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Sample records for spp stink bugs

  1. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  2. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  3. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  4. Species composition, monitoring, and feeding injury of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S A; Liburd, O E; Eger, J E; Rhodes, E M

    2013-04-01

    Blackberry (Rubus spp.) production in Florida has increased > 100% within the past two decades. and several insect pests, including stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), have been observed feeding on this crop. The objectives for this study were to determine the stink bug species present in blackberry; to develop monitoring tools for stink bugs in blackberry; and to describe feeding injury to blackberries by Euschistus quadrator Rolston, a relatively new stink bug pest to Florida, that has spread throughout the state. In a field survey, E. quadrator was the most abundant stink bug species, followed by Euschistus servus Say, Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois), Thyanta custator (F.), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Podisus maculiventris Say. Yellow pyramid traps caught more stink bugs than tube traps with or without the addition of Euschistus spp. pheromone lures. There were no statistical differences between traps baited with a Trécé Pherocon Centrum lure, a Suterra Scenturion lure, and an unbaited trap. These results were supported by Y-tube olfactometer assays with E. quadrator where there were no differences between pheromone baited lures and a control. Injury to berries caused by E. quadrator adults and third instars was similar, and both adults and third instars fed more on green berries compared with turning berries. In addition, adults fed more on green berries compared with ripe fruit. The most common injury to green berries was discoloration. In contrast, misshapen drupelets were commonly seen on turning and ripe berries. The potential for managing stink bugs in blackberries to prevent them from reaching damaging levels is discussed.

  5. Insecticide assays against the brown stink bug feeding on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southeastern U.S. Management of this pest is mainly via insecticides. Many commercial products indicate o...

  6. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  7. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

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    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  9. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  10. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  11. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  12. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  13. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  14. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  16. Morphometrics of the Southern Green Stink Bug [Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)] Stylet Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of high-value cash crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; Malvales: Malvaceae). The pest can ingest and transmit disease-causing bacterial and fungal pathogens of cotton. We hypothesized t...

  17. Ecosystem-based incorporation of nectar-producing plants for stink bug parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests of crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of s...

  18. Evaluating impacts of brown marmorated stink bug on non-fruiting nursery crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), has become a major pest and nuisance since it arrived in the US in 1998 for both agricultural growers and homeowners. They can feed on ~200 different plant species, several of which are important ornamental crop species. The...

  19. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Biological control program is being developed for brown marmorated stink bug

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Jesus; Pickett, Charlie; Ingels, Chuck; Haviland, David R; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Doll, David A; Bethke, James A; Faber, Ben; Dara, Surendra K; Hoddle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an invasive, polyphagous pest that has been detected in 42 U.S. states. In 2010, it caused millions of dollars in crop damages to apple growers on the East Coast, where it arrived from Asia during the 1990s. In 2002, BMSB was reported in California; since then, it has been detected in 28 counties and is established in at least nine counties. Although this pest has not yet been found on commercial crops in the state, detections of BMSB in commercial orchard...

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  2. DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG NEZARA VIRIDULA (L. (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

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    V MEGLIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a global pest of considerable ecological, agricultural and economical interest. The ancestral home of this species is supposed to be Africa and/or Mediterranean and presumably it was spread worldwide during the last two centuries with human trade and agriculture. Bugs found today on different continents do not differ morphologically, however there are substantial differences in their mating behaviour. We used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to determine the suitability of biochemical markers for assessment of genetic variation between geographically isolated populations of N. viridula. The initial survey of populations from Slovenia, France, French West Indies and Brazil resulted in the resolution of polymorphic banding patterns within the following enzyme systems: GPI, IDH, MDH, ME, MPI and PGM. Results indicate there are consistent differences among tested populations.

  3. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  4. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  5. The impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe: history, biology, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive Pentatomidae introduced to the USA, Canada, and multiple European countries. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic region USA reached outbreak levels, and subsequent feeding resulted in severe damage to tree fruit a...

  6. Diversity and abundance of Beauveria bassiana in soils, stink bugs and plant tissues of common bean from organic and conventional fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yordanys; Portal, Orelvis; Lysøe, Erik; Meyling, Nicolai V; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8.4%) was significantly lower than that in organic fields (23.6%). Beauveria were also obtained significantly more frequently from bean roots in organic fields (15.0%) compared to bean roots in conventional fields (3.3%). DNA sequencing of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for Beauveria species identification. All isolates where characterized as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, and clustered with isolates of neotropical origin previously described as AFNEO_1. The Cuban B. bassiana isolates formed five clusters in the phylogeny. Isolates of two clusters originated from all four locations, organic and conventional fields, as well as soil, plants and stink bugs. Organic fields contained isolates of all five clusters while conventional fields only harbored isolates of the two most frequent ones. Mating type PCR assays revealed that mating type distribution was skewed, with MAT1/MAT2 proportion of 146/4, indicating limited potential for recombination. The present study is the first to report of B. bassiana as a naturally occurring endophyte in common bean. Further, it shows that B. bassiana occurs naturally in diverse environments of common bean fields, and constitutes a potential reservoir of natural enemies against pest insects particularly in organic fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Competition between the phytophagous stink bugs Euschistus heros and Piezodorus guildinii in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuelher, Edmar S; Silva, Éder H; Hirose, Edson; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2016-10-01

    The abundance and contribution of the neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.), and the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (West.), to the composition of insect pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.), fields have changed both spatially and temporally in neotropical soybean production areas. Therefore, we assessed the competitiveness of each species in direct competition experiments following an additive series. We performed mixed (adult) insect infestations in soybean plants and evaluated the fitness of each species and the soybean yield. While the competitive ability of E. heros was significantly compromised by increments in conspecifics and heterospecifics (i.e. P. guildinii), the competitive ability of P. guildinii was compromised by the presence of heterospecifics (i.e. E. heros). The reproductive output of P. guildinii remained unaffected by increments in E. heros or of P. guildinii. Intriguingly, despite the fact that P. guildinii apparently lost the competition with E. heros, almost no pod production was observed in any plant colonised by the former. The higher abundance of E. heros in neotropical soybean fields seems to result from higher competitive ability than its heterospecific competitor P. guildinii, which may prevent the higher losses caused by P. guildinii. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  9. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  10. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  11. Effective selection criteria for assessing the resistance of stink bugs complex in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiani da Rocha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with resistance to the stink bug complex are currently selected by extremely labor-intensive methods, which limit the evaluation of a large number of genotypes. Thus, this paper proposed the use of an alternative trait underlying the selection of resistant genotypes under field conditions with natural infestation: the weight of healthy seeds (WHS. To this end, 24 genotypes were evaluated under two management systems: with systematic chemical control of insects (management I, and without control (management II. Different indices were calculated using grain weight (YP of management I and WHS of management II (YS . The high correlation between YS and the indices mean productivity, stress tolerance and geometric mean productivity, plus the agreement in determining the groups of genotypes with resistance and high yield indicate that WHS is a useful character in simultaneous selection for these traits.

  12. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Insecticidal Management and Movement of the Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus servus, in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North Carolina, some brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are suspected to pass the F1 generation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) before moving into corn (Zea mays L.) (Poales: Poaceae). These pests can injure corn ears as they develop. To test their effectiveness as a management tactic, pyrethroids were aerially applied to field corn in two experiments, one with 0.77 ha plots and another with 85 ha plots. Euschistus servus population abundance was monitored over time in both experiments and yield was assessed in the larger of the two experiments. In the smaller experiment, the populations were spatially monitored in a 6.3 ha area of corn adjacent to a recently harvested wheat field (352 sampling points of 6.1 row-meters in all but the first sampling event). Overall E. servus abundance decreased throughout the monitoring period in the sampling area of the smaller experiment, but remained unchanged over time in the large-scale experiment. During all sampling periods in both experiments, abundance was the same between treatments. Yield was unaffected by treatment where it was measured in the larger experiment. In the smaller experiment, E. servus were initially aggregated at the field edge of the corn (two, six and 13 days following the wheat harvest). Sixteen days following the wheat harvest they were randomly distributed in the corn. Although it was not directly measured, stink bugs are suspected to move the cornfield edge as a result of the adjacent wheat harvest. More study of the biology of E. servus is needed, specifically in the area of host preference, phenology and movement to explain these phenomena and to produce better management strategies for these pests. PMID:22950984

  14. A case of extensive congregation of Man-faced Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus (Drury (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae together with new host records from western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Waghmare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the congregation of Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus. For the first time this bug was reported at high altitude i.e., 792m. The study reports the congregation of C. incarnatus on four new host plant species viz., Ixora brachiata, Memecylon umbellatum, Glochidion ellipticum and Olea dioica. More infestation was observed on I. brachiata. 

  15. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, ma...

  16. Natural insecticide based-leaves extract of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae in the control of stink bug brown soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Porto Piton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the insecticide potential of the leaves extract of Piper aduncum (L. (Piperaceae on development of brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F., major pest in soybean crop in Mato Grosso State. For this a bioassay was conducted with eggs, nymphs and adults of this stink bug, using the concentrations 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 8.0%, of the extract acetonic of P. aduncum and acetone for control. It was evaluated the numbers of unviable eggs, nymphs death and longevity, fecundity and fertility of the adults. In the immersing eggs bioassay, all concentrations greater than 1% unviable more than 70% of the eggs, while in the contact bioassay only 19% of the eggs were unviable in 8% concentration, differing of control. In nymphs bioassay the concentrations of 8% and 4% caused death of 72% and 52%, respectively. In adults bioassay all concentrations tested reduced significantly the survival and reproduction of the insects. Thus is evidence that P. aduncum is a potential plant for stink bug control, because it had deleterious action in all development phases on E. heros.

  17. Biological control program is being developed for brown marmorated stink bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB is an invasive, polyphagous pest that has been detected in 42 U.S. states. In 2010, it caused millions of dollars in crop damages to apple growers on the East Coast, where it arrived from Asia during the 1990s. In 2002, BMSB was reported in California; since then, it has been detected in 28 counties and is established in at least nine counties. Although this pest has not yet been found on commercial crops in the state, detections of BMSB in commercial orchards have been documented in Oregon and Washington. Proactive research in California has joined national efforts led by U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers to develop a classical biological control program for BMSB. A study is under way to determine potential non-target effects of a specialist egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, imported from Beijing, China, part of the home range of BMSB. In addition, the role of BMSB natural enemies residing in California is being assessed. A review of the recent research outlines the possible opportunities for reducing the threat BMSB poses to California.

  18. Identification of defensive compounds in metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Francisco A.; Wendler, Edison P.; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N. Sales [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: francisco.marques@pesquisador.cnpq.br; Ventura, Mauricio U.; Arruda-Gatti, Iara Cintra [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia

    2007-07-01

    The contents of metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were analyzed. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC-mass spectrometry and matching retention indices and mass spectra with those of authentic samples. Tridecane was the major component followed by lesser and approximately equal amounts of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Other compounds identified include (E)-2-hexenal, decane, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, undecane, (E)-4-oxo-2-octenal, dodecane, (E)-2-octenyl acetate, 1-tridecene, tetradecane and pentadecane. (author)

  19. Identification of defensive compounds in metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Francisco A.; Wendler, Edison P.; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N. Sales; Ventura, Mauricio U.; Arruda-Gatti, Iara Cintra

    2007-01-01

    The contents of metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were analyzed. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC-mass spectrometry and matching retention indices and mass spectra with those of authentic samples. Tridecane was the major component followed by lesser and approximately equal amounts of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Other compounds identified include (E)-2-hexenal, decane, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, undecane, (E)-4-oxo-2-octenal, dodecane, (E)-2-octenyl acetate, 1-tridecene, tetradecane and pentadecane. (author)

  20. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  1. Frugivory by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Alters Blueberry Fruit Chemistry and Preference by Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yucheng; Giusti, M Monica; Parker, Joyce; Salamanca, Jordano; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2016-10-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pest from Asia that feeds on many agricultural crops in the United States, including blueberries. Yet, the effects of H. halys feeding on fruit chemistry and induced resistance to insects remain unknown. Here we hypothesized that frugivory by H. halys changes fruit chemical composition, which in turn affects insect feeding behavior. In field experiments, blueberry fruit was either mechanically injured or injured by 0 (control), 2, 5, or 10 H. halys Total soluble solids (°Brix) and anthocyanin and phenolic content in injured and uninjured fruits, as well as their effects on feeding behavior by conspecifics, were measured subsequently in the laboratory. Results showed lower °Brix values in injured fruit as compared with uninjured fruit. Fruit injured by 2 and 5 H. halys also had 32 and 20% higher total phenolics, respectively, than the uninjured controls. The proportions of the anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, cyanidin, and petunidin increased, whereas those from malvidin decreased, in fruit after mechanical wounding and frugivory by H. halys In dual-choice tests, H. halys fed more often on uninjured fruit than those previously injured by conspecifics. These results show that frugivory by H. halys reduces the amounts of soluble solids, alters anthocyanin ratios, and increases levels of phenolics, and, as a result, injured fruits were a less preferred food source for conspecifics. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of frugivory on fruit chemistry and induced fruit resistance against a fruit-eating herbivore. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Behavioral response of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to semiochemicals deployed inside and outside anthropogenic structures during the overwintering period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest in the United States when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. haly...

  3. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in Mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case studies of commercial management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercial orchards in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were surveyed weekly in 2010 and 2011 for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug and the injury caused to both apple and peaches. Among tested sampling techniques, baited pyramid traps yielded the most brown marmorated sti...

  4. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): A farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habit...

  5. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  6. Distinct properties of proteases and nucleases in the gut, salivary gland and saliva of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomate, Purushottam R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Stink bugs negatively impact numerous plant species of agricultural and horticultural importance. While efforts to develop effective control measures are underway, the unique digestive physiology of these pests presents a significant hurdle for either protein- or nucleotide-based management options. Here we report the comparative biochemical and proteomic characterization of proteases and nucleases from the gut, salivary gland and saliva of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. The pH optimum for protease activity was acidic (5 to 6) in the gut with the primary proteases being cysteine proteases, and alkaline (8 to 9) in the saliva and salivary gland with the primary proteases being serine proteases. The serine proteases in saliva differ biochemically from trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the cathepsins in the gut and saliva showed distinct properties in inhibitor assays. Nuclease activity (DNase, RNase, dsRNase) was concentrated in the salivary gland and saliva with negligible activity in the gut. The most abundant proteins of the gut (530) and salivary gland (631) identified by proteomic analysis included four gut proteases along with eight proteases and one nuclease from the salivary gland. Understanding of N. viridula digestive physiology will facilitate the design of new strategies for management of this significant pest. PMID:27282882

  7. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Mendes, Marcos V.; Lino-Neto, José; Freitas, Hemerson L.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Oliveira, Eugênio E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact) of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate) did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking) activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood. PMID:27284906

  8. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haddi

    Full Text Available Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses. Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood.

  9. Effects of Temperatures on Immature Development and Survival of the Invasive Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Darcy A; Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Palumbo, John C; Perring, Thomas M

    2017-12-05

    Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a non-native stink bug that feeds primarily on cole crops and wild mustards. Its invasion into desert agriculture in California and Arizona presents a conundrum between rapid pest development at warm temperatures and severe damage to cool season crops. In this study, the development and survival of B. hilaris were determined at nine constant temperatures (ranging from 20-42°C) when reared on organically grown broccoli florets. Egg hatching was greatly delayed at 20°C, and first instar nymphs did not survive at this temperature. No eggs hatched at 42°C. The highest survival rates (70.0-86.7%) of B. hilaris were observed at temperatures ranging from 24 to 35°C. The total developmental rate of B. hilaris from egg to adult increased from 0.027 to 0.066/d from 24 to 35°C, and then slightly dropped to 0.064/d at 39°C. Based on the linear model, B. hilaris requires 285.4 degree-days to complete its development. The Briere 1 model predicted the lower and upper temperature thresholds as 16.7 and 42.7°C, respectively. The optimal temperature for development (TOpt) was estimated as 36°C. According to the results, B. hilaris is well adapted to warm conditions, and temperatures of 33-39°C are well suited for B. hilaris development. Information from this study helps explain the rapid range expansion of B. hilaris across the southern United States and will be instrumental in predicting future expansion across the rest of the country and in other parts of the world. The relationship between thermal thresholds and invasion dynamics of this pest are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The importance of gut symbionts in the development of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Taylor

    Full Text Available The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål, has become a severe agricultural pest and nuisance problem since its introduction in the U.S. Research is being conducted to understand its biology and to find management solutions. Its symbiotic relationship with gut symbionts is one aspect of its biology that is not understood. In the family Pentatomidae, the reliance on gut symbionts for successful development seems to vary depending on the species of stink bug. This research assessed the role of gut symbionts in the development, survivorship, and fecundity of H. halys. We compared various fitness parameters of nymphs and adults reared from surface sterilized and untreated egg masses during two consecutive generations under laboratory conditions. Results provided direct evidence that H. halys is negatively impacted by the prevention of vertical transmission of its gut symbionts and that this impact is significant in the first generation and manifests dramatically in the subsequent generation. Developmental time and survivorship of treated cohorts in the first generation were significantly affected during third instar development through to the adult stage. Adults from the sterilized treatment group exhibited longer pre-oviposition periods, produced fewer egg masses, had significantly smaller clutch sizes, and the hatch rate and survivorship of those eggs were significantly reduced. Observations following hatch of surface sterilized eggs also revealed significant effects on wandering behavior of the first instars. The second generation progeny from adults of the sterilized cohorts showed significantly lower survival to adulthood, averaging only 0.3% compared to 20.8% for the control cohorts. Taken together, results demonstrate that H. halys is heavily impacted by deprival of its gut symbionts. Given the economic status of this invasive pest, further investigations may lead to management tactics that disrupt this close symbiotic

  11. Synergy of aggregation pheromone with methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate in attraction of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The male-produced aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug ((BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)), recently identified as a mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3S,6S,7R,10R)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, offers new opportunities for manage...

  12. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  13. A Comparison of Infectivity between Polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Before and After Passage Through the Gut of the Stink Bug, Eocanthecona furcellata

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R. K.; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P.; Srivastava, K.; Kaul, V.

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, afte...

  14. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, B L; Kuhar, T P; Herbert, D A; Brewster, C C; Hogue, J W; Aigner, J D

    2017-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characterization of Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) biogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their role in secondary organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Danielle; Dutcher, Dabrina; Raymond, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    The formation of aerosols is a key component in understanding cloud formation in the context of radiative forcings and global climate modeling. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a significant source of aerosols, yet there is still much to be learned about their structures, sources, and interactions. The aims of this project were to identify the BVOCs found in the defense chemicals of the brown marmorated stink bug Halymorpha halys and quantify them using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and test whether oxidation of these compounds by ozone-promoted aerosol and cloud seed formation. The bugs were tested under two conditions: agitation by asphyxiation and direct glandular exposure. Tridecane, 2(5H)-furanone 5-ethyl, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the three most abundant compounds. H. halys were also tested in the agitated condition in a smog chamber. It was found that in the presence of 100-180 ppm ozone, secondary aerosols do form. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) were used to characterize the secondary aerosols that formed. This reaction resulted in 0.23 microg/ bug of particulate mass. It was also found that these secondary organic aerosol particles could act as cloud condensation nuclei. At a supersaturation of 1%, we found a kappa value of 0.09. Once regional populations of these stink bugs stablilize and the populations estimates can be made, the additional impacts of their contribution to regional air quality can be calculated.

  16. Effects of Fining Agents, Reverse Osmosis and Wine Age on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys Taint in Wine

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    Pallavi Mohekar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were treated with fining agents and put through reverse osmosis filtration. The efficacy of these treatments was determined using chemical analysis (MDGC-MS and sensory descriptive analysis. Tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations in red and white wine were determined at bottle aging durations of 0, 6, 12 and 24 months using MDGC-MS. Reverse osmosis was found to be partially successful in removing trans-2-decenal concentration from finished wine. While tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations decreased during bottle aging, post-fermentative fining treatments were not effective at removing these compounds. Although French oak did not alter the concentration of tridecane and trans-2-decenal in red wine, it did mask the expression of BMSB-related sensory characters. Because of the ineffectiveness of removing BMSB taint post-fermentation, BMSB densities in the grape clusters should be minimized so that the taint does not occur in the wine.

  17. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

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    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  18. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29117381

  19. Impact of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in North America and Europe: History, Biology, Ecology, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Nielsen, Anne L

    2018-01-07

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pentatomid introduced from Asia into the United States, Canada, multiple European countries, and Chile. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic United States reached outbreak levels and subsequent feeding severely damaged tree fruit as well as other crops. Significant nuisance issues from adults overwintering inside homes were common. BMSB is a highly polyphagous species with a strong dispersal capacity and high reproductive output, potentially enabling its spread and success in invaded regions. A greater understanding of BMSB biology and ecology and its natural enemies, the identification of the male-produced aggregation pheromone, and the recognition that BMSB disperses into crops from adjacent wooded habitats have led to the development of behavior-based integrated pest management (IPM) tactics. Much is still unknown about BMSB, and continued long-term collaborative studies are necessary to refine crop-specific IPM programs and enhance biological control across invaded landscapes.

  20. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S; Gao, Yulin

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Mapping the Potential Global Range of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, with Particular Reference to New Zealand

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    Diane Fraser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Originating from Asia, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB is a significant pest of horticultural/agricultural crops, grapes, woody ornamental and herbaceous plants, and is also a nuisance to people, due to its overwintering behavior in human habitation. The global range of this pest is steadily increasing and previous predictions of environmental suitability have shown New Zealand to be highly suitable. Due to the economic value of horticultural and agricultural industries to the New Zealand economy, it is vital to understand the range of potential risk within the country. Global and New Zealand potential suitability for BMSB was modeled using three algorithms and the resulting predictions ensembled to predict the potential range under current climatic conditions and under trajectories of future low (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP, 2.6 and high (RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emissions for both 2050 and 2070. Under current conditions, models showed a high global suitability within latitudes 25°–50° N, southern South America, southeast and southwest regions of Australia and large areas of New Zealand. Modeling the effect of climate change on BMSB range in New Zealand resulted in a southerly range shift over time, particularly with high emissions trajectory. Currently, BMSB is not established in New Zealand and it is vital that this remains the case.

  2. Integrating environmental variables and geospatial technologies in landscape scale habitat modelling of edible stink bugs in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Dube, Timothy; Maziva, Tendai

    2018-06-01

    Encosternum delegorguei spinola (edible stink bugs) is renowned for its high protein and contribution to the local economies of the people in Africa. Although many studies have evaluated the economic and nutritional importance of E. delegorguei, little is known about its geographic distribution and habitat yet the insects are an important source of protein and money for many people in Southern Africa. In this study maximum entropy model was used to predict the probability of presence of E. delegorguei in southern Zimbabwe. The environmental factors governing its geographic distribution in Zimbabwe were also evaluated. Presence/absence data were selected along thirty-five randomly selected transects. The climatic and topographic variables used to predict the distribution of E. delegorguei were: maximum temperature of the warmest month; minimum temperature of the coldest month; the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI); altitude; slope; and aspect. It was found that E. delegorguei is most likely to occur on steep slopes with high NDVI located at an altitude ranging of 856 and 1450 m above sea level. These suitable habitats are characterised by mild temperatures ranging from 17 °C to 28 °C. These results are in agreement with previous studies indicating that E. delegorguei is sensitive to temperature, as well as tree cover and may contribute towards conserving its habitat, which is being fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance.

  3. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  4. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  5. The influence of volatile semiochemicals from stink bug eggs and oviposition-damaged plants on the foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michereff, M F F; Borges, M; Aquino, M F S; Laumann, R A; Mendes Gomes, A C M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2016-10-01

    During host selection, physical and chemical stimuli provide important cues that modify search behaviours of natural enemies. We evaluated the influence of volatiles released by eggs and egg extracts of the stink bug Euschistus heros and by soybean plants treated with the eggs and egg extracts on Telenomus podisi foraging behaviour. Responses to volatiles were evaluated in Y-tube olfactometers after exposure to (1) one egg cluster for 24 h; (2) plants with eggs laid by the stink bug, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; (3) plants with eggs laid artificially, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; and (4) plants treated with acetone or hexane extracts of eggs. Telenomus podisi was attracted to volatiles emitted by one egg cluster and to acetone extracts of one egg cluster, but not to air or acetone controls. There were no responses to odours of plants treated with eggs or egg extracts. Analysis of acetone extracts of egg clusters by gas chromatography revealed the major components were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Our results suggest that one egg cluster and the acetone extract of one egg cluster contain volatile compounds that can modify T. podisi foraging behaviour, and that the amounts of these compounds, probably together with some minor compounds, are important for host recognition by T. podisi. Also, the oviposition damage or egg extracts on the plant did not elicit indirect defences that attracted Telenomus podisi.

  6. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  7. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  8. Soybean resistance to stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) increases with exposure to solar UV-B radiation and correlates with isoflavonoid content in pods under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jorge A; Mazza, Carlos A; Dillon, Francisco M; Chludil, Hugo D; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2015-05-01

    Solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a significant influence on trophic relationships in natural and managed ecosystems, affecting plant-insect interactions. We explored the effects of ambient UV-B radiation on the levels of herbivory by stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) in field-grown soybean crops. The experiments included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient and attenuated UV-B) and four soybean cultivars known to differ in their content of soluble leaf phenolics. Ambient UV-B radiation increased the accumulation of the isoflavonoids daidzin and genistin in the pods of all cultivars. Soybean crops grown under attenuated UV-B had higher numbers of unfilled pods and damaged seeds than crops grown under ambient UV-B radiation. Binary choice experiments with soybean branches demonstrated that stink bugs preferred branches of the attenuated UV-B treatment. We found a positive correlation between percentage of undamaged seeds and the contents of daidzin and genistin in pods. Our results suggest that constitutive and UV-B-induced isoflavonoids increase plant resistance to stink bugs under field conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A comparison of infectivity between polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P; Srivastava, K; Kaul, V

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, after passage, and healthy (control) larvae 1 day prior to the trial. The predators were subsequently released on cabbage plants that were infested with 100 healthy S. litura larvae. The median lethal dose (LD50) and survival time (ST50) values before and after passage through the gut were not significantly different. Additional mortality due to virus infection increased 13- 17% before and after treatments but within these treatments the mortality did not vary significantly. It was concluded that E. furcellata disseminated the virus through their feces into the ecosystem and infectivity of the SpltMNPV was not altered after passage through the gut of the predator. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  10. Demographic parameters of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on two diets developed for Lygus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two artificial diets developed for rearing Lygus spp., a fresh yolk chicken egg based-diet (FYD) and a dry yolk chicken egg based-diet (DYD), were evaluated as an alternative food source for rearing the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Survival to adult was...

  11. Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution and Abundance of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) With Special Reference to North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica Jean

    2017-12-08

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a harmful pest of horticultural crops in North America and Europe. Native to East Asia, this highly polyphagous insect is spreading rapidly worldwide. Climate change will add further complications to managing this species in terms of both geographic distribution and population growth. This study used CLIMEX to compare potential H. halys distribution under recent and future climate models using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global circulation models, CSIRO Mk3.0 and MIROC-H. Simulated changes in seasonal phenology and voltinism were examined. Under the possible future climate scenarios, suitable range in Europe expands northward. In North America, the suitable H. halys range shifts northward into Canada and contracts from its southern temperature range limits in the United States due to increased heat stress. Prolonged periods of warm temperatures resulted in longer H. halys growing seasons. However, future climate scenarios indicated that rising summer temperatures decrease H. halys growth potential compared to recent climatic conditions, which in turn, may reduce mid-summer crop damage. Climate change may increase the number of H. halys generations produced annually, thereby enabling the invasive insect to become multivoltine in the northern latitudes of North America and Europe where it is currently reported to be univoltine. These results indicate prime horticultural production areas in Europe, the northeastern United States, and southeastern Canada are at greatest risk from H. halys under both current and possible future climates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

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    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  13. Application methods and insecticides for controlling stink bugs in soybean/ Métodos de aplicação e inseticidas no controle de percevejos na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clérison Régis Perini

    Full Text Available Insecticides application is the most widely used form to control stink bugs in soybean, being the application technology and the insecticide used the major factors for an efficient control. The experiment was conducted in a soybean field during the 2008/09 growing season, in São Sepé, RS, in order to evaluate efficiency of three methods of application and two insecticides for controlling stink bugs in soybeans. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme 3x2 +1 control, with five replicates. The experimental units had dimensions of 40.0 x 40.0 m. The factor A was represented by the methods of application, as follows: A1- Tractorized spray with hydraulic nozzle; A2- Aerial, with rotary disc atomizers and A3- Aerial, with hydraulic nozzles. The factor B was represented by the insecticides, as follows: B1- thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin and B2-acephate. Ground and aerial applications with low volume oily had greater efficiency for controlling stink bugs in soybean, where led to an increase in soybean grain yield. Insecticides thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin and acephate were similar in controlling stink bugs and in residual effect.A aplicação de inseticidas é a forma mais utilizada no controle de percevejos na cultura da soja, sendo a escolha da tecnologia de aplicação e do inseticida fundamental para obtenção de um controle eficiente. O experimento foi desenvolvido em lavoura comercial de soja, na safra agrícola 2008/09, em São Sepé, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de três métodos de aplicação e dois inseticidas no controle de percevejos na soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2+1 testemunha, com cinco repetições. As unidades experimentais tiveram dimensões de 40,0 x 40,0 m. O fator A foi representado pelos métodos de aplicação, sendo: A1- Terrestre com pontas hidráulicas, A2- Aérea, com atomizadores rotativos de

  14. Neurohormones implicated in the control of Malpighian tubule secretion in plant sucking Heteropterans: The stink bugs Acrosternum hilare and Nezara viridula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant sucking heteropteran bugs feed regularly on small amounts of K+rich plant material, in contrast to their hematophagous relatives which imbibe large volumes of Na+-rich blood. It was anticipated that this would be reflected in the endocrine control of MT secretion. To explore this, neuroendocri...

  15. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  16. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  17. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  18. Resistência de soja a insetos: VII. Avaliação de danos de percevejos em cultivares e linhagens Resistance of soybean to insects: VII. Evaluation of damage to cultivars and lines by stink bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Em dois anos consecutivos (1980/81 e 1981/82 estudou-se, em Campinas, o comportamento de oito linhagens (IAC 73-228, IAC 77-3802, IAC 77-3823, IAC 78-2296, IAC 78-2318, IAC 78-3258, IAC 78-3278 e D72-9601-1 e dois cultivares (Santa Rosa e TMU de soja em relação ao ataque de percevejos em campo. No primeiro ano, a infestação natural de Nezara viridula (L e Piezodorus guildinii (West. foi complementada com liberação de adultos de Euschistus heros (Fabr. coletados em lavouras de soja. No segundo ano, não houve necessidade de infestações artificiais, já que as populações naturais de N. viridula e P. guildinii estavam altas. Como critérios para avaliação de dano, usaram-se: retenção foliar, produção de grãos, produção dividida em quatro classes de dano, porcentagem em peso de grãos danificados, peso de cem sementes, teor de óleo e poder germinativo. IAC 73-228 e IAC 78-2318 comportaram-se como os mais resistentes.During the seasons of 1980/81 and 1981/82, the performance of eight soybean lines (IAC 73-228, IAC 77-3802, IAC 77-3823, IAC 78-2296, IAC 78-2318, IAC 78-3258, IAC 78-3278 and D72-9601-1 and two cultivars (Santa Rosa and TMU was evaluated in relation to the attack of stink bugs in the field, at Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the season of 1980/81, the low natural infestation of Piezodorus guildinii (West. and Nezara viridula (L. was supplemented by liberation of Euschistus heros (Fabr. adults collected on soybean crops; in the following season, the high natural infestation was sufficient to cause severe damage to soybeans. Seven criteria of damage evaluation were utilized: foliar retention, yield, yield divided in four damage classes, percentage of the damage grain weight, weight of hundred seeds, oil content and germination percentage. The line IAC 73-228 confirmed its resistance and the same performance was observed for the IAC 78-2318. Nevertheless, both these lines have as unfavourable characteristics

  19. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant Criação do percevejo-verde usando dieta artificial seca e planta artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO RICARDO PANIZZI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.. The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g; potato starch (7.5 g; dextrose (7.5 g; sucrose (2.5 g; cellulose (12.5 g; vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water (5.0 mL; soybean oil (20 mL; wheat germ (17.9 g; and water (30 mL. Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%, both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (PForam conduzidos estudos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação, com uma dieta artificial seca para a criação de ninfas e com um modelo de planta artificial como substrato para a colocação de ovos por adultos do percevejo-verde, Nezara viridula (L.. Os componentes da dieta artificial foram: proteína de soja (15 g; fécula de batata (7,5 g; dextrose (7,5 g; sacarose (2,5 g; celulose (12,5 g; mistura vitamínica (niacinamida 1 g, pantotenato de cálcio 1 g, tiamina 0,25 g, riboflavina 0,5 g, piridoxina 0,25 g, ácido fólico 0,25 g, biotina 0,02 mL, vitamina B12 1 g, adicionada em 1.000 mL de água destilada (5,0 mL; óleo de soja (20 mL; germe de trigo (17,9 g; e água (30 mL. As ninfas alimentaram-se normalmente da dieta, embora o tempo de desenvolvimento tenha sido em um caso, maior, e em outro, semelhante, ao das ninfas que se alimentaram de vagens da soja. A mortalidade total das ninfas foi baixa (ca. 30%, tanto na dieta como na vagem de soja. Na emergência, os adultos apresentaram peso fresco

  20. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction.

  1. Parasitismo e sítios de diapausa de adultos do percevejo marrom, Euschistus heros na região da Grande Dourados, MS Parasitism and diapause sites of brown stink bug adults, Euschistus heros in the Great Dourados Region, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlla Barbosa Godoy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre os insetos que atacam a soja, o percevejo marrom Euschistus heros (Fabricius é considerado uma das principais pragas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a ocorrência de parasitismo em adultos do percevejo marrom E. hero, no período de cultivo da soja e de entressafra, e identificar seus sítios de diapausa no período de entressafra, na região da Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS. Foram coletados adultos do percevejo em lavouras de soja, durante as safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, sendo as coletas realizadas semanalmente. No período de entressafra da soja de 2005 e 2006, foram realizadas inspeções em diferentes ambientes vegetais visando a constatar possíveis sítios de diapausa do percevejo, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de parasitismo nesses ambientes. Em cada coleta, foram individualizados 40 adultos em caixas gerbox contendo Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Oleraceae, sendo os insetos observados durante um período de 40 dias. Os parasitoides foram armazenados em álcool 70% e encaminhados para identificação. O índice natural de parasitismo de adultos de E. heros amostrados no período de safra e de entressafra de soja variou de 0,0 a 5,0%, considerando-se as diferentes coletas realizadas, sendo Hexacladia smithii Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae a única espécie de parasitoide ocorrente. No período de entressafra, foi verificada maior incidência do percevejo E. heros em folhas secas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. caídas no chão, evidenciando que esse ambiente é um importante sítio de diapausa para essa praga na região.Among the insects that attack soybeans, brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabricius is considered a major pest. The aim of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of parasitism in adults of brown stink bugs E. heros during soybean crop season and to identify diapause sites during the period of soybean absence in the great region of Dourados, MS. Adults of brown stick bugs were collected weekly in

  2. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  3. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  4. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  5. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  6. Successful hatching from eggs carried by females and naturally removed from incubant males in Belostoma spp. water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Estévez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Belostomatinae water bug species (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae it has been hitherto believed that the completion of embryonic development is successful only if eggs are incubated on male hemelytra. Nevertheless, we found egg successful hatching from a back- brooding Belostoma elegans (Mayr and B. micantulum (Stål females, as well as from fertilized eggs kicked off from four back-brooder B. elegans males. One "encumbered" B. elongatum Montandon female was also recorded, but eggs did not hatch after she removed them. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 515-517. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se considera que el desarrollo embrionario y la emergencia de las ninfas de las especies de Belostomatinae (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae se cumplen con éxito si los huevos son incubados sobre el espacio dorsal de machos adultos. No obstante, hemos registrado eclosiones exitosas a partir de dos hembras grávidas portando huevos sobre su dorso; una de ellas de la especie Belostoma elegans (Mayr, la otra de B. micantulum (Stål. Se registra la eclosión de huevos, previamente removidos del área de postura por los propios machos incubantes de B. elegans (N=4 y la presencia de una hembra de B. elongatum Montandon, portando huevos sobre sus hemiélitros, los cuales no eclosionaron después de haber sido removidos por la propia hembra.

  7. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  8. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator compound) on cellular energy allocation of a heterometabolous insect, Brachynema germari Kol. The fifth instar of this insect was treated with 0, 20, 60, 100, 200 and 500 mg l-1 formulation of pyriproxyfen (Admiral 10EC) and the ...

  9. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    economic potential for agroindustry and agro exportation. Edessa is one camu camu pest that produces in dry buds and fruits with a mark decolorated with concentric circles well marked and a central point when they feed. The aim of the current research was to determinate the biological cycle under laboratory conditions and population fluctuations of Edessa aff. aulacosterna. "Camu camu fruit stink bug" during January to November, 2004 in camu-camu culture, in development and production parcels located in flooded areas of restinga in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Eggs, nymphs and adults were colected to begin artificial rearing proceeding of distrit of Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Development time of eggs to 1th nymphal instar was 5.1 days. 94.6% of egg hatchability, varied between 12 until 14 egg-laying was found. The time passed since eggs until III nymphal instar was 37.3 días and of III to V nymphal instar was de 81.9 days. Percentage of mortality of 2nd nymphal instar to adult was 98,1%. Adults collected were localized mainly on branches and stem of the plants, while nymphs were found in delicated buds. In relation to seasonal populations only were registered eggs laying throught the year in parcels in production. Differences between nymphs I to V and adults of Edessa aff. aulacosterna, in production and development plantations were not found. Only differences in dry and wet period in III to V nymphs instar in development camu camu plants were found. Edessa aff. aulacosterna mainly presented a contagious distribution. Suitable knowledge of bioecology of Edessa aff. aulacosterna permit improves strategy of pest control.

  10. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  11. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... scanners will find mostly superficial errors. Thus, when bugs span multiple functions, even if simple, they become undetectable by most code scanners. The studied set of historical bugs contained many of such cases. This PhD thesis proposes a bug-finding technique that is both lightweight and capable...

  12. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  13. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  14. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  15. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  16. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans, Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown, mimetizing the color of the hemipteran hosts. The new species is similar to Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, from Argentina, the only other species of Temnocephala from belostomatid hemipterans known to date, by having an extra long and curved cirrus, but differs by having the distal portion of the introvert not bent as a 'full-bent' smoking pipe-like, as the author depicted originally for T. decarloi.Uma nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 é descrita para o sul do Brasil, ectosimbionte sobre baratas-d'água (hemípteros aquáticos, Belostoma spp. da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vários hemípteros examinados estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala, inclusive com posturas sempre localizadas na face ventral entre os dois primeiros pares de apêndices locomotores, e entre o primeiro par de pernas e o rostro. Espécimes adultos e jovens de tamanhos variados também foram sempre encontrados na face ventral do hemíptero. Os vermes adultos eram pigmentados (marrom-esverdeado, mimetizando a cor do exoesqueleto de seus hospedeiros. A nova espécie é semelhante à Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, descrita da Argentina, única espécie conhecida do gênero já encontrada sobre hemípteros belostomatídeos, por ter um cirro extremamente longo e curvo, mas difere desta por ter a porção distal do 'introvert' sem a forma típica de um cachimbo ('full-bent' como ilustrada pelo autor na descri

  17. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  18. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  19. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  20. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  1. Inter and intra-guild interactions in egg parasitoid species of the soybean stink bug complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujii Edison Ryoiti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the parasitism behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston e Trissolcus urichi Crawford (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on eggs of Nezara viridula L., Euschistus heros F., Piezodorus guildinii Westwood and Acrosternum aseadum Rolston (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in no choice and multiple choice experiments. For all parasitoid species, the results demonstrated the existence of a main host species that maximizes the reproductive success. The competitive interactions among the parasitoid species were investigated in experiments of sequential and simultaneous release of different combinations of parasitoid pairs on the hosts N. viridula, E. heros and A. aseadum. Exploitative competition was observed for egg batches at the genus level (Telenomus vs. Trissolcus and interference competition at the species level (T. basalis vs. T. urichi. Trissolcus urichi was the most aggressive species, interfering with the parasitism of T. basalis. Generally, T. basalis showed an opportunistic behavior trying to parasitise eggs after T. urichi had abandoned the egg batch. The selection of parasitoid species for use in augmentative biological control programs should take into account the diversity of pentatomids present in soybean in addition to the interactions among the different species of parasitoids.

  2. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  3. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  4. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  5. IDENTIFIKASI DUPLIKASI LAPORAN BUG PADA REPOSITORI LAPORAN BUG UNTUK MENGHASILKAN SARAN RESOLUSI BUG PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak sebenarnya menyediakan informasi dan saran resolusi bug tertentu yang dapat digunakan untuk memperbaiki bug yang terjadi pada tahap perbaikan perangkat lunak. Pengembang dapat mencari saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak tertentu dengan mengidentifikasi duplikasi bug pada repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak. Penelitian ini mengusulkan sistem identifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak menggunakan teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi. Pengembang dapat menemukan informasi alasan kegagalan perangkat lunak dan memperoleh saran resolusi untuk memperbaiki bug tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak.

  6. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  7. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  8. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  9. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  11. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1996-01-01

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ''on board'' intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ''twisted pair'' standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ''noisy'' environments

  12. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... other accommodations that are air conditioned or have good window and door screens so bugs can’t ...

  13. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  14. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  15. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  16. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  17. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants of a program family. However, researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large-scale systems. Such a collection of bugs is a requirement for goal-oriented research...... provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights into the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....

  18. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  19. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  20. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  1. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  2. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  3. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs is a requi......Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs...... the outcome of our analysis into a database. In addition, we provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights about the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways...

  4. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  5. Identification of the Pro orientation of CAP2b peptides for antidiuretic activity in the stink bug Acrosternum hilare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAP2b neuropeptide family plays an important role in the regulation of the processes of diuresis and/or antidiuresis in a variety of insects. While Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRVamide) and native CAP2bs elicit diuretic activity in a number of species of flies, native CAP2b sequences have been shown to ...

  6. Host range of the exotic brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), implications for future distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bernon; Karen M. Bernhard; Anne L. Nielsen; James F. Stimmel; E. Richard Hoebeke; Maureen E. Carter

    2007-01-01

    Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest in eastern Asia on soybeans and woody plants, including broadleaved trees and fruit trees. A population was discovered in Allentown, PA in 2001. H. halys is also a nuisance pest as it overwinters in homes and other buildings. Based on earlier reports to the Lehigh County...

  7. Why do Americans stink at math? Some of the answer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Bishop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, a lengthy and persuasive article appeared in the New York Times Magazine written by the author as an introduction to her new book by the same eye-catching name: Why Do Americans Stink at Math? by Elizabeth Green Ms. Green’s basic premise is that somehow Japanese classrooms modified their style from the purportedly traditional approach of rote response and memorization of meaningless algorithms to the American style of teaching mathematics following the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM Standards. Unfortunately, her article - and, presumably, book - represent so much education industry misinformation that it almost cries out for clarification/correction. Herein is an attempt toward that end. It is far from complete but I will try to cover the high points. In summary, Ms. Green has referenced much of the same source material as mentioned herein but a deeper look at those sources leads to quite a different interpretation of the past and, more importantly, implications for trying to improve performance in mathematics in many American precollegiate schools. For the record, there are many American precollegiate schools with exemplary mathematics performance.

  8. Using Software Dependency to Bug Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance, especially bug prediction, plays an important role in evaluating software quality and balancing development costs. This study attempts to use several quantitative network metrics to explore their relationships with bug prediction in terms of software dependency. Our work consists of four main steps. First, we constructed software dependency networks regarding five dependency scenes at the class-level granularity. Second, we used a set of nine representative and commonly used metrics—namely, centrality, degree, PageRank, and HITS, as well as modularity—to quantify the importance of each class. Third, we identified how these metrics were related to the proneness and severity of fixed bugs in Tomcat and Ant and determined the extent to which they were related. Finally, the significant metrics were considered as predictors for bug proneness and severity. The result suggests that there is a statistically significant relationship between class’s importance and bug prediction. Furthermore, betweenness centrality and out-degree metric yield an impressive accuracy for bug prediction and test prioritization. The best accuracy of our prediction for bug proneness and bug severity is up to 54.7% and 66.7% (top 50, Tomcat and 63.8% and 48.7% (top 100, Ant, respectively, within these two cases.

  9. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  10. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  11. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  12. Bug City: Butterflies and Moths [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  13. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  14. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  15. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  16. R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Sturtz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The R2WinBUGS package provides convenient functions to call WinBUGS from R. It automatically writes the data and scripts in a format readable by WinBUGS for processing in batch mode, which is possible since version 1.4. After the WinBUGS process has finished, it is possible either to read the resulting data into R by the package itself--which gives a compact graphical summary of inference and convergence diagnostics--or to use the facilities of the coda package for further analyses of the output. Examples are given to demonstrate the usage of this package.

  17. Bug Distribution and Statistical Pattern Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    The rule space model permits measurement of cognitive skill acquisition and error diagnosis. Further discussion introduces Bayesian hypothesis testing and bug distribution. An illustration involves an artificial intelligence approach to testing fractions and arithmetic. (Author/GDC)

  18. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Type of Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These brochures, fact sheets, manuals, posters, checklists, videos, and more provide guidance such as hotel room inspection and pesticide safety.

  19. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rest or hide in hampers, bed frames, even furniture); Failing to treat adjacent areas where bed bugs ... to work (some pesticides, such as desiccators or growth regulators, may be very effective but take some ...

  20. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  1. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  4. Volatile aroma components and MS-based electronic nose profiles of dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan Asikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa are two typical smelly legumes from Southeast Asia that are widely used in the cuisines of this region. Headspace/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection analysis and mass spectrometry (MS-based electronic nose techniques were applied to monitor ripening changes in the volatile flavor profiles of dogfruit and stink bean. Compositional analysis showed that the ripening process greatly influenced the composition and content of the volatile aroma profiles of these two smelly food materials, particularly their alcohol, aldehyde, and sulfur components. The quantity of predominant hexanal in stink bean significantly declined (P < 0.05 during the ripening process, whereas the major volatile components of dogfruit changed from 3-methylbutanal and methanol in the unripe state to acetaldehyde and ethanol in the ripe bean. Moreover, the amount of the typical volatile flavor compound 1,2,4-trithiolane significantly increased (P < 0.05 in both ripened dogfruit and stink bean from 1.70 and 0.93%, to relative amounts of 19.97 and 13.66%, respectively. MS-based nose profiling gave further detailed differentiation of the volatile profiles of dogfruit and stink bean of various ripening stages through multivariate statistical analysis, and provided discriminant ion masses, such as m/z 41, 43, 58, 78, and 124, as valuable “digital fingerprint” dataset that can be used for fast flavor monitoring of smelly food resources.

  5. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  6. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa......The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.......  In this paper we propose to combine bug-finding rules with transformations that automatically introduce bug-fixes or workarounds when a possible bug is detected.  This work builds on our previous work on the Coccinelle tool, which targets device driver evolution....

  7. Variability Bugs in Highly Configurable Systems: A Qualitative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Melo, Jean; Stanciulescu, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Variability-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants in number of features of a program family. Several variability-aware techniques have been proposed, but researchers still lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large......-scale systems. A collection of real world bugs is needed to evaluate tool implementations of variability-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 98 diverse variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits in the Apache, BusyBox, Linux kernel and Marlin repositories....... We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. For each bug, we create a self-contained simplified C99 version and a simplified patch, in order to help researchers who are not experts on these subject studies to understand them, so that they can use it for evaluation...

  8. Fitness costs of intrinsic competition in two egg parasitoids of a true bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Boivin, Guy; Colazza, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic competition in insect parasitoids occurs when supernumerary larvae develop in the same host as consequence of multiple ovipositions by females of the same species (intra-specific competition) or by females of different species (inter-specific competition). Studies on intrinsic competition have mainly focused on understanding the factors that play a role in the outcome of competition, while fitness-related effects for the parasitoid surviving the competition have been poorly investigated, especially in egg parasitoids. Interestingly, even the winning parasitoid can experience fitness costs due to larval development in a host in which multiple factors have been injected by the ovipositing females or released by their larvae. In this paper we studied fitness-related traits associated with intra- and inter-specific competition between Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev), the main egg parasitoids associated with the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) in Italy. We investigated the impact of intrinsic competition for the surviving parasitoid in terms of body size, developmental time, number and size of oocytes. Our results indicated that T. basalis adults did not experience fitness-related costs when surviving intra-specific competition; however, adults were smaller, took longer to develop and females produced fewer oocytes after surviving inter-specific competition. A different outcome was found for O. telenomicida where the emerging females were smaller, produced fewer and smaller oocytes when suffering intra-specific competition whereas no fitness costs were found when adults survived inter-specific competition. These results support the hypothesis that the impact of intrinsic competition in egg parasitoids depends on the severity of the competitive interaction, as fitness costs were more pronounced when the surviving parasitoid interacted with the most detrimental competitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Información relacionada disponible en español Can you treat ... all of the residents to participate. Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the ...

  10. Bed Bugs Appearance and Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identify these bugs accurately, from egg to nymph to adult. Adults are about the size of an apple seed, brown and oval-shaped, and either flat or balloon-like depending on how recently fed. Nymphs are a bit smaller and translucent or whitish yellow.

  11. DYEING SILK FABRICS WITH STINK BEAN POD (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. NATURAL DYE IN THE COLOR FASTNESS AND UV PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MASAE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes natural dye extracted from stink bean pod (Parkia speciosa Hassk. which was dyed on the silk fabric. The mordants as aluminum potassium sulfate, iron chloride, sodium hydroxide and mud were used to dye fabric using three different dyeing methods: pre-mordanting, meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. The color fastness to washing, water, perspiration, light and crocking of the dyed samples was determined according to AATCC test methods. In this study the UV-protection properties on silk fabrics were investigated. The chemical functional groups of the dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results revealed that the dyeing silk fabrics with stink beans pod were fair to good fastness to washing and crocking and very poor to poor light fastness with the exception of samples mordanted with iron chloride. The water and perspiration fastness ratings were fair to good. Silk fabrics mordanted with iron chloride and dyed with stink bean usually showed good UV-protection levels even if undyed. These extracts gave polyphenolic, betalain dye and chlorophyll content. Therefore, it was suggested that stink bean pod has the potential in producing functional dyes that could be imparted into the silk dyeing natural colorant system.

  12. Characterization and Comparative Analysis of Olfactory Receptor Co-Receptor Orco Orthologs Among Five Mirid Bug Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest. In the odorant detection pathway, olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco plays critical role in the perception of odors. In this study, we identified the full-length cDNA sequences encoding three putative Orcos (AsutOrco, AfasOrco, and LpraOrco in bug species of A. suturalis, A. fasciaticollis, and L. pratensis based on homology cloning method. Next, sequence alignment, membrane topology and gene structure analysis showed that these three Orco orthologs together with previously reported AlinOrco and AlucOrco shared high amino acid identities and similar topology structure, but had different gene structure especially at the length and insertion sites of introns. Furthermore, the evolutional estimation on the ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous (Ka/Ks revealed that Orco genes were under strong purifying selection, but the degrees of variation were significant different between genera. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that these five Orco genes had a similar antennae-biased tissue expression pattern. Taking these data together, it is thought that Orco genes in the mirid species could share conserved olfaction roles but had different evolution rates. These findings would lay a foundation to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants, which might in turn contribute to the development of pest management strategy for mirid bugs.

  13. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  14. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Anne E; Taylor, Phillip W

    2011-05-07

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as 'prey'.

  15. Biochemical characterization of digestive amylase of wheat bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... ... Boyd et al., 2002). Wheat bug also feeds on different stage of developing grains. ... the grain during feeding, Wheat bug enzymes degrade gluten proteins and cause rapid relaxation of dough resulting in the production of .... A blank without substrate but with α-amylase extract and a control containing no ...

  16. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  17. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  18. An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lo, David

    2010-01-01

    program-analysis and data-mining based approach to identify the uses of named constants and to identify anomalies in these uses.  We have applied our approach to a recent version of the Linux kernel and have found a number of bugs affecting both correctness and software maintenance.  Many of these bugs...... have been validated by the Linux developers....

  19. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  20. Finding error handling bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    OpenSSL is a library providing various functionalities relating to secure network communication.  Detecting and fixing bugs in OpenSSL code is thus essential, particularly when such bugs can lead to malicious attacks.  In previous work, we have proposed a methodology for finding API usage protocols...... in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...... it was possible to correct the bugs automatically.  Our patches correcting these bugs have been accepted by the OpenSSL developers.  This work furthermore confirms the applicability of our methodology to user-level code....

  1. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  2. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius collected from several localities in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhoundi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp, and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40% and 61 out of 166 adults (37% were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius.

  3. Discovery of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) through the Creation of Stereoisomeric Libraries of 1-Bisabolen-3-ols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of trimethylaluminum to diastereomeric mixtures of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ones 1 and 2 provided a straightforward and novel route to all eight stereoisomers of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol and six of the sixteen stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol. Relativ...

  4. Machine Learning or Information Retrieval Techniques for Bug Triaging: Which is better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bugs are the inevitable part of a software system. Nowadays, large software development projects even release beta versions of their products to gather bug reports from users. The collected bug reports are then worked upon by various developers in order to resolve the defects and make the final software product more reliable. The high frequency of incoming bugs makes the bug handling a difficult and time consuming task. Bug assignment is an integral part of bug triaging that aims at the process of assigning a suitable developer for the reported bug who corrects the source code in order to resolve the bug. There are various semi and fully automated techniques to ease the task of bug assignment. This paper presents the current state of the art of various techniques used for bug report assignment. Through exhaustive research, the authors have observed that machine learning and information retrieval based bug assignment approaches are most popular in literature. A deeper investigation has shown that the trend of techniques is taking a shift from machine learning based approaches towards information retrieval based approaches. Therefore, the focus of this work is to find the reason behind the observed drift and thus a comparative analysis is conducted on the bug reports of the Mozilla, Eclipse, Gnome and Open Office projects in the Bugzilla repository. The results of the study show that the information retrieval based technique yields better efficiency in recommending the developers for bug reports.

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  6. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  8. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are typically found in the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America (as far south ... feed on the blood of mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles. Triatomine bugs live in a wide ...

  9. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  10. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in other rooms, including bathrooms, living rooms and laundry rooms. Look for spots or smears Dark blood ... having the inspection done by a pest control service provider (exterminator). If you find a bed bug, ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  16. Bug breakfast in the bulletin: human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cate; Weisberg, Edith; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The Bug Breakfast topic for October was Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The presenters covered the epidemiology of HPV, the newly introduced HPV vaccine and social and psychological issues relating to HPV vaccination.

  17. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennimata, Dimitra; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The e-Bug pack and web site educational material has been translated and adapted to the Greek language and educational background, and implemented throughout Greece as a supplementary educational resource in elementary and junior high schools. Elementary and junior high school teachers in Greece have actively participated in the development of the e-Bug educational resource and supported the implementation of all e-Bug activities. Dissemination to all key national stakeholders has been undertaken, and endorsement has been obtained from educational and medical associations, societies and institutions. Independent evaluation has been carried out, as part of dissertation thesis projects, for postgraduate studies. The e-Bug educational resource provides all the essentials for the dissemination of good health behaviours in hygiene, monitoring the spread of infection and the prudent use of antibiotics, to the youth of this country. Its contribution is expected to be evident in the next adult generation.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  19. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  20. Integrating Symbolic Execution with Sensornet Simulation for Efficient Bug Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Österlind, Fredrik; Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Dustmann, Oscar Soria; Dunkels, Adam; Wehrle, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    High-coverage testing of sensornet applications is vital for pre-deployment bug cleansing, but has previously been difficult due to the limited set of available tools. We integrate the KleeNet symbolic execution engine with the COOJA network simulator to allow for straight-forward and intuitive high-coverage testing initiated from a simulation environment. A tight coupling of simulation and testing helps detect, narrow down, and fix complex interaction bugs in an early ...

  1. NRFixer: Sentiment Based Model for Predicting the Fixability of Non-Reproducible Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an essential step in software development life cycle. Nowadays, software companies spend approximately 45\\% of total cost in maintenance activities. Large software projects maintain bug repositories to collect, organize and resolve bug reports. Sometimes it is difficult to reproduce the reported bug with the information present in a bug report and thus this bug is marked with resolution non-reproducible (NR. When NR bugs are reconsidered, a few of them might get fixed (NR-to-fix leaving the others with the same resolution (NR. To analyse the behaviour of developers towards NR-to-fix and NR bugs, the sentiment analysis of NR bug report textual contents has been conducted. The sentiment analysis of bug reports shows that NR bugs' sentiments incline towards more negativity than reproducible bugs. Also, there is a noticeable opinion drift found in the sentiments of NR-to-fix bug reports. Observations driven from this analysis were an inspiration to develop a model that can judge the fixability of NR bugs. Thus a framework, {NRFixer,} which predicts the probability of NR bug fixation, is proposed. {NRFixer} was evaluated with two dimensions. The first dimension considers meta-fields of bug reports (model-1 and the other dimension additionally incorporates the sentiments (model-2 of developers for prediction. Both models were compared using various machine learning classifiers (Zero-R, naive Bayes, J48, random tree and random forest. The bug reports of Firefox and Eclipse projects were used to test {NRFixer}. In Firefox and Eclipse projects, J48 and Naive Bayes classifiers achieve the best prediction accuracy, respectively. It was observed that the inclusion of sentiments in the prediction model shows a rise in the prediction accuracy ranging from 2 to 5\\% for various classifiers.

  2. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  3. Automated Bug Assignment: Ensemble-based Machine Learning in Large Scale Industrial Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...

  4. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  5. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    the tools to be able to find specific kinds of bugs. In this paper, we propose a declarative approach based on a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer is able to express specifications for protocol and bug finding using...

  6. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    the tools to be able to find specific kinds of bugs. In this paper, we propose a declarative approach based on a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer is able to express specifications for protocol and bug finding using...

  7. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  8. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  9. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  10. Usage of data warehouse for analysing software's bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanov, Danijel; Krstićev, Danijela Boberić; Mirković, Duško

    2017-07-01

    We analysed the database schema of Bugzilla system and taking into account user's requirements for reporting, we presented a dimensional model for the data warehouse which will be used for reporting software defects. The idea proposed in this paper is not to throw away Bugzilla system because it certainly has many strengths, but to make integration of Bugzilla and the proposed data warehouse. Bugzilla would continue to be used for recording bugs that occur during the development and maintenance of software while the data warehouse would be used for storing data on bugs in an appropriate form, which is more suitable for analysis.

  11. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  12. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care ...

  15. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed skin as much as possible by wearing long-sleeved shirts, pants, socks and closed shoes instead of sandals. For additional protection, pull your socks up over your pants and ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  19. Protecting Yourself from Bed Bugs in Public Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... office. By reducing clutter in your workplace or school, you provide fewer places for the bed bugs to hide and fewer opportunities for them to hitchhike to your home. Keep your ... office or school, consider storing your belongings in a plastic bin. ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var ...

  1. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  2. Harvesting Venom Toxins from Assassin Bugs and Other Heteropteran Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew Allan; Rosenthal, Max; Undheim, Eivind E A; King, Glenn F

    2018-04-21

    Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes. One obstacle to the characterization of heteropteran venom toxins is the structure and function of the venom/labial glands, which are both morphologically complex and perform multiple biological roles (defense, prey capture, and extra-oral digestion). In this article, we describe three methods we have successfully used to collect heteropteran venoms. First, we present electrostimulation as a convenient way to collect venom that is often lethal when injected into prey animals, and which obviates contamination by glandular tissue. Second, we show that gentle harassment of animals is sufficient to produce venom extrusion from the proboscis and/or venom spitting in some groups of heteropterans. Third, we describe methods to harvest venom toxins by dissection of anaesthetized animals to obtain the venom glands. This method is complementary to other methods, as it may allow harvesting of toxins from taxa in which electrostimulation and harassment are ineffective. These protocols will enable researchers to harvest toxins from heteropteran insects for structure-function characterization and possible applications in medicine and agriculture.

  3. Bartonella, bats and bugs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Matthew J; Chomel, Bruno B; de Fleurieu, Eloi Claret; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats. Among bat families, Bartonella prevalence ranged from 7.3% among Nycteridae to 54.4% in Miniopteridae. Further research can build on these current data to better determine risk factors associated with Bartonella infection in bat populations and the role of their ectoparasites in transmission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Geochemical Influence on Microbial Diversity in the Warm, Salty, Stinking Spring, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Little is known of the geochemistry and microbiology in the Stinking Springs, a sulfidic, saline, warm spring northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The International Geobiology Course of 2012 investigated the geochemistry, lipid abundances, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates and microbial diversity on different kinds of samples from a number of locations in the spring. The measured pH, temperature, salinity, and sulfide concentration along the 100 m flow path ranged from 6.64-7.77, 40-28° C, 2.9-2.2%, and 250 μM - negligible, respectively. Five sites were selected along the flow path and within each site microbial mats were sub-sampled according to their morphological characteristics; a range from floating to streamer-style in zones of higher flow rates to highly-layered mats in low- or sheet-flow zones. Geochemical characterization of the above plus metals, anions and cations were conducted at each site. Genomic DNA was extracted from each microbial sample / layer, and 16S rRNA genes were amplified and subjected to pyrosequencing. Fatty acids and pigments were extracted from the mat samples / layers and analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for lipid / pigment composition. Bicarbonate uptake rates for mat samples / layers were determined with 24 hour light and dark incubations of 13HCO3-spiked spring water. Microbial diversity varied by site and was generally high in all three domains of life with phototrophs, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers, methanogens, and other bacteria / archaea identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence. Diatoms, identified by both microscopy and lipid analyses were found to increase in abundance with distance from the source. Methanogens were generally more abundant in deeper mat laminae and underlying sediments. Photoheterotrophs were found in all mat layers. Microbial diversity increased significantly with depth at most sites. In addition, two distinct microbial streamers were also identified and

  5. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  6. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  7. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the Linux kernel. Our results show that our tool is more effective at finding bugs than similar code-scanning tools. EBA analyzes the drivers/ directory of Linux (nine thousand files) in less than thirty minutes, and uncovers a handful previously unknown double-lock bugs in various drivers....

  8. WinBUGSio: A SAS Macro for the Remote Execution of WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a macro which facilitates remote execution of WinBUGS from within SAS. The macro pre-processes data for WinBUGS, writes the WinBUGS batch-script, executes this script and reads in output statistics from the WinBUGS log-file back into SAS native format. The user specifies the input and output file names and directory path as well as the statistics to be monitored in WinBUGS. The code works best for a model that has already been set up and checked for convergence diagnostics within WinBUGS. An obvious extension of the use of this macro is for running simulations where the input and output files all have the same name but all that differs between simulation iterations is the input dataset. The functionality and syntax of the macro call are described in this paper and illustrated using a simple linear regression model.

  9. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  10. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  11. Prevalence of bed bug (Cimex lectularius in human settlement area of Bahnamir, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Farzad Motevalli Haghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the factors concerning with bed bugs epidemiology among human settlement area of Bahnamir, Iran in 2012-2013. Methods: Bed bugs were collected from 500 households which lived in eight villages in suburban areas. After random cluster classification, we checked their houses to collect information on presence of bed bugs. When bed bugs infestation revealed, they were preserved in properly labeled specimen containing 70% alcohol. Bugs were transferred to the Faculty of Health and identified by stereomicroscopy. A questionnaire was filled by the owners. The recorded data were coded and analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test. Results: In the study area, 14 from 500 families were infested by bed bugs which revealed almost 2.8% of infestation in that area. Five infested villages had shown 62.50% infestation. From the total of 256 caught bugs, 56.45%, 31.25%, 8.59%, and 3.91% was separated from bedroom, setting room, kitchen and other parts of the infested houses, respectively. Regarding to 256 trapped bugs in the bedroom, 33.2% were immature (nymph and 66.8% were mature. Conclusions: The results illustrated the role of education and guidance of the owners towards improving personal hygiene and public health with using insecticides to control by professional persons, not using secondhand instrument in the home and washing sheets and blankets and drying on suitable hot drier in order to reduce the infestation rate of bed bug among human settlement.

  12. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  13. Comparison of management strategies for squash bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Roberts, B Warren; Pair, Sam; Edelson, J V

    2004-12-01

    Two watermelon pest management practices, a squash trap crop and a standard recommendation using soil-applied carbofuran, were compared using large-scale field plots to assess trap crop suitability as a replacement for the standard in 2000, 2001, and 2002. In both systems, foliar insecticide applications were used to control squash bugs when populations exceeded threshold levels. During 2001 and 2002, a treatment of untreated watermelon was used. Early season adult insects, from seedling to fruit set, are most critical for watermelon. Significantly fewer early adult bugs were found on watermelon in the trap crop than in the standard recommended practice in 1 of 3 yr. In both years, significantly fewer adult squash bugs were found in watermelon in the trap crop than in untreated fields. The standard recommended practice significantly reduced adult squash bugs in watermelon compared with the untreated in 1 of 2 yr. There was no significant correlation of watermelon yield and squash bug density, indicating that squash bug densities were too low to impact yield. Although squash bugs were reduced significantly by the trap crop, marketable watermelon yields were lower in the squash trap crop than in untreated watermelon, suggesting that pest management treatments may interfere with crop productivity factors other than squash bug colonization. Results suggest that mid-season production squash bug should be managed by monitoring populations and using insecticides as needed rather than using at-plant treatment. Further research is needed to compare treatments during early-season production.

  14. Modified bug-1 algorithm based strategy for obstacle avoidance in multi robot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandathil Jom J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary ability of an intelligent mobile robot system is obstacle avoidance. BUG algorithms are classic examples of the algorithms used for achieving obstacle avoidance. Unlike many other planning algorithms based on global knowledge, BUG algorithms assume only local knowledge of the environment and a global goal. Among the variations of the BUG algorithms that prevail, BUG-0, BUG-1 and BUG-2 are the more prominent versions. The exhaustive search algorithm present in BUG-1 makes it more reliable and safer for practical applications. Overall, this provides a more predictable and dependable performance. Hence, the essential focus in this paper is on implementing the BUG-1 algorithm across a group of robots to move them from a start location to a target location. The results are compared with the results from BUG-1 algorithm implemented on a single robot. The strategy developed in this work reduces the time involved in moving the robots from starting location to the target location. Further, the paper shows that the total distance covered by each robot in a multi robot-system is always lesser than or equal to that travelled by a single robot executing the same problem.

  15. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  16. Bayesian Analysis for Penalized Spline Regression Using WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian M. Crainiceanu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Penalized splines can be viewed as BLUPs in a mixed model framework, which allows the use of mixed model software for smoothing. Thus, software originally developed for Bayesian analysis of mixed models can be used for penalized spline regression. Bayesian inference for nonparametric models enjoys the flexibility of nonparametric models and the exact inference provided by the Bayesian inferential machinery. This paper provides a simple, yet comprehensive, set of programs for the implementation of nonparametric Bayesian analysis in WinBUGS. Good mixing properties of the MCMC chains are obtained by using low-rank thin-plate splines, while simulation times per iteration are reduced employing WinBUGS specific computational tricks.

  17. The nuclear dimension of the millennium bug: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudeir, I.

    1999-01-01

    Two nuclear facilities operated by the AECS have been investigated for the Y2K compliance. Computers and associated electronic systems in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor and the Co-60 irradiator facility were examined. Real time clocks (BIOS) of the personal computers failed Y2K bug and needed to be manually rolled over January 1st 2000. Leap year checks, however were successful. Application software used by the operators for controlling facilities and performing measurements were able to function normally

  18. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  19. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  20. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species "Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis" in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Laroche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated.In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion's disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii.As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue.

  1. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  2. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  3. Comparative Performance Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Software Bug Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Saiqa Aleem; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Faheem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning techniques can be used to analyse data from different perspectives and enable developers to retrieve useful information. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques is explored f or software bug prediction on public available data sets. Results showed most of the mac ...

  4. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  5. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  6. Area-wide management approach for tarnished plant bug in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the major insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-South region. From 2001 to 2012, the tarnished plant bug has been the number one insect pest of cotton in Louisiana and Mississippi in eleven and nine of those...

  7. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  8. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  9. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences. PMID:27494615

  10. ENSAIO DE CONTROLE QUÍMICO ÀS PRINCIPAIS LAGARTAS E PERCEVEJOS DA SOJA EM GOIÁS ESSAY ON CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE MAIN LARVAS AND CHINCH BUGS OF SOYBEAN IN GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria da R. S. Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado em 1979/80, um ensaio de campo visando a avaliar a eficiência e adequar as doses dos inseticidas Bacillus thuringienses, Carbaryl , Clorpirifos , Deltametrina, Deltametrina + S 339, Endosulfan, Metil Paration, monocrotofos e triclorfon no combate a Anticarsia gemmatalis e Pseudoplusia includens. No mesmo ano, usaram-se os inseticidas Carbaryl Cyanamid AC 222 705, Deltametrina, Deltametrina + S 339, Dimetoato, Endosulfan, FMC 35001, Metil Paration, Monocrotofos, Permetrina, Phosalone + Paration Etil e Triciorfon, para o controle de Piezodorus guildinii, Nezara viridula e Euschistus heros. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As avaliações de controle para lagartas foram efetuadas em 1, 2 e 7 dias após aplicação e para percevejos foram efetuadas em 2 e 7 dias após aplicação. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se o seguinte: aA. gemmatalis foi sensível à maioria dos produtos; bapenas Clorpirifos Etil, Hetil Paration e Triclorfon não apresentaram eficiência acima de 80% para P. includens sete dias após a aplicação; c os inseticidas Monocrotofos, Metil Paration, Carbaryl e FMC 35001 mostraram eficiência acima de 80% para as espécies N. viridula e P. guildinii; Endosulfon e Dimetoato foram eficientes para controlar P. guildinii e E. heros.

    During the 1979/80 planting period, a field test was performed to estimate the insecticides efficiency and adjust their doses in order to control Anticarsia qemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens and also Piezodorus guildinii, Nezara viridula and Euschistus heros. For A. gemmatalis and P. includens control, the following insecticides were used: Baccilus thuringienses, Carbaryl, Clorpirifos, Decamethrin + S 339, Dimetoate, Endosulfan, Methyl Parathion, Monocrotophos and Triclorfon. For stink bugs, the

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  12. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Doing bayesian data analysis a tutorial with R and BUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruschke, John K

    2011-01-01

    There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis obtainable to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS provides an accessible approach to Bayesian data analysis, as material is explained clearly with concrete examples. The book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling, and gradually progresses to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text delivers comprehensive coverage of all

  14. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen; Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-10-13

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA's HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. The Bad Bugs Book Club: Science, Literacy, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Verran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bad Bugs Bookclub was launched in 2009. It comprises scientists and non-scientists. The aim of the Bookclub is to read and discuss novels where infectious disease forms part of the plot, in order to enhance learning about microbiology. The focus of the discussion is on appreciation of the novel, its scientific (microbiologic accuracy and relevance to contemporary microbiology. There are several potential audiences for the Bad Bugs Bookclub, for example students in a classroom setting, or in a more social environment, and/or the general public.  Meeting reports and reading guides have been posted on a dedicated website. For education purposes, additional project work for assessment is suggested for students reading each novel. Bookclub meetings may be held on particular dates in the microbiologic calendar, coupled with additional public engagement activities and student participation. The approach has significant flexibility in terms of intended audience, assessment and extension work, and provides a refreshing and stimulating alternative means for talking about microbiology.

  17. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  18. Improvement on the accuracy of beam bugs in linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yutong; Dai Zhiyong; Han Qing

    2002-01-01

    In linear induction accelerator the resistive wall monitors known as 'beam bugs' have been used as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. The author presents a new method that can improve the accuracy of these beam bugs used for beam position measurements. With a fine beam simulation set, this method locates the beam position with an accuracy of 0.02 mm and thus can scale the beam bugs very well. Experiment results prove that the precision of beam position measurements can reach submillimeter degree

  19. How Does Bug-Handling Effort Differ Among Different Programming Languages?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Feng; Hao, Dan; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Handling bugs is an essential part of software development. The impact of programming language on this task has long been a topic of much debate. For example, some people hold the view that bugs in Python are easy to handle because its code is easy to read and understand, while some others believe the absence of static typing in Python will lead to higher bug-handling effort. This paper presents the first large-scale study to investigate whether the ecosystems of different (categories of) pro...

  20. Microbial community evolution of black and stinking rivers during in situ remediation through micro-nano bubble and submerged resin floating bed technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanmei; Wang, Shiwei; Niu, Junfeng

    2018-06-01

    Microbes play important roles during river remediation and the interaction mechanism illustration between microorganisms and sewage is of great significance to improve restoration technology. In this study, micro-nano bubble and submerged resin floating bed composite technology (MBSR) was firstly used to restore two black and stinking urban rivers. After restoration, the water pollution indices such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), total phosphorous (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD Cr ), water clarity, and the number of facial coliform were significantly improved. Microbial community composition and relative abundance both varied and more aerobic microbes emerged after remediation. The microbial changes showed correlation with DO, NH 4 + -N, TP and COD Cr of the rivers. In summary, the MBSR treatment improved the physiochemical properties of the two black and stinking urban rivers probably through oxygen enrichment of micro-nano bubble and adsorption of submerged resin floating bed, which thereby stimulated functional microbes to degrade pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bug tracking and project management system application in an electronic design company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık ARSLAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available Bug Tracking and Management Information Systems has been investigated in a comprehensive manner. The systems that commonly used described in detail. Bug Tracking and Project Management Systems requirements analysis of medium-sized companies and Kentkart Ege Electronic which is an Information Technology company has been made. Obtained by the analysis requirements, the appropriate tools are selected for system application. JIRA that a product of Atlassian company was determined as a Bug Tracking and Project Management application tool. In this study, JIRA system adapted to the requirements, Bug Tracking and Project Management systems is designed in a structure which can be easily used by R&D employees. Cost-Benefit analysis is done and using this project was determined to be quite useful.

  2. A transcriptome survey spanning life stages and sexes of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolure...

  3. 2016 All Bugs Good and Bad Webinar Series - eXtension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importadas Resources Instructional Videos Publications Top of the Mound Game Fire Ant Images from BugMugs.org Breeding and Genomics Sheep Small and Backyard Flocks Small Meat Processors Sustainable Marine Fisheries

  4. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

  5. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  6. First record of Sesbania punicea (Fabales: Fabaceae) as a host plant for Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Numerous known non-crop hosts of C. hilaris that exist in field edges bordering cotton are sources of this stink bug in this crop. Sesbania punicea plants in a field border su...

  7. Predation and parasitism by native and exotic natural enemies of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs augmented with semiochemicals and differing host stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive species in the United States, and causes severe agricultural damage to a variety of crops. Prior research with other stink bugs has shown that various stimuli, including the aggregation pheromone of a pest can be an important kairo...

  8. Landscape effects on reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a mobile, polyphagous, multivoltine arthropod herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug is an economic pest of many crops in the southeastern US. In this study we characterized the complexity, land-use intensity and distances between differently-cropped fields on landscapes in two regions of southern Georgia, USA. We estimated brown stink bug reproduction, predator ...

  9. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  10. Between-group transmission dynamics of the swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2005-06-01

    The parasitic cimicid swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius, is the principal invertebrate vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) and has also been associated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To help understand the spread of this vector, we experimentally measured the transmission of O. vicarius between groups (colonies) of its main host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), in the field. Transmission of bugs between colonies varied significantly with year, size of the colony, and week within the season. Bug immigration into sites tended to peak in mid-summer. Swallow nests in larger colonies had more consistent rates of bug introduction than did nests in small colonies, but within a colony a given nest's weekly immigrant-bug count varied widely across the season. Transmission of O. vicarius between host social groups follows broadly predictable seasonal patterns, but there is nevertheless temporal and spatial heterogeneity in bug transmission. By understanding how long-distance movement by this vector varies in time and space, we can better predict where and when BCRV epizootics may occur.

  11. Hybridization and adaptation to introduced balloon vines in an Australian soapberry bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, J A; Thampy, P R; Mathieson, M T; Loye, J; Zalucki, M P; Dingle, H; Carroll, S P

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary adaptation of plant feeding insects to introduced hosts provides clear cases of ecologically based population divergence. In most cases the mechanisms permitting rapid differentiation are not well known. Here we study morphological and genetic variation associated with recent shifts by the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus onto two naturalized Neotropical balloon vines, Cardiospermum halicacabum and C. grandiflorum that differ in time since introduction. Our results show that these vines have much larger fruits than the native hosts (Whitewood tree -Atalaya hemiglauca- and Woolly Rambutan -Alectryon tomentosus-) and that bugs living on them have evolved significantly longer beaks and new allometries. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial haplotypes and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers indicate that the lineage of bugs on the annual vine C. halicacabum, the older introduction, is intermediate between the two subspecies of L. tagalicus found on native hosts. Moreover, where the annual vine and Whitewood tree co-occur, the morphology and genomic composition of the bugs are similar to those occurring in allopatry. These results show that hybridization provided the genetic elements underlying the strongly differentiated 'Halicacabum bugs'. In contrast, the bugs feeding on the recently introduced perennial balloon vine (C. grandiflorum) showed no evidence of admixture, and are genetically indistinguishable from the nearby populations on a native host. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes Maia

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme.

  13. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  14. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  15. MENGGALI METRIK YANG PENTING DALAM RANGKAIAN AKTIVITAS PERUBAHAN PERANGKAT LUNAK UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI BUG DENGAN ATURAN ASOSIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Dalam evolusi perangkat lunak terdapat rangkaian aktivitas proses perubahan yang kemudian oleh Nachiapan diformulasikan menjadi metrik-metrik yang mampu memprediksi bug secara presisi. Akan tetapi secara spesifik belum ditemukan seberapa besar pengaruh masing-masing metrik tersebut terhadap hasil prediksi sebuah bug. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pengukuran jumlah kemunculan metrik dengan kemunculan bug pada proyek eclipse. Sehingga dengan penelitian ini dapat diketahui metrik -metrik mana yang penting dalam prediksi kemunculan bug. Aturan asosiasi dalam penggalian data telah dipergunakan secara luas untuk menggali variabel-variabel saling terkait dalam sampel data. Metrik-metrik dalam proyek eclipse kemudian digali dengan aturan asosiasi untuk mendapatkan metrik yang muncul bersama bug. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa metrik Numberofchangeslate rata-rata kemunculannya sebesar 46,9%, sedangkan metrik Peopletotal muncul bersama bug rata-rata sebesar 43,57% dan metrik Numberofchangesearly memiliki kemunculan rata-rata 14% sehingga ketiga metrik tersebut merupakan metrik yang penting dalam memprediksi bug.

  16. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or "Green" Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-11-28

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called "green" products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or "green" insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each), and two different substrates were used. Temprid(®) (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany), Transport(®) (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA), Invader(®) (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA), Cimexa(®) (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA), and BBT-2000(®) (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA) were the only products which showed any substantial (>40%) bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust(®) (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA) killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider(®) (North Bergen, NJ, USA) and Mother Earth D(®) (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA) (diatomaceous earth) produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect(®) (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA) showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001).

  17. Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2018-04-02

    Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.

  18. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: miridae) to three classes of insecticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticidal control of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is targeted at the adult and nymphal stages, but there is little information on relative susceptibilities of these insects to insecticides. Tarnished plant bug adults were collected from various locations in Mi...

  19. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  20. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  1. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  2. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  3. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  4. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  5. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  6. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  7. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  8. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-02-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.

  9. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  10. Why Do Feet Stink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oooh, boy — your feet have been in those sneakers a long time! On the car ride home, ... shoes or insoles. Some insoles or shoes, especially sneakers, may be washable — a great way to kill ...

  11. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Does feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) reduce soybean seed quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D R; Herbert, D A; Dively, G P; Reisig, D D; Kuhar, T P

    2013-06-01

    The nonnative brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has become an abundant pest of mid-Atlantic soybean since its introduction in the mid-1990s. Currently, there is little information indicating how this new pest should be managed in soybean or if economic thresholds developed for native stink bugs should be adjusted. In 2010 and 2011, field cage studies were conducted in Beltsville, MD, and Suffolk, VA, to evaluate H. halys injury to three different soybean reproductive development stages. Cages were infested for 2 wk using densities of zero, one, two, four, or eight stink bugs (fifth instars and adults) per 0.3 row-m. Cage plots were harvested, and subsamples were taken to determine pod losses and seed quality. Feeding injury to soybean caused by H. halys was similar to that of native stink bugs, as evidenced by seed destruction, punctures, and destroyed pods. Densities of four stink bugs per 0.3 row-m resulted in significant seed damage in three of four experiments. The full flowering (R2) soybean development stage was least affected by H. halys feeding. The full pod (R4) and the full seed (R6) stage were similarly sensitive to injury. There was no significant yield loss was associated with stink bug densities at either location, although there were significant differences among stages in two of four experiments. The data do not indicate that threshold densities for H. halys should be different than for the native stink bugs.

  13. 76 FR 550 - Second National Bed Bug Summit; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... identify knowledge gaps and barriers to effective community-wide bed bug control; propose the next steps in addressing knowledge gaps and eliminating barriers; and develop a framework for addressing the highest... many areas of the country. As this resilient pest has become a nationwide problem affecting hotels...

  14. Fooling the harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using synthetic volatiles to alter host plant choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a widespread invasive pest that feeds on a variety of brassicaceous crops and other plants. To understand olfactory cues which mediate host-finding, and possible utility in pest management, we deployed aggregation pheromone (m...

  15. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, S.; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, H.

    2015-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing. The

  16. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, Sebastiano; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing.

  17. No hospital is an island when it comes to Y2K bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, A

    1999-01-01

    If a recent meeting on the millennium bug is any indication, Canada's health care facilities have plenty to worry about as the year 2,000 approaches. Topics discussed included the state of readiness within the health care sector and potential legal issues that may arise. PMID:9951449

  18. Investigating Information Needs to Improve Cooperation Between Developers and Bug Reporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breu, S.; Premraj, R.; Sillito, J.; Zimmermann, T.

    2010-01-01

    For many software projects, bug tracking systems play a central role in supporting collaboration between the developers and the users of the software. To better understand this collaboration and how tool support can be improved, we have quantitatively and qualitatively analysed the questions asked

  19. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  20. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  2. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  3. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  4. The Heteroptera of the Netherlands Antilles – V Tingidae (Lace Bugs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Cobben, R.H.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper is based upon the lace bugs, Family Tingidae, collected by the junior author in the West Indies, on the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius. This collection of several tingids comprises 17 species, including the five new forms described below.

  5. Rifkin bugs bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P

    Activist Jeremy Rifkin is seeking a court injunction to prevent the University of California at Berkeley from proceeding with a controversial frost-retarding experiment involving the release of DNA-modified bacteria into the environment. Rifkin and several environmental groups filed suit in federal court last year to challenge a National Institutes of Health decision to approve the experiment.

  6. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  7. Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha Zahran

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.

  8. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  9. BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TARAN (RUTILUS HECKELII OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze morphological variability and basic biological features of the modern stock of taran of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper flow. Methodology. Morphological variability was determined based on the comparison of morphological features of roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758 of the Kakhovka reservoir and semi-migratory taran Rutilus rutilus heckelii (Nordmann, 1840 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system. As a main criterion of the evaluation of the taran stock biological state, we used age, sex structure, growth characteristics, fecundity and condition factor. Fish sampling was carried out at stationary monitoring-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine. Field and cameral processing of the collected materials were performed based on conventional methods and guidelines. Findings. Morphological variability analysis demonstrated significant differences between Dnieper and Bug taran. The highest differences were observed for antroventral distance (td=11.19. Significant differences were also observed for antenanal and ventroanal distances td=4.05-4.14. No significant differences were found for meristic features. There were also significant differences between Dnieper-Bug taran and Kakhovka reservoir roach, which had formed a resident form after regulating the Dnieper River flow. Kakhovka reservoir roach is more deep-bodied with Н=32.79%, t-test value was 5.65. Pelvic fins were more shifted to the caudal fin (td=5.28 that resulted in significant difference (p<0.05 in ventroanal distance (td=4.26. Taran also had somewhat smaller length of the anal fin base (td=4.73 but its height was higher – td=5.78. The main peculiarity of the current biological state of taran stock is the domination of young age groups. The small number of fish in the boundary groups of the age series right wing with relative stability of growth features indicate on intensive pressure on the

  10. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  11. Studies of gamma emitters in the alluvial deposit and in water of the Bug River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.; Pawlik, M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the contents of gamma emitters in samples of water and deposit taken from the Bug River (in Poland only) are presented. The total γ-activity of deposits ranges from 120-650 Bq/kg and the average value is 350 Bq/kg. The elevated activity is chiefly due to the presence of natural radionuclides. The main artificial radionuclides are Cs-137 and Cs-134, whose contribution to the total activity ranges from 0.2 to 6%. The activity of waters samples is low, namely, 1.7-3.5 Bq/kg and is due to the presence of natural radionuclides. The heterogeneity of the distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in the studies samples reveals the effect of economical and industrial activities on contamination of the Bug. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Countercurrent heat exchange and thermoregulation during blood-feeding in kissing bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahondère, Chloé; Insausti, Teresita C; Paim, Rafaela Mm; Luan, Xiaojie; Belev, George; Pereira, Marcos H; Ianowski, Juan P; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2017-11-21

    Blood-sucking insects experience thermal stress at each feeding event on endothermic vertebrates. We used thermography to examine how kissing-bugs Rhodnius prolixus actively protect themselves from overheating. During feeding, these bugs sequester and dissipate the excess heat in their heads while maintaining an abdominal temperature close to ambient. We employed a functional-morphological approach, combining histology, µCT and X-ray-synchrotron imaging to shed light on the way these insects manage the flow of heat across their bodies. The close alignment of the circulatory and ingestion systems, as well as other morphological characteristics, support the existence of a countercurrent heat exchanger in the head of R. prolixus , which decreases the temperature of the ingested blood before it reaches the abdomen. This kind of system has never been described before in the head of an insect. For the first time, we show that countercurrent heat exchange is associated to thermoregulation during blood-feeding.

  13. An Efficient Technique for Bayesian Modelling of Family Data Using the BUGS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.

  14. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  15. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, D.; Kostkova, P.; Weinberg, J.; Lazareck, L.; Weerasinghe, D.; Lecky, D. M.; McNulty, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audienc...

  16. Uncovering Bugs in Distributed Storage Systems during Testing (not in Production!)

    OpenAIRE

    Deligiannis, P; McCutchen, M; Thomson, P; Chen, S; Donaldson, AF; Erickson, J; Huang, C; Lal, A; Mudduluru, R; Qadeer, S; Schulte, W

    2016-01-01

    Testing distributed systems is challenging due to multiple sources of nondeterminism. Conventional testing techniques, such as unit, integration and stress testing, are ineffective in preventing serious but subtle bugs from reaching production. Formal techniques, such as TLA+, can only verify high-level specifications of systems at the level of logic-based models, and fall short of checking the actual executable code. In this paper, we present a new methodology for testing distributed systems...

  17. Respiratory function of the plastron in the aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Hemiptera, Aphelocheiridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Jones, Karl K; Hetz, Stefan K

    2015-09-01

    The river bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis is a 40 mg aquatic insect that, as an adult, relies totally on an incompressible physical gill to exchange respiratory gases with the water. The gill (called a 'plastron') consists of a stationary layer of air held in place on the body surface by millions of tiny hairs that support a permanent air-water interface, so that the insect never has to renew the gas at the water's surface. The volume of air in the plastron is extremely small (0.14 mm(3)), under slightly negative pressure and connected to the gas-filled tracheal system through spiracles on the cuticle. Here, we measure PO2 of the water and within the plastron gas with O2-sensing fibre optics to understand the effectiveness and limitations of the gas exchanger. The difference in PO2 is highest in stagnant water and decreases with increasing convection over the surface. Respiration of bugs in water-filled vials varies between 33 and 296 pmol O2 s(-1), depending on swimming activity. The effective thickness of the boundary layer around the plastron was calculated from respiration rate, PO2 difference and plastron surface area, according to the Fick diffusion equation and verified by direct measurements with the fibre-optic probes. In stagnant water, the boundary layer is approximately 500 μm thick, which nevertheless can satisfy the demands of resting bugs, even if the PO2 of the free water decreases to half that of air saturation. Active bugs require thinner boundary layers (∼ 100 μm), which are achieved by living in moving water or by swimming. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Novel adipokinetic hormones in the kissing bugs Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma infestans, Dipetalogaster maxima and Panstrongylus megistrus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Gäde, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, MAR 10 (2013), s. 21-30 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) IFR 2008071500048; National Research Foundation(ZA) FA 2007021300002 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insects * kissing bugs * reduviidae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.614, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978112004433

  19. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lopes, Angela H.; Dias, Felipe A.; Pham, Van M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1,025 ESTs into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were f...

  20. Cold acclimation increases cold tolerance independently of diapause programing in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, J; Moos, M; Goto, S G

    2017-10-17

    The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R. pedestris. Since the difference in cold survival between long- and short-day cold-acclimated groups was only marginal, we conclude that entering diapause is not crucial for R. pedestris to successfully pass through cold acclimation and become cold tolerant. We observed similar effects in 5th instar nymphs, with both long- and short-day cold-acclimated groups surviving longer cold exposures compared with non-acclimated groups. Starvation, which was tested only in adult bugs, had only a negligible and negative impact on cold survival. Although cold tolerance significantly increased with cold acclimation in adult bugs, supercooling capacity unexpectedly decreased. Our results suggest that changes in supercooling capacity as well as in water content are unrelated to cold tolerance in R. pedestris. An analysis of metabolites revealed differences between the treatments, and while several metabolites markedly increased with cold acclimation, their concentrations were too low to have a significant effect on cold tolerance.

  1. Formal solution for the fields within a beam-bug calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T J.

    1998-01-01

    For some time I was bothered by the fact that measurements of offsets in the various bug calibration setups never agreed with the simple formulae (2) used for determining electron beam position in the Livermore induction linacs and transport systems. About 1983 I realized that the discrepancy arises from the way the bug calibrator simulates an electron beam in a conducting pipe. At that time I solved the problem using the method presented here. Unfortunately, I did not write it up at that time. After considerable effort, I was able to repeat the calculation. Since I have little confidence that after a few years I could ever do it again, I felt obliged to write it up in some detail. Our beam bug calibrator consists of two conducting cylinders, nominally concentric, that simulate the electron beam within a drift tube. The radii of the larger cylinder is 2.3 times that of the smaller giving an electrical impedance of 50 Ohms to the coaxial combination. To simulate a beam off-axis within a drift tube, the inner tube is moved relative to the outer tube. This only approximately simulates the motion of a beam because the surface current on the inner tube redistributes in response to the translation. Fortunately, the fields of the translated inner cylinder can be found exactly using complex variable theory (1)

  2. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  3. Recolonization of bat roost by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli): could parasite load be a cause of bat roost switching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Růžičková, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Roost ectoparasites are believed to have a negative impact on fitness of their hosts as birds or mammals. Previous studies were mostly focussed on the synchronization between reproduction cycles of ectoparasites and hosts living in infested roosts. However, to date, it has not been examined how fast ectoparasites colonize new, non-infested roosts and thus increasing the impact on the local populations of hosts. The parasite-host model was studied, including bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli and soprano pipistrelles Pipistrellus pygmaeus, where bat behaviour was observed which tended to reduce the parasite load in bat roosts. We investigated (1) whether bats change their roosting behaviour when we discontinued synchronization of their reproduction and the life cycle of the bat bugs and (2) how fast and which stages of bat bugs reoccupy cleaned roosts. In a 3-year field experiment, we removed all bat bugs from six bat boxes in each spring. Pipistrelles bred young in all non-infested boxes during these 3 years. In addition, 8 years of regular observations before this experiment indicate that bats avoided breeding in the same bat boxes at all. Bat bugs were found again in clean boxes in mid-May. However, their densities did not maximise before the beginning of June, before parturition. A re-appearance of bugs was observed after 21-56 days after the first bat visit. Adult bugs, mainly females, colonised cleaned boxes first though at the same time there were a lot of younger and smaller instars in non-manipulated roosts in the vicinity.

  4. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  5. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  6. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  7. Climbing ability of teneral and sclerotized adult bed bugs and assessment of adhesive properties of the exoskeletal fluid using atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hinson

    Full Text Available We observed that teneral adults (72 h, and sclerotized group 2 (S2 bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 2.64 cm at >72 h post molt. When heights from all climbing events were summed, teneral bed bugs (650.8 cm climbed differed significantly (P< 0.01 from recently sclerotized (82 cm climbed and sclerotized (group 1 = 104.6 cm climbed, group 2 = 107.8 cm climbed bed bugs. These findings suggested that the external surface of teneral bed bug exoskeletons possess an adhesive property. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM, we found that adhesion force of an exoskeletal (presumably molting fluid decreased almost five-fold from 88 to 17 nN within an hour of molting. Our findings may have implications for laboratory safety and the effectiveness of bed bug traps, barriers, and biomimetic-based adhesives.

  8. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  9. RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Sams, Sarah; Moural, Tim; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Palli, Subba R

    2012-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays a central role in cytochrome P450 action. The genes coding for P450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Hence, we decided to clone cDNA and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for CPR which is suggested to be required for the function of all P450s to determine whether or not P450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides. The full length Cimex lectularius CPR (ClCPR) cDNA was isolated from a deltamethrin resistant bed bug population (CIN-1) using a combined PCR strategy. Bioinformatics and in silico modeling were employed to identify three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, NADP), a FAD binding motif, and the catalytic residues. The critical amino acids involved in FMN, FAD, NADP binding and their putative functions were also analyzed. No signal peptide but a membrane anchor domain with 21 amino acids which facilitates the localization of ClCPR on the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in ClCPR protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ClCPR is closer to the CPR from the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis than to the CPRs from the other insect species studied. The ClCPR gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested but showed an increase in expression as immature stages develop into adults. We exploited the traumatic insemination mechanism of bed bugs to inject dsRNA and successfully knockdown the expression of the gene coding for ClCPR. Suppression of the ClCPR expression increased susceptibility to deltamethrin in resistant populations but not in the susceptible population of bed bugs. These data suggest that P450-mediated metabolic detoxification may serve as one of the resistance mechanisms in bed bugs.

  10. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  11. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  12. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  13. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  14. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  15. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  16. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vedamurthy, I; Knill, DC; Huang, SJ; Yung, A; Ding, J; Kwon, OS; Bavelier, D; Levi, DM

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity—the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and reliesmostly onmonocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereodeficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task—a ‘bug squashing’ game—in a virtual...

  17. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolker, B.M.; Gardner, B.; Maunder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. R is convenient and (relatively) easy...... to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield...

  18. Simulating the 2012 High Plains drought using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we will focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and will perform numerical simulations using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2011-2012 periods. In the first version of BUGS5, the model will be used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 64 atmospheric columns), will replace the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and will be coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 will be coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (64 CRM columns coupled to 64 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and will be compared to differences calculated using

  19. Preventing Run-Time Bugs at Compile-Time Using Advanced C++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neswold, Richard [Fermilab

    2018-01-01

    When writing software, we develop algorithms that tell the computer what to do at run-time. Our solutions are easier to understand and debug when they are properly modeled using class hierarchies, enumerations, and a well-factored API. Unfortunately, even with these design tools, we end up having to debug our programs at run-time. Worse still, debugging an embedded system changes its dynamics, making it tough to find and fix concurrency issues. This paper describes techniques using C++ to detect run-time bugs *at compile time*. A concurrency library, developed at Fermilab, is used for examples in illustrating these techniques.

  20. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  2. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  4. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenzer, Meredith L

    2017-10-01

    Natural selection can produce local adaptation, but local adaptation can be masked by maladaptive plasticity. Maladaptive plasticity may arise as a result of gene flow producing novel gene combinations that have not been exposed to selection. In the 1980s, populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) were locally adapted to feed on the seeds of a native host plant and an introduced host plant; by 2014, local differentiation in beak length had been lost, likely as a consequence of increased gene flow. In this study, I assess the relative contributions of natural selection and plasticity to beak length on these two hosts. I confirm the earlier hypothesis that the host plant seedpod drives divergent natural selection on beak length. I then demonstrate that the proximate cause of the loss of observable differentiation in beak length is maladaptive plasticity, which masks persistent genetic differences between host-associated populations. Maladaptive plasticity is highest in areas where the two plants co-occur; in combination with historical measures of plasticity in hybrids, this indicates that maladaptive plasticity may be a consequence of ongoing gene flow. Although natural selection produced locally adapted genotypes in soapberry bugs, maladaptive plasticity is masking phenotypic differences between populations in nature.

  6. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin, Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin, Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin, and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin. The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran, Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264, Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid, and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr. Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h. Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure.

  7. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  9. Comparative bio-ecological studies among two species of Urentius lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the prevalent lace bugs in Sudan, Urentius hystricellus and Urentius euonymus are important pests of eggplant and pigeon pea, respectively. They attack alternative hosts, but some plants were reported as common hosts for both species. In fact, the identity of these pests and their actual host plants seems to be confusing. Therefore, the main objectives of this work were to; differentiate between such pest species based on certain morpho-biological investigations, verify their hosts’ ranges and study their intra-host distributions and seasonal trends through field surveys and experiments. The results showed clear morphological and biological differences among the two lace bug species. The durations of pre-imaginal stages of U. hystricellus were shorter than those of U. euonymus, while each pest took shorter durations in autumn as compared with winter season. Each pest has its own host range, and no shared hosts were detected, as believed. Hence, the mistaken hosts were corrected and new hosts were added. Such new records included Solanum incanum for U. hystricellus, and two hosts (Chrozophora plicata and Rhynchosia memnonia for U. euonymus. Counts of insects on either leaf sides have revealed variable distributions in different hosts. The seasonal trends of the two pests showed peak populations during autumn and summer seasons. In conclusion, the study made clear distinctions between U. hystricellus and U. euonymus, and gave supportive findings for ecological management.

  10. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C.; Huang, Samuel J.; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity—the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task—a ‘bug squashing’ game—in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269607

  11. Security Vulnerability Profiles of Mission Critical Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    While some prior research work exists on characteristics of software faults (i.e., bugs) and failures, very little work has been published on analysis of software applications vulnerabilities. This paper aims to contribute towards filling that gap by presenting an empirical investigation of application vulnerabilities. The results are based on data extracted from issue tracking systems of two NASA missions. These data were organized in three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified security related software bugs and classified them in specific vulnerability classes. Then, we created the security vulnerability profiles, i.e., determined where and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced and what were the dominating vulnerabilities classes. Our main findings include: (1) In IVV issues datasets the majority of vulnerabilities were code related and were introduced in the Implementation phase. (2) For all datasets, around 90 of the vulnerabilities were located in two to four subsystems. (3) Out of 21 primary classes, five dominated: Exception Management, Memory Access, Other, Risky Values, and Unused Entities. Together, they contributed from 80 to 90 of vulnerabilities in each dataset.

  12. Millennial angst? Insidious Y2K computer bug could have devastating consequences if not remedied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E.

    1999-01-01

    The threat of the Y2K bug facing the petroleum industry was discussed. The bug can potentially affect every aspect of the industry relying on computerized and automated systems and equipment, from production to transportation. The importance for oil companies to establish contingency plans was emphasized. For example, Enbridge Energy Inc. is planning to be Y2K ready on all mission critical systems by June 1999. On the pipeline side, this means anything dealing with physical safety and the operational reliability of the pipeline. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., has tested everything dealing with environmental or public safety risk and regularly checks on how their suppliers are progressing with Y2K compliance. Companies will also face regulatory requirements, For example, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board will be checking on 127 companies considered high risk, primarily for safety reasons. This includes operators of sour gas plants or pipelines and gas or electrical utilities. The upstream petroleum industry generally, is reported to be making good progress in addressing the issue

  13. Impact of Bug-in-Ear Professional Development on Early Childhood Co-Teachers' Use of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Grygas Coogle, Christan; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…

  14. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  15. Comparison of ingestion and topical application of insecticides against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. Results LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder. LD50 values were calculated based on the ingested blood volume. Ingested abamectin, clothianidin and fipronil caused rapid mortality in both life stages. Fipronil was ∼43-fold more effective by ingestion than by topical application. Indoxacarb and its bioactive metabolite decarbomethoxyllated JW062 (DCJW) were ineffective at causing bed bug mortality even at concentrations as high as 1000 ng mL−1 blood. Conclusions Fipronil, clothianidin and abamectin have potential for being incorporated into a liquid bait for bed bug control; indoxacarb and DCJW were not effective. Bed bugs are a good candidate for an ingestible liquid bait because systemic formulations generally require less active ingredient than residual sprays, they remain contained and more effectively target hematophagous arthropods. PMID:27766740

  16. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  17. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  18. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  19. Occurrence of lace bug Vatiga illudens and Vatiga manihotae (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Patrícia P; Wengrat, Ana P G S; Kassab, Samir O; Pietrowski, Vanda; Loureiro, Elisângela S

    2012-09-01

    Nymphs and adults of the lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have been found in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The insects were collected in the field and taken to the laboratory where they were identified based on some morphological traits of the species Vatiga manihotae (Drake) and V. illudens (Drake), which are first reported in the aforementioned state.

  20. Altered gene regulation and potential association with metabolic resistance development to imidacloprid in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spray on cotton is almost an exclusive method for control of tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris). Frequent use of imidacloprid is a concern for neonicotinoid resistance in this key pest. Information of how and why TPB become less susceptible to imidacloprid is essential for effectiv...

  1. Exposure of bed bugs to metarhizium anisopliae, and the effect of defensive secretions on fungal growth in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs Cimex lectularius were treated with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae by topical, spray, and contact exposure. One week post-exposure, inconsistent mortalities were observed, averaging 30% across all treatment groups and replicates. Microscopic examination of top...

  2. Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baban; I. Gamaliy.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with analysis of hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region. Systematization of the investigated water bodies was performed by the authors on the basis of previously developed classification and typing of water reservoirs.

  3. Current scientific literature on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) ecology in Mississippi, and critical information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the basic ecological patterns of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is required for implementing a successful integrated pest management program. As the primary pest of cotton in Mississippi and across the mid-south, L. lineolaris is a highly polyphagous m...

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  8. Utilization of early soybeans for food and reproduction by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the delta of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, G L; Jackson, R E; Abel, C A; Perera, O P

    2010-08-01

    Commercially produced maturity group (MG) IV soybeans, Glycine max L., were sampled during bloom for tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), during May and June 1999 (3 fields) and 2001 (18 fields). The adults and nymphs were found primarily in single population peaks in both years, indicating a single new generation was produced during each year. The peak mean numbers of nymphs were 0.61 and 0.84 per drop cloth sample in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Adults peaked at 3.96 (1999) and 3.76 (2001) per sweep net sample (25 sweeps). Tests using laboratory-reared and field-collected tarnished plant bugs resulted in very poor survival of nymphs on 16 different soybean varieties (MG III, one; IV, four; V, nine; VI, two). A large cage (0.06 ha) field test found that the number of nymphs produced on eight soybean varieties after mated adults were released into the cages was lower than could be expected on a suitable host. These results indicated that soybean was a marginal host for tarnished plant bugs. However, the numbers of adults and nymphs found in the commercially produced fields sampled in the study may have been high enough to cause feeding damage to the flowering soybeans. The nature of the damage and its possible economic importance were not determined. Reproduction of tarnished plant bugs in the commercially produced early soybean fields showed that the early soybeans provided tarnished plant bugs with a very abundant host at a time when only wild hosts were previously available.

  9. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  10. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  11. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  12. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  13. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  14. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  16. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  20. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  1. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  2. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  3. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  4. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  5. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David C; Dorn, August

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the structure opens a door for a better understanding of function because there is no function without structure. Male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) exhibit a very extraordinary structure and a very special relationship with their niche, the apical cells. This structural relationship is strikingly different from that known in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- the most successful model system, which allowed deep insights into the signaling interactions between GSCs and niche. The complex structural polarity of male GSCs in the milkweed bug combined with their astonishing dynamics suggest that cell morphology and dynamics are causally related with the most important regulatory processes that take place between GSCs and niche and ensure maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs in accordance with the temporal need of mature sperm. The intricate structure of the GSCs of the milkweed bug (and probably of some other insects, i.e., moths) is only accessible by electron microscopy. But, studying singular sections through the apical complex (i.e., GSCs and apical cells) is not sufficient to obtain a full picture of the GSCs; especially, the segregation of projection terminals is not tangible. Only serial sections and their overlay can establish whether membrane ingrowths merely constrict projections or whether a projection terminal is completely cut off. To sequence the GSC dynamics, it is necessary to include juvenile stages, when the processes start and the GSCs occur in small numbers. The fine structural analysis of segregating projection terminals suggests that these terminals undergo autophagocytosis. Autophagosomes can be labeled by markers. We demonstrated acid phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase). Both together are thought to identify autophagosomes. Using the appropriate substrate of the enzymes and cerium chloride, the precipitation of electron-dense cerium phosphate granules

  6. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  7. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  8. Seasonal and regional dynamics of M. ulcerans transmission in environmental context: deciphering the role of water bugs as hosts and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Estelle; Eyangoh, Sara; Yeramian, Edouard; Doannio, Julien; Landier, Jordi; Aubry, Jacques; Fontanet, Arnaud; Rogier, Christophe; Cassisa, Viviane; Cottin, Jane; Marot, Agnès; Eveillard, Matthieu; Kamdem, Yannick; Legras, Pierre; Deshayes, Caroline; Saint-André, Jean-Paul; Marsollier, Laurent

    2010-07-06

    Buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans. Various modes of transmission have been suspected for this disease, with no general consensus acceptance for any of them up to now. Since laboratory models demonstrated the ability of water bugs to transmit M. ulcerans, a particular attention is focused on the transmission of the bacilli by water bugs as hosts and vectors. However, it is only through detailed knowledge of the biodiversity and ecology of water bugs that the importance of this mode of transmission can be fully assessed. It is the objective of the work here to decipher the role of water bugs in M. ulcerans ecology and transmission, based on large-scale field studies. The distribution of M. ulcerans-hosting water bugs was monitored on previously unprecedented time and space scales: a total of 7,407 water bugs, belonging to large number of different families, were collected over one year, in Buruli ulcer endemic and non endemic areas in central Cameroon. This study demonstrated the presence of M. ulcerans in insect saliva. In addition, the field results provided a full picture of the ecology of transmission in terms of biodiversity and detailed specification of seasonal and regional dynamics, with large temporal heterogeneity in the insect tissue colonization rate and detection of M. ulcerans only in water bug tissues collected in Buruli ulcer endemic areas. The large-scale detection of bacilli in saliva of biting water bugs gives enhanced weight to their role in M. ulcerans transmission. On practical grounds, beyond the ecological interest, the results concerning seasonal and regional dynamics can provide an efficient tool in the hands of sanitary authorities to monitor environmental risks associated with Buruli ulcer.

  9. The distribution and function of serotonin in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. a comparative study with the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiani, L; Orchard, I; TeBrugge, V

    1999-11-01

    The blood-feeding hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus, ingests a large blood meal at the end of each larval stage. To accommodate and process this meal, its cuticle undergoes plasticisation, and its gut and Malpighian tubules respectively absorb and secrete a large volume of water and salts for rapid diuresis. Serotonin has been found to be integral to the feeding process in this animal, along with a diuretic peptide(s). The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, tends to feed in a more continuous and abstemious manner, and therefore may have different physiological requirements than the blood feeder. Unlike R. prolixus, O. fasciatus is lacking serotonin-like immunoreactive dorsal unpaired median neurons in the mesothoracic ganglionic mass, and lacks serotonin-like immunoreactive neurohaemal areas and processes on the abdominal nerves, integument, salivary glands, and anterior junction of the foregut and crop. The salivary glands and crop do, however, respond to serotonin with increased levels of cAMP, while the integument and Malpighian tubules do not. In addition, O. fasciatus Malpighian tubules respond to both O. fasciatus and R. prolixus partially purified CNS extracts, which are likely to contain any native diuretic peptides. Thus, while serotonin and diuretic peptides may be involved in tubule control in R. prolixus, the latter may be of greater importance in O. fasciatus.

  10. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  11. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  12. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  13. Sterility and mating competitiveness of irradiated males of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.; Eesa, N.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Low level gamma radiation adversely affected the reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, oncopeltus fasciatus dallas, as expressed by fecundity and fertility. Treatment was applied to late 5th instar male nymphs. Both fecundity and fertility decreased linearly with the treatment dose and complete sterility occurred when males were exposed to 6 kilorads and mated with normal females. The mating competitiveness of O. fasciatus males irradiated at late 5th instar nymphs decreased linearly with the treatment dose. A strong negative relationship existed between dose and mating competitiveness ( r = -0.93). A 3:2 ratio of irradiated males at 4 kilorads ( as late 5th instar as many progeny as normal in F 1 .2 tab.,1 fig

  14. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  15. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Gardner, Beth; Maunder, Mark; Berg, Casper W.; Brooks, Mollie; Comita, Liza; Crone, Elizabeth; Cubaynes, Sarah; Davies, Trevor; de Valpine, Perry; Ford, Jessica; Gimenez, Olivier; Kéry, Marc; Kim, Eun Jung; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Magunsson, Arni; Martell, Steve; Nash, John; Nielson, Anders; Regentz, Jim; Skaug, Hans; Zipkin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. 2. R is convenient and (relatively) easy to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. 3. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield) to specific suggestions about how to change the mathematical description of models to make them more amenable to parameter estimation. 4. A companion web site (https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/nonlinear-modeling/projects) presents detailed examples of application of the three tools to a variety of typical ecological estimation problems; each example links both to a detailed project report and to full source code and data.

  16. Could the bug Triatoma sherlocki be vectoring Chagas disease in small mining communities in Bahia, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C E; Folly-Ramos, E; Peterson, A T; Lima-Neiva, V; Gumiel, M; Duarte, R; Lima, M M; Locks, M; Beltrão, M; Costa, J

    2009-12-01

    Searches for Chagas disease vectors were performed at the type locality from which Triatoma sherlocki Papa et al. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) was described in the municipality of Gentio do Ouro, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and in a small artisan quarry-mining community approximately 13 km distant in a remote area of the same municipality. The latter site represents a new locality record for this species. Adults, nymphs and exuviae of T. sherlocki were found in 21% of human dwellings, indicating that the species is in the process of domiciliation. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in collected bugs was 10.8%. Simple predictive approaches based on environmental similarity were used to identify additional sites likely suitable for this species. The approach successfully predicted an additional five sites for the species in surrounding landscapes. Ecological and entomological indicators were combined to discuss whether this scenario likely represents an isolated case or an emerging public health problem.

  17. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  18. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Lopes, Angela H; Dias, Felipe A; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2007-09-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1025 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were found, including abundant expression of cystatin transcripts that may inhibit cysteine proteases common in seeds that might injure the insect or induce plant apoptosis. Serine proteases and lipases are described that might assist digestion and liquefaction of seed proteins and oils. Finally, several novel putative proteins are described with no known function that might affect plant physiology or act as antimicrobials.

  19. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint and seed loss over 2 yr and four studies cotton bolls should be protected up to approximately 300 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.5 cm. This equilibrates to bolls that are 12-14 d of age dependent upon daily maximum

  20. Hox gene function and interaction in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Liu, Paul Z; Hughes, Cynthia L; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-11-15

    Studies in genetic model organisms such as Drosophila have demonstrated that the homeotic complex (Hox) genes impart segmental identity during embryogenesis. Comparative studies in a wide range of other insect taxa have shown that the Hox genes are expressed in largely conserved domains along the anterior-posterior body axis, but whether they are performing the same functions in different insects is an open question. Most of the Hox genes have been studied functionally in only a few holometabolous insects that undergo metamorphosis. Thus, it is unclear how the Hox genes are functioning in the majority of direct-developing insects and other arthropods. To address this question, we used a combination of RNAi and in situ hybridization to reveal the expression, functions, and regulatory interactions of the Hox genes in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Our results reveal many similarities and some interesting differences compared to Drosophila. We find that the gene Antennapedia is required for the identity of all three thoracic segments, while Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B cooperate to pattern the abdomen. The three abdominal genes exhibit posterior prevalence like in Drosophila, but apparently via some post-transcriptional mechanism. The functions of the head genes proboscipedia, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced were shown previously, and here we find that the complex temporal expression of pb in the labium is like that of other insects, but its regulatory relationship with Scr is unique. Overall, our data reveal that the evolution of insect Hox genes has included many small changes within general conservation of expression and function, and that the milkweed bug provides a useful model for understanding the roles of Hox genes in a direct-developing insect.

  1. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae and their associated trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaunt Michael

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bug species such as Microtriatoma trinidadensis, Eratyrus mucronatus, Belminus herreri, Panstrongylus lignarius, and Triatoma tibiamaculata are exquisitely adapted to specialist niches. This suggests a long evolutionary history, as well as the recent dramatic spread a few eclectic, domiciliated triatomine species. Virtually all species of the genus Rhodnius are primarily associated with palms. The genus Panstrongylus is predominantly associated with burrows and tree cavities and the genus Triatoma with terrestrial rocky habitats or rodent burrows. Two major sub-divisions have been defined within the species Trypanosoma cruzi, as T. cruzi 1 (Z1 and T. cruzi 2 (Z2. The affinities of a third group (Z3 are uncertain. Host and habitat associations lead us to propose that T. cruzi 1 (Z1 has evolved in an arboreal, palm tree habitat with the triatomine tribe Rhodniini, in association with the opossum Didelphis. Similarly we propose that T. cruzi (Z2 and Z3 evolved in a terrestrial habitat in burrows and in rocky locations with the triatomine tribe Triatomini, in association with edentates, and/or possibly ground dwelling marsupials. Both sub-divisions of T. cruzi may have been contemporary in South America up to 65 million years ago. Alternatively, T. cruzi 2 (Z2 may have evolved more recently from T. cruzi 1 (Z1 by host transfers into rodents, edentates, and primates. We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of haematophagous vectors, including triatomine bugs, which suggests that faecal transmission of trypanosomes may be the ancestral route. A molecular clock phylogeny suggests that Rhodnius and Triatoma diverged before the arrival, about 40 million years ago, of bats and rodents into South America.

  2. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an additional use as sex pheromones.

  3. Comparative genomics evidence that only protein toxins are tagging bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term toxin was introduced by Roux and Yersin and describes macromolecular substances that, when produced during infection or when introduced parenterally or orally, cause an impairment of physiological functions that lead to disease or to the death of the infected organism. Long after the discovery of toxins, early genetic studies on bacterial virulence demonstrated that removing a certain number of genes from pathogenic bacteria decreases their capacity to infect hosts. Each of the removed factors was therefore referred to as a virulence factor, and it was speculated that non-pathogenic bacteria lack such supplementary factors. However, many recent comparative studies demonstrate that the specialization of bacteria to eukaryotic hosts is associated with massive gene loss. We recently demonstrated that the only features that seem to characterize 12 epidemic bacteria are toxin-antitoxin (TA modules, which are addiction molecules in host bacteria. In this study, we investigated if protein toxins are indeed the only molecules specific to pathogenic bacteria by comparing 14 epidemic bacterial killers (bad bugs with their 14 closest non-epidemic relatives (controls. We found protein toxins in significantly more elevated numbers in all of the bad bugs. For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. Moreover, intracellular toxins appear to be more correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria than secreted toxins. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the only truly identifiable phenomena, witnessing the convergent evolution of the most pathogenic bacteria for humans are the loss of metabolic activities, i.e., the outcome of the loss of regulatory and transcription factors and the presence of protein toxins, alone or coupled as TA

  4. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http

  5. Symbiotic factors in Burkholderia essential for establishing an association with the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are common in insects and intimately affect the various aspects of insect host biology. In a number of insect symbiosis models, it has been possible to elucidate the effects of the symbiont on host biology, whereas there is a limited understanding of the impact of the association on the bacterial symbiont, mainly due to the difficulty of cultivating insect symbionts in vitro. Furthermore, the molecular features that determine the establishment and persistence of the symbionts in their host (i.e., symbiotic factors) have remained elusive. However, the recently established model, the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, provides a good opportunity to study bacterial symbiotic factors at a molecular level through their cultivable symbionts. Bean bugs acquire genus Burkholderia cells from the environment and harbor them as gut symbionts in the specialized posterior midgut. The genome of the Burkholderia symbiont was sequenced, and the genomic information was used to generate genetically manipulated Burkholderia symbiont strains. Using mutant symbionts, we identified several novel symbiotic factors necessary for establishing a successful association with the host gut. In this review, these symbiotic factors are classified into three categories based on the colonization dynamics of the mutant symbiont strains: initiation, accommodation, and persistence factors. In addition, the molecular characteristics of the symbiotic factors are described. These newly identified symbiotic factors and on-going studies of the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis are expected to contribute to the understanding of the molecular cross-talk between insects and bacterial symbionts that are of ecological and evolutionary importance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  8. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  9. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  10. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  11. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP BIJAIJ HELOPELTIS SPP. (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE DAN ARTROPODA NON-TARGET PADA PERTANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Mirid Pest of Cocoa Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae and on Non-target  Arthropods in Cocoa Plantations (Theobroma cacao L.. Cocoa mirid bugs, Helopeltis spp., (Hemiptera: Miridae are the most important pest of cocoa in Indonesia. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of permethrin on cocoa mirids and non-target arthropods at a cocoa plantation in specific place. A randomized complete block design was used in which each of four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm and control. The results indicated that the application of permethrin significantly increased the cocoa mirids mortaliiy throughout all sprayed cocoa trees (up to 100% 72 h after application. Even at 1 h after application, the percentage of Cocoa mirids mortality 29.2% - 53.9% on cocoa trees sprayed with permethrin at concentrations of 50 - 250 ppm was significantly higher than that on control plant (3.6%. At 72 h after treatments, application of permethrin at concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm caused a complete kill (mortalty of 100% in the test mirids. Meanwhile, ground cloths caught at least 22 fanilies of abore-ground arthropods that were found killed by permethrin applications. Moreover, the number of non-target arthropods killed by permethrin at concentrations of 100 - 250 ppm (27.3 - 85.3 individuals/ground cloth were signifcantly higher than that on control trees. These results demonstrated that despite high efficacy of permethrin in controlling of cocoa mirids (Hetopeltis spp., its application also had adverse effects on non-target arthropods incocoa plantations.

  12. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    except in Arachnocampa (Diptera) where these stem from the enlarged distal ends ... I ARTICLE. Photogenic organs consist of a large number of specialized cells .... bioluminescence is used to lure the opposite sex for mating, or it may be used to attract prey, or for defense. --------~--------. RESONANCE I September 2002. 53 ...

  13. Speed Bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fixed media audio visual composition, performed as part of a concert of audio visual work at MANTIS festival.......Fixed media audio visual composition, performed as part of a concert of audio visual work at MANTIS festival....

  14. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been exploited in space and medical research, insect pest management, and is .... product emits light when the excited state returns to the ground. Luciferase. + ... eggs about over crowding and competition for food sources. Applications of ...

  15. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  16. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  17. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  19. Analysis of Genetic Variation and Phylogeny of the Predatory Bug, Pilophorus typicus, in Japan using Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Katsura; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takuji; Ogawa, Kohei; Minamiya, Yukio; Tomoda, Masafumi; Nakahira, Kengo; Kodama, Rika; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Arakawa, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Pilophorus typicus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a predatory bug occurring in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Because the active stages of P. typicus prey on various agricultural pest insects and mites, this species is a candidate insect as an indigenous natural enemy for use in biological control programs. However, the mass releasing of introduced natural enemies into agricultural fields may incur the risk of affecting the genetic integrity of species through hybridization with a loca...

  20. Detection of Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorfenapyr- and Bifenthrin-Containing Products in Field Populations of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Aaron R; Scharf, Michael E; Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D

    2017-06-01

    Insecticide resistance is a major impediment for effective control of Cimex lectularius L. Previous resistance detection studies with bed bugs have focused on certain pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides. Within the pyrethroid class, resistance studies have mostly been limited to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and alpha- and beta-cyfluthrin. The goal of this study was to develop diagnostic concentration bioassays for assessing bed bug susceptibility levels to chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. First, glass vial and filter paper bioassay methods were compared for their utility in susceptibility monitoring. Statistical comparison of toxicity data between bioassays indicated that the vial assay was less confounded by assay susbtrate effects, required less insecticide, and was faster, especially for chlorfenapyr. Next, using vial diagnostic concentrations (LC99) for each insecticide, 10 laboratory-adapted field strains and the Harlan lab-susceptible strain were screened for susceptibility to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin. The results of this study reveal recent bed bug susceptibility levels to certain chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. Reduced susceptibility was detected in three and five field strains to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin, respectively. Detection of reduced susceptibility suggests that certain strains may be segregating toward greater chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin resistance. These results merit continuous resistance monitoring efforts to detect chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin susceptibility shifts. Additionally, to reduce insecticide selection pressures and delay resistance development, adoption of integrated bed bug control strategies that combine chemical and nonchemical methods is recommended. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of loach consumption on the reproduction of giant water bug Kirkaldyia deyrolli: dietary selection, reproductive performance, and nutritional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Izumi, Yohei; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    Rice fields provide major habitats for lentic aquatic insects including the giant water bug Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in Japan. Previous researchers have emphasized that conserving populations of the frogs, Hyla japonicus and Rana nigromaculata, is very important for preserving K. deyrolli because these frogs were found to be a major component of the diet of K. deyrolli adults. However, these previous studies were carried out in rice fields with no loache...

  2. Effect of different humidity levels on the biology of longtailed mealy bug pseudococcus longispinus (targioni and tozzetti) (homoptera: pseudococidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    On determining the effects of different humidity levels on the biology of mealy bug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni and Tozzetti), it was found that the relative humidity (RH) at 35%, 55% and 75% had no effect on pre-adult development, adult longevity, life span and fecundity of P. longispinus. The survival of pre-adult stages was minimal at 35% RH. Sex ratio was male-biased at 35% RH and female-biased at 75% RH. (author)

  3. Tolerance to High Temperature Extremes in an Invasive Lace Bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), in Subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and ada...

  4. Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2014-10-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Apocalypse deterred : oil and gas community pulls out ahead in vaccinating itself against Y2K, the millennium bug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a survey of the membership of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) regarding efforts to deal with the threat posed by the Y2K millennium bug are reviewed. Survey results reveal that CAPP's 170 member companies take the year 2000 date rollover very seriously, and the vast majority (99 per cent) have formal action plans to deal with the threat. The vast majority of plans have components that take into account the effects of the computer glitch on inventories, compliance and risk assessment matters, correction and replacement. All are doing testing and assessments involving business partners, and are developing contingency plans to keep operating if any problems develop despite all the efforts currently underway. Test results to date show low failure rates in field production control equipment. The current focus is on contingency plans for higher risk items. The downstream sector of the industry, involving transportation, distribution and retail marketing, is making similar efforts to minimize the threat of the Y2K bug, sometimes to the point of switching to new and improved equipment to vaccinate all its major operations against the expected computer failure. The cost of coping with the millennium bug is colossal. Canadian governments expect the cost to reach three billion dollars to purge the bug from government operations alone. Estimates of world-wide cost run to 530 billion dollars, plus another trillion dollars to clean up the aftermath of infections. Nevertheless, the current assessment is that the back of the problem has been broken at least in Canada, the United States and Western Europe. Nevertheless, there is no justification for complacency just yet

  6. Biochemical characterisation of the tissue degrading enzyme, collagenase, in the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamari Mahboob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Podisus maculiventris (Say is a generalist predator attacking many insect species from different orders. The bug injects saliva into its prey's body. The ingested hemolymph and liquefied internal tissues pass through the bug's alimentary tract. Collagenase working on peptide bonds of collagen and basement membrane proteins, leads to the disintegration of the prey's internal organs. As yet, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge on the collagenase activity in P. maculiventris. The collagenase activity of the salivary glands and midgut was optimum at pH 8.0 which was congruent with the optimal pH of the total proteolytic activity of the salivary glands. More collagenolytic activity was determined in the posterior lobe of the salivary glands and anterior midgut. Significant inhibition of collagenolytic activity by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA revealed the enzyme is a metalloproteinase. The collagenase activity notably decreased when the bug went hungry. The salivary gland collagenase is a vital enzyme in extra-oral digestion and facilitates the action of other digestive enzymes. The midgut collagenase may be involved in the digestion of the ingested muscle fibers. The collagenase probably acts as an intoxicating agent in the saliva (venom of P. maculiventris. Paralysing toxins are present in the salivary gland secretion.

  7. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  8. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  9. Immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Fassbinder-Orth

    Full Text Available Invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. These differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. Here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an arbovirus (Buggy Creek virus; Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its ectoparasitic arthropod vector (the swallow bug; Oeciacus vicarius. Swallow bugs parasitize the native, colonially nesting cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that occupies nests in cliff swallow colonies. We measured levels of BCRV-specific and swallow bug-specific IgY levels before nesting (prior to swallow bug exposure and after nesting (after swallow bug exposure in house sparrows and cliff swallows in western Nebraska. Levels of BCRV-specific IgY increased significantly following nesting in the house sparrow but not in the cliff swallow. Additionally, house sparrows displayed consistently higher levels of swallow bug-specific antibodies both before and after nesting compared to cliff swallows. The higher levels of BCRV and swallow bug specific antibodies detected in house sparrows may be reflective of significant differences in both antiviral and anti-ectoparasite immune responses that exist between these two avian species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the macro- and microparasite-specific immune responses of an invasive and a native avian host exposed to the same parasites.

  10. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  12. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  15. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  16. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  18. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  19. Deteksi Keberadaan Phytophthora Spp. Di Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2014-01-01

    The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...

  20. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  1. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  2. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

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    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  3. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

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    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  4. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  6. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  7. Leg coordination during turning on an extremely narrow substrate in a bug, Mesocerus marginatus (Heteroptera, Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid I; Cruse, Holk

    2005-10-01

    The turning movement of a bug, Mesocerus marginatus, is observed when it walks upside-down below a horizontal beam and, at the end of the beam, performs a sharp turn by 180 degrees . The turn at the end of the beam is accomplished in three to five steps, without strong temporal coordination among legs. During the stance, leg endpoints (tarsi) run through rounded trajectories, rotating to the same side in all legs. During certain phases of the turn, a leg is strongly depressed and the tarsus crosses the midline. Swing movements rotate to the same side as do leg endpoints in stance, in strong contrast to the typical swing movements found in turns or straight walk on a flat surface. Terminal location is found after the search through a trajectory that first moves away from the body and then loops back to find substrate. When a leg during stance has crossed the midline, in the following swing movement the leg may move even stronger on the contralateral side, i.e. is stronger depressed, in contrast to swing movements in normal walking, where the leg is elevated. These results suggest that the animals apply a different control strategy compared to walking and turning on a flat surface.

  8. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  9. Dynamics of growth zone patterning in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Vreede, Barbara M I; Weiss, Aryeh; Hester, Susan D; Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-15

    We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during the generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation. Although abdominal segment addition is primarily generated through the rearrangement of a pool of undifferentiated cells, there is nonetheless proliferation in the posterior. By correlating proliferation with gene expression in the growth zone, we propose a model for growth zone dynamics during segmentation in which the growth zone is functionally subdivided into two distinct regions: a posterior region devoted to a slow rate of growth among undifferentiated cells, and an anterior region in which segmental differentiation is initiated and proliferation inhibited. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ewen-Campen

    2013-04-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  11. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Esther D; Dorn, August

    2004-11-01

    The male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug present an extraordinary structural polarity that is, to our knowledge, unequalled by any other type of stem cells. They consist of a perikaryon and numerous projections arising from the cell pole directed toward the apical cells, the proposed niche of the GSCs. The projections can traverse a considerable distance until their terminals touch the apical cells. From hatching until death, the GSC projections undergo conspicuous changes, the sequence of which has been deduced from observations of all developmental stages. Projection formation starts from lobular cell protrusions showing trabecular ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finger-like projections result from a process of growth and "carving out". The newly formed projections contain mostly only free ribosomes other than a few mitochondria. A stereotyped degradation process commences in the projection terminals: profiles of circular, often concentric, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum appear and turn into myelin bodies, whereas mitochondria become more numerous. The cytoplasm vesiculates, lysosomal bodies appear, and mitochondria become swollen. At the same time, the projection terminals are segregated by transverse ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finally, autophagic vacuoles and myelin bodies fill the segregated terminals, which then rupture. Simultaneously, new projections seem to sprout from the perikaryon of the GSCs. These dynamics, which are not synchronized among the GSCs, indicate that a novel type of signal exchange and transduction between the stem cells and their niche is involved in the regulation of asymmetric versus symmetric division of GSCs.

  12. Late extraembryonic morphogenesis and its zen(RNAi)-induced failure in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilio, Kristen A

    2009-09-15

    Many insects undergo katatrepsis, essential reorganization by the extraembryonic membranes that repositions the embryo. Knockdown of the zen gene by RNA interference (RNAi) prevents katatrepsis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. However, the precise morphogenetic defect has been uncertain, and katatrepsis itself has not been characterized in detail. The dynamics of wild type and zen(RNAi) eggs were analyzed from time-lapse movies, supplemented by analysis of fixed specimens. These investigations identify three zen(RNAi) defects. First, a reduced degree of tissue contraction implies a role for zen in baseline compression prior to katatrepsis. Subsequently, a characteristic 'bouncing' activity commences, leading to the initiation of katatrepsis in wild type eggs. The second zen(RNAi) defect is a delay in this activity, suggesting that a temporal window of opportunity is missed after zen knockdown. Ultimately, the extraembryonic membranes fail to rupture in zen(RNAi) eggs: the third defect. Nevertheless, the outer serosal membrane manages to contract, albeit in an aberrant fashion with additional phenotypic consequences for the embryo. These data identify a novel epithelial morphogenetic event - rupture of the 'serosal window' structure - as the ultimate site of defect. Overall, Oncopeltus zen seems to have a role in coordinating a number of pre-katatreptic events during mid embryogenesis.

  13. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  14. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, Anasa tristis (Coreidae: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Li, Yao-Fa; Lincoln, Tamra Reall; Stanley, David

    2017-05-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, including virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development programs. We initiated 15 cell cultures, using nine media or combinations of media. The media yielding the best results were a modification of Kimura's medium and a combination of two commercially available cell culture media (EX-CELL 420 and L15). We designated the two cell lines as BCIRL-AtE-CLG11 and BCIRL-AtE-CLG15. From the AtE-CLG15 line, we isolated two sub-lines, A and B. Of these, the most consistently replicating line was AtE-CLG15A. We determined the doubling time of this line (190 h) and its mean cell diameter (14.5 ± 0.7 μm). We characterized the AtE-CLG15A line using DAF-PCR. The BCIRL-AtE-CLG15A cell line is now available for researchers world-wide.

  15. EULOGY OF UNMARRIED GIRLS IN CAROLS FROM THE EAST OF THE DNIESTER AND BUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALINA LUDMILA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article prompted us to fix our attention to carols collected and researched in the Eastern areas of the rivers Dniester and Bug. We will refer to a significant aspect of the Christmas celebrations publicized, especially with the aim of initiating a lad or a girl in their future marriage. On the basis of the studies carried out by N. Smochină, C. Ionescu, N. Băieşu, A. Golopenţia, M. Brătulescu, T Colac etc., we intend to highlight the way is «seen» the contamination and assimilation of the unmarried girl’s, motif especially when caroling the Eastern and Western regions. The author of the article reveals the anonymous poet’s role, who laid emphasis on the message, thought, intention, desire, and in the rural atmosphere, they find greater openness in the listener’s soul. The merit of being the mistress of the courtyards the owner of the gates is not attributed to each girl, but only to the selected one, who was appointed by the entire rural society after some tests of initiation. This procedure presumed preparing of unmarried girls for engagement and cooking the biggest knot-shaped bread. Here are written the suggestive images approved by the anonymous poet: rings, apples, the silk cradle, the tears of the girl, the sheet.

  16. Residual infestation and recolonization during urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corentin M; Buttenheim, Alison M; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003-2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009-2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35-138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control.

  17. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E. Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S. Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003–2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009–2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35–138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15–2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control. PMID:25423045

  18. Intensive care unit bugs in India: How do they differ from the western world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruva Chaudhry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections continue to play a significant role in the overall global mortality and disability more so in Intensive Care Units (ICUs and plague developing countries more intensively. The ICUs are often called “the hubs” of infections owing to highly vulnerable patients’ profile. The most important nosocomial infections in the ICU are catheter-related bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The epidemiology of ICU infections in India is different from its Western counterparts in terms of prevalence and nature of microorganisms causing it. While Gram-positive infections are more prevalent in Western ICUs, Indian ICUs are commonly afflicted with Gram-negative bugs showing a high degree of antimicrobial resistance with blurring of traditional boundaries of early drug sensitive and later drug resistance infections. Increasing number of multidrug resistance organism infections in ICUs is a big public health threat and challenge both from the perspective of prevention and treatment. Therefore, blindly following the Western guidelines may not provide the optimum results in India. The need of the hour is to develop and implement an antimicrobial stewardship program based on the local epidemiological data and international guidelines to optimize the antimicrobial use among the hospitalized patients and improve their outcomes.

  19. The proctolin gene and biological effects of proctolin in the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

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    Ian eOrchard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the possible presence or absence of the pentapeptide proctolin in Rhodnius prolixus and report here the cloning of the proctolin cDNA. The transcript is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS with some low expression associated with peripheral tissues. The proctolin prepropeptide encodes a single copy of proctolin along with a proctolin-precursor-associated peptide. We have biochemically identified proctolin in CNS extracts and shown its distribution using proctolin-like immunoreactivity. Immunostained processes are found on the salivary glands, female and male reproductive organs, and heart and associated alary muscles. Proctolin-like immunoreactive bipolar neurons are found on the lateral margins of the common oviduct and bursa. Proctolin is biologically active on R. prolixus tissues, stimulating increases in contraction of anterior midgut and hindgut muscles, and increasing heartbeat frequency. Contrary to the previous suggestion that proctolin is absent from R. prolixus, proctolin is indeed present and biologically active in this medically-important bug.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  1. Quantitative and qualitative damage caused by Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae to upland rice cultivated in new agricultural frontier of the Amazon rainforest (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851 is one of the stink bug species of great economic importance for rice producers in Brazil of irrigated, flood and upland cropping systems. These pentatomids are known as stink bugs of panicles, because both nymphs and adults feed mainly on panicles. Stink bug attacks result in pecky (spots seeds, lower mass, germinative reduction and deformed grains. Bearing these factors in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative losses in commercial cultivars of upland rice (Cambará variety, submitted to different population levels of stink bugs of panicles, O. poecilus, at different reproductive growth stages. The results show that in upland rice (Cambará variety, the rice grains are susceptible to quantitative (number and weight and qualitative (pecky, atrophy, chalky and broken grains damage during all panicle development. However, when the insects feed during anthesis/caryopsis and milky stage cause significantly greater percentage of empty grains (up to 83% than when they feed of grains during later phases of panicle development. This characteristic was also observed for the reduction in grain weight. This information may benefit producers and other researchers, allowing them to focus on the monitoring efforts of O. poecilus in most susceptible phases of the attack of this insect. This will enable decision-making about what control measures should be taken, and when, in order to control stink bugs of panicles.

  2. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  3. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. in Lower-Income Housing.

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    Ronald W Raab

    Full Text Available Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a 16/21 (73% infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr, from valine to leucine (V419L and leucine to isoleucine (L925I that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40% bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925, and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  4. Recovery strategies for fluxes affected by the Gill-Solent WindMaster-Pro "w-boost" firmware bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billesbach, D. P.; Chan, S. W.; Biraud, S.; David, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In late 2015 and early 2016, work done by the AmeriFlux Tech Team helped to uncover a bug in the Gill WindMaster Pro sonic anemometers used by many researchers for eddy covariance flux measurements. Gill has addressed this issue and has since sent out a notice that the vertical wind speed component (a critical piece of all eddy covariance fluxes) was being erroneously computed and reported. The problem (known as the w-boost bug) resulted in positive (upward) wind speeds being under-reported by 16.6% and negative (downward) wind speeds being under-reported by 28.9%. This has the potential to cause similar underestimates in fluxes obtained from these instruments. While the manufacturer has offered a firmware upgrade to fix this bug, there exist many data sets that have already been affected by it. Researchers who use the affected units have contributed to numerous data archives (AmeriFlux, FluxNet, ICOS, etc.), and third-party scientists have, in turn used these data in many types of research projects. The volume of affected data over such a long period of time makes a complete reprocessing of the raw data sets impractical. To address this, the AmeriFlux Tech Team has endeavored to develop a method of correcting affected fluxes using only the downloadable data sets that are available from these archives. In a previous poster, we reported preliminary results from a pair of Arctic tundra flux towers, and showed that fluxes could be underestimated by 15% to 20%. In this poster, we present results that extend our study to include a forested site in Equatorial Africa. We also have evaluated methods to estimate flux errors without accessing the raw data sets.

  5. The effects of temperature, activity and convection on the plastron PO2 of the aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Hemiptera; Aphelocheiridae).

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    Jones, Karl K; Hetz, Stefan K; Seymour, Roger S

    2017-07-05

    The aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius 1794) utilises a plastron, a thin bubble layer on the surface of its body to extract O 2 from the water. Millions of tiny hairs keep the bubble from collapsing, enabling the bug to remain submerged indefinitely. The development of fibre optic O 2 -probes has allowed measurements of O 2 pressure (PO 2 ) surrounding the plastron, and within the plastron although only for short periods. Here we developed methods to continuously measure plastron PO 2 , and investigate how it is affected by temperature (15, 20, 25°C), activity, and water circulation. We also made measurements of water PO 2 , temperature and velocity in the field and swimming velocity at the treatment temperatures. Results show that plastron PO 2 is inversely related to temperature, associated with differences in metabolic demand, and that small bouts of activity or changes in water convection result in rapid changes in plastron PO 2 . A model was developed to calculate the conditions under which Aphelocheirus would exist without becoming O 2 -limited in relation to water temperature, PO 2 and boundary layer thickness. This suggests that Aphelocheirus at one of two field sites may have a reduced metabolic scope even in well convected water in association with low PO 2 and moderate temperature, and that in well convected, air-saturated water, bugs may have a reduced metabolic scope where water temperatures are between 20 and 25°C. If exposed to 5kPa PO 2 , Aphelocheirus cannot sustain resting metabolic rate even in well-convected water and would die at temperatures above approximately 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

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    Justi, Silvia A; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-04-01

    The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region.

  7. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  8. [Amblyomma spp. case related to overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.

  9. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  10. Additional records and descriptions of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2014-05-09

    Eleven species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn from Thailand are documented, with photographic images of live individuals. Four new species with conventional, moderate antlike shape, Pilophorus meteorus, P. saovapruki, P. subparallelus and P. suwimonae, are described. Two known Thai species, P. alstoni Schuh and P. typicus (Distant), are further reported and diagnosed. Biological information including host association is provided for P. alstoni, P. meteorus, P. saovapruki and P. typicus. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Thailand and a key to known Thai species are included. Pilophorus typicus is reported from Singapore for the first time.

  11. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  12. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  13. Effect of captivity on genetic variance for five traits in the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Clark, K M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the changes in genetic variance which may occur as populations move from nature into captivity has been considered important when populations in captivity are used as models of wild ones. However, the inherent significance of these changes has not previously been appreciated in a conservation context: are the methods aimed at founding captive populations with gene diversity representative of natural populations likely also to capture representative quantitative genetic variation? Here, I investigate changes in heritability and a less traditional measure, evolvability, between nature and captivity for the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, to address this question. Founders were collected from a 100-km transect across the north-eastern US, and five traits (wing colour, pronotum colour, wing length, early fecundity and later fecundity) were recorded for founders and for their offspring during two generations in captivity. Analyses reveal significant heritable variation for some life history and morphological traits in both environments, with comparable absolute levels of evolvability across all traits (0-30%). Randomization tests show that while changes in heritability and total phenotypic variance were highly variable, additive genetic variance and evolvability remained stable across the environmental transition in the three morphological traits (changing 1-2% or less), while they declined significantly in the two life-history traits (5-8%). Although it is unclear whether the declines were due to selection or gene-by-environment interactions (or both), such declines do not appear inevitable: captive populations with small numbers of founders may contain substantial amounts of the evolvability found in nature, at least for some traits.

  14. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  15. Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-04-01

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Pesticides on the Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Nathan J; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2017-06-01

    Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O. insidiosus survival and predation on western flower thrips adults under laboratory conditions. The number of live and dead O. insidiosus adults was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results of the study indicate that the fungicides (aluminum tris, azoxystrobin, fenhexamid, and kresoxim-methyl), insect growth regulators (azadirachtin, buprofezin, kinoprene, and pyriproxyfen), botanicals (Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil; and rosemary, rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and cottonseed oil), and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) were minimally directly harmful to adult O. insidiosus, with 80% to 100% adult survival. However, abamectin, spinosad, pyridalyl, chlorfenapyr, tau-fluvalinate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam directly affected O. insidiosus survival after 96 h (0-60% adult survival). The pesticide mixtures of abamectin + spinosad and chlorfenapyr + dinotefuran reduced adult survival (20% and 0%, respectively, after 48 h). Furthermore, the surfactants were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus adults. All western flower thrips adults were killed by the surviving adult O. insidiosus after 48 h, indicating no indirect effects of the pesticides on predation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transcriptome and gene expression profile of ovarian follicle tissue of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo N.; Logullo, Raquel; Ramos, Isabela B.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Coutinho, Maria Alice; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Capurro, Margareth L.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Cardoso Braz, Glória Regina; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-01-01

    Insect oocytes grow in close association with the ovarian follicular epithelium (OFE), which escorts the oocyte during oogenesis and is responsible for synthesis and secretion of the eggshell. We describe a transcriptome of OFE of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, to increase our knowledge of the role of FE in egg development. Random clones were sequenced from a cDNA library of different stages of follicle development. The transcriptome showed high commitment to transcription, protein synthesis, and secretion. The most abundant cDNA was a secreted (S) small, proline-rich protein with maximal expression in the vitellogenic follicle, suggesting a role in oocyte maturation. We also found Rp45, a chorion protein already described, and a putative chitin-associated cuticle protein that was an eggshell component candidate. Six transcripts coding for proteins related to the unfolded protein response (UPR) by were chosen and their expression analyzed. Surprisingly, transcripts related to UPR showed higher expression during early stages of development and downregulation during late stages, when transcripts coding for S proteins participating in chorion formation were highly expressed. Several transcripts with potential roles in oogenesis and embryo development are also discussed. We propose that intense protein synthesis at the FE results in reticulum stress (RS) and that lowering expression of a set of genes related to cell survival should lead to degeneration of follicular cells at oocyte maturation. This paradoxical suppression of UPR suggests that ovarian follicles may represent an interesting model for studying control of RS and cell survival in professional S cell types. PMID:21736942

  18. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

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    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive

  19. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  20. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

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    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  1. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  3. GCMS investigation of volatile compounds in green coffee affected by potato taste defect and the Antestia bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackels, Susan C; Marshall, Eric E; Omaiye, Angelica G; Gianan, Robert L; Lee, Fabrice T; Jackels, Charles F

    2014-10-22

    Potato taste defect (PTD) is a flavor defect in East African coffee associated with Antestiopsis orbitalis feeding and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) in the coffee. To elucidate the manifestation of PTD, surface and interior volatile compounds of PTD and non-PTD green coffees were sampled by headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis of the chromatographic data revealed a profile of surface volatiles distinguishing PTD from non-PTD coffees dominated by tridecane, dodecane, and tetradecane. While not detected in surface volatiles, IPMP was found in interior volatiles of PTD coffee. Desiccated antestia bugs were analyzed by GCMS, revealing that the three most prevalent volatiles were tridecane, dodecane, and tetradecane, as was found in the surface profile PTD coffee. Coffee having visible insect damage exhibited both a PTD surface volatile profile and IPMP in interior volatiles, supporting the hypothesis linking antestia bug feeding activity with PTD profile compounds on the surface and IPMP in the interior of the beans.

  4. Characterization of TES bolometers used in 2-dimensional Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) arrays for far-infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staguhn, J.G.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.J.; Chervenak, J.A.; Chuss, D.T.; Miller, T.M.; Moseley, S.H.; Wollack, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have produced a laboratory demonstration of our new Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) bolometer array architecture in a monolithic, 2-dimensional, 8x8 format. The detector array is designed as a square grid of suspended, 1μm thick silicon bolometers with superconducting molybdium/gold bilayer TESs. These detectors use an additional layer of gold bars deposited on top of the bilayer, oriented transverse to the direction of the current flow, for the suppression of excess noise. This detector design has earlier been shown to provide near fundamental noise limited device performance. We present results from performance measurements of witness devices. In particular we demonstrate that the inband excess noise level of the TES detectors is less than 20% above the thermodynamic phonon noise limit and not significantly higher out of band at frequencies that cannot be attenuated by the Nyquist filter. Our 8x8 BUG arrays will be used in the near future for astronomical observations in several (sub-)millimeter instruments

  5. Adaptive camouflage: what can be learned from the wetting behaviour of the tropical flat bugs Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hischen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading. Here we show morphological and chemical characterisations of the surface, especially the cuticular waxes of D. magnus. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the animal is covered with pillar-like microstructures which, in combination with a surprising chemical hydrophilicity of the cuticle waxes, render the bug almost superhydrophilic: water spreads immediately across the surface. We could theoretically model this behaviour assuming the effect of hemi-wicking (a state in which a droplet sits on a rough surface, partwise imbibing the structure around.  Additionally the principle was abstracted and a laser-patterned polymer surface, mimicking the structure and contact angle of Dysodius wax, shows exactly the behaviour of the natural role model – immediate spreading of water and the formation of a thin continuous water film changing optical properties of the surface.

  6. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae, an insect of emerging medical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannet Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15–34 °C and relative humidity (46–75% with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans.

  7. Adaptive camouflage: what can be learned from the wetting behaviour of the tropical flat bugs Dysodius lunatus and Dysodiusmagnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischen, Florian; Reiswich, Vladislav; Kupsch, Desirée; De Mecquenem, Ninon; Riedel, Michael; Himmelsbach, Markus; Weth, Agnes; Heiss, Ernst; Armbruster, Oskar; Heitz, Johannes; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-08-15

    The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading. Here we show morphological and chemical characterisations of the surface, especially the cuticular waxes of D. magnus Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the animal is covered with pillar-like microstructures which, in combination with a surprising chemical hydrophilicity of the cuticle waxes, render the bug almost superhydrophilic: water spreads immediately across the surface. We could theoretically model this behaviour assuming the effect of hemi-wicking (a state in which a droplet sits on a rough surface, partwise imbibing the structure around).  Additionally the principle was abstracted and a laser-patterned polymer surface, mimicking the structure and contact angle of Dysodius wax, shows exactly the behaviour of the natural role model - immediate spreading of water and the formation of a thin continuous water film changing optical properties of the surface. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Differential effects of ambient temperature on warm cell responses to infrared radiation in the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Lydia M; Lazzari, Claudio R; Tichy, Harald

    2014-03-01

    Thermoreceptors provide animals with background information about the thermal environment, which is at least indirectly a prerequisite for thermoregulation and assists bloodsucking insects in the search for their host. Recordings from peg-in-pit sensilla and tapered hairs on the antennae of the bug Rhodnius prolixus revealed two physiologically different types of warm cells. Both types responded more strongly to temperature pulses produced by switching between two air streams at different constant temperatures than to infrared radiation pulses employed in still air. In addition, both warm cells were better able to discriminate small changes in air temperature than in infrared radiation. As convective and radiant heat determines the discharge, it is impossible for a single warm cell to signal the nature of the stimulus unequivocally. Individual responses are ambiguous, not with regard to temperature change, but with regard to its source. We argue that the bugs use mechanical flow information to differentiate between pulses of convective and radiant heat. However, if pulses of radiant heat occur together with a constant temperature air stream, the mechanical cues would not allow avoiding ambiguity that convective heat introduces into radiant heat stimulation. In this situation, the warm cell in the tapered hairs produced stronger responses than those in the peg-in-pit sensilla. The reversal in the excitability of the two types of warm cells provides a criterion by which to distinguish the combination of convective and radiant heat from the stimuli presented alone.

  9. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior.

  10. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  11. Identification of the western tarnished plant bug (lygus hesperus) olfactory co-receptor orco: expression profile and confirmation of atypical membrane topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (western tarnished plant bug) is an agronomically important pest species of numerous cropping systems. Similar to other insects, a critical component underlying behaviors is the perception and discrimination of olfactory cues. Consequently, the molecular basis of olfaction in this spe...

  12. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  13. Assessment of the impact of the egg parasitoid, Paratelenoumus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug has become a pest of economic importance ever since its introduction to the Southeastern United States from Asia in 2009. It causes serious economic damage to legume crops (soybeans, bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, velvet bean etc.) and is a nuisance to home owners. One natural egg parasi...

  14. Review of the New World Tigava lace bug complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae), with the description of two new genera and two new species and a key to genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lace bug (Tingidae) genera belonging to the New World Tigava complex are reviewed. The two new genera and new species Mexicotingis brailovskyi, from Mexico, and Paraceratotingis convergens, from Venezuela, are described. Diagnoses, descriptions, and digital color photographs of the new taxa, d...

  15. Multiple model mimicry and feeding behavior of the spider web-inhabiting damsel bug, Arachnocoris berytoides Uhler (Hemiptera: Nabidae), from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus, Arachnocoris Scott groups thirteen species of specialized spider web-inhabiting damsel bugs (Nabidae) distributed from Panama to Brazil and the West Indies. We present new information on the web behavior of A. berytoides Uhler from Puerto Rico. Three different life stages were observed on the spider webs, suggesting this species likely depends on...

  16. Sequential testing scheme for the assessment of the side-effects of plant protection products on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veire, Van de M.; Sterk, G.; Staaij, van der M.; Ramakers, P.M.J.; Tirry, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a number of test methods, to beused in a sequential scheme, for testing the side-effects ofplant protection products on anthocorid bugs. Orius laevigatuswas used as test species. A `worst case' laboratory method wasdeveloped for evaluating the effect on mortality of the

  17. Populations of Rice Grain Bug, Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis, (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Weed-free Paddy Field, Weedy Paddy Field and Paddy Dykes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Nasruddin, Andi; Agus, Nurariaty

    2017-07-01

    Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddy field compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.

  18. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid. No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray.

  19. Induction and stability of oxidative stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes EGD (Bug600) and F1057 in sublethal concentrations of H2O2 and NaOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food processing and food handling environments may contain residual levels of sanitizers or cleaners which may trigger oxidative stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine the induction and stability of oxidative stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes EGD (Bug...

  20. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  1. Effects of morning and night application of Beauveria bassiana strains NI8 and GHA against the tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), (Hemiptera: Miridae) an important pest of cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum L.) found in the Mississippi Delta is naturally attacked by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vueillemin. In this study, two isolates o...

  2. Field evaluation on the lethal effect of Beauveria bassiana strains NI8 and GHA against the tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana Delta native strain NI8 have shown great potential for the management of tarnished plant bug adults when compared with the commercial strain GHA. Population of L lineolaris in cages was reduced by 50% 10 days after application of the NI8 native strain a...

  3. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Until recently nothing indicated an unequal sex ratio in the widespread Greenland seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). However, recently populations more or less devoid of males were discovered in high arctic Northeast Greenland. This initiated an inspection of th...

  4. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): Sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 7 (2007), s. 1359-1367 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:Natioanl Research Foundation(ZA) 2053396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Water bugs Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  5. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  6. Commercial-biological characteristics of tulka (Clupeonella cultriventris Nordmann, 1840 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To give biological assessment of the commercial stock of tulka Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann, 1840 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in the conditions of the reduced Dnieper flow. Methodology. Analysis of the biological state of the tulka stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system was performed based on the data on the dynamics of its age structure, linear-weight growth and condition factor. Primary materials were obtained from scientific and commercial catches done during the current century. Field and laboratory processing of the ichthyological materials were performed according to generally accepted methods. Findings. Current commercial fishery situation in the Dnieper-Bug estuary system is characterized by reduced intensity of tulka harvest. Currently, major fish harvest is concentrated in the Mykolaiv fishing ground. As a result of continuous underfishing, a gradual growth of the mean weighed age of the tulka stock is observed with the accumulation of maximum groups of the right wing of the age series. At the beginning of the study (2001-2004, when age group was represented by three groups, the nucleus of the population was formed by age-1 and age-2 fish – 95.7%. However, last years, due to an increase in the number of age-4 fish, a reduction in the percentage of modal groups (age-1 and ahe-2 fish to 76.7% was observed. At the same time, the share of age-3 and age-4 fish gradually increased from 15.8% in 2013 to 23.2% in 2017. Against the background of a relatively instable age structure, the linear growth and body weight growth rates did not change significantly. The highest variability of linear parameters was observed in age-1 fish. With a mean body length of 40.55±0.53 mm (lim=36.2-45.2 mm, deviations from the modal value (Cv were 5.10%. With an increase in the age, the linear growth rate decreased and no significant variability was observed. The highest variability of body weight was typical for age-1 and age-2 fish (Cv

  7. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  8. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  10. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  13. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  14. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  15. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  16. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  17. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  18. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  19. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  20. RNAi analysis of Deformed, proboscipedia and Sex combs reduced in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus: novel roles for Hox genes in the hemipteran head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C L; Kaufman, T C

    2000-09-01

    Insects have evolved a large variety of specialized feeding strategies, with a corresponding variability in mouthpart morphology. We have, however, little understanding of the developmental mechanisms that underlie this diversity. Until recently it was difficult to perform any analysis of gene function outside of the genetic model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. In this paper, we report the use of dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to dissect gene function in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has specialized suctorial mouthparts. The Hox genes Deformed (Dfd), proboscipedia (pb) and Sex combs reduced (Scr) have previously been shown to be expressed in the gnathal appendages of this species. Strikingly, the milkweed bug was found to have an unusual expression pattern of pb. Here, by analyzing single and combination RNAi depletions, we find that Dfd, pb and Scr are used in the milkweed bug to specify the identity of the mouthparts. The exact roles of the genes, however, are different from what is known in the two genetic model insects. The maxillary appendages in the bug are determined by the activities of the genes Dfd and Scr, rather than Dfd and pb as in the fly and beetle. The mandibular appendages are specified by Dfd, but their unique morphology in Oncopeltus suggests that Dfd's target genes are different. As in flies and beetles, the labium is specified by the combined activities of pb and Scr, but again, the function of pb appears to be different. Additionally, the regulatory control of pb by the other two genes seems to be different in the bug than in either of the other species. These novelties in Hox function, expression pattern and regulatory relationships may have been important for the evolution of the unique Hemipteran head.