growers make better decisions regarding WCM management. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capabilities of remote sensing to identify virus infected plants and to establish the potential of using remote sensing to track virus spread and consequently, mite movement. Although the WCM is small and very hard to track, the viruses it vectors produce symptoms that can be detected with remote sensing. Field plots of simulated volunteer wheat were established between 2006 and 2009, infested with WCMs, and spread mites and virus into adjacent winter wheat. The virus gradients created by WCM movement allowed for the measurement of mite movement potential with both proximal and aerial remote sensing instruments. The ability to detect WCM-vectored viruses with remote sensing was investigated by comparing vegetation indices calculated from proximal remote sensing data to ground truth data obtained in the field. Of the ten vegetation indices tested, the red edge position (REP) index had the best relationship with ground truth data. The spatial spread of virus from WCM source plots was modeled with cokriging. Virus symptoms predicted by cokriging occurred in an oval pattern displaced to the southeast. Data from the spatial spread in small plots of this study were used to estimate the potential sphere of influence for volunteer wheat fields. The impact of thrips on WCM populations was investigated by a series of greenhouse, field, and observational studies. WCM populations in winter wheat increased more slowly when

  4. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  6. Zoonotic potential of Helicobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mladenova-Hristova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter contains more than 35 species. Helicobacter pylori is the most important in terms of human health. Discovery of these helicobacters gives opportunity to understand the relationship between these bacteria which colonise the animal and human gut and their effect on the host. Infection with Helicobacter spp. and the associated diseases in their hosts allow us to study the pathogenic mechanisms. The potential zoonotic pathway for the transmission of Helicobacter spp. and epidemiology of this genus, deserve more attention to these emerging pathogens.

  7. The Tomato spotted wilt virus genome is processed differentially in its plant host Arachis hypogaea and its thrips vector Frankliniella fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Fletcher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrips-transmitted tospoviruses are economically important viruses affecting a wide range of field and horticultural crops worldwide. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type member of the Tospovirus genus with a broad host range of more than 900 plant species. Interactions between these viruses and their plant hosts and insect vectors via RNA interference pathways are likely a key determinant of pathogenicity. The current investigation, for the first time, compares biogenesis of small RNAs between the plant host and insect vector in the presence or absence of TSWV. Unique viral small interfering RNA (vsiRNA profiles are evident for Arachis hypogaea (peanut and Frankliniella fusca (thrips vector following infection with TSWV. Differences between vsiRNA profiles for these plant and insect species, such as the relative abundance of 21 nt and 22 nt vsiRNAs and locations of alignment hotspots, reflect the diverse siRNA biosynthesis pathways of their respective kingdoms. The presence of unique vsiRNAs in F. fusca samples indicates that vsiRNA generation takes place within the thrips, and not solely through uptake via feeding on vsiRNAs produced in infected A. hypogaea. The study also shows key vsiRNA profile differences for TSWV among plant families, which are evident in the case of A. hypogaea, a legume, and members of Solanaceae (S. lycopersicum and N. benthamiana. Distinctively, overall small RNA biogenesis in A. hypogaea is markedly affected with an absence of the 24 nt small RNAs in TSWV-infected plants, possibly leading to wide-spread molecular and phenotypic perturbations specific to this species. These findings add significant information on the host-virus-vector interaction in terms of RNAi pathways and may lead to better crop and vector specific control strategies.

  8. Aydın ili çilek alanlarında Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae)’nin popülasyon dalgalanmaları

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Eyyüp Mennan; BAŞPINAR, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Çalışma 2011-2012 yılları arasında Aydın ilinin Merkez ve İncirliova ilçelerindeki iki adet çilek bahçesinde yürütülmüştür. Çalışma süresince haftalık olarak bu bahçelere gidilmiş ve gerek çiçek ve gereksede atrap yardımıyla elde edilen thripsler incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergende) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) yaygın tür olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca F. occidentalis bireylerinin nisan ayı başında görüldüğü ve popülasyonun arttığı saptanmıştır. Popülasyon hazira...

  9. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic agrobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Ivanović, Milan; Ćalić, Anđelka; Gašić, Katarina; Obradović, Aleksa

    2011-01-01

    Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the s...

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of a cycad obligate pollination mutualism - Pattern and process in extant Macrozamia cycads and their specialist thrips pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, D R; Hereward, J P; Terry, L I; Walter, G H

    2015-12-01

    Obligate pollination mutualisms are rare and few have been investigated deeply. This paper focuses on one such mutualism involving thrips in the genus Cycadothrips that pollinate cycads in the genus Macrozamia. Both represent old lineages relative to insects and plants generally, are endemic to Australia, and are mutually co-dependent. The phylogenetic analyses presented here demonstrate that the pollinator is much more diverse than previously considered, with each pollinator lineage being extremely specific to between one and three host species where these latter share part of their distribution. The new species diversity we demonstrate in Cycadothrips all presently falls under the species name C. chadwicki, and these different lineages diversified during two periods. An older divergence, beginning 7.3Mya (4.4-11.1, 95% HPD), resulted in three major lineages, and then further diversification within each of these three lineages took place at most 1.1Mya (0.6-1.8, 95% HPD). These divergence estimates correspond to times when aridification was increasing in Australia, suggesting that population fragmentation following climatic change has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of Cycadothrips and Macrozamia. This means that co-diversification of the host and pollinator in allopatry appears to be the dominant process affecting species diversity. Host switching is also clearly evident in the discrepancy between the divergence times of the C. chadwicki lineage and C. albrechti, about 10.8Mya (6.0-17.1, 95% HPD), and their hosts, at about 1.1Mya (0.2-3.4Mya, 95% HPD), in that the pollinator split pre-dates the origin of the associated host species of each. These results add to the body of evidence that the evolutionary processes important in obligate pollinator mutualisms are more varied than previously assumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined effects of temperature and avermectins on life history and stress response of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Yu-Tao; Sun, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jian-Jun; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pesticide are two important factors that affect survival, reproduction and other physiological processes of insects. To determine interactions of elevated temperature and avermectins treatment on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, newly emerged adults were exposed to combinations of three temperatures (21, 26 and 33 °C) and two avermectins concentrations (0, 45 ppm), and survival rate, reproduction, longevity, antioxidant enzymes activities and heat shock proteins (hsps) induction were analyzed. The results showed that the survival, longevity and reproduction of F. occidentalis decreased with increased temperature and avermectins treatment. While elevated temperature and avermectins treatment significantly decreased activity of SOD, activities of POD and GST significantly increased after exposure to elevated temperature, avermectins or their combination. Elevated temperature had no effect on activity of CAT, but it was obviously improved by the combination of temperature and avermectins treatment. Expression analysis of hsps showed that four heat shock proteins (hsp90, hsc702, hsp60 and hop) were up-regulated by the induction of elevated temperature with small fold changes. After treatment with avermectins, expression levels of hsp90, hsc701, hsc702 and hop were significantly up-regulated with increased temperature and higher than those of their respective control at higher temperature. Surprisingly, expression level of hps60 was down-regulated with increased temperature, but the expression level at 21 or 26 °C remained higher than that of control. Overall, our studies suggest that elevated temperature enhance toxicity of avermectins and their combination induced acute oxidative damage to F. occidentalis. Therefore, consideration of temperature in evaluating avermectins toxicity is necessary to make accurate prediction of its effect on F. occidentalis and other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  14. Identification, genomic organization and expression profiles of four heat shock protein genes in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Li, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Yu-Tao; Shi, Liang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-04-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is an important invasive pest with a strong tolerance for extreme temperatures; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate thermotolerance in this insect remain unclear. In this study, four heat shock protein genes were cloned from F. occidentalis and named Fohsp90, Fohsc701, Fohsc702 and Fohsp60. These four Hsps exhibited typical characteristics of heat shock proteins. Subcellular localization signals and phylogenetic analysis indicated that FoHsp90 and FoHsc701 localize to the cytosol, whereas FoHsc702 and FoHsp60 were located in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, respectively. Analysis of genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in the four genes (three, four, seven, and five introns for Fohsp90, Fohsc701, Fohsc702 and Fohsp60, respectively). Both the number and position of introns in these four genes were quite different from analogous genes in other species. qRT-PCR indicated that the four Fohsps were detected in second-stage larvae, one-day-old pupae, and one-day-old adults, and mRNA expression levels were lowest in larvae and highest in pupae. Fohsc701 and Fohsc702 possessed similar expression patterns and were not induced by cold or heat stress. Expression of Fohsp60 was significantly elevated by heat, and Fohsp90 was rapidly up-regulated after exposure to both cold and heat stress. Exposure to -8°C had no effect on expression of the four Fohsps; however, expression of Fohsp90 and Fohsp60 was highest after a 2-h incubation at 39°C. Furthermore, cold and heat hardening led to significant up-regulation of the four Fohsps compared to their respective controls. Collectively, our results indicate that the four FoHsps contribute to insect development and also function in rapid cold or heat hardening; furthermore, FoHsp90 and FoHsp60 contribute to thermotolerance in F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistência de cultivares e híbridos de cebola a tripes Thrips resistance in onion cultivars and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Loges

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a resistência a Thrips tabaci das cultivares de cebola ValeOuro IPA-11, Roxa IPA-3, Belém IPA-9, Texas Grano-502, Brownsville e Duquesa, e dos híbridos Dessex e Granex Ouro. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo em Juazeiro (BA sem a utilização de controle químico. Caracteres de folha foram avaliados aos 26; 48 e 69 dias após o transplante (DAT e caracteres de produção aos 93 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A cv. Duquesa apresentou menor número de tripes associado ao menor número de folhas e maior ângulo entre as folhas centrais, sugerindo resistência por não-preferência. A cultivar Duquesa e os híbridos Dessex e Granex Ouro foram moderadamente resistentes para os caracteres de produção e para o caráter número de ninfas do inseto.Resistance to Thrips tabaci was estimated for onion cultivars ValeOuro IPA-11, Roxa IPA-3, Belém IPA-9, Texas Grano-502, Brownsville and Duquesa, and for the hybrids Dessex and Granex Ouro. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Juazeiro, Bahia State, Brazil, without the use of chemical control. Leaf characters were evaluated at 26; 48 and 69 days after transplanting date (DAT, and yield characters were evaluated at 93 DAT. The experiment design was total randomized blocks with three replications. The cv. Duquesa showed the lowest number of immature forms of T. tabaci, which was associated with the lowest number of leaves and the largest degree of insertion between the central leaves, suggesting a nonpreference type of resistance. The cv. Duquesa and hybrids Granex Ouro and Dessex were modeately resistant to the thrips based on yield characters and on the number of immature forms of the insect.

  16. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  17. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  18.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...

  19. Manipulation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (Tospovirus) Via the Host Plant Nutrients to Enhance Its Transmission and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalileh, Sheida; Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or -TSWV) during vector's development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults' diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (-TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector's biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Olfactory Response of the Predatory Bug Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) to the Aggregation Pheromone of Its Prey, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaello, Teresa; Casas, José L; Pineda, Ana; de Alfonso, Ignacio; Marcos-García, M Ángeles

    2017-10-01

    Herbivore natural enemies base their foraging decision on information cues from different trophic levels but mainly from plant odors. However, the second trophic level (i.e., the herbivorous prey) may also provide reliable infochemical cues for their natural enemies. We have evaluated the role of the aggregation pheromone from Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) as a potential kairomone for its natural enemy, the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Fieber). For this purpose, we have analyzed the response of O. laevigatus to (R)-lavandulyl acetate and neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, the two major components of the thrips aggregation pheromone. These compounds have been offered to O. laevigatus adult females and nymphs of the predatory bugs both in separate and as specific (1:1 or 1:2.3) blends, in experiments involving a dual choice Y-tube olfactometer. None of the compounds attracted adults or nymphs when they were individually supplied. Conversely, they were significantly attracted to both adults and nymphs when offered as a blend. A 1:2.3 (R)-lavandulyl acetate:neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate blend was attractive to both nymphs and adults, while a 1:1 blend elicited response only in nymphs. These results suggest that specific blends of these compounds from the aggregation pheromone may be used as an attractant to O. laevigatus. The results of this work highlight the importance of studying olfactory responses of natural enemies for a better understanding of their foraging behavior. Potential uses of these results in future studies are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Karakteristik Tepung Prebiotik Umbi Uwi (Dioscorea Spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Winarti, Sri; Saputro, Erwan Adi

    2013-01-01

    Umbi uwi (Dioscorea spp.) merupakan salah satu jenis umbi yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia memiliki kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi. Keanekaragaman uwi sangat banyak baik dilihat dari bentuk, ukuran, warna, maupun rasa umbinya. Terdapat lebih dari 600 spesies dari genus Dioscorea spp. tersebar di berbagai negara, termasuk Indonesia, antara lain Dioscorea hispida (gadung), Dioscorea esculenta (gembili), Discorea bulbifera (gembolo), Dioscorea alata (uwi ungu/purple yam), Dioscorea opposita (...

  2. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  3. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

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    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  4. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  5. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  6. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  7. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  8. Life history characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on cucumber leaves with and without supplemental food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, J.; Ketoja, E.; Vänninen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The development time, fecundity, longevity, and resultant intrinsic growth rate of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] encaged on a cucumber leaf were compared among seven types of food supplied: six pollen species and a mixture of milk powder

  9. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  10. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  11. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Hllytchaikra Ferraz; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction). The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively). This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  12. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Widespread Oceanospirillaceae Bacteria in Porites spp.

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    Mark D. Speck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that a clade of bacteria in the Oceanospirillaceae is widely distributed in Porites spp. and other hermatypic corals. Bacteria 16S rDNA clone libraries were prepared from community genomic DNA extracted from Porites compressa and Porites lobata surface mucus and adjacent seawater collected along a line transect off Maui. Phylogenetic affiliations of operational taxonomic units (OTUs defined at the 97% level of nucleotide identity varied within and between the respective Porites spp. along the transect and differed from those in the seawater. One OTU (C7-A01, however, occurred in all mucus samples from both Porites species. C7-A01c affiliates with a clade of uncultivated Oceanospirillum-like bacteria; the nearest neighbors of this OTU have been reported only in the surface mucus layer of Porites spp. and other stony corals, in reef-dwelling invertebrates, and the corallivorous six-banded angelfish, Pomacanthus sexstriatus.

  14. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  15. Association of Treponema spp. with canine periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Rühe, Bärbel; Kellermeier, Claudia; Moter, Annette; Schmitz, Rose; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H

    2008-03-18

    To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA-DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic groups I-VII of oral treponemes as well as probes specific for T. socranskii and T. denticola. To assess the periodontal status of affected dogs clinical parameters were measured and the periodontal status was classified from grade 0 (physiological periodont) to 3 (severe periodontitis). The periodontal status correlated significantly with an increasing concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC, r=0.854) determined with a Halimeter, indicating a positive correlation between the presence of VSC-producing bacteria and periodontitis. In this study Treponema spp. of phylogenetic groups III, V-VII were not detected in any sample, whereas T. denticola-like treponemes were found only in 2 of 51 animals. However, treponemes belonging to phylogenetic groups I, II and IV of oral treponemes or T. socranskii were found in up to 64.84% of the dogs. The detection rate of Treponema spp. was significantly associated with an increased periodontal status. Treponemes present in periodontal lesions were also visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization of gingival biopsies showing Treponema spp. not only in the microbial biofilm but also within the gingival tissue. The data presented here indicate that oral Treponema spp. are associated with canine periodontitis. Similar to human periodontitis, treponemes of groups I, II and IV and T. socranskii were found more frequently the higher the degree of periodontitis was.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  17. Impacto da adubação orgânica sobre a incidência de tripes em cebola Impact of the organic fertilization on onion thrips incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio de S. Gonçalves

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre adubação orgânica e a incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola (Allium cepa L, na EE de Ituporanga, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram determinados de acordo com a necessidade de N para a cultura pela análise de solo. Empregou-se como fonte orgânica diversos adubos fornecendo 75 Kg/ha de N (esterco suíno; adubo Barriga Verde® proveniente de esterco de aves; composto orgânico; esterco de peru; húmus; 37,5 Kg/ha de N (metade da dose normal com esterco de suíno; as testemunhas foram adubação mineral fornecendo 30-120-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e o dobro da dose (60-240-120 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O; e testemunha sem adubação. Nenhum tratamento apresentou incidência de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo. A adubação mineral em relação à orgânica não favoreceu significativamente a incidência de T. tabaci . O processo de conversão do manejo do solo da área experimental de convencional para orgânico pode ter favorecido a infestação similar do inseto entre tratamentos. No período de maior incidência de T. tabaci, a relação com nutrientes foi descrita por um modelo envolvendo K/Zn, B e N de maneira positiva. A correlação entre nutrientes e T. tabaci não foi linear na maioria das avaliações. A adubação orgânica pode substituir a adubação mineral na cultura da cebola, pois foi possível atingir níveis de produtividade similares para ambos tratamentos.The impact of organic fertilization on the incidence of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind. on onion was evaluated at Ituporanga Experimental Station in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from August to December, 1998. The treatments using organic fertilization were based on the N needs determined by previous soil analysis. Using different organic sources were 75.0 Kg/ha of N (swine manure; Barriga Verde® poultry manure; compost; turkey manure; humus; 37.5 Kg/ha of N (swine manure half regular rate; two chemically fertilized

  18. Leptospira spp. in commensal rodents, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengmin; He, Hongxuan

    2013-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats (Rattus spp.) are its most common source. We found antibodies to leptospires in 115 (30.2%) of 381 commensal rodents from Beijing, China. Commensal rodents might represent a potential source for human and pet leptospirosis in urban environments.

  19. SPAWNING MIGRATION OF LABEOBARBUS SPP. (PISCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pairwise comparison of the Labeobarbus spp. showed temporal segregation in all sampling months, except L. intermedius and L. brevicephalus that did not show temporal segregation with L. nedgia. The best management option to protect these species is closed season that should be strictly implemented during the ...

  20. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  1. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good

  2. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  3. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  4. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  5. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  6. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  7. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  12. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  13. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  14. Datasets on abundance of common blossom thrips and weather variables in small-scale avocado orchards at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Odanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae, is an important fruit crop cultivated by small-holder farmers along Afrotropical highlands of Taita Hills in South-eastern Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Northern Tanzania. The small-holder farmers in these East African regions generate substantial food and cash from avocado fruits. However, the avocado crop is faced with challenges of infestation by insect pests such as the common blossom thrips (Frankliniella schultzei Trybom which feeds on pollen and floral tissue thereby reducing productivity of the trees. Moreover, there is no information describing distribution patterns of Frankliniella schultzei and associated weather in East African avocado orchards despite the fact that small-scale farming is dependent on rainfall. This article was, therefore, initiated to provide dataset on abundance of Frankliniella schultzei from the avocado plants that relates with monthly rainfall and air temperatures at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro. Frankliniella schultzei was collected using white coloured beating tray and camel brush whereas air temperatures (°C and rainfall (mm was recorded daily using automatic data loggers and rain gauge, respectively. The survey at the two transects commenced during peak flowering season of avocado crop in August up to end of harvesting period in July of the following year. Temporal datasets were generated by Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test. Current temporal datasets presents strong baseline information specifically for Kenya and Tanzania government agencies to develop further agricultural strategies aimed at improving avocado farming within Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro agro-ecosystems. Keywords: Frankliniella schultzei, Avocado, Weather variables, Taita Hills, Mount Kilimanjaro

  15. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  16. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  18. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  19. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis, production of lytic enzymes, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). The involvement of ISR is typically studied in systems in which the Pseudomonas bacteria and the pathogen are inoculated and rema...

  20. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  1. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  2. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P Babesia related to B. lengau from Africa.

  3. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryp...

  4. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Radiation disinfection or disinfestation of nematodes, aphids, mites, thrips, and other pests on food plant materials: evaluation for effectiveness and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.; Chinnasri, B.; Sipes, B.S.; Schmitt, D.P.; Hamasaki, R.T.; Mersino, E.F.; Yamakawa, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Many fresh herbs, ornamental plants, and several varieties of taro grown in Hawaii are infested with various pests such as aphids, mites, thrips, and nematodes. Finding an efficacious quarantine treatment for these commodities is difficult because most cannot tolerate heat or cold, and a suitable chemical treatment is lacking. Irradiation could be a feasible, practical alternative. Quality of these irradiated materials should be studied to help determine if irradiation is a suitable quarantine treatment. Of the ten fresh herbs irradiated with up to 0.70 kGy, five (rosemary, thyme, oregano, parsley, chives) are very tolerant, and show no difference from the controls after two to three weeks at 7 deg. C. Red ginger and four cultivars of heliconia, very attractive ornamental plants, can be irradiated at 0.75 and 0.50 kGy, respectively, and have a vase life of 10 days or more at 21 deg. C. Leafminer in bean plants cannot emerge when irradiated at 0.15 kGy. The nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, which infects taro and ginger, is prevalent in Hawaii. To cause mortality in second stage juveniles (J2), a gamma-radiation dose higher than 4.0 kGy is necessary. Suppression of hatching of egg masses requires doses of 2.0 kGy and above. Galling of tomato plants inoculated with J2 and egg masses decreases when J2 and egg masses were irradiated at 3.25 kGy and above. Heating J2 at 43 deg. C for 10 min before inoculating them into the plants effectively reduces root galling. Synergism was not found between heat treatment (49 deg. C for 10 or 20 min) and irradiation with up to 0.015 kGy, the dose above which sprouting of ginger rhizomes and taro cormels is inhibited. The results suggest that irradiation is promising as a quarantine treatment for selected fresh herbs and ornamental plants, but not for control of nematodes in root crops. (author)

  6. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Ke; Lei, Zhong-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP) from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP) has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9), suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in regulating the

  7. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Zhang

    Full Text Available Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9, suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in

  8. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  11. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  12. New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, J M; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

    1986-01-01

    A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Kle...

  13. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  14. Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing root rot symptoms in other crops intercropped with beans in Southwestern Uganda. Virginia Gichuru, Robin Buruchara, Patrick Okori ...

  15. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located. Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 2008 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  16. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  17. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth...

  18. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  19. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  20. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  1. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  2. Streptomyces spp. in the biocatalysis toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Jelena; Mandic, Mina; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2018-04-01

    About 20,100 research publications dated 2000-2017 were recovered searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of bioactive molecules. However, these bacteria with versatile metabolism are powerful suppliers of biocatalytic tools (enzymes) for advanced biotechnological applications such as green chemical transformations and biopharmaceutical and biofuel production. The recent technological advances, especially in DNA sequencing coupled with computational tools for protein functional and structural prediction, and the improved access to microbial diversity enabled the easier access to enzymes and the ability to engineer them to suit a wider range of biotechnological processes. The major driver behind a dramatic increase in the utilization of biocatalysis is sustainable development and the shift toward bioeconomy that will, in accordance to the UN policy agenda "Bioeconomy to 2030," become a global effort in the near future. Streptomyces spp. already play a significant role among industrial microorganisms. The intention of this minireview is to highlight the presence of Streptomyces in the toolbox of biocatalysis and to give an overview of the most important advances in novel biocatalyst discovery and applications. Judging by the steady increase in a number of recent references (228 for the 2000-2017 period), it is clear that biocatalysts from Streptomyces spp. hold promises in terms of valuable properties and applicative industrial potential.

  3. Eficiência de diferentes bicos e volumes de calda no controle de tripes em cebola Efficiency of different nozzle types and volume of the insecticide solution in the control of thrips in onions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio de S. Gonçalves

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes volumes de calda e tipo de bico no controle químico de Thrips tabaci em cebola. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos na EPAGRI, Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de agosto a dezembro de 1996 e 1997. Os tratamentos com bico leque e respectivos níveis de vazão foram XR 110 015 VS® - 236 L/ha, XR 110 02 VS® - 316 L/ha, XR 110 03 VS® - 472 L/ha, XR 110 04 VS® - 632 L/ha, XR 110 05 VS® - 788 L/ha, TJ 60 110 02 VS® - 316 L/ha, TJ 60 110 04 VS® - 632 L/ha; com bico cone foram Conejet TSVS® - 236 L/ha, Conejet TXVK 18® - 472 L/ha, Conejet TXVK 26® - 632 L/ha, D6 Difusor V5® - 600 L/ha, além da testemunha, sem tratamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. O tamanho de parcela foi de 2,8 m x 3,0 m. O inseticida usado foi clorpirifós 0,72 g. i.a./ha. A amostragem de ninfas de T. tabaci foi realizada no campo em cinco plantas escolhidas ao acaso em cada parcela. A redução populacional de tripes foi semelhante entre os diferentes volumes de calda e tipos de bico utilizados. Portanto, os bicos cone e leque aplicando volumes de calda entre 236 a 788 L/ha, apresentaram a mesma eficiência no controle de T. tabaci em cebola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different nozzle types and volume of the insecticide solution in controlling thrips (Thrips tabaci in onions. The work was carried out from August to December, 1996 and 1997. The treatments consisted of different nozzle types (fan and cone and different flow rates. Fan nozzles were XR 110 015 VS® - 236 L/ha, XR 110 02 VS® - 316 L/ha, XR 110 03 VS® - 472 L/ha, XR 110 04 VS® - 632 L/ha, XR 110 05 VS® - 788 L/ha, TJ 60 110 02 VS® - 316 L/ha, TJ 60 110 04 VS - 632 L/ha; and cone nozzles were Conejet TSVS® - 236 L/ha, Conejet TXVK 18® - 472 L/ha, Conejet TXVK 26® - 632 L/ha, D6 Difusor V5® - 600 L/ha. Besides these treatments there

  4. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages (phi)PD10.3 and (phi)PD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

  5. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... Eggplant (Solanum spp.) production in Arumeru district and other parts of Africa is severely affected by wilting diseases of unknown etiology. Fusarium spp. characterized through morphological and sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor associated with Fusarium wilt of eggplants was.

  6. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida

  7. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to detect and identify the target bacteria, samples were analysed by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques (quantitative real-time PCR). Genetic relatedness was established using Sanger sequencing of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. and ipaH of Shigella spp. Results of this study displayed the ...

  8. Pseudomonas spp. convert metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Michiyo; Kobayashi, Miho; Sasaki, Keisuke; Nomura, Masaru; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Meat 'reddening' by bacteria was observed in chilled beef. To identify the reddening bacteria, isolates were inoculated onto beef and the changes in CIE L*a*b* values monitored. As a result, two Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas fragi which is commonly observed in raw meat, were selected and identified as reddening bacteria. The reddening was coincidentally occurred with the appearance of slime, and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was simultaneously suppressed. In myoglobin-containing nutrient broth, it is shown spectroscopically that P. fragi converted metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. It was concluded that the meat reddening was due to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, induced by the very-low-oxygen tension brought about by Pseudomonad's oxygen consumption: This oxygen depletion simultaneously suppressed TBARS increase.

  9. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  11. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  12. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  13. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  14. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  15. Pertumbuhan Optimum Penicillium spp. dan Cunninghamella spp. yang Diisolasi dari Pakan dan Efek Toksiknya pada Mencit (Mus musculus

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    N. Ramli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are a major microorganism present in the feedstuffs that able to reduce nutritive value and produce toxin that harmful for animal. Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. were dominant present in the feedstuffs in tropical regions. The objectives of this study were to find out the optimum pH and temperature of Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. on agar media and to find out the effect of feeding diet containing corn contaminated with the fungi at level of 0%, 50% and 100% on the performance and relative organ weight of 45 mice (Mus musculus. Cunninghamella spp. grew at pH range of 3-9, and Penicillium spp. at pH range of 3-7. The temperature for the optimum growth of both fungi was on room temperature (28±2 oC. Feed consumption and daily gain (ADG of mice were not significantly affected by content of corn contaminated with Cunninghamella spp. Conversely, corn contaminated with Penicillium spp. significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption and ADG of mice. Treatments had no effect on liver and hearth relative weight, but significantly influenced relative weight of kidney and lymph. Lymph relative weight of mice fed ration containing Penicillium-contaminated corn was lower (P<0.05 than that of control. Mice treated with contaminated corn from both fungi at the level 100% also significantly (P<0.05 had higher kidney relative weight than that of control. It was concluded that the toxic effect of Penicillium spp. was higher than that of Cunninghamella spp.

  16. Tisanopterofauna Associada à Plantas Ornamentais e Cultivadas no Sudoeste Baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Mascarenhas

    2016-04-01

    Abstract: Thrips are tiny insects belonging to the order Thysanoptera, being mostly phytophagous. There are few studies on the thrips fauna in Brazil, especially in northeastern Brazil. This work aims to conduct an inventory of Thysanopterofauna associated with ornamentals and crops of Bahia Southwest region. The insects were collected in branches and flowers of several plant species between January 2006 and January 2007. In the laboratory, the thrips were screened, mounted on microscope slides and identified. Twelve thrips species belonging to six genera and two families were obtained, and three new records for Bahia. 28 species of host plants belonging to 16 families were identified. The results of this study indicate a rich Thysanopterofauna.

  17. Predatory mites double the economic injury level of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2016-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) causes bronzing to strawberry fruit. Management of insecticide-resistant strains relies on the integration of predators with carefully timed use of the few insecticides available. Effective management requires better understanding of economic injury levels (EILs) and the factors that affect them. The densities of F. occidentalis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were manipulated in field experiments. All stages of flower and fruit were susceptible to thrips damage, but larvae caused nearly twice as much damage as adults per individual. The EIL was about four adult thrips per flower in the absence of predators, but increased to over eight at densities of N. cucumeris typical of good establishment in crops. The EIL could be increased by about 0.7 adult thrips per flower for every N. cucumeris per flower. The results were supported by measurements of EILs in commercial crops.

  18. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

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    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae, six vole species (family Cricetidae and six shrew species (family Soricidae. The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%, followed by Apodemus spp. (11% and Clethrionomys spp. (6%. The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST. Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  19. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  20. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  1. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian MM Ahmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  3. Horses seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora spp.: Possible risk factors for infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazarotto, Chrystian J; Balzan, Alexandre; Grosskopf, Rhayana K; Boito, Jhonatan P; Portella, Luiza P; Vogel, Fernanda F; Fávero, Juscivete F; de C Cucco, Diego; Biazus, Angelisa H; Machado, Gustavo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    Many parasitic diseases are considered asymptomatic, even though some studies have shown that they may cause pathological changes in the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. in horses, and to identify the risk factors for disease. For this, 174 horses were studied, 90 males and 84 females aged between two and 20 years old. Blood samples were collected and stored in tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum, which was subjected to serological tests for T. gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and Neospora spp. using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA results were as follows: Sarcocystis spp. 41.37% (72/174) (CI95%-34.05-49.09); T. gondii 32.18% (56/174) (CI95%-25.42-39.74) and Neospora spp. 48.27% (84/174) (CI95%-40.68.50-55.93). Out of 174 horses, 81 had simple infection, 61 had mixed infections with two or three of these pathogens, and therefore, only 32 horses showed no antibodies to any of these pathogens. No risk factors for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii infection were identified. However, there was a significant (1.22-CI95%-1.02-1.52) relationship between animal age and Neospora spp. infection, since older animals showed higher prevalence. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that T. gondii and Neospora spp. affect horses in Southern Brazil, however all the animals studied were asymptomatic without reproductive, neurological or locomotor problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of sources of resistance. Phoebe Kirigo Mwaniki, Mathew Musumbale Abang, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Joseph Ngwela Wolukau, Schroers Hans-Josef ...

  5. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  6. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  7. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  8. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  10. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  11. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Yolanda; Ingrid M. Makahinda; Maureen Aprilia; Nikki Sanjaya; Harry Gunawan; Rita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL) from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. METHODS Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced l...

  12. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

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    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  13. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  14. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

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    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  15. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  16. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciya, Santhaseelan; Seturaman, Prabha; James, Arthur Rathinam; Tsai, Yi-Hong; Nikam, Rahul; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chang, Fang Rong

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H + , K + , ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, "mesquite" honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tourtois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, S. feltiae (Filipjev, and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora.

  18. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  19. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  20. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em crisântemo de corte em casa de vegetação Occurrence and population fluctuation of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os pulgões e os tripes são importantes pragas em cultivo de crisântemo em casas de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em cultivares de crisântemo de corte ('White Reagan', 'Yellow Snowdon' e 'Sunny Reagan' em casa de vegetação comercial. A amostragem de tripes foi realizada através de batidas nas plantas ("tapping method" e a de pulgões a partir de coletas diretas nas plantas. Das espécies de tripes amostradas, mais de 90% foram identificadas como Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, e o restante incluíram F. gemina (Bagnall, Frankliniella sp., Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin. Foi observado maior número de tripes/planta no cultivar White Reagan se comparado com 'Yellow Snowdon'. Aphis gossypii Glover foi a espécie de pulgão mais comum (> 80%, sendo também coletados Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Dysaphis sp. Maior número de pulgões foi verificado na cultivar White Reagan, quando comparada com 'Sunny Reagan'. Orius insidiosus (Say foi o único predador encontrado associado aos tripes, sendo verificada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a população de tripes e a desse predador. Dentre os inimigos naturais relacionados aos pulgões, foram observados parasitóides (Aphidius colemani Viereck e Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson e predadores (Chrysoperla sp., Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus e Scymnus sp.. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o crescimento populacional de pulgões e desses predadores e parasitóides nas cultivares White Reagan e Sunny Reagan. Inimigos naturais podem ocorrer naturalmente em casas de vegetação e influenciar as populações de pragas.Aphids and thrips play an important role on chrysanthemum crops in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence and population densities of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum cultivars

  1. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  2. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Abdelfattah M; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Gaede, Wolfgang

    2014-12-29

    Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  3. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  4. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  5. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

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    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  6. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

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    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  7. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  8. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  9. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

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    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  11. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  12. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  14. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  15. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions.

  16. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  17. Safety evaluation of a new anxiolytic product containing botanicals Souroubea spp. and Platanus spp. in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Aleksandar; Liu, Rui; Simkus, Kristen; Wilson, Jeff; Baker, John; Sanchez, Pablo; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory C; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2018-01-01

    Separation anxiety and noise aversion are common behavioral problems in dogs. They elicit fear responses such as cowering, seeking out the owner, and attempting to escape. This can result in property damage, injury to the dog, and disruption of the owner-pet bond, possibly leading to pet abandonment or euthanasia. A novel botanical anxiolytic product was evaluated for safety in dogs as the target animal species. Its intended use is for the treatment and prevention of anxiety and noise aversion in dogs. It contains a defined mixture of Souroubea spp. vine and Platanus spp. bark, delivering the active principle, betulinic acid, at a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg body weight (BW). In the current target animal safety study, 16 healthy male beagle dogs were administered either a placebo or the newly formulated botanical tablets at 0.5×, 2.5×, or 5× the recommended dose (1 mg/kg BW) over 28 d. The dogs were monitored for occurrence of any systemic or local adverse events. In the investigation presented here, there were no clinically significant adverse effects following treatment, as determined by clinical observations, physical examinations, BW, hematology, clinical biochemistry, and urinalysis. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the concentration of betulinic acid in serum was below 0.020 μg/mL in treated animals. Under the conditions of these studies, the formulated blend of S. sympetala and P. occidentalis, when administered up to 5× the intended dose for 28 consecutive d, showed no adverse effects on the health of dogs.

  18. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  19. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. against Common Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Živanov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organic food production demands more environmental friendly control of plant diseases. Biocontrol based on Trichoderma spp. usage is a promising due to Trichoderma is aggressive to broad range of phytopathogenic fungi. Given that, the aim of this study was to test in vitro antagonistic ability of ten native Serbian Trichoderma strains to ten common fungal pathogens. Study confirmed that Trichoderma spp. inhibits radial growth of Ascochyta pinodella (76.9%, A. pinodes (60.0%, A. pisi (68.5%, Fusarium graminearum (71.1%, F. proliferatum (63.9%, F. verticillioides (62.6%, F. oxysporum (63.9%, Macrophomina phaseolina (63.8%, and Pyrenophora teres (83.9%. These are first reports of Trichoderma spp. in vitro efficacy against A. pisi, A. pinodes, A. pinodella and P. teres. The lowest inhibitory effect was registered in dual cultures with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - 52.2%.

  1. Hemorrhagic stroke secondary to Bothrops spp. venom: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna Beatriz Temoteo; Gondim, Caio Cesar Vaz Lacet; Reichert, Lucas Pereira; da Silva, Pedro Hugo Vieira; Souza, Rodrigo Marmo da Costa E; Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro de Paiva; Calvo, Bernardino Fernandez

    2017-06-15

    The Bothrops spp. venom contain metalloproteinases that contributes to vascular and hemorrhagic effects. This case report describes a 58 years-old patient from the city of Dona Inês, Paraiba, Brazil victim of an ophidian accident by Bothrops spp. The vascular and hemorrhagic effects of venom components have triggered a hemorrhagic stroke. Brazil has about 600 deaths annually due to ophidian accidents. However, as reports have been precarious, the obtaining of epidemiological-clinical data has been affected. This case highlights the importance of prior knowledge of possible neurological and vascular complications in Bothrops spp. venom to increase the effectiveness of an adequate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  3. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  4. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  5. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  8. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  10. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  11. Occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D O; Ramos, G B; Alves, V B A; Ciuffa, A Z; Cuccato, L P; Dos Reis, T F M; Lima, A M C; Gonçalves, M C; Tolesano, G V; Rodrigues, V S; Szabó, M P J

    2017-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of world importance, and its transmission depends on the interaction between humans and animals. Given the necessity to investigate potential hosts of Leptospira spp., this study verified the prevalence of different serovars in the species of Rhipidomys spp., a widespread sigmodont rodent in Brazil. The studied population originates from a semi-evergreen forest located in the county of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 14 serovars. Thirteen out of the 43 wild rodents captured showed a positive agglutination reaction, with a greater prevalence of the serovars Pyrogenes, Copenhageni, and Canicola. This study found a prevalence of 30.3% anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies; all positive animals were reactive to more than one serovar.

  12. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  13. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Potencial mutualismo entre Cipocereus minensis (Werderm.) F.Ritter (Cactaceae) e Silvestritermes spp. e Nasutitermes spp. (Isoptera:Termitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Julya Pires; Lopes, Sabrina Aparecida; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor; Santos, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo foi verificar se a associação entre \\textit{Cipocereus minensis} e \\textit{Silvestritermes spp.} e \\textit{Nasutitermes spp.} influencia o sucesso reprodutivo do cacto, pois os cupinzeiros funcionam como manchas de nutrientes. Foram observados quinzenalmente 30 indivíduos de \\textit{C. minensis} divididos em 2 grupos: 19 indivíduos associados ao cupinzeiro; 11 indivíduos afixados em rochas. Foram empregados modelos lineares generalizados mistos onde o substrato, as temperaturas mé...

  15. Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation of marine elasmobranchs in the modern era? ... African Journal of Marine Science ... This paper traces the decline in sawfish catches from 1951 and assesses the current population status and local extinction risk, based on historical and current records up ...

  16. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  17. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium.

  18. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We ...... Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen....

  19. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Remarks concerning two sympatric seedeaters Poliospiza spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D.A., Finch, B.F, & Hunter, N.D. Remarks concerning the all-black coastal boubous. (Laniarius spp.) of Kenya and southern Somalia. Bulletin of the British ... northern striatipectus bears little or no similarity to the southern African nominate reichardi, itself largely endemic to the miombo woodlands of Zambia and ...

  1. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona...

  18. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide, especially in the Far East. This has en- couraged industries that involve not only harvesting natural populations but also, as such populations have declined, setting up artificial cultures of appropriate species (Lo-Chai Chen 1990, Britz 1996, Knauer et al. 1996).

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  20. Response of Soybean to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop in Ethiopia. However, its productivity is constrained by a number of factors among which soil salinity is one the major problems. Therefore, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of exotic and locally isolated Bradyrhizobium spp.

  1. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  2. Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty six (146) isolates of Trichoderma spp. were obtained from rhizosphere soils of potato plants in the middle areas of Gansu Province, China. By means of dual culture method, they were examined for antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum, which causes potato dry rot. Ten of the isolates were found ...

  3. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses from Central Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Vet. Parasitol. 79:269-274. Hoane JS, Gennari SM, Dubey JP, Ribeiro MG, Borges AS Yai, LE,. Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Bonesi GL, Howe DK (2006). Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. infection in horses from. Brazil based on presence of serum antibodies to parasite surface antigen.

  5. Molecular detection of Brucella spp. from broth culture of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR was employed to detect Brucella spp. from broth cultures of clinical samples using a group specific primer based on IS6501 sequence. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis using a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe while reproducibility of the analysis was ...

  6. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  7. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  8. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  9. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  10. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin.

  11. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2017-01-01

    The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin. PMID:29213272

  12. Occurrence of Trichinella spp . in wild animals in northwestern Libya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were ...

  13. Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du Bénin : Évaluation Des Performances Techniques Des Équipements Et Procédés De Fumage. ... This study aims to evaluate and compare the technical performances of the main important traditional smoking processes in the south of Benin. Therefore ...

  14. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  15. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  16. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  18. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  19. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  20. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M Estevinho

    Full Text Available Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors. Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  1. [Population genetics of Pomacea spp. in mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Li, Shi-Zhu; Hu, Wei; Jürg, Utzinger; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-04-01

    To reveal the population structure of Pomacea spp. using genetic markers so as to provide the evidence for studying the invasion and expansion of it in the mainland of China. The genetics of 581 specimens of Pomacea spp. from 60 sites was analyzed by sequencing CO I gene. The diversity of nucleotide and haplotypes were calculated in DnaSP 5.10.01. The haplotype network analysis was performed in Network 4.2.0.1. A phylogenetic tree was produced based on the haplotypes from the present study and those available from GenBank in order to understand the taxonomic status of Pomacea spp. in China. A total of 556 sequences were acquired in the present study and produced 25 unique haplotypes. Six haplotypes frequently occurred in the specimens and accounted for 96.0%. The phylogenetic analysis identified two Pomacea species in China, i. e. P. canaliculata and P. insularum. The usage of haplotypes of P. insularum in China reversed from the existing pattern in other countries. The complexity of population structure of Pomacea spp. in the mainland of China indicates multi-original introduction and complicated expansion patterns.

  2. In vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dai; Niu, Xiaoxi

    2017-05-01

    Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, can affect the growth of certain microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp., which play a crucial role in the maintenance of vaginal health. Growth and metabolic viability of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. incubated with different concentrations of farnesol were determined by measuring the optical density of the cultures and with the MTT assay. Morphology of the farnesol-treated cells was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. In vitro adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus cells treated with farnesol was determined by co-incubating with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of farnesol for vaginal Lactobacillus spp. was 1500μM. No morphological changes were observed when the farnesol-treated Lactobacillus cells were compared with farnesol-free cells, and 100μM farnesol would reduce the adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus to VECs. Farnesol acted as a potential antimicrobial agent, had little impact on the growth, metabolism, and cytomorphology of the vaginal Lactobacillus spp.; however, it affected their adhering capacity to VECs. The safety of farnesol as an adjuvant for antimicrobial agents during the treatment of vaginitis needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... Erianthus fulvus” F1 hybrids was performed with ITS analysis. Out ... ITS analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials included hybrid parents Yacheng 89/9 (Saccharum spp.), E. fulvus, and 126 hybrid F1 plants, planted in the ... ground to powder in liquid nitrogen, using a mortar and pestle. The.

  4. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter.

  5. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  6. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Most resistant microorganism to these bacteria was Proteus mirabilis. Two of Gram positive bacteria, S. lugdenensis (K15-9) and S. aureus (SDA48), were also found as resistant. Conclusions: In this study, Bacillus spp isolated from conjunctiva showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  8. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  9. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  10. Production, characterization and application of banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasting properties of flour from six varieties of matured green banana (Musa spp) fruits identified as Gross michel (GM), Dwarf Cavendish (DC), Cavendish (CA), Lacatan (LA), Poyo (PO) and Red skin (RS) were determined. Flour of CA, used in formulation of banana–whole maize meal was assessed organoleptically for ...

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  12. Effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation of four sweetpotato varieties 'Sauti', 'Okumkom','Santompona' and 'Faara' was determined in a field trial at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Data on number of leaves and branches on upper plant canopy (top 30cm), vine thickness, internode ...

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was.

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  16. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  17. Seabirds (Laridae) as a source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Elisabet; Ayats, Teresa; Ryan, Peter G; Naicker, Preneshni R; Keddy, Karen H; Gaglio, Davide; Witteveen, Minke; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-10-01

    Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n = 129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n = 100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI 95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27.5% (CI 95% : 21.9-33.9) overall, with a higher prevalence in gulls (43.0%, CI 95% : 34.8-52.4) than terns (7.0%, CI 95% : 3.1-14.4). Among the 16 different S. enterica serovars found, Anatum, Enteritidis and Hadar were the most frequent. The same or highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype was found in some Salmonella isolates from seabirds and humans presenting with salmonellosis in Cape Town hospitals. Both Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance to several agents, including critically important antimicrobials (quinolones, tetracyclines and β-lactams) and multidrug resistance in Salmonella serovars from kelp gulls. Our results highlight the importance of seabirds as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella resistant strains and their role in the maintenance and transmission of these bacteria in the environment, with implications for public health. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from gastric niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Gohil, Kushal; Misra, Vatsala; Kakrani, Arjun L; Misra, Sri P; Patole, Milind; Shouche, Yogesh; Dharne, Mahesh

    The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers and gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Frida; Svartström, Olov; Belák, Katinka; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-08-30

    Porcine shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis are a significant animal welfare concern and impair efficient livestock production. Although spirochetes have been detected in both types of lesions the potential role of these bacteria in lesion propagation has received little attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of spirochetes of the genus Treponema in shoulder ulcers or ear necrosis in pigs and compare these with treponemes from porcine gingiva. Samples were collected from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in 169 pigs. Presence of spirochetes was observed in silver stained histological sections and by phase contrast microscopy in scrapings from the necrotic lesions. Additionally, PCR of the 16SrRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) was used to detect Treponema spp. in all samples. Combined analysis showed that 73% of the shoulder ulcers and 53% of the ear necroses were positive for spirochetes. Treponema spp. were detected in 9.7% of the gingival samples. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of the ISR2 sequences revealed the presence of three distinct genetic phylotypes of Treponema spp. corresponding to Treponema pedis, and as yet two unnamed phylotypes represented by GenBank sequences C1UD1 (Acc. No. AY342041) and C1BT2-8 (Acc. No. AY342046). Detection of identical ISR2 sequences from gingiva and ulcer samples indicates that oral Treponema spp. are spread from mouth to ulcer. We conclude that Treponema spp. frequently occur in shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis in pigs, and suggest a possible infection route through biting and licking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.