Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A
Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs.
Full Text Available The aims of our study were to determinate the prevalence of helicobacter in a population of Slovenian dogs, to characterize the intensity of infection and to find out if the epidemiological parameters i. e. age, feeding regimen, gender, breed, location and indoor/outdoor living conditions have any influence on infection and the intensity of infection. A total of 185 randomly chosen dogs from all parts of Slovenia, at ages from 9 days to 15 years, of both genders and 44 different breeds, without any gastrointestinal disorders, were included in our study. Helicobacter were detected in stomachs of 92.4% of dogs. We determined a mild infection in 17.3% of dogs, a moderate infection in 48.1%, and a strong infection in 27% of dogs. Studying epidemiological parameters and their effects on infection we concluded that age and feeding regimen affect the infection and the intensity of infection, whereas gender, breed, location and indoor/ outdoor living conditions do not.
Jacqueline Ribeiro de Castro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Castro J.R., Silva C.B., Souza M.A., Salaberry S.R.S., Guimarães E.C., Mundim A.V. & Lima-Ribeiro A.M.C. [Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis.] Altera- ções hematológicas em cães naturalmente infectados por Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus e Brucella canis. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:49-54, 2014. Laboratório de Doenças Infectocontagiosas, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Ceará s/n, Bloco 2D, Sala 33, Campus Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The investigations of leptospirosis and brucellosis canine act as sanitary control in public health and zoonoses because they were established by close contact between dog and human. The aim was to determine the main hematological reagents in asymptomatic dogs against Leptospira spp. Brucella abortus and Brucella canis naturally infected, living in urban areas in the city of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. We examined 140 blood samples from clinically healthy dogs, males and females and different ages. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, with a collection of twelve serovars, whereas, brucellosis was identified through the tests of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID for B. canis and buffered acidified antigen (TAA confirmed 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME for B. abortus. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the calculation of simple percentages, mean and standard deviation. He applied and short sample t test for two independent samples to assess whether there were significant differences (p<0.05 between hematological parameters obtained. Dogs evaluated, 15% (21/140 and 2.85% (4/140 were reactive to Leptospira spp. and B. abortus, respectively. There was no sample reagent against B. canis. It was concluded that although no specific thrombocytopenia may be a significant finding in dogs
Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Adler, Kerstin; Hellmann, Klaus; Thurieau, Heloise; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J
Three controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new formulation containing emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® suspension for dogs) against naturally acquired parasite infections in dogs. In two studies dogs positive for gastrointestinal nematodes and/or Isospora spp. were treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (at least 0.45 mg emodepside plus 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight) or a reference product containing either milbemycin oxime plus praziquantel (Milbemax®) or sulfadimethoxine (Kokzidiol SD®) at recommended dose rates. The third study investigated efficacy against prepatent natural Isospora spp. infections in comparison to an untreated control group by enrolling Isospora- negative dogs that were at risk to develop a patent infection during the study.No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in any of the 403 dogs enrolled in the three studies including 234 dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension. In dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against nematode infection faecal egg counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.7 %). Similarly, in the dogs that had been treated against patent Isospora spp. infection, faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.0 %). In both studies, statistical analysis demonstrated non-inferiority and even superiority to the reference products (p ≤ 0.009). Dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension during suspected prepatent Isospora spp. infection had 98.7 % lower faecal oocyst counts after treatment compared to untreated dogs (p toltrazuril suspension is safe and highly efficacious against nematodes and Isospora spp. under field conditions.
Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura
Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E
Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ≤0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present clinical and neurological signs, laboratory abnormalities, serologic and/or molecular findings in three dogs from the region of Brno in the Czech Republic. All dogs were naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The evidence of borrelial infection was proved by serial blood sampling for IgM and IgG anti-borrelial antibodies or plasma PCR. The dogs manifested corresponding clinical signs and one or more of the following criteria were fulfilled: (1 4-fold or greater increase or decrease in B. burgdorferi s. l. IgM or IgG antibodies serial titres in acute and convalescent stage of infection, (2 a shift from positive IgM to IgG antibodies titres, (3 decrease of IgM with concurrent increase of IgG antibodies in serial titres, (4 detection of borrelial DNA by PCR. Other possible tick-borne infections were excluded. All three dogs showed neurological signs (two of them meningoencephalomyelitis, one seizure connected with progressive renal disease. Their history, clinical signs, diagnostic procedures and treatment are described. Two of the dogs died and only one with meningoencephalomyelitis survived. Our results show that borrelial infection must be taken into consideration, not only in cases with febrile and orthopaedic signs but also in many other clinical syndromes.
Full Text Available In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp. and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didn't detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities of A. phagocytophilum, the high tick infestation rates found and because both opossums and free-ranging dogs can achieve high population densities in the region.
Paz, Gustavo F; Rugani, Jeronimo M N; Marcelino, Andreza P; Gontijo, Célia M F
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction. PCR reactions were performed using primers that amplify a 300-350 bp fragment of the Leishmania ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The ITS1 amplified products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP using Hae III restriction endonuclease. To confirm the Leishmania species detected by PCR, each purified sample was sequenced in duplicate. Of the 96 serum samples submitted to serological assays, 8 (8.3%) tested positive for Leishmania by IFAT, 4 (4.1%) by ELISA, 2 (2.1%) by rK39 RDT and 7 (7.3%) by DPP. Four of these infected dogs (50%) were found to be infected only by Leishmania braziliensis or Leishmania amazonensis, and their serum samples tested positive by IFAT and DPP. These findings demonstrate for the first time that cross-reactivity of L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis infection in dogs can be found using the DPP serum test. This is the first record of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis confirmed by a specific molecular marker in dogs (Canis familiaris) from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B
This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.
Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S
Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.
N. R. Magalhães
Full Text Available The external otitis is defined as an inflammation of the dog external ear canal and it is considered a common disease in dogs. It is a disease of multifactorial etiology, where one of the main microrganisms associated to the illness is the Malassezia ssp. Therefore, this work aimed to determine the frequency of Malassezia spp. by auricular cytology in dogs that present clinical signs of external otitis. Were used 23 dogs attended in a veterinary clinic located in Sinop-MT. The material was collected using a dry swab, where each extremity was inserted in one of the auditory canal (right and left, which was rotated, removed from the ear and rolled on the glass slide. First the glass slide was microscopically observed (objective 4X, for viewing mites, and then, the sample was fixed by heat and stained with Panoptic. Once stained, the glass slide was examined (objective 40X and 100X. Among the 23 dogs evaluated, 60.9% were positive for Malassezia spp., 8.7% were positive for the Otodectes cynotis mite, and also 30,4% of the animals showed mixed infection with Malassezia ssp. and bacteria. With this study, it can be concluded that Malassezia ssp. was found more frequently in at the auditory canal of dogs with that presents external otitis, associated or acting alone, indicating the importance of this yeast in cases of otitis.
Jankowski, M; Spużak, J; Kubiak, K; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Biernat, M
The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the prevalence of gastric Helicobacter in the saliva of dogs with gastritis. The study was carried out on 30 dogs of different breeds, genders and ages, which were diagnosed with gastritis. The nested-PCR method was used to detect Helicobacter spp. in saliva. Helicobacter bacteria were found in the saliva samples of 23 (76.6%) dogs. Helicobacter heilmannii was the most commonly detected species of gastric Helicobacter spp. in canine saliva, and was found in 22 (73.3%) cases. The results indicate that gastric Helicobacter spp. occurs relatively frequently in dogs with gastritis. Moreover, the saliva of dogs with gastritis may be a source of Helicobacter spp. infection for humans and other animals. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding as the PCR method does not distinguish active from inactive infections.
Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B
This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.
Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; Mircean, V.; Dumitrache, M.O.; D’Amico, G.; Győrke, A.; Pantchev, N.; Annoscia, G.; Albrechtová, K.; Otranto, D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.
Roč. 114, č. 3 (2015), s. 975-982 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dogs * Dirofilaria * Acanthocheilonema * Romania * prevalence * distribution * diagnosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015
Orlando Augusto Melo JR
,031 stained thin capillary blood smears made from an ear prick of 2,031 dogs were microscopically examined for the presence of hemoparasites. The diagnosis was based on the direct demonstration of the etiologic agents in the erythrocytes. 30 dogs (1.47% had been considered infected with Babesia spp., confirming the presence of this parasite in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, where the climate is favorable to the development of the natural vector.
KEY WORDS: Babesia spp., dog, hemoparasite, occurance
Starkey, L.A.; Barrett, A.W.; Beall, M.J.; Chandrashekar, R.; Thatcher, B.; Tyrrell, P.; Little, S.E.
Background Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common Ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the United States, but little is known about how long E.?ewingii infection persists in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the persistence of natural infection with E.?ewingii in dogs. Animals Four Class A Beagles; no previous exposure to ticks or tick?borne infectious agents. Methods Dogs were exposed to ticks by weekly walks through tick habitat in north central Okl...
Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A
Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano
Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.
Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.
Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G
Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.
Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Mareze, Marcelle; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Galhardo, Juliana Arena; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico
Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in companion and stray dogs in Kerman, Iran. Faecal samples were randomly collected from 548 dogs (450 companion and 98 stray. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated using the formalin ether sedimentation method according to the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 2% (11/548 of samples. Faeces were classified according to the consistency as diarrhoeic (56/548 and non-diarrhoeic (492/548. Diarrhoea was recorded in 4 of the positive samples (7.14%. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was significantly higher in diarrhoeic dogs (7.14% compared to the non-diarrhoeic dogs (1.4% (p0.05. This study confirmed that dogs have a potential role in human cryptosporidiosis and faecal examination of dogs with persistent diarrhoea should be performed on a routine basis.
Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important metazoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and has a heteroxenic life cycle involving invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Transmission occurs during the blood meal of infected phlebotomine sand flies in wild species, domestic animals, and humans. The dog is a reservoir for the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL, whereas in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, dogs are erratic hosts that are accidentally infected, as in humans. Dogs are considered an important indicator of the parasite and its vectors in the environment, thus highlighting the importance of diagnosis in these animals. This study aimed to assess the seroepidemiology of Leishmania spp. in dogs in the municipality of Telêmaco Borba that were part of a castration campaign. Blood samples from 191 dogs were collected, and their owners were surveyed on various epidemiological variables. Serological analysis was performed using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and rapid immunochromatography (DPP®. Screening by IIF identified 13 (6.81% positive animals, none of which were positive for the DPP® test, which is specific for VL. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire responses indicated a significant association between seropositivity and the presence of stacked or composting leaves in the backyard (p = 0.0498, forest areas (squares, woods, parks near the residence (p = 0.0015, and poorly healing ulcerated or nodular epidermal lesions in the dog (p = 0.0138. This study revealed the presence of anti-Leishmania spp. IgG antibodies in dogs residing in Telêmaco Borba, suggesting the presence of the parasite and vector in the environment. In addition, the existence of stacked or composting leaves in the backyard, forest areas near the residence, and epidermal lesions in dogs are factors associated with Leishmania spp. infection in pet dogs.
Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Daminet, Sylvie; Kachani, Malika; Leutenegger, Christian M; Duchateau, Luc; El Amri, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Azrib, Rahma; Sahibi, Hamid
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen of increased interest worldwide which has been detected in northern Africa. Anaplasma platys is also present in this region and could possibly have a zoonotic potential. However, only one recent article reports on the human esposure to A. phagocytophilum in Morocco and no data are available on canine exposure to both bacteria. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess both canine and human exposure to Anaplasma spp. in Morocco. A total of 425 dogs (95 urban, 160 rural and 175 working dogs) and 11 dog owners were sampled from four cities of Morocco. Canine blood samples were screened for Anaplasma spp. antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for A. phagocytophilum and A. platys DNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the msp2 gene. Human sera were tested for specific A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kit. Anaplasma spp. antibodies and A. platys DNA were detected in 21.9 and 7.5% of the dogs, respectively. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not amplified. Anaplasma platys DNA was significantly more frequently amplified for working dogs. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies or A. platys DNA detection were observed between sexes, age classes or in relation to exposure to ticks. A total of 348 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks were removed from 35 urban and working dogs. The majority of dog owners (7/10) were seroreactive to A. phagoyctophilum IgG (one sample was excluded because of hemolysis). This study demonstrates the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. exposure and A. platys infection in dogs, and A. phagocytophilum exposure in humans in Morocco.
Cecilia G. Rodrigues
Full Text Available To improve the understanding of implications of Campylobacter spp. infections in pets and children of different environments were analysed 160 faecal samples from children and 120 from pets (103 dogs and 17 cats. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 6.87% of the children and in 18.3% of the dogs and cats. From 33 stool samples positive for Campylobacter spp., 57.6% were identified as C. jejuni, and 33.4% were identified as C. coli. More than 50% of the isolates in pets were resistant to ceftiofur, sulphazotrim, norfloxacin and tetracycline. In humans, most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, erythromycin and norfloxacin. From 19 isolates of C. jejuni, 11 isolates from children and 5 from dogs contained two to four of the virulence genes flaA, pldA, cadF or ciaB. We found an association between the presence of virulence genes and diarrhoea. Furthermore, an association was observed between the presence of Campylobacter spp. and diarrhoea in dewormed pets with blood picture suggestive of bacterial infection, and the therapeutic use of antibiotics was associated with more positive detection of Campylobacter spp. in the faeces of pets. Our data indicate that virulent strains of Campylobacter spp. can be risk factor to diarrhoea in animals, and that high resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in pets.
Starkey, L A; Barrett, A W; Beall, M J; Chandrashekar, R; Thatcher, B; Tyrrell, P; Little, S E
Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common Ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the United States, but little is known about how long E. ewingii infection persists in dogs. To evaluate the persistence of natural infection with E. ewingii in dogs. Four Class A Beagles; no previous exposure to ticks or tick-borne infectious agents. Dogs were exposed to ticks by weekly walks through tick habitat in north central Oklahoma; dogs positive for infection with Ehrlichia spp. by sequence-confirmed PCR and peptide-specific serology were evaluated for 733 days (D). Whole blood was collected once weekly for PCR, and serum was collected once monthly for detection of antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (peptide p16), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (indirect fluorescence antibody [IFA] and variable-length PCR target [VLPT]), and E. ewingii (peptide p28). All dogs (4/4) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by seroconversion on IFA to E. chaffeensis (4/4); PCR detection of E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4) DNA using both nested and real-time assays; and presence of specific antibodies to E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4). Infection with E. chaffeensis was not detected after D55. Intermittent E. ewingii rickettsemia persisted in 3 of 4 dogs for as long as 733 days. Our data demonstrate that dogs infected with E. ewingii from tick feeding are capable of maintaining infection with this pathogen long-term, and may serve as a reservoir host for the maintenance of E. ewingii in nature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Rochelle Haidee D. Ybanez
Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. infection using peripheral blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Inclusion criteria included a history or presence of tick infestation, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Clinical signs were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed between PCR positivity and clinical signs and hematological results. Results: A total of 10 and 18 dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp., respectively. One animal was PCR positive for both pathogens, which is the first report of coinfection in the country. The most common clinical signs observed include inappetence (89%, lethargy (80%, thrombocytopenia (85%, and anemia (74%. Analyses revealed that inappetence (p=0.044 and weight loss (p=0.028 were found statistically significant with Ehrlichia/Anaplasma infection. Basophil (p=0.001 and eosinophil counts (p=0.000 were also found significantly different between Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-positive and -negative dogs. On the other hand, differential monocyte count (p=0.009 was found significantly different between Babesia spp.-positive and -negative dogs. Conclusion: The present study showed low infection rates of canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and babesiosis and provided additional evidence for the presence of the pathogens in the area.
Mohammad Hasan Kohansal
Full Text Available Aim: Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are important but neglected zoonotic helminths of dogs. Dogs as the most relevant definitive hosts harbor several species of Taenia and Echinococcus simultaneously in their gastrointestinal lumen which are morphologically indistinguishable. In this study, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method to identify Taeniid infections which seem to be highly distributed in the study region. Materials and Methods: A total of 450 dog fecal samples were collected from eight different areas of Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, and examined using a flotation method followed by multiplex PCR for detection and identification of parasites' eggs. Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 out of 450 fecal samples (19.1% by microscopic examination. Taeniid eggs were observed in 5.6% of samples, containing 0.45%, 3.8%, and 1.3% Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia spp., and mix infection of both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis was absent in the samples. Conclusion: A relatively low rate of E. granulosus (1.8% was observed in this study. However, risks of this parasite should not be overlooked, and control programs need to be extended for this species and other Taeniid spp. In particular, dogs are recommended to be dewormed more frequently.
Moré, G; Maksimov, A; Conraths, F J; Schares, G
More than 200 Sarcocystis spp. have been named and most of them appear to be involved in a particular predator-prey cycle. Among canids, the European fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are widely distributed in Europe and probably play an important role as definitive hosts in the epidemiology of Sarcocystis spp. infections. A total of 50 small intestines from foxes and 38 from raccoon dogs were sampled in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Mucosal scrapings were collected and analyzed by sugar flotation and when oocysts or sporocysts were detected, an overnight sedimentation was performed and DNA extracted with a commercial kit. A PCR was conducted using primers targeting a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (with a size of approximately 850 bp) and the amplicons were purified and sequenced. Samples with an inconclusive sequencing were cloned into plasmids and ≥ 3 plasmids from each amplicon were sequenced. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were detected in 38% (19/50) of fox and 52.6% (20/38) of raccoon dog samples. Sequencing analysis of amplicons from oocyst DNA revealed mixed infections in 9 fox and 5 raccoon dog samples. In the fox samples, the most often identified Sarcocystis spp. were S. tenella or S. capracanis (10.0%); S. miescheriana (8.0%) and S. gracilis (8.0%) followed by Sarcocystis spp., which use birds as intermediate hosts (6.0%), and S. capreolicanis (4.0%). In the raccoon dog samples, sequences with a ≥99% identity with the following species were detected: S. miescheriana (18.4%), S. gracilis (13.1%), Sarcocystis spp. using birds as IH (10.5%), S. tenella or S.capracanis (2.6%) and S. capreolicanis (2.6%). The estimated prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infections determined using mucosal scrapings was higher than in related studies performed by analyzing faecal samples. The methodology of 18S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing is suitable to identify mixed infections with Sarcocystis spp. and
Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G
In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.
Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin
Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.
Xu, Hailing; Jin, Yue; Wu, Wenxian; Li, Pei; Wang, Lin; Li, Na; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Controversies exist on the potential role of companion animals in the transmission of enteric pathogens in humans. This study was conducted to examine the genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis in companion animals in Shanghai, China, and to assess their zoonotic potential. Fecal specimens from 485 dogs and 160 cats were examined for the occurrence and genotype distribution of the three pathogens by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to determine the species and genotypes. The χ(2) test was used to compare differences in infection rates between living conditions or age groups. Cryptosporidium spp., E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis were found in 39 (8.0 %), 29 (6.0 %) and 127 (26.2 %) of dogs, and 6 (3.8 %), 9 (5.6 %) and 21 (13.1 %) of cats, respectively. Infection rates of the pathogens in dogs from pet shops and a clinic were higher than those in household dogs, and higher in cats from one animal shelter than from pet shops. No significant differences in infection rates were detected among age groups. Cryptosporidium canis and C. felis were the only Cryptosporidium species found in dogs and cats, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype PtEb IX was the dominant genotype in dogs, whereas Type IV and D were the most common ones in cats. Multi-locus sequence typing at the glutamate dehydrogenase, β-giardin, and triosephosphate isomerase loci revealed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A (n = 23), B (n = 1), C (n = 26), and D (n = 58) in dogs (only A in household dogs) and assemblages A (n = 2), B (n = 6), C (n = 2), D (n = 1), and F (n = 7) in cats. Co-infection was detected in 24 dogs and 5 cats, especially those living in crowded conditions. Living condition is a major risk factor affecting the occurrence of enteric protists in companion animals in China, and although dogs and cats can be potential sources of human infections, the different distribution of
Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah
Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.
Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F
Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.
Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E
Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.
Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia
Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.
Masic, Aleksandar; Liu, Rui; Simkus, Kristen; Wilson, Jeff; Baker, John; Sanchez, Pablo; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory C; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T
Separation anxiety and noise aversion are common behavioral problems in dogs. They elicit fear responses such as cowering, seeking out the owner, and attempting to escape. This can result in property damage, injury to the dog, and disruption of the owner-pet bond, possibly leading to pet abandonment or euthanasia. A novel botanical anxiolytic product was evaluated for safety in dogs as the target animal species. Its intended use is for the treatment and prevention of anxiety and noise aversion in dogs. It contains a defined mixture of Souroubea spp. vine and Platanus spp. bark, delivering the active principle, betulinic acid, at a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg body weight (BW). In the current target animal safety study, 16 healthy male beagle dogs were administered either a placebo or the newly formulated botanical tablets at 0.5×, 2.5×, or 5× the recommended dose (1 mg/kg BW) over 28 d. The dogs were monitored for occurrence of any systemic or local adverse events. In the investigation presented here, there were no clinically significant adverse effects following treatment, as determined by clinical observations, physical examinations, BW, hematology, clinical biochemistry, and urinalysis. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the concentration of betulinic acid in serum was below 0.020 μg/mL in treated animals. Under the conditions of these studies, the formulated blend of S. sympetala and P. occidentalis, when administered up to 5× the intended dose for 28 consecutive d, showed no adverse effects on the health of dogs.
Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro
in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....... transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs...
Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.
Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777
Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt
Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott's-Test), molecular biological (PCR) as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek(®)-ELISA) methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries. © D. Hamel et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.
Vargas-Duarte, Jimmy J; López-Páez, Myriam C; Escovar-Castro, Jesús E; Fernández-Manrique, José
Evaluating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic test performance in Colombia and adapting the Western blot test in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Sera were obtained from 10 experimentally L. Infantum-infected dogs, 5 naturally infected dogs, 16 healthy dogs, 26 Babesia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Viannia) spp infected dogs, 40 dogs from non-endemic areas and 150 from endemic areas. Sera were tested for L. infantum infection using immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT), ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests. Positives results were obtained for 73 % of known infected dogs by the IFAT test and false positives were obtained for 2.5 % of non-infected dogs using WB. ELISA was not efficient for diagnosis. 24 antigenic fractions were recognised in tested sera using WB; however, 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 and 123 kDa bands were recognised in sera from dogs from non-endemic areas, healthy dogs and Trypanosoma cruzi, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis infected dogs. The 13 kDa fraction proved potentially useful for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis. The separate use of parasitological and serological test could lead to misdiagnosis of Leishmania infection; using both kinds of technique simultaneously is thus highly recommended.
Alexandre Le Roux
Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.
Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit
In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study
Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Shabat Simon, Maytal; Brenner, Ori; Gaier, Sarit; Rojas, Alicia; Yasur-Landau, Daniel
Leishmania major is a main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans in an area that stretches from India through Central Asia, the Middle East, to North and West Africa. In Israel, it is a common infection of humans with rodents as the reservoir hosts and Phlebotomus papatasi as its sand fly vector. A 6 months old spayed female mixed breed dog was referred to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a large ulcerative dermal lesion on the muzzle, and lesions in the foot pads and left hind leg. Histopathology of a skin biopsy found chronic lymphohistiocytic dermatitis with the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the muzzle. Physical examination indicated that the dog was overall in a good clinical condition and the main findings were the skin lesions and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile were within reference ranges. Serology by ELISA was positive for Leishmania spp. and PCR of the prescapular lymph node was positive by an ITS1 region PCR-high resolution melt analysis. However, the melt curve and subsequent DNA sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. major and not L. infantum, which is the main causative agent of canine leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean region. DNA was extracted from the paraffin embedded muzzle biopsy and PCR with sequencing also indicated L. major. The dog's young age and the absence of hyperglobulinemia and anemia were not typical of L. infantum infection. The dog was treated with allopurinol and the skin lesions improved and later disappeared when the dog was re-evaluated. This is the first molecularly-confirmed case of L. major infection in a dog. Two previous reports of L. major in dogs originated from Saudi-Arabia and Egypt in 1985 and 1987 were confirmed by enzymatic biochemical techniques. Serology for L. infantum was positive probably due to the well documented serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania spp. Although dogs and wild carnivores are
Full Text Available Abstract Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT for Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Neospora caninum, and a questionnaire was answered by the respective keeper. A total of 8/26 dogs (30.7% seroreactive to T. gondii, 3/26 (11.5% to N. caninum and 2/26 (7.7% to both were identified. All the samples were seronegative for T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. Pathogen seroreactivity was not associated with the daily human movements or other epidemiological variables investigated (p > 0.05. In conclusion, the low seroprevalence for T. gondii and N. caninum indicated low environmental and food risk for animal infection and the seronegativity for Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi may reflect the absence of these pathogens in urban areas of Curitiba. Moreover, neighborhood dogs may be used as environmental sentinels for the presence of protozoan pathogens and their vectors.
Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Srinivas, Pasham; Rao, Kancharapu Ramachandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Shivaji, Sisinthy
Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Indian tiger, Indian leopard, Indian wild dog, Indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from Hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. Hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 Asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 Indian tigers, 2 out of 4 Indian leopards and 2 out of 2 Indian wild dogs and, 2 out of 4 domestic cats and 2 out of 3 domestic dog samples by PCR. Sequencing of PCR amplicon and BLAST analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and domestic cat was Hepatozoon felis (98-99% similarity) and in the Indian wild and domestic dog the phylogenetic neighbour was Hepatozoon canis (97-100% similarity). Presence of H. felis and H. canis in both domestic and wild animals suggested that they are not host specific and the same parasite causes infection in domestic and wild felids and canids in India and from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of H. felis infection in Asiatic lions, Indian tigers, Indian leopards and H. canis in Indian wild dog. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immuno-compromised animals and could thus represent a threat to endangered Indian wild felids and canids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In humans, one of the major factors associated with infective endocarditis (IE is the concurrent presence of periodontal disease (PD. However, in veterinary medicine, the relevance of PD in the evolution of dogs' endocarditis remains poorly understood. In order to try to establish a correlation between mouth-associated Enterococcus spp. and infective endocarditis in dogs, the present study evaluated the presence and diversity of enterococci in the gum and heart of dogs with PD. Samples were collected during necropsy of 32 dogs with PD and visually diagnosed with IE, which died of natural causes or euthanasia. Enterococci were isolated, identified and further characterized by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE; susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and pathogenicity potential was also evaluated. In seven sampled animals, PFGE-patterns, resistance and virulence profiles were found to be identical between mouth and heart enterococci obtained from the same dog, allowing the establishment of an association between enterococcal periodontal disease and endocarditis in dogs. These findings represent a crucial step towards understanding the pathogenesis of PD-driven IE, and constitute a major progress in veterinary medicine.
Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel
Background: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are well-adapted hosts for Trichinella spp. The aims of this study were to estimate Trichinella infection prevalence and biomass and to investigate which Trichinella species circulated in these indicator hosts in Estonia. Methods: From material collected...... for evaluating the effectiveness of oral vaccination program for rabies eradication in wildlife, samples from 113 raccoon dogs and 87 red foxes were included in this study. From each animal, 20 g of masseter muscle tissue was tested for the presence of Trichinella larvae using an artificial digestion method.......0% in red foxes, which were higher than previous estimates. In addition, the larval burden had also increased in both hosts. We estimated that in 2011-2012, the Trichinella spp. biomass was more than 15 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost two times higher in red foxes than in 1992-2000 (based on mean...
Full Text Available The family Taeniidae is of great importance in the medical and veterinary fields, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Identification of eggs of different Taenia spp. in the final host by morphological examination is difficult owing to their similarity. Therefore, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a mitochondrial gene was applied to identify morphologically indistinguishable eggs. Fecal samples from 100 domestic dogs, from the Mazandaran province in Iran, were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR. Taeniid eggs were observed in 24 % samples, of which 12 %, 10 %, and 2 % were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia spp., and both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. E. multilocularis was absent in these samples. The prevalence of E. granulosus in the examined domestic dogs as definitive hosts in north of Iran was high (14 %. Therefore, people living in this region of Iran are in danger of acquiring hydatid cyst, which is a serious public health problem.
Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M
The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J
A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures.
Gil, Horacio; Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; de Mingo, Marta Hernández; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Basterra, José A; Aramburu-Aguirre, Juan; López-Molina, Nuria; Carmena, David
Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016. G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by direct fluorescence microscopy and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of these parasites. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 33% (63/194) and 4.1% (8/194) of dogs, and 9.2% (6/65) and 4.6% (3/65) of cats, respectively. G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium co-infections were observed in 1.5% (3/194) of dogs, but not in cats. No significant differences in infection rates could be demonstrated among dogs or cats according to their sex, age group, status, or geographical origin. Multi-locus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of G. duodenalis allowed the characterization of 19 canine isolates that were unambiguously assigned to sub-assemblages AII (n=7), BIII (n=1), and BIV (n=7), and assemblages C (n=3) and D (n=1). Two feline isolates were genotyped as assemblages A and F, respectively. No mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections were identified. C. canis (n=5) and C. hominis (n=1) were the Cryptosporidium species found in dogs, whereas C. felis (n=1) was identified in cats. The finding of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII, BIII, and BIV circulating in dogs (but not cats) may have zoonotic potential, although most of the AII and BIV isolates sub-genotyped corresponded to genetic variants not
Awadallah, Maysa A I; Salem, Lobna M A
This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pcanis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum
Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs is not associated with changes in epithelial proliferation or E-cadherin expression in gastric mucosaInfecção por Helicobacter spp. em cães não está associada com alterações na proliferação epitelial ou na expressão de E-caderina na mucosa gástrica
Ana Paula Bracarense
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis and can induce gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma in humans. The aim of this study was to determine in dogs whether there is an association between Helicobacter spp. infection in gastric mucosa, histological lesions, including epithelial cell proliferation and cell adhesion. Gastric biopsies of 12 dogs with gastric disturbances and 25 healthy dogs were evaluated. Warthin-Starry staining (WS and PCR assay were performed to confirm the presence of helicobacteria. The Helicobacter species were determined by PCR assay with speciesspecific primers for H. heilmannii, H. bizzozeronii or H. salomonis, H. felis and H. pylori. Mucosal lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin (HE and epithelial proliferation was determined by AgNOR and PCNA methods. Cell adhesion was evaluated by the expression of E-cadherin by epithelial cells. Helicobacter spp. was confirmed in 75.7% (28/37 and 73.0% (27/37 of the samples by WS and PCR, respectively. H. bizzozeronii was the species most frequently detected (37%; co-infection was observed in six (22% dogs. Histological changes in the lamina propria included mild chronic gastritis, fibrosis, glandular degeneration, and presence of lymphoid aggregates. There was a significant association between H. heilmannii infection and the presence of lymphoid follicles (p Infecção por Helicobacter pylori provoca gastrite e pode induzir adenocarcinoma gástrico e linfoma tipo MALT em seres humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se existe associação entre infecção por Helicobacter spp. na mucosa gástrica de cães e lesões histológicas, incluindo proliferação epitelial e adesão celular. Foram avaliadas biópsias de 12 cães com distúrbios gástricos e de 25 cães saudáveis. A coloração de Warthin-Starry (WS e o método de PCR foram utilizados para confirmar a presença de helicobactérias. As espécies de Helicobacter foram determinadas por PCR com
Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.
Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida
Carfora, Virginia; Noris, Gloria; Caprioli, Andrea; Iurescia, Manuela; Stravino, Fiorentino; Franco, Alessia
Protothecosis is a disease caused by saprophyte aerobic unicellular algae belonging to the genus Prototheca. In dogs, it mainly occurs as a disseminated form, with initial clinical manifestations often referable to the gastrointestinal tract, followed by typical ocular and neurological signs. So far, Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection has been reported in severe forms of disseminated protothecosis, while in dogs has never been associated with cutaneous forms. In this study, we describe a case of Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection in a dog characterized by nodular and ulcerative dermatitis and with evidence of dissemination. In December 2015, a 5-year-old unneutered male English Setter dog was presented with a 4-month history of footpads ulcerations and multifocal nodular lesions (3-5 cm diameter) on both front limbs. Cytological examination of the aspirated fluid collected from all nodules revealed the presence of sporangic forms compatible with Prototheca spp. organisms. Suspected Prototheca spp. colonies were isolated from the aspirated fluid and identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 by molecular methods. Few days after the visit, the patient developed serious neurological and ocular signs, and the owners elected humane euthanasia. To the authors' knowledge, this case could represent the first report of a disseminated Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection associated with cutaneous lesions in a dog. This study underlines the importance of considering Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection in the differential etiological diagnosis of nodular and ulcerative dermatitis in dogs.
O'Brien, C R; McMillan, E; Harris, O; O'Brien, D P; Lavender, C J; Globan, M; Legione, A R; Fyfe, J A
Localised infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is described in two Kelpies, a Whippet and a Koolie domiciled on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. The diagnosis was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the M. ulcerans-specific insertion sequence (IS2404) in DNA extracted from swabs of ulcerated lesions in all cases. Where available, molecular typing confirmed that three of the dogs were infected with a strain of M. ulcerans that was indistinguishable from a disease-causing strain in people and other animals in Victoria. One dog was still undergoing treatment at the time of writing, but the remaining three dogs were successfully treated with a combination of surgical debridement and medical therapy in one case, and medical therapy alone in the other two. Investigation of the home environs of three of the dogs using real-time PCR revealed low amounts of M. ulcerans DNA in various environmental samples. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection should be included in the differential diagnoses of any ulcerated skin lesions in dogs that live in or visit endemic areas of Victoria and Queensland. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.
Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E
Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael
The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured...... on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...
Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Fujii, Yoko
Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4 °C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status.
The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania species can occur in dogs, but their role as re...
Vivian Suane de Freitas Vieira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Freitas Vieira V.S., Pires, M.S., Saavedra, A.F., Figueiredo, K.G., Scott F.B. & Rodrigues M. de L. de A. Experimental infection of Trichuris vulpis in dogs [Infecção experimental de cães com Trichuris vulpis]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 206-210, 2016. Programa de Pós graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 456, km 7, Campus Seropédica 23987-970, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dog is the definitive host of Trichuris vulpis, gastrointestinal nematode that cause the illness known as trichuriasis that depending on the parasitic burden can cause, anorexy, loss of weight, anemia, dehydration and until evolving the death. With the objective to determine T. vulpis by oral inoculation with maximum 1,500 eggs; dogs had been infected with 500, 1,000 and 1,500 larvae eggs. From sixth week after infection, the egg counting was carried through eggs per gram of feces (EPG of each dog and from 11ª week egg elimination was observed in feces. The first Dog received 500 eggs and did not present eggs in feces; The second dog received 1000 eggs and presented a EPG of 17.150 in 12ª week with oscillations of up to 1,150 in 18ª week. Dog 3 that it received 1,500 eggs presented 50 EPG and reached the maximum of 150 eggs in 28ª week. In this study it can be concluded that the dose of 1.000 and 1.500 eggs of T.vulpis was capable to infect the dogs and that the dose of 1,000 eggs can be indicated to keep the experimental cycle.
Obrenović Sonja; Katić-Radivojević Sofija P.; Stanković B.; Bacić Dragan
The results of an investigation related to Sarcocystis spp. infection of dogs in Serbia are presented in this paper, for the first time after 25 years. In order to investigate the prevalence of sarcocystiosis in dogs, 448 dogs were examined. Considering feeding and living conditions, the dogs were divided in to 5 categories (city dogs - 100, village dogs - 188, dogs from a shelter - 54, military dog farm - 42 and dogs from private kennels - 64). Considering age, they were divided in to four g...
Barrett, Anne W; Little, Susan E
To determine the prevalence of infection with vector-borne agents in a cross-section of dogs from Oklahoma, where canine vector-borne diseases are common, blood samples were evaluated through serology and molecular analysis. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii" were detected in 10.5% (11/105), 74.3% (78/105), 58.1% (61/105), and 55.2% (58/105) of dogs, respectively. Presence of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. DNA was identified in 13.1% (8/61) of shelter dogs but not in any pet dogs (0/44). DNA of "R. amblyommii" was confirmed by sequencing, constituting the first report of this agent in a naturally infected dog. Antigen of Dirofilaria immitis was detected in 10.5% (11/105) and 16.2% (17/105) of samples before and after heat treatment, respectively. In total, 87.6% (92/105) of the dogs had evidence of infection with at least one vector-borne disease agent, confirming high risk of exposure to multiple vector-borne disease agents, several of which are zoonotic.
Viitanen, S J; Lappalainen, A; Rajamäki, M M
Bacterial pneumonia (BP) is an inflammation of the lower airways and lung parenchyma secondary to bacterial infection. The pathogenesis of BP in dogs is complex and the role of canine respiratory viruses has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of viral co-infections in dogs with BP and to assess demographic or clinical variables as well as disease severity associated with viral co-infections. Twenty household dogs with BP caused by opportunistic bacteria and 13 dogs with chronic (>30 days) tracheobronchitis caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica (BBTB). Prospective cross-sectional observational study. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic imaging, and cytologic and microbiologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage or transtracheal wash fluid. Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus, canine herpes virus, canine influenzavirus, canine distemper virus, canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine pneumovirus, as well as B. bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma spp. were analyzed in respiratory samples using PCR assays. CPIV was detected in 7/20 and CRCoV in 1/20 dogs with BP. Respiratory viruses were not detected in dogs with BBTB. There were no significant differences in clinical variables between BP dogs with and without a viral co-infection. Respiratory viruses were found frequently in dogs with BP and may therefore play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of BP. Clinical variables and disease severity did not differ between BP dogs with and without viral co-infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Mohaghegh M.A. PhD,
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitological examination, formalin-ether concentration technique was used. Fecal smears were made from the sediment, stained with iodine and observed by light microscope. Modified Ziehl Neelsen method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Findings: The animal was infected with 10 disease-causing parasites; Taenia spp., Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Acanthocephal spp., Trichuris vulpis, Hook worm, Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Eimeria spp., and Cystoisospora spp. Conclusion: Domestic and stray dog could be an important sources for distribution of zoonoses disease especially parasitic agents.
Bruno L. Travi
Full Text Available Introduction. Although canine cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in several foci of South America, no published information from Colombia is available. Objective. We report on two cases found in the Pacific coast region of this country, which presented as a single scrotal ulcer in one dog, and two ulcers on the external surface of the ear in a second dog. Materials and methods. Parasites were isolated by culture in Senekjies culture medium and identified using monoclonal antibodies. The capacity of these dogs to transmit the parasites to sand fly vectors (Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia youngi was tested by allowing the flies to feed on the lesion borders. Results. Both isolates were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. No infections were detected upon dissection of engorged flies. A single peri-and sub-lesional injection of 1-2 ml of pentavalent antimony in the dog with ear lesions resulted in clinical cure 6 weeks post-treatment. Conclusions. These observations suggest that although dogs are susceptible to L. braziliensis, their reservoir competence could be low. However, if further studies indicate that canines are capable reservoir hosts of L. Viannia spp., the local treatment of lesions could become a feasible approach to diminish the risk of human infection in the peridomestic setting, without sacrificing infected dogs.
Maysa A. I. Awadallah
Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to
Oct 30, 2014 ... determine the prevalence of Babesia canis and the correlation of infection with age, sex, breed, types of management and presence .... Table 3: Breed distribution of Babesia infection in dogs in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT. Breed ... the management style of the dogs and infection with. Babesia. Table 5 ...
Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K
Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was
Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.
Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pdogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, pdogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7.62, p>0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the
Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J
The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike
In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number
Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.
Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Gönenç, Bahadır; Sarımehmetoğlu, Oğuz; Özbakış, Gökben
The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Filaroides sp., Dioctophyme renale, Linguatula serrata, hookworm, Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp. and Ascaridia galli. Significantly, more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the sedimentation method (n=27) as compared to the flotation method (n=10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter
Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott's co...... not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans.......Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott......'s concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were...
López-Pérez, Andrés M; Carreón-Arroyo, Gerardo; Atilano, Daniel; Vigueras-Galván, Ana L; Valdez, Carlos; Toyos, Daniel; Mendizabal, Daniel; López-Islas, Jonathan; Suzán, Gerardo
Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test in 12 (46%) prairie dogs and in two (67%) beavers. The antibody titers for seropositive rodents varied from 1:100 to 1:200, but none of the animals showed clinical signs of disease. We found seven Leptospira spp. serogroups (Autumnalis, Australis, Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Grippotyphosa, and Sejroe) circulating in rodent species in SPRB. We did not find any differences between sex and age concerning Leptospira-positive rodents. Our findings suggest the presence of endemic cycles and potential risks of Leptospira infection in both species from SPRB. Although the impact of this infection on threatened species remains unclear, human activities and environmental stress might facilitate the emergence or reemergence of leptospirosis disease as has been reported elsewhere.
Andreina C. Araujo
Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in the circulating neutrophils of eight naturally infected dogs presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The dogs were aged between four months and three years and showed varied clinical signs and haematological findings. Clinical ...
Epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of infection with Babesia canis in dogs in Gwagwalada metropolis of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria, from November 2013 to January 2014. Blood samples were collected from 101 dogs and examined for the parasite. Data obtained were ...
Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Grimm, Felix; Beatrice, Laura; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Tim; Jordi, Rolf; Dennler, Matthias; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. In Switzerland, distemper in domestic dogs is rarely reported. In recent years, the import of dogs from Eastern Europe to Switzerland has steadily increased. In the present study, we describe a distemper outbreak in 15 rescue dogs that were imported from Hungary to Switzerland by an animal welfare organisation. The data on vaccination and medical history were recorded (14 dogs), and the samples were collected to investigate CDV and vector-borne infections (13 dogs) and canine parvovirus infection (12 dogs). The dogs were monitored for six months. One dog was euthanised directly after import. Thirteen dogs showed clinical signs after arrival, i.e., diarrhoea (57 %), coughing (43 %) and nasal and/or ocular discharge (21 %); radiographic findings that were compatible with bronchopneumonia were present in four dogs. CDV infection was diagnosed in 11 dogs (85 %); 10 dogs (91 %) tested PCR-positive in conjunctival swabs. Vector-borne infections (Babesia spp., Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis) were found in 4 dogs (31 %). Three dogs were hospitalized, and six dogs received ambulatory therapy for up to two months until recovery. None of the dogs developed neurological disease. CDV shedding was detected for a period of up to four months. Because dogs were put under strict quarantine until CDV shedding ceased, CDV did not spread to any other dogs. The CDV isolates showed 99 % sequence identity in the HA gene among each other and belonged to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. The present study highlights the imminent risks of spreading contagious viral and vector-borne infections through the non-selective import of sick dogs and dogs with incomplete vaccination from Eastern Europe. CDV shedding was detected for several months after the cessation of clinical signs, which emphasised the roles of asymptomatic carriers in CDV epidemiology. A long-term follow-up using sensitive PCR and
de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David
The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia without clinical bleeding is a consistent finding in virulent canine babesiosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the platelet index phenotype in Babesia rossi-infected dogs and the association with disease outcome. We hypothesized that an incre......BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia without clinical bleeding is a consistent finding in virulent canine babesiosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the platelet index phenotype in Babesia rossi-infected dogs and the association with disease outcome. We hypothesized...... that an increased proportion of large, activated platelets would be present. METHODS: Ninety-six infected and 15 control dogs were included. Babesia-infected dogs were further divided into survivors and nonsurvivors. Platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet volume distribution width (PDW), plateletcrit...
Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.
Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad
Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pCosta Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Schroeder, Iris; Joachim, Anja; Settje, Terry; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J
Three randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox(®) suspension for dogs) against Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex. Unweaned puppies were experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of I. canis and/or I. ohioensis-complex. In each study, one group was treated during prepatency (2 or 4 days post infection) while dogs in the second group were treated individually after the onset of oocyst excretion of the respective coccidia species. The dogs were treated with the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Daily faecal oocyst counts from both groups were compared to placebotreated control groups to determine efficacy.Dogs treated during prepatent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infection showed significantly lower oocyst counts for up to 12 days compared to the control group. Oocyst counts were reduced by 90.2 - 100 % while the control groups continued to exhibit an adequate infection, except for one study where efficacy against prepatent I. canis infection faded 13 days after treatment. Following treatment of patent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infections, significantly lowered oocyst counts were observed for up to 9 days compared to the control group. Faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 91.5 - 100 %. In all three studies the number of days with diarrhoea was significantly lower when dogs were treated during prepatent Isospora spp. infection compared to the control groups. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the studies. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated that emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is an efficient coccidiocide for dogs.
Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H
Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis.
Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles
Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian
A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karakuş, Mehmet; Aykur, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray; Dağcı, Hande
Acanthamoeba is one of the most common free-living amoebas (FLA) that present in environment. In humans, Acanthamoeba can cause an infection of the eye termed Acanthamoeba keratitis, which mostly occurs in contact lens wearers. In the present study, we aimed to screen the presence of Acanthamoeba DNA in stray dogs using previously collected conjunctival swab samples in a hyper-endemic area for canine leishmaniasis. Totally, 184 dogs were included in the study and 27 of them (14.6%) were found positive for Acanthamoeba according to the 18s rRNA gene sequencing. Two different genotypes (T4 and T5) were identified and T5 was firstly reported in Turkey in the present study. Statistical analysis was performed and no correlation was found between Leishmania and Acanthamoeba positivity (PAcanthamoeba among stray dogs. Further studies are necessary to reveal the infection status and genotypes among dogs and its possible correlation with leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Jae-Ik; Yang, Cheol-Ho; Park, Hee-Myung
This study investigated colonization and association of staphylococci between healthy dogs and their owners. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated staphylococci were determined for 119 dogs and 107 owners. Relatedness of the Staphylococcus isolates in dogs and their owners was investigated using antibiograms, toxin profiles, and genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type, and spa typing. Risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in dogs were also evaluated. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 65 (60.7%) owners and 44 (37.0%) dogs. The following species were isolated, listed in order of decreasing frequency: S. epidermidis, S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. scheiferi subsp. coagulans, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. S. pseudintermedius (65.9%) was the major isolate in dogs while S. epidermidis (81.5%) was the major type in owners. Among the isolates, 71.6% were methicillin resistant (MR) and 95.4% of the isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance regardless of the origin. Only one dog-owner pair shared the same Staphylococcus spp. (S. pseudintermedius); however, the organisms were of different PFGE subtypes and exhibited different antibiotic resistance and toxin profiles while both isolates displayed same sequence type (ST365). While the dog-origin isolate showed spa type t02, the owner-origin isolate was negative to PCRs targeting spa gene sequence. Risk factor analysis showed that the presence of cohabitant animals was correlated with the nasal carriage of MR staphylococci in dogs. The cumulative data indicated that animal- and owner-origin staphylococci have various subtypes with high prevalence of MR; however, the bacteria are not shared between healthy dogs and their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cazarotto, Chrystian J; Balzan, Alexandre; Grosskopf, Rhayana K; Boito, Jhonatan P; Portella, Luiza P; Vogel, Fernanda F; Fávero, Juscivete F; de C Cucco, Diego; Biazus, Angelisa H; Machado, Gustavo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S
Many parasitic diseases are considered asymptomatic, even though some studies have shown that they may cause pathological changes in the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. in horses, and to identify the risk factors for disease. For this, 174 horses were studied, 90 males and 84 females aged between two and 20 years old. Blood samples were collected and stored in tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum, which was subjected to serological tests for T. gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and Neospora spp. using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA results were as follows: Sarcocystis spp. 41.37% (72/174) (CI95%-34.05-49.09); T. gondii 32.18% (56/174) (CI95%-25.42-39.74) and Neospora spp. 48.27% (84/174) (CI95%-40.68.50-55.93). Out of 174 horses, 81 had simple infection, 61 had mixed infections with two or three of these pathogens, and therefore, only 32 horses showed no antibodies to any of these pathogens. No risk factors for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii infection were identified. However, there was a significant (1.22-CI95%-1.02-1.52) relationship between animal age and Neospora spp. infection, since older animals showed higher prevalence. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that T. gondii and Neospora spp. affect horses in Southern Brazil, however all the animals studied were asymptomatic without reproductive, neurological or locomotor problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...
Hematological derangement patterns in Nigerian dogs infected with Trypanosoma brucei : A simple prototype for assessing tolerance to trypanosome infections ... The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) counts, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts and rates of both red blood cell and white blood ...
Song, Daesub; Lee, Chulseung; Kang, Bokyu; Jung, Kwonil; Oh, Taehoon; Kim, Hyekwon; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik
Susceptible dogs were brought into contact with dogs experimentally infected with an avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) that had been isolated from a pet dog with severe respiratory syndrome. All the experimentally infected and contact-exposed dogs showed elevated rectal temperatures, virus shedding, seroconversion, and severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis.
Song, Daesub; Lee, Chulseung; Kang, Bokyu; Jung, Kwonil; Oh, Taehoon; Kim, Hyekwon; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik
Susceptible dogs were brought into contact with dogs experimentally infected with an avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) that had been isolated from a pet dog with severe respiratory syndrome. All the experimentally infected and contact-exposed dogs showed elevated rectal temperatures, virus shedding, seroconversion, and severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis.
Kent, Marc; Boozer, Lindsay; Glass, Eric N; Sanchez, Susan; Platt, Simon R; Freeman, Lisa M
Following decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, a 6-year-old German shepherd dog developed a subcutaneous infection at the surgical site and discospondylitis at the lumbosacral intervertebral disc. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serotype Dublin was recovered from the surgical site. Salmonella of a different serovar was isolated from a sample of the raw meat-based diet that the owner fed the dog.
Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.
Radin, M J; Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S; Morgan, D R; Lee, A; Otto, G; Fox, J
Establishment of infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastritis in nonhuman species is currently only successful in gnotobiotic piglets. This study was designed to determine whether H. pylori will colonize the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic dogs. Gnotobiotic beagle pups were derived by standard methods. Group A (five dogs) was orally challenged with 3 x 10(8) H. pylori at 7 days of age. Group B (two dogs) received only peptone water but was contact-exposed beginning on day 23 postinfection (p.i.). Necropsy was performed on dogs on day 30 p.i. H. pylori colonized the stomach of all dogs (groups A and B). Urease map analysis correlated with the microbiologic findings and indicated that the density of colonization was less than that observed in human tissue. Organisms were also recovered from the pharynx, esophagus, duodenum, and rectum of 1, 2, 2, and 1 dog, respectively. All group A and one group B dog developed serum immunoglobulin G specific for H. pylori by day 30 p.i. Gross lesions were restricted to the stomach and consisted of small (less than 1 mm) lymphoid follicles. Microscopically, there were focal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with follicle formation and mild to moderate infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils in the gastric lamina propria. With the Warthin-Starry silver stain, organisms were seen on the surface of the gastric epithelial cells, beneath the mucus layer. We conclude that H. pylori colonizes the stomachs of gnotobiotic dogs for at least 1 month and the lesions resemble those seen in humans. H. pylori is transmissible by contact from infected to noninfected dogs.
Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa
Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.
Full Text Available A 20 kg German shepherd dog was presented to a French veterinary teaching hospital for seizures and hyperthermia. The dog had returned 1 month previously from a six-month stay in Senegal and sub-Saharan Africa. Biochemistry and haematology showed severe hypoglycaemia (0.12 g/L, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Despite administration of large amounts of glucose (30 mL of 30% glucose IV and 10 mL of 70% sucrose by gavage tube hourly, 26 consecutive blood glucose measurements were below 0.25 g/L (except one. Routine cytological examination of blood smears revealed numerous free extracytoplasmic protozoa consistent with Trypanosoma congolense. PCR confirmed a Trypanosoma congolense forest-type infection. Treatment consisted of six injections of pentamidine at 48-hour intervals. Trypanosomes had disappeared from the blood smears four days following the first injection. Clinical improvement was correlated with the normalization of laboratory values. The infection relapsed twice and the dog was treated again; clinical signs and parasites disappeared and the dog was considered cured; however, 6 years after this incident, serological examination by ELISA T. congolense was positive. The status of this dog (infected or non-infected remains unclear. Hypoglycaemia was the most notable clinical feature in this case. It was spectacular in its severity and in its refractory nature; glucose administration seemed only to feed the trypanosomes, indicating that treatment of hypoglycaemia may in fact have been detrimental.
Jang, Yunho; Bae, Dong hwa; Cho, Jae-Keun; Bahk, Gyung Jin; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Lee, Young Ju
Staphylococci were isolated from dogs in animal hospitals, animal shelters, and the Daegu PET EXPO to investigate the characteristics of circulating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal (MRS) strains in companion animals in Korea. A total of 36/157 isolates were classified as MRS, and subdivided as follows: 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 4 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, 2 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and 29 MRS spp. Among the 36 MRS isolates tested, 100% were resistant to oxacillin and penicillin, and at least 50% were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (69.4%), erythromycin (63.9%), tetracycline (58.3%), cefoxitin (55.6%), clindamycin (50.0%) or pirlimycin (50.0%). Additionally, 34/36 MRS isolates (94.4%) were mecA positive, 15 of which were further classified as SCCmec type V, 6 isolates as type I, 4 isolates as type IIIb, 1 isolate as type IVa, 1 isolate as type IV, with 7 isolates being non-classifiable. The results of multilocus sequence typing and spa typing for the one MRSA strain were ST 72 (1-4-1-8-4-4-3) and spa t148. Our results provide evidence that companion animals like dogs may be MRS carriers, and that continued surveillance of MRS in companion animals is required to prevent increased incidences in humans.
Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar
The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.
Saleh Mohammed Jajere
Full Text Available The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%. Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P<0.05. Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P<0.05. The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%, amoxicillin (87.6%, vancomycin (86.6%, and chloramphenicol (84.5%. However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.
Mochizuki, Masami; Yachi, Akiko; Ohshima, Takahisa; Ohuchi, Atsuo; Ishida, Takuo
Infectious tracheobronchitis (ITB), also known as the kennel cough, is a respiratory syndrome of dogs and usually appears to be contagious among dogs housed in groups. Etiologic agent of ITB is multiple and sometimes complex. In the present study, 68 household dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory infection were examined, and 20 dogs (29.4%) were found to be positive for either of following agents. Bordetella bronchiseptica (B.b.) was most frequently detected from nasal and oropharynx sites of 7 dogs (10.3%). Among the viruses examined, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was detected with the highest frequency (7.4%). Other pathogens included in the order of frequency group 1 canine coronavirus (4.4%), canine adenovirus type 2 (2.9%), group 2 canine respiratory coronavirus (1.5%), and canine distemper virus (1.5%). Only 2 cases showed mixed infections. Neither influenza A virus nor canine bocavirus (minute virus of canines) was found in any dogs examined. These results indicate that both B.b. and CPIV are likely to be the principal etiologic agents of canine ITB in Japan, and they may be considered as the target for prophylaxis by vaccination.
A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.
Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M
An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Zandvliet, M M J M; Teske, E; Piek, C J
A retrospective study was performed at the Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals at Utrecht University amongst 75 dogs diagnosed with a Babesia canis and/or an Ehrlichia canis infection. The majority of the dogs had visited an endemic area (most often the Mediterranean area or the Dutch Antilles), but two dogs became infected with Babesia in the Netherlands. Babesia infections were associated with a stay in an endemic area and an incubation period that are both significantly shorter (less than 3 months) than those for Ehrlichia and co-infections (more than 3 months). Reasons for the owner to seek veterinary attention (lethargy, anorexia, fever), findings from the physical examination (pale mucous membranes, hepato-/splenomegaly) and laboratory results (anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypo-albuminemia) were highly aspecific, making serology or PCR mandatory for diagnosing infections. Antigenic stimulation by the parasite sometimes resulted in immune-mediated diseases such as immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, glomerulonefritis, and polyarthritis and in the case of ehrlichiosis in hypergammaglobulinemia. Specific therapy (imidocarb-diproprionate and/or doxycycline) was necessary, and because combined infections were common, it was considered appropriate to administer both drugs while the definitive diagnosis was being established. The prognosis was reasonably good, with almost half of all patients showing no clinical signs after treatment, although Babesia and co-infections were associated with a significantly longer survival sometimes resulted than Ehrlichia infections.
Claudia Bezerra da Silva
Full Text Available This study evaluated factors associated with the frequency ofLeishmania spp. antibodies in dogs residing in the Itaguai micro-region, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 524 dogs. The serum samples were submitted to indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA forLeishmania spp. The frequency of seropositive dogs was 28.24% (n = 148 in the micro-region, and among the three municipalities within that region, the highest frequency (p < 0.05 was observed in Seropedica (59.46%, followed by Itaguai (29.05% and Mangaratiba (11.49%. Regarding factors associated with the host, mongrel dogs and those over the age of two presented higher frequency of antibodies to Leishmaniaspp. (p < 0.05. Concerning factors related to the environment and habits of the animal, dogs residing in rural areas (FR = 1.67, p = 0.0002, living outside the residence (FR = 1.42, p = 0.0197, with access to forest, streams and pastures (FR = 2.81, p = 0.0007, remaining loose (FR = 1.66, p = 0.0073, and those that had no shelter (FR = 2.16, p < 0.0001 were more likely to be seropositive. Canine leishmaniasis is a disease with high occurrence in the Itaguai micro-region, and aspects such as the definition of breed, age, habits and care by owners showed significant association in this micro-region.
Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1 st post-, and 2 nd post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.
McGuinness, O P
The effect of infection on gluconeogenesis was assessed in the chronically catheterized conscious dog. Dogs were studied 42 h after implantation of a sterile (n = 7) or an Escherichia coli containing (n = 7) fibrinogen clot into the peritoneum (54 h fasted). Infection increased arterial plasma glucagon and cortisol (4.2- and 2.1-fold, respectively), but it did not alter arterial plasma insulin, catecholamines, or glucose concentrations. Infection increased tracer ([3-3H]glucose) determined glucose production and utilization and net hepatic glucose output by 35%. Net hepatic alanine and lactate uptake were also increased by 34 and 54%, respectively, without an alteration in their net hepatic fractional extraction. The intrahepatic efficiency of conversion of [14C]alanine to [14C]glucose was not decreased in the septic dog (.77 +/- .08) vs. .95 +/- .10 in noninfected and infected, respectively). Intestinal glucose uptake and lactate release were increased approximately twofold. The increase in intestinal lactate release accounted for 35% of the increase in net hepatic lactate delivery seen in response to infection. In conclusion, a good model of hypermetabolic infection was developed in which the characteristic increases in hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenesis were observed in the fasted state. The increase in gluconeogenesis was due to an increase in hepatic gluconeogenic precursor uptake with no impairment in the net fractional hepatic extraction of gluconeogenic precursors or the efficiency of gluconeogenesis. In addition, the intestine is a significant contributor to the increase in gluconeogenic precursor supply seen in response to infection.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in canine staphylococci, Escherichia coli and enterococci, which were isolated from 22 dogs with pyoderma and a history of previous antibiotic treatment, compared to bacterial isolates from 56 non-treated control dogs. Two isolates of each bacterial species per dog were investigated, if detected. Staphylococcal isolates from dogs with pyoderma (35 isolates were more resistant to sulphatrimethoprim than the isolates from controls (56 isolates (57% vs. 25%, p E. coli was detected (24 and 74 isolates from treated and control dogs, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Resistance for macrolide-lincosamides was approximately 20% among staphylococci in both groups. Resistance to ampicillin among enterococci was 4%–7%. The age of the dogs might have an impact on resistance: multiresistance among staphylococcal isolates from younger dogs (≤5 years was more common than in older dogs (≥6 years (24%, vs. 0%, 63 and 27 isolates, respectively, p = 0.02. Staphylococci in younger dogs were more resistant to tetracycline (48% vs. 11%, p E. coli from older dogs tended to be more resistant, although a significant difference was detected only in resistance to tetracycline (13% vs. 2% of 40 and 50 isolates respecthely, p = 0.04. The results of this small study indicate that resistance in canine staphylococci in the capital area of Finland is comparable with many other countries in Europe. Resistance in indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, was low.
Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo
Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.
Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha
Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC. This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death. TB was diagnosed during post-mortem examinations using histopathological analysis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed acid-fast bacilli in the kidneys, liver, mesentery, and a mass adhered to the liver. Further, PCR-restriction analysis was performed to identify mycobacteria in the samples. A restriction profile compatible with MtbC was found in the lungs. In addition, PCR-based MtbC typing deletions at different loci of chromosome 9 enabled the identification of M. bovis in the lungs. Therefore, it is very essential to perform differential diagnosis of TB in dogs with non-specific clinical signs and who do not respond to treatment, particularly those who had been in contact with TB-infected cattle or owners. Further, we highlight the use of molecular methods for the identification of bacilli, improving the diagnosis and aiding epidemiological studies.
Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.
Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were
Pumidonming, Wilawan; Salman, Doaa; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Makoto
Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand.
Newbold, Georgina M; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J
To determine how frequently Malassezia spp were identified on the periocular skin of dogs and assess the respective associations between the presence of Malassezia spp on the periocular skin and blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications. Prospective clinical study. 167 eyelids of 84 dogs. Samples obtained from the surface of the eyelid skin by use of adhesive tape were evaluated cytologically for the presence of Malassezia spp. Dogs were grouped on the basis of the presence of blepharitis, nature of ocular discharge, and whether ophthalmic medications were applied, and the proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was compared among the groups. Malassezia spp were detected in 19 samples, of which 15 were obtained from eyes without blepharitis and 14 were obtained from eyes treated with topical ophthalmic medications. The proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was significantly higher for eyes with ocular discharge than for eyes without ocular discharge, especially if that discharge was mucoid or mucopurulent, and for eyes that were treated with aqueous-based medications only or a combination of oil- and aqueous-based medications than for eyes that were not treated. Malassezia organisms were detected on the periocular skin of 3 of 56 (5%) clinically normal dogs. Malassezia organisms were also frequently found on the periocular skin of dogs that had mucoid or mucopurulent ocular discharge or that were administered topical aqueous-based ophthalmic medications, and the periocular skin of these dogs should be cytologically evaluated for Malassezia organisms.
Murai, Atsuko; Maruyama, Soichi; Nagata, Masahiko; Yuki, Masashi
A 2-year, 7-month-old female Chihuahua was admitted for a mammary mass measuring one cm in diameter. The dog had a history of demodicosis for 4 months and showed signs of pseudopregnancy at the time of the visit. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of the mass revealed a large number of macrophages containing nonstaining bacterial rods, which were acid-fast in a Ziehl-Neelsen stain, suggesting mycobacterial infection. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a pyogranulomatous mastitis characterized by an infiltration with macrophages containing acid-fast bacteria. Mycobacterium kansasii was subsequently cultured and identified by PCR. Surgical excision of the mass resulted in the growth of other dermal masses, but antimycobacterial treatment with rifampin and clarithromycin resolved these masses within 1 month. Three months after discontinuation of the treatment, similar organisms were found in aspirates of the enlarged bilateral inguinal lymph nodes by cytologic examination. Despite antimycobacterial treatment for another 4 months, there was no improvement and demodicosis also recurred. The dog eventually died of lymphoma 5 months after the relapse of mycobacterial infection. Although M kansasii is considered an important pathogen for pulmonary and cutaneous disease in people, there is only one report in a dog with an infection in a pleural effusion. As both adult-onset demodicosis in dogs as well as mycobacterial infection in people have been associated with T-lymphocyte deficiency, the M kansasii infection in this dog may have been associated with a condition of immune compromise. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
de Assis, Paulo R G R; Nakano, Viviane; Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Avila-Campos, Mario J
Neuraminidase was produced by 32.1% and 28.5% of Porphyromonas from dogs with and without periodontitis, respectively; and by 31.8% of bacteria from humans. The presence of neuraminidase in Porphyromonas spp. suggests that this enzyme can be involved with the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease, and the use of this assay to detect the neuraminidase production in oral Porphyromonas species is suggested. © 2013.
Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi
Anaplasma platys , the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon ( groEL ) gene was also performed on the A. platys -positive samples. 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.
Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez
Full Text Available Aim: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon (groEL gene was also performed on the A. platys-positive samples. Results: 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. Conclusion: A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents...... technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs....... The worm establishment ranged from 3 – 24% (mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than 2 eggs per g (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in three dogs necropsied on day 58 post...
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents......-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 metacercariae (mainly H. pumilio) obtained by artificially digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation...... technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs...
Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey
Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea.
Alves, João; Santos, Ana
In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs.
Rosanova, María Teresa; Brizuela, Martín; Villasboas, Mabel; Guarracino, Fabian; Alvarez, Veronica; Santos, Patricia; Finquelievich, Jorge
Fusarium spp are ubiquitous fungi recognized as opportunistic agents of human infections, and can produce severe infections in burn patients. The literature on Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients is scarce. To describe the clinical and epidemiological features as well as outcome of Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients. Retrospective, descriptive study of Fusarium spp infections in a specialized intensive care burn unit. In 15 patients Fusarium spp infections were diagnosed. Median age was 48 months. Direct fire injury was observed in ten patients. The median affected burn surface area was 45%. Twelve patients had a full thickness burn. Fourteen patients had a Garces Index ≥3. Fungal infection developed at a median of 11 days after burn injury. Fungi were isolated from burn wound in 14 patients and from the bone in one patient. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment followed by voriconazole. Median time of treatment completion was 23 days. One patient (7%) died of fungal infection-related causes. In our series Fusarium spp was an uncommon pathogen in severely burnt patients. The burn wound was the most common site of infection and mortality was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Đurić, Boban; Ilić, Tamara; Trailović, Dragiša; Kulišić, Zoran; Dimitrijević, Sanda
This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs c...
Full Text Available The dog is the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in humans in Southern Europe. In order to identify the risk of dogs from a Leishmania non-endemic area traveling to a Leishmania-endemic area becoming infected and the risk of transmitting infection to humans in non-endemic areas an investigation was performed, in which the results of a questionnaire were combined with the results of a serologic survey. The questionnaire was sent to 1478 at random chosen families in the Netherlands. Of the 59.0% responders 28.0% had one or more dogs and 4.8% of these dogs had visited Southern Europe during the summer period of that year. On a total population of 1,200,000 dogs in the Netherlands, this means that each year some 58,000 dogs are at risk of being exposed to a Leishmania infection in Southern Europe. During the period 1990–1992 blood was collected for serology in 1911 dogs presented to the Utrecht University Clinic because of clinical problems not related to leishmaniasis, of which 434 had been in Southern Europe in the foregoing years. None was serologically positive. From these data it can be deduced that the highest chance to obtain leishmaniasis during a vacation in Southern Europe is mathematically less than 1/434 or less than 0.23%. Serology was also performed during the period 1989–1993 in 597 dogs that had been in Southern Europe and were suspected of leishmaniasis. Titers were positive in 145 of these samples. Sixty-four of these dogs were born in the Mediterranean and had been imported into the Netherlands. Excluding these imported dogs, it was calculated that at least 0.027% of the 58,000 dogs yearly taken to Southern Europe during holidays become infected with Leishmania. In order to establish the risk of disease transmission for people in close contact with an infected dog, serum samples of owners and house mates of 37 dogs with leishmaniasis were tested. All 112 sera tested
Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Mazaleski, Mark M; Fourie, Josephus J; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie
The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) was evaluated against Demodex spp. in dogs with generalized demodicosis and against Otodectes cynotis (otodectic mange) in dogs with induced infestations. In the first study, 16 dogs with clinical signs of generalized demodicosis and positive for Demodex spp. mites were randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner (2mg/kg) orally on Days 0, 30 and 60, or topical imidacloprid (10mg/kg) plus moxidectin (2.5mg/kg) solution every 7 days from Day 0 to Day 81. For sarolaner-treated dogs, pretreatment mite counts were reduced by 97.1% at 14days and 99.8% by 29 days after the first dose, with no live mites detected thereafter. Weekly imidacloprid plus moxidectin resulted in 84.4 and 95.6% reduction at these two time points, respectively, with no mites detected from Day 74 on. All dogs in both groups showed marked improvement in the clinical signs of demodicosis. In the second study, 32 dogs with induced infestations of O. cynotis were randomly assigned (eight per group) to oral sarolaner (2mg/kg) as a single treatment on Day 0 or as a two dose regime (Days 0 and 30), or a placebo group for each of the dose regimes. Sarolaner administered at 2mg/kg as a single oral dose resulted in a 98.2% reduction at Day 30 and two doses of sarolaner, administered one month apart, resulted in a 99.5% reduction in ear mites at Day 60 compared to placebo controls. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In these studies, sarolaner at an oral dose of 2mg/kg was highly effective in reducing the live mite counts associated with a natural infestation of Demodex spp. and an induced infestation of O. cynotis. In addition, the Demodex-infested dogs showed a marked improvement in the clinical signs of generalized demodicosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150
Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Lovallo, M J; Sweeny, A R; Grigg, M E; Dubey, J P
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000× magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasites. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dasypi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E
The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.
Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery
The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples
Lourenço, Alan Grupioni; Ribeiro, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves; Nakao, Cristiano; Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Antonio, Luana Grupioni Lourenço; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Komesu, Marilena Chinali
The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.
Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S
OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.
Smith, Anya F; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Kutz, Susan J; Massolo, Alessandro
In urban parks, dogs, wildlife and humans can be sympatric, introducing the potential for inter- and intra-specific transmission of pathogens among hosts. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zoonotic and non-zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in dogs in Calgary city parks, and assess if dog-walking behaviour, park management, history of veterinary care, and dog demographics were associated with parasitism in dogs From June to September 2010, 645 questionnaires were administered to dog owners in nine city parks to determine behavioural and demographic factors, and corresponding feces from 355 dogs were collected. Dog feces were analyzed for helminth and some protozoan species using a modified sugar flotation technique and microscopic examination, a subsample was analyzed for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were conducted to determine associations among behaviours, demographics, and parasite prevalence and infection intensities Parasite prevalence was 50.2%. Giardia spp. (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.7%), and Cystoisospora spp. (16.8%) were the most prevalent parasites. Helminth prevalence was low (4.1%). Presence of Giardia spp. was more likely in intact and young dogs; and infection with any parasite and Giardia spp. intensity were both positively associated with dogs visiting multiple parks coupled with a high frequency of park use and off-leash activity, and with being intact and young. Cryptosporidium spp. intensity was associated with being intact and young, and having visited the veterinarian within the previous year Our results indicate a higher overall prevalence of protozoa in dogs than previously found in Calgary. The zoonotic potential of some parasites found in park-attending dogs may be of interest for public health. These results are relevant for informing park managers, the public health sector, and veterinarians.
Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mitková, Barbora; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Annoscia, Giada; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel
Dogs in Europe may be parasitized by a variety of species of filarioids. While some species have been studied for decades, others have been only recently reported, and their range of distribution is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of Cercopithifilaria spp., whose microfilariae reside in the dermis and are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. ticks, in a dog population from Romania and to present the current knowledge of their distribution in Europe. Sampling was performed in a rural locality from Danube Delta region of Romania, location chosen due to the presence of the only known vector for these species. Skin samples were collected from 39 dogs. The samples were tested for the presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. by PCR methods. One animal (2.56%) was positive, and the amplified sequence showed a 100% similarity to Cercopithifilaria bainae. This study reports C. bainae for the first time in Eastern Europe, extending the known range of the genus in Europe.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the
Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia
Tick-borne diseases are of substantial concern worldwide for animals as well as humans. Dogs have been a human companion for millennia, and their significant impact on human life renders disease in dogs to be of great concern. Tick-borne diseases in dogs represent a substantial diagnostic challenge for veterinarians in that clinical signs are often diffuse and overlapping. In addition, co-infections with two or more pathogens enhance this problem further. Molecular methods are useful to disentangle co-infections and to accurately describe prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne diseases. At this point, this information is lacking in many areas worldwide. Romania is one such area, where prevalence and distribution of several important pathogens need to be further investigated. To address this, we screened blood samples from 96 sick dogs with molecular methods for eight different pathogens including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", Mycoplasma spp., and Borrelia spp. As many as 45% (43/96) of the dogs in the study were infected with protozoan parasites. Babesia canis was the most frequent of these (28 infected dogs), whereas Hepatozoon canis was detected in 15% (14/96) and Babesia gibsoni was found in a single sample. Bacterial infection with Mycoplasma spp. occurred in 18% (17/96) of the sampled dogs. Obtained bacterial sequences revealed the occurrence of two species: Mycoplasma canis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum". In several cases co-infection with protozoan parasites and Mycoplasma sp. were detected. All dogs were negative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and for Borrelia spp. The results from the present study reinforce the notion that Babesia canis is an important pathogen in the Romanian dog population. However, more surprisingly, another protozoan species, H. canis, seems to be infecting dogs to a larger extent than
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...
The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...
Prodorutti, D; Vanblaere, T; Gobbin, D; Pellegrini, A; Gessler, C; Pertot, I
Armillaria spp. are the causal agents of root rots of several woody plants, including highbush blueberry. Since 2003, highbush blueberry plants infected by Armillaria spp. have been found in Valsugana Valley, Trentino region, northern Italy. Our aim was to identify the Armillaria spp. involved in these infections, as well as possible sources of inoculum in blueberry fields. Samples of Armillaria spp. were collected from diseased blueberry plants in 13 infected blueberry fields, from bark spread along the blueberry rows, from infected trees in the vicinity of the fields, and from four forest locations. The identification of Armillaria spp. was accomplished using a species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and by sequencing the rDNA at a specific locus. The differentiation between genotypes was performed by using simple-sequence repeat analysis. Armillaria mellea and A. gallica were the most frequently observed species infecting blueberry in the Valsugana Valley. Three to eight Armillaria genotypes were identified in each blueberry field. No individual genotypes were found in more than one blueberry field. Two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing trees in the immediate vicinity of infected fields and two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing the bark spread in blueberry rows were also isolated from blueberry plants in the field, indicating that bark used as mulch and infected trees surrounding the fields may be important sources of inoculum.
Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R
Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602
Guo, Huanping; Sevinc, Ferda; Ceylan, Onur; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ince, Ege; Gao, Yang; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Liu, Mingming; Efstratiou, Artemis; Wang, Guanbo; Cao, Shinuo; Zhou, Mo; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Ringo, Aaron Edmond; Zheng, Weiqing; Xuan, Xuenan
In the present study, a total of 192 blood samples were collected from pet dogs, kennel dogs and shepherd dogs in Konya district, Turkey, and tested by specific PCR for the presence of vector-borne pathogens. Several pathogens were identified, most of which can cause substantial morbidity in dogs. PCR results revealed that 54 (28.1%) dogs were infected with one or more pathogens. Positive results were obtained for Babesia spp. in 4 dogs (2.1%), Hepatozoon spp. in 8 dogs (4.2%) and Mycoplasma spp. in 46 dogs (24%). Three dogs (1.6%) were infected with two or three pathogens. The sequence analysis of the positive DNA samples revealed the presence of Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Hepatozoon sp. MF, Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys were not detected. Regardless of ownership status, vector-borne diseases were common in these dog populations. There was significant difference of pathogen prevalence among the different dog populations. Mycoplasma spp. was more frequent in the kennel dogs (31.9%) than in the pet (21.4%) and shepherd dogs (13.8%). Additionally, the frequency of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was higher in the shepherd dogs which account for three quarters and half of the total number of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp., respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mycoplasma infection in dogs in Turkey. The results of the present study provide a foundation for understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs), and for strategies to control these diseases in Turkey.
Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The p...
Full Text Available A dog from Paris (France was referred with a 2-week history of dry cough, intermittent acute onset of dyspnoea, and acute abdominal pain. A generalised bronchoalveolar infiltrate with a patchy distribution was observed at chest x-rays and computed tomography (CT scans. Negative results were obtained through several faecal examinations for cardiorespiratory nematodes by using the Baermann technique and at two blood analysis with a commercially available test for the detection of A. vasorum antigen (the first one at the first visit and second one at the control visit, one month later. PCR methods for the identification of A. vasorum and C. vulpis were also accomplished. At the control visit, nematode L1s were found during direct microscopic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Thus, a different antigen-based assay for the detection of A. vasorum was performed with a positive result. Moreover, based on morphology, isolated larvae were identified as Filaroides hirthi. The dog was treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg per os once daily for two consecutive weeks. After five months, the dog was referred again for the intermittent acute onset of dyspnoea and was found to be still positive for F. hirthi larvae at BALF examination. A 15-day treatment regimen with fenbendazole in combination with three subcutaneous injections of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg, once every two weeks, was then performed. No larvae were detected at two BALF microscopical examinations performed one month apart. Results from this case report underline the importance of including F. hirthi infections in the differential diagnosis of dog bronchopneumonia.
Gołębiewska, J; Tarasewicz, A; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Rutkowski, B
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Klebsiella spp is a well-recognized source of nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is also the most common pathogen capable of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing medical records of patients followed-up at Gdańsk Transplantation Centre. We analyzed urine cultures performed within the first 12 months after renal transplantation (RT) with reference to clinical data. We recorded all Klebsiella spp UTIs. We studied urine cultures and clinical data from 335 RTRs. We observed 59 Klebsiella spp episodes in 24 RT patients, including 10 cases of acute graft pyelonephritis and 8 of urosepsis. More than half were caused by ESBL+, whereas there were no carbapenemase-producing strains. Almost 80% of episodes were diagnosed beginning from the second month post-transplantation. More than 60% of upper Klebsiella spp UTIs were due to ESBL+ strains, although we did not identify any host risk factors including vesico-ureteral reflux, strictures at the uretero-vesical junction, history of recurrent UTIs before RT, comorbidity measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, history of acute rejection, use of induction, and type of immunosuppression used. Upper Klebsiella spp UTIs were slightly more prevalent in males with urinary flow impairment due to various reasons. Klebsiella spp virulence factors, not the host factors, seem to be mostly responsible for developing upper UTIs in RT patients.
Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J
The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia.
Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.
Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H
The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs.
Hornok, Sándor; Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Szőke, Krisztina; Farkas, Róbert
Piroplasms are unicellular, tick-borne parasites. Among them, during the past decade, an increasing diversity of Babesia spp. has been reported from wild carnivores. On the other hand, despite the known contact of domestic and wild carnivores (e.g. during hunting), and a number of ixodid tick species they share, data on the infection of dogs with babesiae from other families of carnivores are rare. In this study blood samples were collected from 90 dogs and five road-killed badgers. Ticks were also removed from these animals. The DNA was extracted from all blood samples, and from 33 ticks of badgers, followed by molecular analysis for piroplasms with PCR and sequencing, as well as by phylogenetic comparison of detected genotypes with piroplasms infecting carnivores. Eleven of 90 blood DNA extracts from dogs, and all five samples from badgers were PCR-positive for piroplasms. In addition to the presence of B. canis DNA in five dogs, sequencing identified the DNA of badger-associated "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" in six dogs and in all five badgers. The DNA of "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" occurred significantly more frequently in dogs often taken to forests (i.e. the preferred habitat of badgers in Hungary), than in dogs without this characteristic. Moreover, detection of DNA from this Babesia sp. was significantly associated with hunting dogs in comparison with dogs not used for hunting. Two PCR-positive dogs (in one of which the DNA of the badger-associated Babesia sp. was identified, whereas in the other the DNA of B. canis was present) showed clinical signs of babesiosis. Engorged specimens of both I. canisuga and I. hexagonus were collected from badgers with parasitaemia, but only I. canisuga contained the DNA of "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1". This means a significant association of the DNA from "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" with I. canisuga. Phylogenetically, "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" belonged to the "B. microti" group. This is the first detection of the DNA from a badger
Ademir Zacarias Junior
Full Text Available The ocular system in domestic animals is very complex and delicate, and composed for the eyeball and ocular adnexal. Disorders that affect the balance between production and outflow of aqueous humor can result in variations in intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Syndrome glaucomatous presents approximately 0.5% incidence in dogs and is a leading cause of blindness, eye pain and surgeries for enucleation. The secondary glaucoma are frequent and result of uveitis by bacteria of the genus Brucella, Leptospira, Ehrlichia, and other etiologic agents. In humans, the bacteria of the genus Helicobacter has attracted the attention of ophthalmologists because potentially operate in the pathogenesis of several eye problems, including glaucoma. In dogs, there are no studies that correlate the origin of glaucoma or secondary uveitis to bacteria of the genus Helicobacter. Whereas uveitis with unknown cause in dogs is very common and proven association between bacteria of the genus Helicobacter and this condition in humans, increases the importance of studies that evaluate these aspects also in pets, helping the understanding of pathogenesis and resulting in proposing therapeutic protocols most effective for glaucoma patients.
Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James
Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.
Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Miller, Michael W.
Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.
Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Miller, Michael W
Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.
Full Text Available This study reports on the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting specific antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in naturally infected dogs. Sera from 182 mongrel dogs of all ages residing in four rural villages in Santiago del Estero, Argentina, were collected in November 1994 and preserved in buffered neutral glycerin. All sera were tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT, and ELISA using the flagellar fraction of T. cruzi as antigen. Dog sera from an area without vectorial transmission were used to calculate ELISA specificity and cut-off value. Eighty-six percent of sera had concordant results for all tests. All sera reactive for IHAT and IFAT were also reactive for ELISA, except in one case. Sera tested by ELISA when diluted 1:200 allowed a clearer division between non-reactive and reactive sera than when 1:100 with greater agreement among serologic techniques. The specificity of ELISA was 96.2%. Among 34 adult dogs with a positive xenodiagnosis, sensitivity was 94% both for ELISA and IFAT. ELISA is the first choice for screening purposes and one of the pair of techniques recommended for diagnostic studies in dog populations
Rees Robert L
Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. METHODS Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans, and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%. Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections.
Parada, L; Cabrera, P; Burges, C; Acuña, A; Barcelona, C; Laurenson, M K; Gulland, F M; Agulla, J; Parietti, S; Paolillo, E
The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in domestic dogs was examined in three dog populations in the Durazno region of Uruguay. The prevalence was 19.7 per cent in 704 dogs successfully purged with arecoline hydrobromide. Higher prevalences were detected in dogs from the rural area (30.0 per cent) and the village of La Paloma (25.9 per cent) than in the town of Sarandi del Yi (7.9 per cent). The frequency distribution of E granulosus was overdispersed (k, the negative binomial parameter = 0.08), with only a few animals harbouring heavy infections. The results of a questionnaire showed that the prevalence was greatest in male dogs, in dogs that were not kennelled, in dogs that had access to fields and in dogs that were not dosed with praziquantel. Dogs that were given raw sheep offal by their owners were no more likely to be parasitised than other dogs; this may reflect the inaccuracy of the owners' replies, or that the dogs were being infected outside their home.
Novo Matos, J; Malbon, A; Dennler, M; Glaus, T
In both humans and dogs the pulmonary vasculature is able to recruit large-diameter anatomical intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVAs). In healthy people the opening of these anastomoses affects the degree of exercise-induced increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. The presence of these IPAVAs can be demonstrated using saline contrast echocardiography. The aims of the present study were to characterize severely affected, naturally infected dogs with Angiostrongylus vasorum, to evaluate if these dogs can open IPAVAs, and to assess if the recruitment of such anastomoses affects the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Eight client-owned dogs with severe A. vasorum infection were recruited. Dogs with A. vasorum infection that presented with severe dyspnea and/or syncope were prospectively screened by echocardiography for the presence of PH and IPAVAs. Only severely affected dogs, based on a combination of clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities, were enrolled. Opening of IPAVAs could be demonstrated in three dogs with no to moderate PH, and could not be demonstrated in five dogs with severe PH. In two dogs thoracic radiographs showed only mild interstitial changes, while computer tomography and postmortem examination revealed severe pulmonary interstitial and vascular disease. These results suggest that dogs may open IPAVAs and that opening of such anastomoses may play a regulatory role in the development of PH. There may be a marked discrepancy between radiographic changes and disease severity in A. vasorum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Dong; Ma, Jingbo; Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Kuo; Zhang, Haizhu
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher (p dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176. No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05. The infection rate in rural dogs (18% was higher (p < 0.05 than in urban dogs (11%. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05 with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.
Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Soares, Rosangela Maria De Araujo; De Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Castro, Gloria Fernanda
This study sought to compare techniques used to make a quantified evaluation of Candida spp. in children infected with HIV. Twenty-four HIV-infected children (age 3 to 13) were selected. Three sterilized swabs were used for each child: one for the dorsum of the tongue, one for the hard palate mucosa, and one for the right jugal mucosa; each swab was rubbed for 10 seconds and transferred to sterilized test tubes containing 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution. Candida spp. growth was observed in 95.8% of all samples, including 95.7% of tongue samples (Group T), 87.0% of saliva samples, 56.6% of hard palate mucosa samples (Group P), and 47.8% of right jugal mucosa samples (Group J). There was no statistical difference in Candida spp. growth between saliva samples and Group T samples, although both had higher growth compared to Groups P and J (p < 0.05; chi(2)). Regarding the sensitivity of each site for positive Candida spp. growth, Group T samples showed 69.5%, while saliva samples showed 52.2%, Group P samples showed 21.7%, and Group J samples showed 13.04%, with no significant statistical difference between Group T and saliva; however, both were more sensitive than Groups J and P (p < 0.05, chi(2)). It was concluded that whole stimulated saliva and swabbing the tongue were considered satisfactory for measuring Candida spp. in HIV-infected children.
Giayetto, Víctor O; Blanco, Sebastián; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Barbás, María G; Cudolá, Analía; Gallego, Sandra V
Whooping cough is a re-emerging infection in the world and Latin America. It was considered relevant to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Bordetella spp. and Bordetella pertussis infection in Córdoba province, Argentina; evaluating, at the same time, the co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections that may be confused with whooping cough. All whooping cough suspected cases were studied by Polimerase Chain Reaction, amplifying the repeated insertion sequence (IS) 481 and the promoter gene encoding pertussis toxin, between 2011 and 2013. The data were obtained from the clinical and epidemiological records. From 2,588 whooping cough suspected cases, 11.59% was infected by Bordetella spp. and 9.16% was confirmed as Bordetella pertussis infection. The rate of infection was 7.22 and 1.84 per 100,000 for 2011 and 2012, respectively. The infection presented a seasonal tendency and it was mainly found on the group of children between 13 and 24 months old. The co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections, were uncommon. Paroxysmal cough, cyanosis and/or vomiting were predictors of the infection for Bordetella pertussis. To deal with the re-emergence of whooping cough is important the knowledge of the regional epidemiological situation. This paper shows the situation of these infections in the regional clinical and epidemiological context, and makes the information available for health decision-making.
Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Rutley, David L
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection.
Studies of distribution and recurrence of Helicobacter spp. gastric mucosa of dogs after triple therapy Estudos da distribuição e recorrência do Helicobacter spp. na mucosa gástrica de cães após terapia tríplice
Thiago Pires Anacleto
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the triple antimicrobial therapy in positive Helicobacter spp. dogs and to investigate recurrence. METHODS: A total of 20 dogs underwent endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy using the rapid urease test and histopathology stained with Giemsa. Ten animals were treated with triple therapy recommended for humans and divided into control and experimental group. The control group was kept in isolation while the experimental group was placed in contact with positive animals during 60 days. RESULTS: The prevalence of infection in animals in this experiment was 100%, and more frequent in the fundus and the gastric body. Therapy for 7 days using clarithromycin, amoxicillin and lansoprazole was effective in 100% of the animals. Recurrence of the infection in 80% of dogs in the experimental group, while the control group remained eradicated after 60 days. CONCLUSION: Crowded environments associated with close contact with dogs infected with helicobacter are a determinant for transmission of Helicobacter spp. between canines.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da terapia tríplice em cães naturalmente infectados pelo Helicobacter spp. e investigar a recorrência da infecção pelo contato com animais infectados. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 cães, submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta seguida de biopsia gástrica usando teste rápido da urease e histopatologia corada pelo Giemsa. Dez animais foram tratados com terapia tríplice preconizada para humanos e divididos em grupo controle e experimental. O grupo controle foi mantido em isolamento enquanto que o grupo experimento foi colocado em contato com os animais positivos durante 60 dias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da infecção nos animais deste experimento foi de 100%, e mais frequente no fundo e corpo gástrico. A terapia durante 7 dias empregando claritromicina, amoxicilina e lansoprazol foi eficaz em 100% dos animais. Houve recorrência da infecção em 80% dos cães do grupo
Full Text Available Current studies indicate that Campylobacter spp. is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in humans in both developed countries and worldwide. This explains the ever-increasing interest of the researchers in the eradication of digestive disorders caused by Campylobacter spp. and also to identify the risk factors involved in prevention of human infections. Because birds are considered a major source of Campylobacter jejuni contamination in humans the purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature in regards to the incidence of campylobacter related infections in humans, identify the risk factors but mostly to describe the implications of poultry meat contamination during preparation for the consumer. Herein we refer to the applicable strategies in poultry farms as the introduction of competition between microbial populations in the gut, the use of new management practices in raising chickens and better hygiene to reduce the rate of gastrointestinal colonization with Campylobacter spp. in broilers and hens.
Full Text Available In the period of July and August 2009 at the Veterinary Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Skopje clinical and laboratory investigations of two peacocks (Pavus Cristatus male and female old 2, 5 years were performed. Peacocks had history of disease in the previous 3-4 months with clinical signs consisting of white diarrhea, emaciation, apathy, with normal appetite. Peacocks were treated several times with antibiotics without any success. With parasitological examination of the feces with qualitative method of flotation with saturated solution of ZnSO4 (SpG 1.4., mass infestation with eggs of Capillaria spp was established. On the basis of laboratory results therapy with levamisole (Neositol 10% - FM Pharm of the peacocks and thorough disinfection of the holding were recommended. On the basis of laboratory investigations, especially parasitological investigations it can be conclude that this is the first case of isolation of Capillaria spp in peacocks in Republic of Macedonia. Repeated single shot therapy with levamisole has proven effective with no side effects.
Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang
Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection by sectioning of the small intestine and caecum into four parts. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs. The worm establishment ranged from 15 to 121 flukes (3-24%, mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than two eggs per g faeces (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in all three dogs necropsied on day 58 post infection. The predilection site of the flukes was identified as the lower part of jejunum (93% of total worm burden). The results of the haematological tests did not differ between the infected and uninfected group. Further, no clinical symptoms were observed in the infected group and no macroscopic pathological changes could be assigned to the trematode infections, neither did histopathological examination of the intestine reveal any differences between the infected and the control dogs. This study provides the first basic knowledge on the establishment
Full Text Available The most important disease of maize in Romania are stalk and ear rot, which caused yield losses in average of 20%. The resistant hibrids represent one of the most efficient solution for reducing the field loses caused by Fusarium spp. on the maize (Nagy et al., 2006. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi (Czembor et al., 2015. The purpose of this paper was to know more about the reaction of different maize hybrids to Fusarium and the evaluating the effect of ear rot on the yield ability and mycotoxins accumulation. The experiments carried out at ARDS Turda, during four years (2012-2015. The biological material was represented by 8 hybrids, from different maturity groups, tested in two infection conditions with Fusarium spp. (natural and artificial infections. The temperature and rainfalls of the four years of experiments corresponding to the vegetation of maize (april-september are influenced favourably the pathogenesis of stalk and ear rot caused by Fusarium spp. and a good discrimination of the resistance reaction of genotypes. Fusarium ear rot has significantly affected production capacity and chemical composition of corn hybrids tested. In conditions of artificial infection with Fusarium spp. was a decrease in the content of starch, fat and increased protein content compared with artificially inoculated variants. The quantity of fumonizin B1+B2 has reached to 5630 μg/kg in conditions of artificial infection. There are negative correlations between production capacity and degree of attack of fusarium ear rot; depending on the reacting genotypes tested increasing disease causes production decrease. The response of maize hybrids to Fusarium infection is influenced by infection and climatic conditions. These factors affect production both in terms of quantity and quality and accumulation of mycotoxins.
Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K
Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava
During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185
Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene
Detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA, using real-time RT-PCR, in biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught at 48 locations in 2011 and four well-separated farms during 2012 in Denmark, revealed a remarkably rapid spread of virus-infected midges across the country. During 2012, some 213 pools...
Liu, Chia-Ying; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Meng-Rui; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren
To investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Tsukamurella spp., the computerised database of the Bacteriology Laboratory at National Taiwan University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) was reviewed retrospectively to identify patients with infections caused by this species during the period January 1997 to December 2008. All of the isolates had been initially misidentified as Rhodococcus spp. Identification of Tsukamurella isolates to species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the heat shock protein gene (hsp65) as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. During the study period, a total of eight patients with Tsukamurella infection and two patients with Tsukamurella colonisation were identified. Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens (n=6) was the most prevalent species, followed by Tsukamurella spumae (n=3) and Tsukamurella pulmonis (n=1). Keratitis was the most common type of infection (n=3), followed by catheter-related bloodstream infection (n=2). One of the patients with Tsukamurella infection died due to bacteraemia; the other seven patients with Tsukamurella infection had favourable outcomes. The three species had different drug susceptibility patterns; T. pulmonis was the most resistant pathogen, with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin (>2 mg/L), erythromycin (2 mg/L) and tetracycline (8 mg/L) than those for the other Tsukamurella spp. In conclusion, strains of Tsukamurella spp., including T. spumae, are uncommon causative agents of ocular infections and bacteraemia in cancer patients. Molecular diagnostic methods are essential to distinguish species in the Tsukamurella genus from species in other phylogenetically related genera such as Rhodococcus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Middleton, D J; Riddell, S; Klein, R; Arkinstall, R; Haining, J; Frazer, L; Mottley, C; Evans, R; Johnson, D; Pallister, J
Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood. Dogs were reliably infected with HeV and were generally asymptomatic. HeV was re-isolated from the oral cavity and virus clearance was associated with development of virus neutralising antibody. Major sites of HeV replication in dogs were the tonsils, lower respiratory tract and associated lymph nodes. Virus replication was documented in canine kidney and spleen, confirming a viraemic phase for canine HeV infection and suggesting that urine may be a source of infectious virus. Infection was transmitted to ferrets via canine oral secretions, with copy numbers for the HeV N gene in canine oral swabs comparable to those reported for nasal swabs of experimentally infected horses. HeV is not highly pathogenic for dogs, but their oral secretions pose a potential transmission risk to people. The time-window for transmission risk is circumscribed and corresponds to the period of acute infection before establishment of an adaptive immune response. The likelihood of central nervous system involvement in canine HeV infection is unclear, as is any long-term consequence. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.
Barmettler, Reto; Schweighauser, Ariane; Bigler, Susanne; Grooters, Amy M; Francey, Thierry
To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008. People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks. Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.
Kieves, Nina R; Novo, Roberto E; Martin, Robert B
CASE DESCRIPTION-4 dogs were evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections. CLINICAL FINDINGS-All dogs had recurrent urinary tract infections and similar clinical signs; 3 dogs had urinary incontinence. Digital vaginal examination revealed vestibulovaginal stenosis in all dogs, which was confirmed by results of contrast vaginourethrography. From image measurements, the vestibulovaginal ratio (ratio of the height of the vestibulovaginal junction to the maximum height of the vagina on a lateral vaginourethrogram) was calculated for each dog. Three dogs had severe stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, dog had moderate stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, 0.24; ratio range for moderate stenosis is 0.20 to 0.25). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-All dogs were anesthetized for surgical correction of the vestibulovaginal stenosis. Vaginal resection and anastomosis of the stenosis was performed in all 4 dogs, with 1 dog also undergoing episioplasty. Complete resolution of clinical signs was apparent in 3 dogs; 1 dog had postoperative complications including pollakiuria and stranguria, which resulted in rectal and vaginal prolapse. This dog underwent ovariohysterectomy, after which clinical signs resolved. All dogs had resolution of urinary tract infections at the time of follow-up (6 to 8 months after surgery). CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Resection and anastomosis may resolve recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs with severe or moderate vestibulovaginal stenosis. Episiotomy was not necessary for success of surgical treatment, and overall, that procedure increased morbidity, the severity of intraoperative hemorrhage, and duration of surgery.
Arathy D S Nair
Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological
Jang, Hye-Yeon; Parent, Joane M; Hagen, Chris; Colwell, Emily; Rist, Paul M; Murphy, Nicole; Burton, Shelley; Conboy, Gary
A dog from western Newfoundland was presented with paradoxical vestibular syndrome. First-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum were detected on fecal examination. Treatment with milbemycin oxime resulted in resolution of signs. This is the first report of the spread of this parasite to western Newfoundland and of paradoxical vestibular syndrome in a dog infected with A. vasorum.
Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.
Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...
Cui, Jing Hua; Yu, Bo; Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Zeng, Ying Chun; Cui, Zhi Gang; Huo, Xi Xiang
Infections by Cronobacter spp. are hazardous to infants since they can lead to neonatal meningitis, bacteremia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Cronobacter spp. are frequently resistant to β-lactam derivatives, macrolides, and aminoglycosides. In addition, multi-resistant strains have also been detected. In China, the isolation rate of Cronobacter spp. from commercial powdered infant formula (PIF) or follow-up formula (FUF) is relatively high. Nevertheless, clinical cases of Cronobacter infection have been ignored to date. Here we describe two cases of Cronobacter infection detected at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Care Center Hospital (Wuhan City, China). We provide the genomic analysis of the isolates and the antibiotic-resistance profiles of the two strains. The Cronobacter strains identified in this study were not susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycoside, and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed various genes known to encode antibiotic resistance. Future studies are needed to determine whether the genes predicted in this study are functional. As with Enterobacter spp., the antibiotic resistance of Cronobacter is a serious issue that requires more attention. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.
Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L
The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Headley,Selwyn Arlington; Graça,Dominguita Lühers; Costa,Mateus Matiuzzi da; Vargas,Agueda Castagna de
Canine distemper virus infection and secondary Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia are described in mongrel dogs. Canine distemper was characterised by nonsuppurative demyelinating encephalitis with typical inclusion bodies in astrocytes. B. bronchiseptica was isolated from areas of purulent bronchopneumonia.
Zachary, Dalila; Chapin, Kimberly; Binns, Linda; Tashima, Karen
We report a case of cutaneous mucormycosis and Enterobacter infection developing in a 50-year-old diabetic woman following a dog bite that showed delayed development and diagnosis in comparison with typical zygomycotic cutaneous lesions. PMID:22567468
Kurze, Christoph; Mayack, Christopher; Hirche, Frank
Host-pathogen coevolution leads to reciprocal adaptations, allowing pathogens to increase host exploitation or hosts to minimise costs of infection. As pathogen resistance is often associated with considerable costs, tolerance may be an evolutionary alternative. Here, we examined the effect of two...
Felipe da Silva Krawczak
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study was designed to assess the occurrence of co-infection or cross-reaction in the serological techniques used for detecting the anti-Leishmania spp., -Babesia canis vogeli and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in urban dogs from an area endemic to these parasites. METHODS: The serum samples from dogs were tested for the Babesia canis vogeli strain Belo Horizonte antigen and Ehrlichia canis strain São Paulo by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT and by anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody detection to assess Leishmania infection. We used the following four commercial kits for canine visceral leishmaniasis: ELISA, IFAT, Dual Path Platform (DPP (Bio Manguinhos(r/FIOCRUZ/MS and a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios. RESULTS : Of 96 serum samples submitted to serological assays, 4 (4.2% were positive for Leishmania as determined by ELISA; 12 (12.5%, by IFAT; 14 (14.6% by rK39 RDT; and 20 (20.8%, by DPP. Antibodies against Ehrlichia and Babesia were detected in 23/96 (23.9% and 30/96 (31.2% samples, respectively. No significant association was identified between the results of tests for detecting Babesia or Ehrlichia and those for detecting Leishmania (p-value>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrated co-infection with Ehrlichia or Babesia and Leishmania in dogs from Minas Gerais (Brazil; we also found that the serological tests that were used did not cross-react.
Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...
Dos Santos, Laís Ferrari; Guimarães, Maíra Freitas; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; da Silva, Ivo Wesley Gomes; Santos, Josenilton Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Horta, Mauricio Claudio
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that causes severe reproductive problems in livestock and generates economic losses for farmers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in small mammals, both wild and domestic, in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil: the National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC), state of Piauí, a preserved area; and rural areas in the municipalities of Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, state of Pernambuco, non-preserved areas. Serum samples were evaluated using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Approximately 4% (6/152) of the wild animals were positive, all of them in the non-preserved area. Overall, the seroprevalence rates among goats and sheep were 13.4 (77/576) and 4.6% (24/518), respectively, confirmed in both areas. The seroprevalence rates in dogs and cats were 5.6 (10/180) and 4.7% (2/43) and were determined only in the non-preserved area. The risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection were as follows: ages of 1-3 and > 3 years for goats and sheep, region (preserved area) for goats, intensive management system for sheep, and region (non-preserved area) for dogs and wildlife. The present study confirmed the presence of circulation of Leptospira spp. in both of these areas of the Caatinga biome, as well as a variety of serotypes in these areas.
Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitris; Petanides, Theodoros; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important zoonotic disease. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of CanL is meglumine antimonate. Drugs of this class have been associated with pancreatitis and cardiotoxicity in humans infected with Leishmania spp. The aim of this study was to measure serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (Spec cPL) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in dogs with leishmaniosis during treatment with meglumine antimonate, and to compare them with those of dogs with leishmaniosis not treated with this drug. A total of 30 non-uremic dogs with leishmaniosis, living in Greece, were prospectively enrolled into the study. Of the 30 dogs, 20 (Group A) were treated with a combination of meglumine antimonate (100mg/kg, SC, q24 h) and allopurinol (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days, while 10 dogs (Group B) were treated with allopurinol alone (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected at timepoint 0 (before treatment) and at 14 and 28 days after the initiation of treatment. None of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a Spec cPL concentration suggestive of pancreatitis (≥ 400 μg/L) or clinical signs suggestive of pancreatitis at any of the timepoints. Similarly, none of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a serum cTnI concentration above the upper limit of the reference range (>0.5 ng/mL) or clinical evidence of cardiotoxicity at any of the 3 timepoints. In the present study, meglumine antimonate treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis did not result in clinical or laboratory evidence of either pancreatitis or cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which is the cause of toxoplasmosis and can infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including dogs and humans. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Ahvaz, southwest city of Iran, and investigated the related possible risk factors. A total of 180 serum samples were collected from dogs referred to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz. The samples were then tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies were 46.67%. Logistic regression and chi square tests were used for evaluating of risk factors. The positivity increased statistically significantly with dogâs gender (56% females and 39% males, PÂ =Â 0.001, age (18% in <2Â years old, 96% in â¥4Â years old, PÂ =Â 0.001 and place of living (47% outdoor dogs 38% house hold dogs, PÂ =Â 0.025. However, no statistically significant association was found with dogsâ breed, deworming, food ingestion or contact with cats. Overall, the results showed a relatively high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in southwest Iran (Ahvaz and proved association of T. gondii prevalence rates with the dogâs age, gender and place of living. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Outdoor dogs, House hold dogs, Deworming
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of intestinal Spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira in Czech dogs and to determine the susceptibility of obtained B. pilosicoli isolates to selected antibacterial substances. Spirochetes were diagnosed microscopically in 23 out of 1139 samples of dogs’ excrements, primarily intended for a parasitological testing. The cultivation of positive samples provided 10 brachyspira isolates, which were, on the basis of their biochemical activity and the results of the species-specific PCR, identified as B. pilosicoli (9 isolates and B. hyodysenteriae (1 isolate. These dogs came from households. All the 7 tested isolates B. pilosicoli were sensitive to metronidazole and doxycycline, uniformly resistant to erythromycin, partly sensitive to cefazoline, lincomicine and ampicilline except for one isolate of B. pilosicoli, which was resistant to ampicilline. The second part of study was focused on dogs with diarrhoea that came from animal shelters, where a high prevalence of 58% (10/17 of B. pilosicoli was found.
Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita
Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.
Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola
Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...
Nicklin, Amanda M; McEntee, Margaret C; Ledbetter, Eric C
Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infections are common in domestic dogs, but stimuli causing viral reactivation and recrudescent disease are poorly understood. Immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals are currently the only experimentally established triggers for recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection in dogs; however, ocular CHV-1 shedding has been reported clinically following strontium-90 beta radiotherapy of the ocular surface and it has been speculated that radiotherapy can directly induce viral reactivation. Strontium-90 is used as a beta radiation source for the treatment of a variety of neoplastic and immune-mediated canine ocular surface diseases. In the present study, the effects of ocular surface strontium-90 beta radiotherapy in dogs latently infected with CHV-1 were evaluated. Ten mature dogs with experimentally induced latent CHV-1 infections were randomly divided into two groups: one group received a single fraction 50 Gy radiation dose in one application from a strontium-90 ophthalmic applicator and the second group received sham radiotherapy. Dogs were then monitored for 45 days for recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection using clinical and virological outcome measures. Clinical ophthalmic examinations, ocular sample CHV-1 PCR assays, and serum CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody assays were performed at specified intervals. No abnormalities suggestive of recurrent CHV-1 ocular disease were observed on clinical examination in any dog during the study. Ocular viral shedding was not detected and CHV-1 virus neutralizing titers remained stable in all dogs. A single fraction 50 Gy radiation dose administered to the ocular surface by strontium-90 beta radiotherapy did not result in detectable recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection in mature dogs with experimentally induced latent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita
Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016
Dirceu Joaquim Costa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×10(7 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×10(5 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. CONCLUSION: The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission.
Ribeiro, R A N; Teixeira-Neto, R G; Belo, V S; Ferreira, E C; Schallig, H D F H; Silva, E S
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10% in humans. In urban areas of Brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (Leishmania infantum) of VL, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are seropositive in both the immunochromatographic dual path platform rapid test (DPP(®); Bio-Manguinhos) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an L. major-like antigen (Bio-Manguinhos). Vaccination is an additional tool in the control of canine VL, but the use of Leishmune(®) (Zoetis Indústria de Produtos Veterinários, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), which contains the fucose mannose ligand (FML) isolated from L. donovani, is not currently recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health because vaccinated animals may exhibit positive serology and there are reservations regarding the efficacy of the vaccine. The aims of the present study were: (i) to verify the abilities of the fast agglutination screening test (FAST), the direct agglutination test (DAT), the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT), the DPP rapid test, and ELISA tests with L. major-like and FML antigens to differentiate between L. infantum-infected and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs, and (ii) to analyze the sensitivities and specificities of the different methods. The reactivities to these tests of Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs (n = 71), asymptomatic (n = 20) and symptomatic (n = 20) naturally infected dogs, and unvaccinated healthy control dogs (n = 5) were compared. None of the Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs tested seropositive in FAST and DAT, although one dog was reactive to DPP and four dogs to ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. While 69 (97%) of vaccinated dogs reacted to ELISA/FML, only one was seropositive in both ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. Individually, all immunodiagnostic tests presented high specificities and positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and high specificity values were
Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina
Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.
Vilhena, Hugo; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Schallig, Henk D F H; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a global zoonosis endemic in more than 70 countries in Europe, North Africa, Asia and America; however, data on this infection is scarce from southern Africa. The aim of this study was to survey dogs in Luanda, Angola, for Leishmania infection. One hundred-and-three dogs presented to a veterinary medical centre in Luanda were serologically and molecularly assessed for Leishmania with the direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two dogs were seropositive, with DAT titres of 800 and ≥6400; the latter was also found to be PCR-positive and confirmed to be infected with L. infantum by DNA sequence analysis. No other dog was found to be PCR-positive. The first dog had been imported from Portugal, but the latter had never left Angola (neither had its parents), strongly suggesting an autochthonous infection. Although other cases of CanL have previously been described in the country, this is the first reported study of canine Leishmania infection at the population level, as well as the first report on the molecular characterization of L. infantum in dogs from Angola.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease diffused worldwide, and wildlife species are commonly considered to be important epidemiological carriers. Four-hundred and forty‑one serological and 198 renal samples from red deer, roe deer and chamois collected in the Province of Sondrio were analysed using the microscopic agglutination test and histopathologic examination. Positive serological findings were found only in 15 red deer and 19 positive serologic reactions were recorded. The most frequent serovars were Bratislava and Grippotyphosa, followed by Pomona, Hardjo and Copenhagheni. Twenty-two per cent of renal samples from seropositive red deer were affected by mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic and fibrosing tubulo-interstitial nephritis, mainly involving the cortical parenchyma. In this study, antibodies to Leptospira spp. were infrequent in wild ruminants, and only red deer seemed to be sensitive to the infection. Given the low presence and the fact that there was no record of Leptospira spp. infections in cattle, sheep, goats and also hunters in area during the study period, wild ruminants in Alpine environments cannot be considered as reservoirs or important sources of Leptospira spp. infection for humans or domestic animals.
Miró, Guadalupe; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Gálvez, Rosa; Mínguez, Juan José; Marino, Valentina; Otranto, Domenico
Onchocerca lupi causes ocular pathology of varying severity in dogs from south-western United States, western Europe and northern Asia. This filarioid has also been recognized as a zoonotic agent in Tunisia, Turkey, Iran and the USA, though the information about the biology and epidemiology of this infection is largely unknown. In Europe, O. lupi has been reported in dogs from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Portugal and Romania and in a cat from Portugal. The present study was designed to establish the occurrence of O. lupi in dogs in southwestern Spain. In the present study a total of 104 dogs of different breed, sex, and age living in a shelter in Huelva (SW Spain) were examined. Skin snip samples were collected using a disposable scalpel in the forehead and inter-scapular regions and stored as aliquots in saline solution (0.5 ml) before light microscopy observation of individual sediments (20 μl) and molecular examination. Of the 104 dogs examined, 5 (4.8 %) were skin snip-positive for O. lupi: two by microscopy and three by PCR. One of the O. lupi infected dogs showed neurological signs but ocular ultrasonography and/or MRI detected no abnormalities. This first report of O. lupi infection in dogs in southern Spain expands the range of geographical distribution of this parasite and sounds an alarm bell for practitioners and physicians working in that area.
Christopher Igoche Ogbaje
Results: Out of the 186 dogs, 4 (2.15% were found to be positive for the presence of microfilaria. Out of the 4 positive cases, 3 (1.61% were microfilaria and 1 (0.54% was unidentified motile parasite. A total of 104 females were examined and only 1 (0.96% was positive, while 3 (3.66% males out of 82 examined were positive. Out of 141 older dogs examined, 4 (2.84% were positive. Hematology of the positive dogs revealed mild anemia and moderate thrombocytopenia with Mean+/-SD of 34.8+/-15.30% and 108+/-60.81x109/L, respectively. Conclusion: The study confirms Knott's technique to be the most sensitive in the diagnosis of dirofilariasis in dogs using parasitological techniques. The findings confirm the occurrence of D. immitis in dogs in Makurdi with low prevalence and that the general public are at high risk of spreading infection from the dogs. Infection is more in male and adult dogs. This work can assist in planning appropriate strategies for controlling and prevention of D. immitis infection in Nigeria. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 338-344
Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio
Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treat...
Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana
Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence. There are only a few reports of human infections. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas in an intravenous drug abuser. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in this case was definite using the Duke criteria. The course of the disease was complicated with a heart failure and possible mycotic aneurysm in the left leg. After the end of antimicrobial therapy aortic valve replacement was done because of severe heart failure.
O. V. Zarucheynova
Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.
Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan
Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...
Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E
The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to
Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G
Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.
Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka; Derda, Monika; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Hadaś, Edward; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Solarczyk, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Wandurska-Nowak, Elżbieta
The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system play an important role in the recognition of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In this study, we examined the changes in the level of expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein in the brains of mice infected with Acanthamoeba spp. The Acanthamoeba strains were isolated from a patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) (Ac55) and Malta Lake (Ac43). In the brain isolated from mice at 2 days post-infection (dpi) with Acanthamoeba strains Ac55 and Ac43, mRNAs for TLR2 and TLR4 were significantly more strongly expressed in comparison with the uninfected mice. In Acanthamoeba-infected mice, TLR2 and TLR4 expression was detected in neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells within the neocortex. These receptors showed more intense expression in ependymocytes of the choroid plexus of infected mice at 2 dpi. Increased levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in infected mice suggest the involvement of these TLRs in the recognition of Acanthamoeba spp. pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.
Full Text Available The presence of Giardia genotypes was investigated in 18 raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides and 80 red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes on one farm. To demonstrate Giardia cysts, fresh and trichrome stained smears were microscopically screened. Two molecular markers were used for Giardia genotyping: a fragment of the beta-giardin gene and a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. All faecal samples obtained from red foxes were negative. Giardia cysts were identified only in 2 of the 18 raccoon dogs. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis from both raccoon dogs belonged to the D assemblage. This finding of a new animal reservoir of G. duodenalis canids-specific genotypes is important in order to eliminate the risk of infecting other animals bred for fur. Further molecular analyses of Giardia isolates in raccoon dogs are required. The present study represents the first contribution to knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in raccoon dogs.
Marta A. Lauricella
Full Text Available The population dynamics and the prevalence of chagasic infection of 352 dogs living in 108 rural houses infested by triatomines were studied. The region was divided into three sections according to increasing distances to an urban area. Each animal was identified by means of its particular characteristics and built, and its owners gave information about its habits. By means of xenodiagnosis, serology and ECG studies, prevalences of infection, parasitological-serological correlation, percentage of altered electrocardiographic outlines and percentage of houses with parasitemic dogs, were determined. The rural area showed a characteristic T. cruzi infection pattern and differences in the canine population parameters with respect to the other areas were observed: a higher proportion of puppies than adult dogs, a more sedentary population, higher prevalences of infection, as measured by xenodiagnosis, in dogs, and the highest proportion of bedroom insects infected with T. cruzi. It is assumed that the sedentary characteristics of the human population in that rural area impinge in the blood offer to the triatomine population, and the high percentage of parasitemic dogs of the area, contribute to the rise of "kissing ougs" infected with T. cruzi found in bedrooms.
Reusch Claudia E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term outcome of B. burgdorferi infections in adult dogs are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Bernese Mountain dogs with serological evidence of natural B. burgdorferi infection more often develop signs such as lameness, azotemia or proteinuria during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 3.0 years. Seropositive Bernese Mountain dogs were compared to seronegative Bernese Mountain dogs and to seropositive and seronegative control dogs of other breeds. Dogs included in a previous study on the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain dogs were re-evaluated. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole-cell sonicate as antigen and results were confirmed using a Western blot assay. Results Fifty-three Bernese Mountain dogs and 30 control dogs were re-evaluated. Re-evaluation was performed between 2.5 and 3.0 years (median 2.7 years after the first assessment. The age of the dogs at the second evaluation ranged from 3 to 11 years (median 6 years. There were no significant differences with regard to poor general condition or lameness between the first and the second evaluation. At the first evaluation 22 (42% of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 11 (37% of the control dogs were considered positive for antibodies against B. burgdorferi. At the second evaluation 25 (47% of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 12 (40% of the control dogs were considered positive; 69% of the dogs showed the same serological result at both examinations and 31% were seroconverted or seroreverted. During the first examination, azotemia was diagnosed in 6 Bernese Mountain dogs and during the second examination in 11 Bernese Mountain dogs. No control dogs had azotemia in this study. In seropositive dogs there was no increase in lameness or signs of renal disease over time. Conclusion It may be concluded that antibodies against B. burgdorferi determined by whole cell ELISA
D. V. Moris
Full Text Available Several yeast species of Candida genus can colonize the skin as well as the mucous membrane of the vagina and the digestive tract for short or long periods. Depending on the host's immunological state and the yeast's virulence, colonization can become an infection, invading the colonized tissues and also disseminating. AIDS is characterized by the host's intensive and progressive immunodepression which manifests as diverse symptoms, mainly lesions in the mouth. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is an important indicator of the disease progress and the immunosuppression increase. The factors involved in the equilibrium between Candida spp. and HIV-infected subjects are sometimes contradictory and were evaluated in the present study specially for colonization.
Pinto Aldair JW
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in dogs is rarely reported and has not previously been documented in South Africa. A case of a stray Maltese crossbreed dog with extensive multifocal pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis is described. Pulmonary granulomas in this case were poorly encapsulated and contained large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, highlighting the potential for infected companion animals to excrete the pathogen. Treatment of canine tuberculosis is generally not advised, and for this reason, euthanasia of diseased animals must be advocated in most instances. Physicians and veterinarians must be aware that companion animals with active disease caused by M. tuberculosis could act as a potential source of infection.
Khoshakhlagh, Paria; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Abbas; Ozlati, Maryam
Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The DNA of the recovered T. canis eggs was then extracted and amplified by LAMP and PCR. Furthermore, ITS2 amplicons were sequenced for appraisal of the phylogenetic analysis. Nine, 5 and 11% of T. canis infections were identified by microscopy, PCR and LAMP, respectively. It was detected that LAMP was 10 times (10 -10 to 10 -13 g/μl) more sensitive than PCR (10 -10 to 10 -12 g/μl). The kappa value between LAMP and PCR indicated a faint concurrence (0.463). The kappa coefficient between LAMP and flotation technique indicated a strong agreement (0.667). The highest infection rate (n = 11) was detected in non-dewormed pet dogs, particularly those less than 3 months old (P canis eggs in infected pet dogs. It was proposed that the dog holder's awareness is insufficient to implement regular deworming schedules. Additionally, regional policymakers should broadly revise anthelmintic treatment guidelines.
Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study alterations in trombocyte numbers and trombocyte indices were investigated in 51 dogs naturally infected with E. canis and/or A. phagocytophilum. Achieved results were compared to those of 20 healty dogs comprising control group. Materials and methods. Naturally occuring vector borne diseases were diagnosed by use of a canine point-of-care ELISA kit (Snap 4Dx, Idexx. Dogs were enrolled into 3 groups as follows; II. group involved A. phagocytophilum infected dogs (n=10, III. group (n=13 E. canis+ A. phagocytophilum co-infected, and IV. group (n=28 E. canis infected dogs. Healthy controls (n=20 were enrolled in group I. Results. Mean PLT counts were significantly decreased in II., III. and IV. groups (159.6±63.5, 142.3±44.3, 148.7±33.5, respectively in comparison to control group (370.4±28.6 (p≤0.01. Mean PCT values in groups II., III. and IV. (0.1530±0.590, 0.1531±0.0441, 0.1450±0.314, respectively were significantly decreased in contrast to control group (0.3695±0.0283 (p≤0.01. Between PLT and PCT values, statistically significant positive correlation (p≤0.01 (r=0.988, 0.990 and 0.981, respectively was evident among groups II., III. and IV. Conclusions. Infected dogs showed significant alterations (p≤0.01 among mean PLT and PCT values and a positive correlation was evident between those 2 parameters (p≤0.01, whereas alterations on mean MPV and PDWc were not statistically significant. Finally it was suggested that according to the aforimentioned results, PLT and PCT values may be used as valuable parameters for diagnosis and probably for monitorization and prognosis in infected dogs with Ehrlichiosis and/or Anaplasmosis.
Glaus, T. M.; Schnyder, M.; Dennler, M.; Tschuor, F.; Wenger, M.; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), together with its accompanying clinical signs and underlying causes, e.g. pulmonary thrombosis, are more and more recognized as an important clinical entity also in dogs. This article characterizes the clinical picture of 3 dogs with PH caused by natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. All 3 dogs were of small breeds ( 10 kg), the age at the time of diagnosis was 1, 2 and 11 years. Clinically, dyspnea and exercise intolerance were the predominating signs, 2 dogs developed hemoptysis, 1 dog developed right sided congestive heart failure. Severe arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 41 - 53 mmHg) reflected the severity of pulmonary parenchymal and vascular damage. Severe hyperglobulinemia (59 und 88 g/l) in two dogs implicated a long lasting infection. Anthelmintic treatment in 2 dogs resulted in quick clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic normalization. PH is the consequence of multiple causes and pathomechanisms, and the recognition of PH is primarily of differential diagnostic relevance. Prognosis and therapy in cases with PH mainly depend on the underlying cause, rather than on the PH and on its degree
Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri
Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188-54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188-45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs.
Full Text Available Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs, Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1, the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7% blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2% blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs.
Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri
Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508
Keid, L B; Chiebao, D P; Batinga, M C A; Faita, T; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F de S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M
Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnosis through blood culture. The association between clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis and positive results through blood culture was determined. Of the 753 dogs tested, 166 (22.0%) had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis and 158 (20.9%) had positive blood cultures. Seventy-two dogs had positive blood culture and had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis, while 91 dogs showed at least one clinical manifestation suggestive of brucellosis although blood culture was negative. Of the 38 kennels, 16 (42.1%) had at least one positive dog. The prevalence of infection in each kennel varied from 3.8% to 62.6%. Abortion/stillbirth, failure to conceive and enlargement of lymph nodes were significantly associated with brucellosis in female. No association of clinical signs and positive results in blood culture was observed in males. None of the kennels has been carrying out programmes to control brucellosis, and the sale of infected dogs was considered a common practice yielding risks to the public health, in view of the zoonotic potential of the infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Schnyder, Manuela
BACKGROUND: In the last decade serological tests for detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies have been developed and adopted for individual diagnosis and epidemiological studies in dogs. Although confirmed positive at necropsy, antigen detection was not possible in single experimentally, as well as naturally infected dogs, possibly due to immune complex formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on detection of A. vas...
FREQUENCY OF ANTI- Toxocara spp. ANTIBODIES IN INDIVIDUALS ATTENDED BY THE CENTRO DE SALUD FAMILIAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH Toxocara canis EGGS IN DOG FECES, IN THE COASTAL NIEBLA TOWN, CHILE.
Vargas, Catalina; Torres, Patricio; Jercic, María Isabel; Lobos, Marta; Oyarce, Alan; Miranda, Juan Carlos; Ayala, Salvador
The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA). Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany), and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France). Hematological exams were performed using an automated blood counter and blood smears. Dog feces were collected from the ground along the main road in Niebla, including rural and urban locations. Ninety (25.4%) of the 355 examined individuals were positive by the ELISA test. The frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies and the infection risk were significantly higher (p 0.05).
FREQUENCY OF ANTI- Toxocara spp. ANTIBODIES IN INDIVIDUALS ATTENDED BY THE CENTRO DE SALUD FAMILIAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH Toxocara canis EGGS IN DOG FECES, IN THE COASTAL NIEBLA TOWN, CHILE
Full Text Available SUMMARY The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA. Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany, and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France. Hematological exams were performed using an automated blood counter and blood smears. Dog feces were collected from the ground along the main road in Niebla, including rural and urban locations. Ninety (25.4% of the 355 examined individuals were positive by the ELISA test. The frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies and the infection risk were significantly higher (p 0.05.
De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V
Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (pcontrol group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (pcontrol of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.
Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis
The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. PMID:23477297
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.
Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.
Iregui, C A; Comas, J; Vásquez, G M; Verján, N
Streptococcus agalactiae causes a severe systemic disease in fish, and the routes of entry are still ill-defined. To address this issue, two groups of 33 red tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 10 g were orally infected with S. agalactiae (n = 30), and by immersion (n = 30), six individuals were control-uninfected fish. Three tilapias were killed at each time point from 30 min to 96 h post-inoculation (pi); controls were killed at 96 h. Samples from most tissues were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E), indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and periodic acid-Schiff; only intestine from fish infected by gavage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The results of both experiments suggest that the main entry site of S. agalactiae in tilapia is the gastrointestinal epithelium; mucus seems to play an important defensive role, and environmental conditions may be an important predisposing factor for the infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva
The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri
EDTA as anticoagulant. Activated platelets and PLA formation were detected by measuring surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) on platelets, monocytes and neutrophils. Of the Babesia-infected dogs, 29 survived and seven died. The percentage of CD62P-positive monocytes was significantly higher (P = 0.......036) in the Babesia-infected dogs (54%) than in healthy control dogs (35.3%). However, there were no significant differences between the Babesia-infected and control groups for CD62P-positive platelets (4.9% and 1.2%, respectively) and CD62P-positive neutrophils (28.3% and 17.9%, respectively). The percentage of CD62...... groups for the percentage of CD62P-positive platelets (survivors 4.8%; non-survivors 5.3%; controls 1.2%) or CD62P-positive neutrophils (survivors 31.6%; non-survivors 5.6%; controls 17.9%). In conclusion, Babesia-infected dogs, specifically dogs that survived, had a significantly increased percentage...
Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo
Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.
ALESSANDRA PARO RODRIGUES CESAR
Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in the environment and it has been isolated from food that were associated to outbreaks of high lethality in many countries. Thus, this bacterium represents an important pathogen to the public health. Ready-to-eat products, likecooked stuffed food, within them, frankfurters, are associated to human listeriosis in many countries. Taking into consideration the importance of the subject and the need of more data about it, the occurrence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in industrial plants, in meat raw materials, in slurry and frankfurters was investigated.These samples were collected in two production plants with SIF (Federal Inspection Service; in one of them GMP, HACCP and SOP were implemented. The results of the 1 06 microbiological analysis were submitted to the program @Risk to obtain the risk analysis; the meanvalues results showed that 7 to 9% of the frankfurters in the market may have L. monocytogenes. The analysis indicated that 88 strains of L. monocytogenes were obtained from 1 06 samples; among them, 76 werecollected in the industrial plants that participate in the experiment, and 30 were collected in the market. In serological typification, 95% of these strains were classified as serotypes 4b, 1 /2a and 1 /2b. Besides the presence of the bacterium in frankfurthers consumed inBrazil and the risk factors associated to this pathogen, the situation concerns because of the lack of epidemiological data, absence of patterns and the deficient information given to the consumer, specially information related to the presence of L. monocytogenes, particularly important to the groups at risk, as well as information related to the importance of heating the product
Bouzouraa, Tarek; René-Martellet, Magalie; Chêne, Jeanne; Attipa, Charalampos; Lebert, Isabelle; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Halos, Lenaig; Chabanne, Luc
Since the first description of Anaplasma platys Infection (ApI), the disease has been sporadically reported worldwide. Whereas it is considered a subclinical disease in the United States or in Australia, severe cases are reported in Europe. Thus far, little information is available regarding the clinical and laboratory findings associated with the disease and the implication of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in Southern Europe. The purpose of the study was to describe clinical and laboratory findings in PCR-confirmed naturally infected dogs in the Mediterranean Basin, and to assess the potential impact of co-infections with other VBPs. This is a retrospective analysis of medical records from 32 client-owned dogs diagnosed with ApI using PCR-based assays. Anorexia (62.5%) and weight loss (43.8%) were the major changes, whereas lethargy was less frequent (34.4%). Lymphadenomegaly (43.8%), hyperthermia (40.6%) and hemorrhage (37.5%) were frequent clinical abnormalities, whereas cutaneous signs (31.3%), musculoskeletal disorders (21.9%), splenomegaly (15.6%), dehydration and ocular inflammation (12.5%) were less common. Hematological abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (81.0%), anemia (81.0%), leukocytosis (33.3%) and leucopenia (23.8%). Seven dogs (33.3%) were severely thrombocytopenic. Among the 28 dogs with complete testing, 15 and 13 were mono- and co-infected, respectively. Co-infections included Ehrlichia canis (3 dogs), Leishmania infantum (4), Babesia vogeli (2) and Hepatozoon canis (5). One dog was infected concurrently with Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli. The 1-month mortality rate was 23.9% and only 38.1% improved. In the univariate analysis the 15 mono- and the 13 co-infected dogs did not differ regarding the relative frequencies of clinical and laboratory findings. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggested the existence of 2 different groups of strains: one of them might have higher pathogenicity. In
Full Text Available The Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis has low fecundity and high incidence of abortion. Several studies have associated reproductive failure of water buffalo with viral infections but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. To investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a farm where, in the arch of 11 months, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% in the 3rd and 5th month of pregnancy. Antibodies to Chlamydiaceae were detected in 57% of the aborted cows, while the rate of positivity was 0% in overtly healthy cows used as control. By a PCR assay 3 of 14 vaginal swabs from aborted animals tested positive for Chlamydophila agents and, additionally, 3 out of 7 aborted foetuses tested positive for Chlamydophila spp., with two being co-infections by Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum and one being characterised as Cp. abortus. The presence of anti-Chlamydiaceae antibodies in 57% of the aborted animals and the detection of Chlamydophila agents in foetal organs and in vaginal swabs is consistent with the history of abortions (P<0.002 observed in the herd and may suggest a pathogenic role by Chlamydophila spp. in water buffalo.
Slavov, Evgeni; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev; Dzhelebov, Petko; Kanelov, Ivan; Andonova, Maria; Mircheva Georgieva, Teodora; Dimitrova, Silviya
As obesity is a state of low-grade inflammation, we aimed to investigate the combined effect of high-fat diet and bacterial infection on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in dogs. We used 20 healthy, male, mongrel dogs randomly divided into four groups: control group-healthy, non-obese dogs; infected group-non-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius); obese group-obese dogs (after 90 day high-fat diet) and obese-infected group-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius). To evaluate insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed. Plasma insulin increased in all group after glucose infusion. The lowest values were found in obese-infected group. Blood glucose also increased on 3 min after glucose infusion and then gradually decreased. In obese-infected group glucose concentration on 30 min was still significantly higher than initial levels, while in other groups glucose concentration returned to the initial values. The lowest rate of glucose elimination was found in infected group. In dogs of obese group and obese-infected group AUC(ins 0-60 min) was lower compared to controls. AUC(glucose 0-60 min) values were lowest in infected group, while in obese-infected group values were the highest. Levels of I/G in dogs of obese-infected group were significantly lower compared to controls and infected group. In conclusion, these results reveal that infection in obese dogs leads to impaired glucose tolerance, which is result of impairment in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the metazoan Trichinella spp. infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. Both parasitic infections can cause serious illness in human beings and can be acquired by ingesting under-cooked meat harbouring infec...
Rossi, Michael A; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Linder, Keith E; Messa, Jacqueline B; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Bartonella henselae, a Gram-negative, zoonotic Alphaproteobacteria that infects erythrocytes, endothelial cells and dendritic cells, has previously been implicated as a cause of panniculitis in dogs and a human. An 8-year-old, spayed female Labrador retriever and its 78-year-old male owner living in the same household. When preliminary and advanced testing failed to identify the cause of near-simultaneous-onset dermatological lesions, Bartonella serology, Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to test specimens from the dog and owner. Bartonella henselae, genotype San Antonio 2 DNA was amplified and sequenced from the man's BAPGM enrichment blood culture and the dog's panniculitis lesion. The bacterium was visualized by immunohistochemistry in the dog's panniculitis lesion; however, neither the dog nor the owner was B. henselae seroreactive. Antibiotic therapy elicited dermatological improvement in both dog and owner. Bartonella henselae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that induces granulomatous inflammatory lesions in various tissues of animals, including humans. We conclude that this bacterium had a contributory or causative role in the development of the dermatological lesions in the dog and owner. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.
Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia.
Lombard, C.W.; Ackerman, N.
Radiographically, the size of the right ventricle of 54 heartworm-infected dogs was graded subjectively as normal, 1 +, 2 +, and 3 + and served to classify the dogs into groups A, B, C, and D. With M-mode echocardiograms, right ventricular enlargement ratios (RVE ratios) were determined for each dog by dividing the measured right ventricular internal diastolic dimension (RVIDd) by the expected RVIDd of a normal dog of the same body weight. The normal RVIDd relation to body weight was derived from 25 healthy heartworm-free control dogs. These two variables were linearly related with a correlation coefficient r 2 = 0.59. Means and standard deviations of the RVE ratio were calculated for each group. Despite wide ranges and considerable overlap, the ratio was significantly different (t-test, p < 0.005) between groups with the exception of groups A and B, and C and D. The incidence of electrocardiographic signs of right ventricular hypertrophy was also determined for each group; it was 38% in group C and 62% in group D. From this data, it was concluded that M-mode echocardiography is a very sensitive technique for the documentation of right ventricular dilatation in heartworm-infected dogs, correlating with radiographic impressions of right ventricular enlargement. (author)
Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Schnyder, Manuela
In the last decade serological tests for detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies have been developed and adopted for individual diagnosis and epidemiological studies in dogs. Although confirmed positive at necropsy, antigen detection was not possible in single experimentally, as well as naturally infected dogs, possibly due to immune complex formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on detection of A. vasorum antigen in sera of experimentally (n = 21, 119 follow-up sera) and naturally (n = 18) infected animals. In addition, sera of dogs showing clinical signs consistent with angiostrongylosis (n = 10), of randomly selected dogs (n = 58) and of dogs with other parasitic infections (n = 15) were evaluated. Sera were subjected to heat treatment at 100 °C after addition of 0.5 M EDTA (dilution 1:5) and tested with ELISAs for detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen before and after treatment. Between 5 and 11 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) the percentage of positive untreated samples (experimentally infected dogs) increased over time from 33.3 to 90%. Single samples were still negative between 12 and 15 wpi. Overall, between 5 and 15 wpi, 50.6% (45/89) of the available samples were seropositive. From 3 to 6 wpi EDTA/heat treatment caused a change in 8/34 (23.5%) of the samples, with most (n = 6, 17.6%) converting from positive to negative. In contrast, from 7 to 10 wpi, treatment induced a change in 19/52 (36.5%) samples, with all but one converting from negative to positive. Thirteen of 18 naturally infected dogs were antigen positive before and 15 after EDTA/heat treatment, respectively. Untreated samples of 3 dogs with suspected angiostrongylosis were antigen positive, of which only one remained positive after EDTA/heat treatment. One of 58 untreated random samples was antigen positive; this sample became negative after treatment, while another turned positive. One of 15
Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S
Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 μm (range 35-42 by 26-31 μm). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis.
Vieira, Fernanda de Toledo; Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Filho, Jonas Moraes; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Barbieri, Amália Regina Mar; Egert, Leandro; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Dietze, Reynaldo
This work aims to identify and quantify the percentage of Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. positive pet dogs, and to identify ticks collected on these animals in the state of Espírito Santo, in the Southeast region of Brazil. The study included 378 dogs, 226 females and 152 males, of various breeds and ages (mean age of 4.1 years). All animals were examined for ticks, and whole blood was collected and processed by conventional PCR protocols for Babesia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Hepatozoon spp. and by real-time PCR for Ehrlichia canis. Of the 378 dogs examined, 157 (41.53%) had ticks at the time of the study, which were identified as R. sanguineus s.l. in 154 animals (98.10%), Amblyomma ovale in one animal (0.63%), and Amblyomma sculptum in 2 animals (1.27%). In the PCR for Babesia spp., 5 animals (1.32%) were positive, producing DNA sequences 100% identical to Babesia vogeli. For Anaplasmataceae, 34 animals (9%) were positive, 10 of which generated DNA sequences 100% similar to Ehrlichia canis. The other 24 samples generated fragments 100% identical to Anaplasma platys. In the PCR for Hepatozoon spp, 39 animals (10.31%) were positive, producing sequences 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Finally, in the real-time PCR specific for E. canis, 28 animals (7.40%) were positive. Coinfection with 2 or 3 agents was observed in 20 animals (5.29%). Of the 378 dogs sampled, 312 were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for E. canis and five species of Rickettsia (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommatis, R. rhipicephali and R. bellii). Among them, 71 dogs (22.75%) had a positive reaction for E. canis and 16 dogs (5.13%) had antibody titers higher than 64 to at least one Rickettsia species, 5 of them (1.60%) to R. rickettsii. Samples of blood were collected from 10 equines in the regions where dogs were found with positive serology for any one of the Rickettsia sp. tested. In the municipality of Vila Velha, two equines were
Cherry, Natalie A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Rossmeisl, John H; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Bartonella species comprise a genus of gram-negative, fastidious, intracellular bacteria that have been implicated in association with an increasing spectrum of disease manifestations in dogs and human patients. In this study, chronic canine and human disease, for which causation was not diagnostically defined, were reported by the breeder of a kennel of Doberman pinschers. In addition to other diagnostic tests, serology, polymerase chain reaction, and enrichment blood culture were used to assess the prevalence of Bartonella sp. infection in the dogs and their owner. From five dogs, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, multiple Bartonella henselae strains, and a species most similar to Candidatus B. volans, a rodent-associated Bartonella sp., were amplified and sequenced from biopsy tissues, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood enrichment cultures. The owner was bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, the same subsp. and genotype detected in one of her dogs. These results further emphasize the ecological complexity of Bartonella sp. transmission in nature.
Chua, Tock H; Manin, Benny O; Daim, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Drakeley, Chris
Anopheles balabacensis of the Leucospyrus group has been confirmed as the primary knowlesi malaria vector in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo for some time now. Presently, knowlesi malaria is the only zoonotic simian malaria in Malaysia with a high prevalence recorded in the states of Sabah and Sarawak. Anopheles spp. were sampled using human landing catch (HLC) method at Paradason village in Kudat district of Sabah. The collected Anopheles were identified morphologically and then subjected to total DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Plasmodium parasites in the mosquitoes. Identification of Plasmodium spp. was confirmed by sequencing the SSU rRNA gene with species specific primers. MEGA4 software was then used to analyse the SSU rRNA sequences and bulid the phylogenetic tree for inferring the relationship between simian malaria parasites in Sabah. PCR results showed that only 1.61% (23/1,425) of the screened An. balabacensis were infected with one or two of the five simian Plasmodium spp. found in Sabah, viz. Plasmodium coatneyi, P. inui, P. fieldi, P. cynomolgi and P. knowlesi. Sequence analysis of SSU rRNA of Plasmodium isolates showed high percentage of identity within the same Plasmodium sp. group. The phylogenetic tree based on the consensus sequences of P. knowlesi showed 99.7%-100.0% nucleotide identity among the isolates from An. balabacensis, human patients and a long-tailed macaque from the same locality. This is the first study showing high molecular identity between the P. knowlesi isolates from An. balabacensis, human patients and a long-tailed macaque in Sabah. The other common simian Plasmodium spp. found in long-tailed macaques and also detected in An. balabacensis were P. coatneyi, P. inui, P. fieldi and P. cynomolgi. The high percentage identity of nucleotide sequences between the P. knowlesi isolates from the long-tailed macaque, An. balabacensis and human patients suggests a close genetic relationship between the parasites from
Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T
The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (PGiardia (PGiardia and T. canis (PGiardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an infection in any of the study populations. Toxocara and Giardia present a zoonotic risk, especially in household dogs, where the majority of Giardia positive samples (80%) belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. In kennel dogs and clinically affected dogs the host-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were most prevalent (94% and 80%, respectively).
Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D
A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard ® , Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP ® 4Dx ® test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard ® 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Ploeger, Harm W
To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months. We performed a prospective study (July 2011 to October 2014) on shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of 938 household dogs older than six months from all over the Netherlands. The median follow-up time was 14 months. Monthly, owners sent faecal samples of their dogs for Toxocara testing and completed a questionnaire. Dogs were dewormed only after diagnosis of a patent infection (PI). Survival analysis was used to assess factors influencing the time to first diagnosed PIs (FPI) and the time to recurrent PIs (RPI). The overall prevalence of PIs was 4.5 %, resulting in an estimated average incidence of 0.54 PIs/dog/year. No PI was diagnosed in 67.9 % of the dogs, 17.5 % of the dogs went through only one PI and 14.6 % had > 1 PI. Prevalence of PIs always peaked during wintertime. Increased hazards for first diagnosed PIs were associated with coprophagy, geophagy, walking off-leash for ≥ 80 % of walking time, reported worms in the faeces, feeding a commercial diet and suffering from urologic or respiratory conditions. Median time to reinfection was nine months. Factors associated with increased hazards for recurrent PIs were taking corticosteroids, changing dog's main purpose, and proxies for veterinary care-seeking behaviours. We concluded that targeted anthelmintic treatments in household dogs may be feasible as PIs tend to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.
da Silva, Lidiane Gomes; Costa-Júnior, César Raimundo Lima; Figueiredo-Júnior, Carlos Alberto Santiago; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; Crovella, Sergio; Otranto, Domenico; Balbino, Valdir de Queiroz; Dantas-Torres, Filipe
Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic disease of great veterinary significance. Some dogs infected by L. infantum may mount a strong cellular immune response and clear the infection, while others may respond with exaggerated antibody production against the parasite and develop an overt disease, which may be fatal, if left untreated. The initial factors triggering the polarization of the immune response towards a predominantly T-helper 1 or T-helper 2 cytokines, as well as the markers of resistance and susceptibility to L. infantum infection and disease development in dogs, are not fully understood. Herein, we assessed the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the canine β-defensin-1 (CBD1) gene and the infection by L. infantum in two dog populations from Brazil (Sobral in Ceará State and São Raimundo Nonato in Piauí State) and one dog population from Italy. A total of 387 dogs were assessed for L. infantum by real time PCR and 34.6% of them were positive. In CBD1 gene sequences from these positive dogs, nine polymorphic sites were detected, but only SNPs 3, 4, 7 and 8 were associated with L. infantum, in dogs from southern Italy. No association was found with dogs from Brazil. This study sets the basis for further studies on the usefulness of CBD1 as a marker of L. infantum infection susceptibility in dogs.
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments.Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57.6% (n = 85, with significant variation across kennels. Dog age had a marginally significant effect on seropositivity, with one year of age increase associated with a 19.6% increase in odds of being seropositive (odds ratio 95% CI 0.996-1.435; p = 0.055. PCR analyses of blood revealed 17.4% of dogs harbored parasite DNA in their blood, including both seronegative and seropositive dogs. Molecular screening of organs from opportunistically sampled seropositive dogs revealed parasite DNA in heart, uterus, and mammary tissues. Strain-typing showed parasite discrete typing units (DTU TcI and TcIV present in dog samples, including a co-occurrence of both DTUs in two individual dogs. Bloodmeal analysis of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Triatoma sanguisuga insects collected from the kennels revealed exclusively dog DNA. Vector infection with T. cruzi was 80.6% (n = 36, in which T. gerstaeckeri disproportionately harbored TcI (p = 0.045 and T. sanguisuga disproportionately harbored TcIV (p = 0.029. Tracing infection status across dog litters showed some seropositive offspring of seronegative dams, suggesting infection of pups from local triatomine vectors rather than congenital transmission.Canine kennels are high-risk environments for T. cruzi transmission, in which dogs likely serve as the predominant parasite reservoir. Disease and death of working dogs from Chagas disease is associated with unmeasured yet undoubtedly significant financial consequences because working
Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.
Full Text Available The prevalence of Eimeria spp. infection and the intensity of fecal oocysts were determined in 250 sheep in Malayer suburb of Iran using flotation and sporulation techniques. The overall prevalence was 23.23% in which the young male sheep had the highest prevalence (37.61% with the highest intensity (63.58%. There were no significant difference in the prevalence between male (27.9% and female (22.93% in all age groups (P>0.05. The young sheep had significantly higher oocysts counts than the other groups (P0.05. The results of this investigation indicate that Eimeria infection is a problem in sheep in Malayer suburb and further studies will reveal more information about economic effects of this parasite which it will be useful for establishing control programs.
de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Castro Lima, Ana Karina; dos Santos, Rosiane Freire; Da-Silva, Silvia Amaral Gonçalves; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço
The intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi and the causative agents of Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, respectively, belong to the Trypanosomatidae family. Together, these two neglected tropical diseases affect approximately 25 million people worldwide. Whether the host can control the infection or develops disease depends on the complex interaction between parasite and host. Parasite surface and secreted molecules are involved in triggering specific signaling pathways essential for parasite entry and intracellular survival. The recognition of the parasite antigens by host immune cells generates a specific immune response. Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi have a multifaceted repertoire of strategies to evade or subvert the immune system by interfering with a range of signal transduction pathways in host cells, which causes the inhibition of the protective response and contributes to their persistence in the host. The current therapeutic strategies in leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are very limited. Efficacy is variable, toxicity is high, and the emergence of resistance is increasingly common. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the host-parasite interaction of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi infection and their mechanisms of subverting the immune response and how this knowledge can be used as a tool for the development of new drugs. PMID:26090399
Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has reemerged in recent years showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global incidence of human and canine disease than previously known. Dogs are the main domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Since the evolution of leishmaniasis and clinical appearance is a consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and host immune response, a profound knowledge about the immune profile developed in dog's infection is crucial for vaccine and immunomodulatory therapy design. The main goal of this paper is to compile the recent advances made on cytokine and phenotypic cell profiles in different tissues and organs of dogs infected with L. infantum. This paper also stressed that the knowledge of the immune responses developed, namely, in liver, lymph node, and spleen is very limited. All data emphasizes that more research on canine leishmaniasis is necessary for the development of new and efficacious tools to control zoonotic leishmaniasis.
Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV
Obi, C F; Obidike, R I; Ezeh, I O; Omoja, V U; Iheagwam, C N; Idika, I K; Ezeokonkwo, R C
The effects of Trypanosoma brucei infection on testicular morphology and function and the changes associated with treatment of infected dogs with diminazene aceturate were studied using fifteen Nigerian adult male dogs. The dogs were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C consisting of five dogs each. Groups A and B were infected with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes and group C was the uninfected control. Following infection, parasitaemia levels were monitored daily whereas the rectal temperature, body weight, packed cell volume, scrotal circumference and serum testosterone levels were monitored weekly. At parasitaemia peak, dogs in group A were orchidectomised while dogs in group B were treated with 7.0mg/kg body weight of diminazene aceturate (DA). Dogs in groups B and C were later orchidectomised on day 73 of the experiment. The harvested testes and epididymides were weighed and the epididymal sperm reserves of all the dogs determined. Also the sperm quality (mass activity, sperm motility and sperm morphology) were determined. The testes were sectioned after processing and studied histomorphologically. Acute trypanosomosis was observed following infection. The low serum testosterone levels observed from day 14 post infection (pi) gradually improved following treatment. Testicular weight, epididymal weight and sperm quality were significantly low (pdogs when compared to the control group but gradually improved following treatment. Histomorphological studies revealed testicular degeneration characterized by depopulation of seminiferous tubules and depletion of spermatogenic cells in dogs of group A whereas the tissue sections of the testes of dogs in group B were similar to those of the control group. It was therefore concluded that infection of dogs with T. brucei adversely affected testicular morphology and function. Treatment with diminazene aceturate reversed the reproductive abnormalities caused by the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Bentzel, David E; Lescano, Andrés G; Lucas, Carmen; Bacon, David J
Infections of Trypanoxyuris spp. pinworms in Aotus nancymae and other New World primates are typically subclinical, but infection during experimental use could confound interpretation of experimental data. Further, Trypanoxyuris species are highly infective, and rapid diagnosis is important to prevent an outbreak in the animal colony. This study sought to determine whether a fecal flotation technique was sensitive enough to replace the perianal tape test for diagnosis of Trypanoxyuris spp., thereby reducing stress to the animal and sample collection time. On days 0 and 3, we collected fecal samples from 45 animals confirmed to be infected with Trypanoxyuris spp. by perianal tape testing. Fecal samples were evaluated by both a commercial analysis system and by sucrose flotation with centrifugation. For both detection methods, no significant difference in sensitivity was detected between tests conducted on day 0 versus day 3. The sensitivity of repeated commercial tests was 80%, significantly higher than the 60% for sucrose flotation. The commercial test was significantly more sensitive than sucrose flotation, indicating that the commercial system was a better method for detecting Trypanoxyuris spp. However, sensitivity of only 80% confers a considerable risk of false negatives, thereby potentially delaying treatment and further contributing to environmental contamination. In our opinion, neither method of fecal analysis was a suitable replacement for the perianal tape test to diagnose Trypanoxyuris spp. in owl monkeys.
Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
João Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many studies have evaluated risk factors for human visceral leishmaniasis, but few have focused on the infection among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the association between peridomestic socioeconomic and environmental factors and the presence of dogs seropositive for Leishmania chagasi in the City of Teresina, Brazil. METHODS: This case-control study was based on the results of a routine seroepidemiological survey among domestic dogs carried out in 2007. Serological tests were performed by means of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. All dwellings in which at least one seropositive dog was detected were considered cases, and controls were a random sample of dwellings in which only seronegative dogs were identified. Associations between variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Dwellings with a history of dogs removed by the visceral leishmaniasis control program in the last 12 months had five-fold higher odds of having at least one seropositive dog as compared with dwellings having no history of dog removal (OR = 5.19; 95%CI = 3.20-8.42. Dwellings with cats had 58% increased odds of dog infection as compared with those having no cats (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.01-2.47. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis might be used for the delimitation of areas of higher risk for human visceral leishmaniasis, since infection in dogs generally precedes the appearance of human cases.
Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.85–1.52%. The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%, summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%, and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68% than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%. Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%, followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06% and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%. The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.
Byeon, Kang Hyun; Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun-Mi; Yu, Hak Sun; Jeong, Hae Jin; Ock, Mee-Sun
The status of Dirofilaria immitis infection was assessed in pet dogs of Busan, Korea, and chemoprophylactic effects of microfilaricidal medication were evaluated. A total of 294 pet dogs older than 6 mo were examined, 217 of which had been maintained indoors, and 77 had been kept outdoors. The SnapR kit and direct microscopic examinations of the peripheral blood were used. The mean overall parasite positive rates were 10.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Outdoor dogs evidenced adult worm infection rate of 31.2% and microfilaria infection rate of 18.2%. The indoor dogs, however, evidenced adult worm infection rate of 2.8% and microfilaria infection rate of 2.3%. The prevalence in males was more than 2 times that of females. The changing pattern of infection rates by age evidenced a gradual increase, from 2- to 6-year-old dogs, after which, a decrease in infection rates was noted. With regard to chemoprophylaxis, the infection rates of complete and incomplete chemoprophylaxis groups were found to be 2-3 times lower than that of the non-chemoprophylaxis group. The results of the present study indicate that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in pet dogs is quite high, particularly in male outdoor dogs, and chemoprophylactic measures were quite effective.
Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Perego, And Roberta
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol. Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28). Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP. This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF and allopurinol. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG, serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0 and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28. Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP, 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP, and 4/20 proteinuric (P. After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP. Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis.
I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.
Decristophoris, P; Mauri, F; Albanese, F; Carnelli, A; Vanzetti, T; Zinsstag, J
We report the antibiotic treatments administered to a female dog with mastitis and successive pyoderma. Microbiological investigations allowed the identification of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius after 54 days of various antibiotic treatments. The isolate carried the mecA gene and was resistant to 9 of 15 tested antibiotics. Consistent antibiotic treatment of the infection was possible only after accurate microbiological diagnosis.
Vilhena, Hugo; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a global zoonosis endemic in more than 70 countries in Europe, North Africa, Asia and America; however, data on this infection is scarce from southern Africa. The aim of this study was to survey dogs in Luanda, Angola, for Leishmania
Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Steinbauer, V.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.; Modrý, David
Roč. 115, č. 11 (2016), s. 4167-4171 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hepatozoon canis * dogs * red foxes * Czech Republic * autochthonous infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda
Tunisia is a hyper endemic country for human echinococcosis. The infection is transmitted via the eggs of Echinococcus granulosus which are passed in the faeces of the definitive canid host. This study evaluated the contamination rate of the dog faeces in different climatic conditions at eight different geographic regions throughout Tunisia. Dog faecal samples were collected from the soil and the Echinococcus eggs were identified using microscopic and molecular (Eg1121/1122 PCR, Egss1 PCR and Nad1 PCR-RFLP) tools. The contamination index of dog faeces by E. granulosus eggs ranged from 8.3% to 41.3% depending on the region. Comparisons of the dog faecal contamination rate against human incidence found them to be independent. Neither human prevalence nor dog contamination index appeared to be related to climatic conditions or geographic characteristics. The genetic variability of E. granulosus samples was different within each region but was not related to geographic distance which is indicative of local divergent evolutions rather than isolation by distance. A high environmental dog contamination index does not necessarily correspond to high prevalence in humans as transmission is strongly linked to human behavior and hygiene.
Kachani, Malika; Heath, David
Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bártová, Eva; Sedlák, Kamil; Kobédová, Kateřina; Budíková, Marie; Joel Atuman, Yakubu; Kamani, Joshua
Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are considered to be a globally distributed parasites affecting wide range of warm-blooded animals. Neosporosis has caused clinical illness in horses and consumption of horse meat has been epidemiologically linked to clinical toxoplasmosis in humans. This study was conducted to determine Neospora spp. and T. gondii antibodies and risk factors of infection in horses and donkeys from three states of Nigeria. A total of 144 samples were collected from clinically healthy animals (120 horses and 24 donkeys). The sera were tested for antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test, a titer ≥ 50 was considered positive. Seroprevalence data were statistically analyzed, considering the variables of gender, age, use, state, origin of breed and type of management. Antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii were detected in 8% horses with titers 50 and in 24% horses with titers 50-800, respectively. Co-infection of both parasites was proved in three horses (3%). Statistical differences were found only for T. gondii seroprevalence in horses with different use, locality, origin and management (p-value ≤ 0.05). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in four (17%) of 24 donkeys with statistical difference (p-value ≤ 0.05) in animals of different use; antibodies to Neospora spp. were not proved in any of the donkeys. This is the first seroprevalence study of Neospora spp. and T. gondii in equids from Nigeria.
Davies, D R; Lucas, J
Thoracic actinomycosis was diagnosed by bacterial isolation in a dog with a history of chronic productive cough, weight loss, pyrexia and a pulmonary mass lesion on radiography. Therapy with amoxycillin and clindamycin did not significantly improve the patient's condition and euthanasia was performed during exploratory thoracotomy. Histological examination of the affected lung lobes revealed the presence of peribronchiolar adenocarcinoma. Actinomycosis has been reported to co-exist with pulmonary neoplasia in humans and may mask the presence of malignancy.
Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.
Liza S. Köster
Full Text Available Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L – 475.5 µg/L on admission (n = 87 and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L – 434.0 µg/L on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40. Twenty-four dogs (28% had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L at admission with 13 dogs (32.5% presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L – 571.5 µg/L; n = 53, which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L – 131.8 µg/L; n = 32 (P = 0.018. This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.
Köster, Liza S; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Schoeman, Johan P
Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL) in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L - 475.5 µg/L) on admission (n = 87) and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L - 434.0 µg/L) on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40). Twenty-four dogs (28%) had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L) at admission with 13 dogs (32.5%) presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L - 571.5 µg/L; n = 53), which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L - 131.8 µg/L; n = 32) (P = 0.018). This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.
Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre
Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by PCR with pan-Babesia primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene, primers specific for B. capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1, and by sequencing. Babesia species, including B. divergens, B. capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1, Babesia sp. CH1 and B. motasi, were detected in 10.7% of all samples. Five individuals were co-infected with two Babesia species. Infection with specific Babesia varied widely between host species. Cervidae were significantly more infected with Babesia spp. than Caprinae. Babesia capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1 were mostly found in roe deer (prevalences 17.1% and 7.7%, respectively) and B. divergens and Babesia sp. CH1 only in red deer. Factors significantly associated with infection were low altitude and young age. Identification of Babesia sp. CH1 in red deer, co-infection with multiple Babesia species and infection of wild Caprinae with B. motasi and Babesia sp. EU1 are novel findings. We propose wild Caprinae as spillover or accidental hosts for Babesia species but wild Cervidae as mammalian reservoir hosts for B. capreoli, possibly Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia sp. CH1, whereas their role regarding B. divergens is more elusive.
Pors Susanne E
Full Text Available Abstract Four dogs with acute neurological signs caused by haemorrhages in the central nervous system were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection as the underlying aetiology. Two dogs presented with brain lesions, one dog with spinal cord lesions and one with lesions in both the brain and spinal cord. Only one dog presented with concurrent signs of classical pulmonary angiostrongylosis (respiratory distress, cough, and only two dogs displayed overt clinical signs of haemorrhages. Results of coagulation assays were inconsistent. Neurological signs reflected the site of pathology and included seizures, various cranial nerve deficits, vestibular signs, proprioceptive deficits, ataxia and paraplegia. One dog died and three were euthanised due to lack of improvement despite medical treatment. This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark.
Full Text Available Klebsiella spp. isolates from community-acquired infections were characterized. A total of 39 Klebsiella spp. isolates were obtained from outpatients at four rural hospitals in Mexico (2013–2014. The biochemical tests identified all as being K. pneumoniae. The molecular multiplex-PCR test identified 36 (92.4% K. pneumoniae isolates and one (2.5% K. variicola isolate, and phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene identified two isolates (5.1% belonging to K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae and K. quasivariicola. The last one was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of six-loci concatenated genes. Mostly the isolates were multidrug resistant; however, a minority were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing (10.2%. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15 gene was identified in these isolates. Analysis of biofilm production and the hypermucoviscosity phenotype showed a total of 35 (92.3% and seven (17.9% of the isolates were positive for these phenotypes respectively. The K2 (4/39, 10.2%, K5 (2/39, 5.1% and K54 (1/39, 2.5% serotypes were identified in seven (17.9% of the isolates, and only 28.5% (2/7 hypermucoviscous isolates were positive for the K2 and K5 serotypes. In general, the sequence type (ST analysis and phylogenetic analysis of seven multilocus sequence typing loci were heterogeneous; however, ST29 was the most prevalent ST in the analysed isolates, accounting for 19% (4/21 of the total isolates. Two of the four ST29 isolates had the hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The virulence factors for fimbriae were the most prevalent, followed by siderophores. Community-acquired infections are caused by various species from Klebsiella genus, with different profiles of antibiotic resistance and heterogeneous virulence factors. Keywords: Antimicrobial susceptibility, Bacterial resistance, Cephalosporin resistance, Community infection, ESBL, Hypermucoviscosity
Kelly, Patrick J.; Xu, Chuanling; Lucas, Helene; Loftis, Amanda; Abete, Jamie; Zeoli, Frank; Stevens, Audrey; Jaegersen, Kirsten; Ackerson, Kate; Gessner, April; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Wang, Chengming
Background Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. Methodology We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E.) canis, Babesia (B.) spp., Anaplasma (A.) spp. and Hepatozoon (H.) spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. Principal findings There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170), Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372) including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372) and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372), A. platys (11%; 17/157) and H. canis (6%; 15/266). We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179) or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170) being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67) showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67) having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. Conclusions Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities. PMID:23335965
Patrick J Kelly
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. METHODOLOGY: We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E. canis, Babesia (B. spp., Anaplasma (A. spp. and Hepatozoon (H. spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170, Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372 including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372 and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372, A. platys (11%; 17/157 and H. canis (6%; 15/266. We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179 or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170 being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67 showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67 having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities.
Garbacz, Katarzyna; Żarnowska, Sabina; Piechowicz, Lidia; Haras, Krystyna
The aim of this study was to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci in healthy dogs and in dogs with evident symptoms of infection. The samples from 172 healthy and 197 infected dogs were examined. The staphylococci were identified with conventional methods and by means of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method (MboI). Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics from 10 different antimicrobial classes was tested. Resistance to methicillin was confirmed by the presence of Staphylococcus aureus mecA and S. sciuri mecA genes. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes. The oral mucosa to be the most frequent site of staphylococcal colonization (55.8 %), followed by nasal cavity (44.2 %), and anus (32.6 %). The prevalence of MDR staphylococci in infected dogs was significantly higher than in the healthy animals (74/137 vs. 34/95, P = 0.006). The MR strains of S. pseudintermedius (2.9 %) originated solely from infected dogs. In contrast, the MR coagulase-negative strains (7.4 %) were isolated solely from healthy dogs. S. aureus strains originated from nasal swabs, MRSA strains were not isolated. MDR staphylococci and MR S. pseudintermedius are more common among infected dogs, but coagulase-negative staphylococci (mostly S. sciuri) seem to be a reservoir of methicillin resistance in healthy dogs.
Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.
Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Scorza, A Valeria; Reif, John S; Ballweber, Lora R; Lappin, Michael R; Salman, Mo D
The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70), and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA). Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg), and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium -positive samples and 21 Giardia -positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis . Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.
Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.
Lebon, Wilfried; Tielemans, Eric; Rehbein, Steffen; Dumont, Pascal; Yoon, Stephen; Beugnet, Fredéric; Jeannin, Philippe; Larsen, Diane; Halos, Lénaïg
Infection of dogs with the cardiopulmonary nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum may result in severe clinical disease therefore adequate prevention is necessary. A randomized, negative control, blinded study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy in the prevention of canine A. vasorum infection after monthly administrations of NexGard Spectra®, a novel chewable tablet formulation combining the insecticide and acaricide afoxolaner and the anthelmintic milbemycin oxime, in a multiple challenge (trickle infection) model. Twenty beagle dogs were challenged orally with doses of approximately 32-43 third-stage larvae of A. vasorum once every other week on seven occasions (Study Days -7, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 and 77). Ten dogs were administered NexGard Spectra® as close as possible to the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e. 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, four times at monthly intervals (Study Days 0, 28, 56 and 84) while the remaining ten dogs served as untreated controls. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied six to eight days following the last treatment (Study Days 90-92). Beginning six weeks after first inoculation, faeces were collected on a bi-weekly basis and examined for first-stage larvae of A. vasorum. Untreated dogs harboured 39-95 adult A. vasorum (geometric mean, 66.4), while zero to 24 adult A. vasorum were recovered from the treated dogs (geometric mean, 3.4; P < 0.0001). Thus, efficacy of NexGard Spectra® administered at monthly intervals against incoming A. vasorum was 94.9 %. Compared to the untreated controls, larval excretion of the treated dogs was reduced by 99.9 % (P < 0.0001). Results of this study demonstrate that NexGard Spectra®, when administered at monthly intervals, can effectively prevent canine A. vasorum infection.
Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L
The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99
Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations. PMID:22776804
Alasaad, Samer; Permunian, Roberto; Gakuya, Francis; Mutinda, Matthew; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca
One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines' keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.
White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.
The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.
Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 except for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.
Zamri-Saad, M; Amal, M N A; Siti-Zahrah, A
The pathological changes present in 300 red tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) naturally infected by Streptococcus agalactiae are described. The most consistent gross findings were marked congestion of internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen and kidneys. Other features included exophthalmos, softening of the brain and the occasional accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity. Microscopical examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion of the liver, spleen and kidneys. The endothelial cells lining major blood vessels of the liver and occasionally the spleen were swollen and vacuolated. There was evidence of vascular thrombosis with infarction of surrounding tissue. Bacterial colonies were noted within and immediately surrounding the affected blood vessels. The meninges were thickened by the infiltration of numerous heterophils. Similar infiltrates of heterophils and lymphocytes were observed in the lamina propria of the intestine. The kidneys were severely congested and haemorrhagic, with extensive interstitial nephritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen
From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs
Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Schallig, Henk; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E.; Alonso, Diego Peres; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery
Dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum. This protozoan causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an uncontrolled urban zoonosis in Brazil. Serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood were performed to identify infected dogs in scenarios of higher and
Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko
Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei.
Colella, Vito; Maia, Carla; Pereira, André; Gonçalves, Nuno; Caruso, Marta; Martin, Coralie; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea; Scandale, Ivan
The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of oxfendazole, 11 out of the 21 client-owned dogs (21/123; 17.1%) positive for skin-dwelling O. lupi microfilariae (mfs), were enrolled in the efficacy study and were treated with oxfendazole (50 mg/kg) per OS once a day for 5 (G2) or 10 (G3) consecutive days or were left untreated (G1). The efficacy of oxfendazole in the reduction of O. lupi mfs was evaluated by microfilarial count and by assessing the percentage of mfs reduction and mean microfilaricidal efficacy, whereas the efficacy in the reduction of ocular lesions was evaluated by ultrasound imaging. All dogs where subjected to follow-ups at 30 (D30), 90 (D90) and 180 (D180) days post-treatment. The percentage of reduction of mfs was 78% for G2 and 12.5% for G3 at D180. The mean microfilaricidal efficacy of oxfendazole in the treatment of canine onchocercosis by O. lupi at D30, D90 and D180 was 41%, 81% and 90%, in G2 and 40%, 65% and 70%, in G3, respectively. Retrobulbar lesions did not reduce from D0 to D180 in control group (dogs in G1), whereas all treated dogs (in G2 and G3) had slightly decreased ocular lesions. Percentage of reduction of ocular lesions by ultrasound examination was 50% and 47.5% in G2 and G3 at D180, respectively. Despite the decrease in ocular lesions in all treated dogs (G2 and G3), oxfendazole was ineffective in reducing ocular lesions
Full Text Available The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of oxfendazole, 11 out of the 21 client-owned dogs (21/123; 17.1% positive for skin-dwelling O. lupi microfilariae (mfs, were enrolled in the efficacy study and were treated with oxfendazole (50 mg/kg per OS once a day for 5 (G2 or 10 (G3 consecutive days or were left untreated (G1. The efficacy of oxfendazole in the reduction of O. lupi mfs was evaluated by microfilarial count and by assessing the percentage of mfs reduction and mean microfilaricidal efficacy, whereas the efficacy in the reduction of ocular lesions was evaluated by ultrasound imaging. All dogs where subjected to follow-ups at 30 (D30, 90 (D90 and 180 (D180 days post-treatment. The percentage of reduction of mfs was 78% for G2 and 12.5% for G3 at D180. The mean microfilaricidal efficacy of oxfendazole in the treatment of canine onchocercosis by O. lupi at D30, D90 and D180 was 41%, 81% and 90%, in G2 and 40%, 65% and 70%, in G3, respectively. Retrobulbar lesions did not reduce from D0 to D180 in control group (dogs in G1, whereas all treated dogs (in G2 and G3 had slightly decreased ocular lesions. Percentage of reduction of ocular lesions by ultrasound examination was 50% and 47.5% in G2 and G3 at D180, respectively. Despite the decrease in ocular lesions in all treated dogs (G2 and G3, oxfendazole was ineffective in reducing ocular
Full Text Available The striped ambrosia beetles Trypodendron lineatum and T. domesticum are timber forest pests in the Palearctic region and North America. Because only a few pathogens are known for Trypodendron species, the aim of this work was to determine the spectrum of pathogen species of T. lineatum, T. laeve, and T. domesticum. Trypodendron species were collected in pheromone traps at nine localities in the Czech Republic, five localities in Poland, and one locality in Austria. In total, 2,439 T. lineatum, 171 T. domesticum, and 17 T. laeve beetles were dissected and examined. Infection was found in only two of the 17 specimens of T. laeve and in only two of the 171 specimens of T. domesticum; in all four cases, the parasites were nematodes. Parasitisation of T. lineatum by nematodes was found in T. lineatum at eight localities with a mean (± SE parasitisation level of 8.1 ± 4.7%. A Chytridiopsis sp. was detected in cells of the midgut epithelium of one T. lineatum specimen, and Gregarina sp. was detected in the midgut lumen of two T. lineatum specimens; no other pathogens were found in T. lineatum. The low infection rates and the tendency for infection by nematodes can be explained by the monogamy of Trypodendron spp. and their feeding on fungi in short galleries that are not connected to the galleries of conspecifics.
Van, Chinh Dang; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is an important foodborne trematodiasis in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Interestingly, the opisthorchiasis endemic region overlaps with an area of leptospirosis emergence. Here we report an association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis in Thailand. Of 280 sera collected from villagers living around the Lawa wetland complex in Khon Kaen province, 199 (71%) were seropositive for leptospirosis by immunochromatography. Individuals with O. viverrini infection had a significantly higher rate of leptospirosis than those without (P=0.001). Significant higher leptospirosis prevalence was found in males than females (P=0.002). However, females but not males with O. viverrini infection showed a significantly higher seroprevalence of leptospirosis. Twenty-one of 35 environmental samples from the lake (water, mud and fish skin mucus) were positive for Leptospira spp. DNA sequencing, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic analysis of some positive nested PCR products revealed both pathogenic and intermediate pathogenic strains of Leptospira in the samples. Strikingly, O. viverrini metacercariae from the fish were positive for L. interrogans. These results suggest a close association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis. Contact with water, mud or eating raw fish harboring liver fluke metacercariae may be risk factors for Leptospira infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and anaplasmosis are severe zoonotic diseases, the former caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the latter by Anaplasma spp. In the present study, 332 goat blood samples were randomly collected from Chongqing Municipality, China to screen for T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect DNA, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to test for T. gondii antibodies. The prevalence of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. was 38% and 35% respectively by PCR, and 42% for T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. The co-infection rate by T. gondii and Anaplasma was 13%, where the two predominant pathogens co-infecting were Anaplasma phagocytophilum + A. bovis (10%, followed by T. gondii + A. phagocytophilum (9.64%. While co-infection by three pathogens varied ranging from 1.81% to 5.72%, less than 1% of goats were found to be positive for four pathogens. This is the first investigation of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. infection in goats from Chongqing.
Lovis, Léonore; Grandjean, Mélanie; Overney, Laurence; Seewald, Wolfgang; Sager, Heinz
Periodicity, the cyclical rise and fall in microfilaria (mff) numbers in the peripheral blood over time, is observed in many filarial infections. It is correlated with the necessity for these larval stages to be ingested by the blood feeding vector before they can be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Microfilariae of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis have been described to show periodicity, but the circadian pattern does not seem to be consistent. Most publications describe the lowest mff-concentrations in the peripheral blood in the early morning, while the highest counts occurred either in the afternoon, in the late evening or shortly after midnight. Sixteen dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis isolates originating from Italy (one isolate, 14 dogs), and the USA (two isolates, one dog each). The dogs were housed indoors with a natural light source (windows) and heating that prevented temperature-drops below 20°C during winter. When patency was reached, blood samples were collected at weekly and monthly intervals over a period of up to 3 years, and at given hours of the day (morning, noon, evening) for the duration of one year in order to determine seasonal, as well as daily variations of microfilaremia. Despite the fact that the dogs were kept indoors, there was an apparent seasonality of the D. immitis-microfilaremia, with peaks in summer and 5-49-times lower counts in winter. This difference was statistically significant and the ratio remained constant over the years, regardless of the fact that the mff-counts increased from the first to the second year of patency. Since the temperature was kept constantly in a range between 20 to 26°C (with some single outliners in both directions) the climatic conditions may not explain this observation. Therefore, day length may be the most obvious reason for the seasonality in the given study set-up. Interestingly, the Italian D. immitis-isolate lost seasonality after three passages of experimental
Behravesh, Casey Barton; Ferraro, Aimee; Deasy, Marshall; Dato, Virginia; Moll, Mària; Sandt, Carol; Rea, Nancy K; Rickert, Regan; Marriott, Chandra; Warren, Kimberly; Urdaneta, Veronica; Salehi, Ellen; Villamil, Elizabeth; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, R M; Austin, Jana L; Ostroff, Stephen; Williams, Ian T
Human Salmonella infections associated with dry pet food have not been previously reported. We investigated such an outbreak of Salmonella Schwarzengrund and primarily affecting young children. Two multistate case-control studies were conducted to determine the source and mode of infections among case-patients with the outbreak strain. Study 1 evaluated household exposures to animals and pet foods, and study 2 examined risk factors for transmission among infant case-patients. Environmental investigations were conducted. Seventy-nine case-patients in 21 states were identified; 48% were children aged 2 years or younger. Case-households were significantly more likely than control households to report dog contact (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 3.6) and to have recently purchased manufacturer X brands of dry pet food (mOR: 6.9). Illness among infant case-patients was significantly associated with feeding pets in the kitchen (OR: 4.4). The outbreak strain was isolated from opened bags of dry dog food produced at plant X, fecal specimens from dogs that ate manufacturer X dry dog food, and an environmental sample and unopened bags of dog and cat foods from plant X. More than 23 000 tons of pet foods were recalled. After additional outbreak-linked illnesses were identified during 2008, the company recalled 105 brands of dry pet food and permanently closed plant X. Dry dog and cat foods manufactured at plant X were linked to human illness for a 3-year period. This outbreak highlights the importance of proper handling and storage of pet foods in the home to prevent human illness, especially among young children.
IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for...
Detection and molecular characterization of piroplasms species from naturally infected dogs in southeast Brazil Detecção e caracterização molecular de piroplasmas em cães naturalmente infectados no Sudeste do Brasil
Tatiana Didonet Lemos
Full Text Available Rangelia vitalii is a protozoon described from dogs in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. It is phylogenetically related to Babesia spp. that infects dogs, but data on this enigmatic parasite is still limited. The aim of this work was to detect piroplasm species in dogs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses. Of 103 dogs examined, seven (6.8% were positive for Babesia spp. by PCR. The amplified products were digested by restriction enzymes to differentiate the Babesia species, and one sample was identified as Babesia vogeli. The pattern observed for the other six amplification products did not match with pattern described for large Babesia infecting dogs. Sequencing analysis confirmed these six samples as R. vitalii, with high homologies (99-100% with a sequence from south Brazil. This study confirms the presence of Babesia vogeli and Rangelia vitalii circulate in domestic dogs in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Rangelia vitalii é um protozoário que infecta cães e foi descrito nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. R. vitalii é filogeneticamente próxima à Babesia spp., mas dados deste misterioso parasito ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a presença de piroplasmas em cães naturalmente infectados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, através da amplificação do gene 18S rRNA pela PCR, clivagem com enzimas de restrição (RFLP e caracterização genética através do sequenciamento. De 103 cães, sete (6,8% foram positivos para Babesia spp. pela PCR. Os produtos amplificados foram digeridos por enzimas de restrição para a diferenciação das espécies de Babesia e uma amostra foi identificada como Babesia vogeli. O padrão de amplificação observado nas outras seis amostras não correspondeu ao padrão descrito para babesias que infectam cães. O sequenciamento das seis amostras confirmou ser uma esp
Maas, Miriam; van den End, Sanne; van Roon, Annika; Mulder, Jaap; Franssen, Frits; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Montizaan, Margriet; van der Giessen, Joke
The recent invasion of the raccoon dog in the Netherlands may be associated with the risk of introduction and spread of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess whether Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. infections are present in Dutch raccoon dogs. Between 2013 and
Gisele Braziliano Andrade
Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.
Dizbay, Murat; Guzel Tunccan, Ozlem; Karasahin, Omer; Aktas, Firdevs
Risk factors for nosocomial carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. (CRK) infections were analyzed in this study. The incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcomes of CRK infections during a seven-year period (2004-2010) were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 720 patients were included in the study. Carbapenem resistance among Klebsiella spp. were significantly increased between 2003 and 2007 (pKlebsiella spp. infections. In a multivariate analysis, prior use of imipenem (OR 3.35; CI 1.675-6.726, p<0.001), stay in ICU (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.193-9.508; p=0.022), receiving H2 receptor antagonist (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.011-19.951; p=0.048) were independently associated with carbapenem resistance. Respiratory tract infections were the most seen nosocomial infection. Attack mortality rate was significantly higher in patients infected with CRK strains (p<0.001). CRK strains showed significantly higher resistance rates to other antibiotics. In conclusion, the emergence and rapid spread of CRK strains in our hospital is worrisome. The patients in ICU are most important risk group for the acquisition of CRK strains. High resistant rates to other antibiotics except than colistin and tigecycline limits therapeutic options, and increases mortality rates.
Full Text Available Eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, were obtained from the City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Four dogs were used as control. Lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. The histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. The thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes associated with collagen deposition. Morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. In fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. The parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. However, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. We conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.
Gonçalves, Ricardo; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Melo, Maria Norma de; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
Eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, were obtained from the City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Four dogs were used as control. Lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. The histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. The thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes) associated with collagen deposition. Morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. In fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. The parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. However, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. We conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.
Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robb, Andrew R; Wright, Elizabeth D; Foster, Adele M E; Walker, Robert; Malone, Colin
Introduction. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius , an opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats, is rarely reported to cause infection in humans. Here, we describe a case of severe skin infection caused by S. pseudintermedius , in a 47-year-old male, a dog owner; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported from Scotland. Case presentation. The patient presented with a short history of a severe ecthyma-like lesion on his forehead, with smaller lesions on his abdomen and legs. Bacterial culture revealed Clostridium perfringens , thought to be colonizing the wound, and a Staphylococcus species, identified as S. pseudintermedius by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight MS and confirmed by molecular methods using a PCR-RFLP approach. The patient was treated with flucloxacillin, penicillin V and Fucibet cream, and recovered fully. Zoonotic infection was considered likely; however, screening swabs from his dogs grew S. pseudintermedius of a different clonal type. Both patient and dog strains carried Staphylococcus intermedius exfoliative toxin and leucocidin I, closely related to Panton-Valentine leucocidin, possibly contributing to the severity of the infection. S pseudintermedius , although coagulase positive, is normally negative by rapid slide clumping and latex agglutination tests routinely used to identify Staphylococcus aureus . Hence, S. pseudintermedius may easily be misidentified as a coagulase-negative staphylococcus and considered insignificant. Conclusion. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of a human S. pseudintermedius infection in Scotland. Zoonotic transmission of S. pseudintermedius between pets and owners has been shown. However, in this case zoonosis could not be confirmed.
Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal
Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n = 6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI.
McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A
Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.
Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng
A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously.
Valença, R M B; Mota, R A; Castro, V; Anderlini, G A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Brandespim, D F; Valença, S R F A; Guerra, M M P
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify the risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection in technified pig farms in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To compose sample for the prevalence study, 342 pigs were used (312 sows and 30 boars) proceeding from seven swine farms distributed in five districts of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The infection's serological diagnosis was performed by microscopic agglutination test. The risk factors analysis was performed using research questionnaires consisting of objective questions related to the breeder, the general characteristics of the property, and the productive, reproductive and sanitary management. Prevalence of 16.1% (55/342) of pigs seropositive was obtained. The associated risk factors were not performing quarantine (P = 0.003, OR = 5.43, CI = 1.79-16.41) and the use of artificial insemination (P = 0.023, OR = 3.38, CI = 1.18-9.66). A significant association of sow infection with the increased number of stillborn and mummified foetuses was found, as well as with the increased frequency of oestrus recurrence and the increased weaning-to-oestrus interval of seropositive sows. One might state that Leptospira spp. infection is disseminated in technified pig farms in the State of Alagoas, favouring reproductive failures and the impairment of zootechnical performance in these properties. The risk factors identified in this study are facilitators in the infecting agent dissemination and should be adjusted to control the disease in the herds studied. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ionică, A.M.; D’Amico, G.; Mitková, B.; Kalmár, Z.; Annoscia, G.; Otranto, D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.
Roč. 113, č. 7 (2014), s. 2761-2764 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Filarial nematodes * Dog s * Microfilariae * Romania * Cercopithifilaria bainae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014
Thongyuan, Suporn; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is considered an important public health problem in many countries worldwide. However, only a few studies have been conducted on primates and domestic animals that could potentially be a reservoir of dengue viruses. Since domestic dogs share both habitats and vectors with humans, this study aimed to investigate whether domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in dengue endemic areas in Thailand could be naturally infected with dengue viruses. Serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in three different ecological settings of Thailand: urban dengue endemic areas of Nakhon Sawan Province; rubber plantation areas of Rayong Province; and Koh Chang, an island tourist spot of Trat Province. These samples were screened for dengue viral genome by using semi-nested RT-PCR. Positive samples were then inoculated in mosquito and dog cell lines for virus isolation. Supernatant collected from cell culture was tested for the presence of dengue viral genome by semi-nested RT-PCR, then double-strand DNA products were double-pass custom-sequenced. Partial nucleotide sequences were aligned with the sequences already recorded in GenBank, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the urban setting, 632 domestic dog serum samples were screened for dengue virus genome by RT-PCR, and six samples (0.95%) tested positive for dengue virus. Four out of six dengue viruses from positive samples were successfully isolated. Dengue virus serotype 2 and serotype 3 were found to have circulated in domestic dog populations. One of 153 samples (0.65%) collected from the rubber plantation area showed a PCR-positive result, and dengue serotype 3 was successfully isolated. Partial gene phylogeny revealed that the isolated dengue viruses were closely related to those strains circulating in human populations. None of the 71 samples collected from the island tourist spot showed a positive result. We concluded that
Helcileia Dias Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A direct search for parasites were used as the diagnostic test to determine the frequency of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris under veterinary clinical care in the city of Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil. For this approach, lymph node cell samples were collected using needle aspiration from 649 dogs of different breeds and ages. Two hundred and sixty four (40.7% dogs tested positive for amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. Furthermore, 202 (76.5% dogs that tested positive showed some clinical sign of disease, while 62 (28.4% dogs were asymptomatic. Dogs <2 years old or those that lived alongside poultry species in peri-domicile areas had a greater chance of infection (P<0.05. Our results revealed the importance of frequently monitoring leishmaniasis in dogs, and the need to train veterinary professionals who work in high-transmission areas on the clinical diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.
... infected animal. It is difficult to detect early stages of leptospirosis in animals, but the disease can lead to kidney and liver failure ... contact with an infected animal's skin or hair. Puppies are most commonly ... body. Ringworm infections in people can appear on almost any area of ...
J. Van Heerden
Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread endemic disease in the Mediterranean basin, though, so far, the north of Spain has been considered a non-endemic area. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies to L. infantum among stray dogs living in shelters in this area, and to evaluate the clinical status (both clinical signs and clinico-pathological abnormalities of seropositive dogs. Besides L. infantum infection, the epidemiological role of variables like sex, breed and age was also assessed. Methods Over the year 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 418 stray dogs. A preliminary entomological survey was carried out using CDC-light traps. The chi-squared test was used to examine relationships between L. infantum seroprevalence and the remaining variables. Results The overall seroprevalence of L. infantum infection detected was 3% in the Cantabrian coast. In Orense the seroprevalence was 35.6%. In this latter region, the presence of sand fly, Phlebotomus perniciosus was also detected. In general, seropositivity for L. infantum was related to size (large breed dogs versus small and age, with a significantly higher seroprevalence recorded in younger (0-3 years and older dogs (> 7 years than adult dogs. Clinical signs of CanL were observed in 41.3% of the seropositive dogs. The seropositivity for L. infantum infection associated with the presence of clinical signs and/or abnormal laboratory findings shows a prevalence of 4.5%. Conclusion Our data provide new insight into the prevalence of CanL across northern Spain. The situation observed in Orense seems to be worsening compared to the few reports available, with figures being similar to those cited for known endemic areas of Spain. Besides, the presence of P. perniciosus in Orense points out to a risk of the spread of this zoonotic disease in this geographical area. These findings
This study aims to evaluate the toxic effects of Fusarium oxysporum on root parasitic weed, Orobanche spp. Comparative genetic and gene expression studies were conducted on uninfected and fungus-infected orobanches. In genetic studies, isolated total DNA was amplified by RAPD PCR. Fragment properties were analysed by GTS test. According to the results, the fragment properties of control and Fusarium infected (experimental) groups varied widely; and it has been observed that Fusarium has genotoxic effects on the DNA of orobanches. In gene expression studies, the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes or proteins were associated with ROS damage and toxic effects, therefore, gene expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Zn-superoxide dismutase (=SOD2, mitochondrial), glutamine synthetase (GS), heat shock protein gene (HSP70), BAX, Caspase-3 and BCL2 were significantly higher in the experimental group. In the light of obtained data, it was concluded that F. oxysporum (1) caused heavy ROS damage in Orobanche (2) induced significant irrevocable genotoxic effects on the DNA of Orobanche, (3) degraded protein metabolism and synthesis, and finally (4) triggered apoptosis. The results of this study can be a ground for further research on reducing the toxic effects of Fusarium on agricultural products, so that advancements in bio-herbicide technology may provide a sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Costa, Márcio Machado; França, Raqueli Teresinha; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Paim, Carlos Breno; Paim, Francine; do Amaral, Carlos Henrique; Dornelles, Guilherme Lopes; da Cunha, João Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori; Soares, João Fabio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo Andrade; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha Dos Anjos
Rangelia vitalii is a protozoon that causes diseases in dogs, and anemia is the most common laboratory finding. However, few studies on the biochemical changes in dogs infected with this protozoon exist. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the biochemical changes in dogs experimentally infected with R. vitalii, during the acute phase of the infection. For this study, 12 female dogs (aged 6-12 months and weighing between 4 and 7 kg) were used, divided in two groups. Group A was composed of healthy dogs (n = 5); and group B consisted of infected animals (n = 7). Blood samples were collected on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after infection, using tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum and analyze the biochemical parameters. An increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on day 20 (P < 0.05) was observed. Also, increased creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were observed throughout the experimental period (P < 0.05). No changes in the serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea and creatinine levels were observed. Thus, is possible to conclude that experimental infection with R. vitalii in dogs causes changes to the biochemical profile, with increased ALT, AST and CK enzyme levels.
Alasaad, S; Permunian, R; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Soriguer, Rc; Rossi, L
Abstract Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key ...
GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...
Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.
Hofer, Katharina; Linkmeyer, Andrea; Textor, Katharina; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael
MILDEW LOCUS O defines a major susceptibility gene for powdery mildew, and recessive mlo resistance alleles are widely used in breeding for powdery mildew resistance in spring barley. Barley powdery mildew resistance, which is conferred by mlo genes, is considered to be costly in terms of spontaneous defense reactions and enhanced susceptibility to cell-death-inducing pathogens. We assessed fungal infestation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain by measuring fungal DNA after natural infection with Fusarium spp. and Ramularia collo-cygni or after inoculation with Fusarium spp. in the field. Powdery-mildew-resistant mlo5 genotypes did not show enhanced Fusarium spp. or R. collo-cygni DNA content of grain over four consecutive years. Data add to our understanding of pleiotropic effects of mlo-mediated powdery mildew resistance and contributes to the discussion of whether or not application of barley mlo mutations may support pathogenesis of cell-death-inducing fungal pathogens under field conditions.
Rodriguez, Jessica Y; Camp, Joseph W; Lenz, Stephen D; Kazacos, Kevin R; Snowden, Karen F
A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration. The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana. After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment. The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases.
Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O
To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (κ=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E
Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Otitis externa is a condition frequently observed in dogs at the small animal clinics. Malassezia spp. is the most frequently isolated microorganism in the ears of dogs, which is one of the major etiologic agents of ear infections. Identification of this agent may be based on fungal culture or cytology, and the first method is longer and more expensive. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective study of the incidence of Malassezia spp. in cases of canine otitis by cytology, in a period of five years. Ear cytology samples from 249 dogs with suspected otitis were evaluated, and were observed positive samples for Malassezia spp. in 44 cases (17.67%, among these 35 dogs (79.5% with positive cytology in both ears, and 9 dogs (20.5% were positive for Malassezia in only one ear. In conclusion, dogs with suspected otitis present high incidence of positive Malassezia spp. cytology counts. Cytology revealed to be a useful tool for diagnosis of canine ear infections involving this pathogen, representing diagnostic alternative in cases where the culture is not feasible. However, one must consider that there is no national standard cytological counting yeast cells/field set for cases of canine otitis, which may represent possible misdiagnosis.
Gutierrez, N.; Martinez, M.; Arraga Alvarado, C.; Bretana, A.; Pacheco, I.; Comach, G.
This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus
Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic
Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan that causes abortion in dairy and beef cattle and neurological disorders in dogs and horses. To identify N. caninum oocysts in the dog feces the molecular approaches are known as sensitive methods that specifically detect the oocysts. In present study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting N. caninum specific Nc5 genomic fragment was performed to identify the N. caninum DNA in the feces of naturally infected dogs of Lorestan province, West Iran. Fecal samples of dogs living in small dairy farms were collected. The samples were homogenized in 2.5% Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 and stored at 4 °C. Genomic DNA was extracted from the feces using CTAB protocol. PCR assay and DNA sequencing were performed with specific primers. DNA amplification of the Nc5 formed a 340bp fragment for the N. caninum specimens; however, the fragment was 99% identical to the homologous sequences from Neospora caninum isolates. Totally, 9 positive samples of N. caninum were detected by PCR from 428 fecal specimens. 2.
Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K
False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F.; Dominguez, Brandon; Dinges, Lewis; Rodgers, Sandy; Mays, Glennon
Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments. Methodology/Principle Findings Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57.6% (n = 85), with significant variation across kennels. Dog age had a marginally significant effect on seropositivity, with one year of age increase associated with a 19.6% increase in odds of being seropositive (odds ratio 95% CI 0.996–1.435; p = 0.055). PCR analyses of blood revealed 17.4% of dogs harbored parasite DNA in their blood, including both seronegative and seropositive dogs. Molecular screening of organs from opportunistically sampled seropositive dogs revealed parasite DNA in heart, uterus, and mammary tissues. Strain-typing showed parasite discrete typing units (DTU) TcI and TcIV present in dog samples, including a co-occurrence of both DTUs in two individual dogs. Bloodmeal analysis of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Triatoma sanguisuga insects collected from the kennels revealed exclusively dog DNA. Vector infection with T. cruzi was 80.6% (n = 36), in which T. gerstaeckeri disproportionately harbored TcI (p = 0.045) and T. sanguisuga disproportionately harbored TcIV (p = 0.029). Tracing infection status across dog litters showed some seropositive offspring of seronegative dams, suggesting infection of pups from local triatomine vectors rather than congenital transmission. Conclusions/Significance Canine kennels are high-risk environments for T. cruzi transmission, in which dogs likely serve as the predominant parasite reservoir. Disease and death of working dogs from Chagas disease is associated with unmeasured yet
Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as
Maria de Fátima Madeira
Full Text Available Foram estudados oito cães provenientes do Município de Maricá (RJ, com lesões sugestivas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana por métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Leishmania spp foi encontrada em seis cães através do cultivo in vitro. Anticorpos específicos foram detectados em seis animais pelo ELISA e em dois pela imunofluorescência indireta. Cinco isolados caninos analisados apresentaram zimodema similar a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Sugere-se que cães clinicamente suspeitos sejam acompanhados periodicamente, na tentativa de confirmar o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar canina.Eight dogs from Maricá Municipality (RJ, with suggestive lesion of american tegumentary leishmaniasis were studied by parasitological and serological methods. Leishmania spp was found in six dogs by in vitro cultivation. Specific antibodies were detected in six dogs by ELISA and in two by indirect immunofluorescence. Five canine isolates were found to belong to the same zymodeme as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. The authors suggest that clinically suspect dogs should be followed-up in an attempt to confirm the diagnostic of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis.
Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.
Full Text Available In this survey, 290 mice and rats fecal samples from commercial layer and broiler poultry houses were tested for Salmonella sp. presence. All samples were cultured on Selenite F broth media and passaged on SS agar and McConkey agar. The suspected colonies were cultured on Urea and TSI agars to be confirmed as Salmonella sp.. Finally, Salmonella isolates were identified genetically and biochemically by PCR and conventional methods, respectively. Serogrouping and Antibiotic resistance profiling were done for further differentiation of isolates. Twenty eight (9.65% Salmonellas were isolated from (out of 290 samples. Eight (28.6%, seven (25%, four (14.3%, and two (7.2% isolates were located in serogroups C, D, B and E, respectively. Seven isolates (25% belonged to Arizona subspecies and just one non-motile serogroup D Salmonella was isolated. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, but they were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and neomycin in decreasing order. In addition to former surveys, this study confirmed the role of mice and rats in spreading of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. In conclusion it is essential to take appropriate measurements (measures for pest management in poultry houses to approach the prevention of some bacterial infection like (such as salmonellosis.
Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.
An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility (less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)) over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed.
Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.
An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility [less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)] over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed
Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Londoño-Navas, Angela M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Pussini, Nicola; Lopera, Juan G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.
Monkeypox (MPX) is a re-emerging zoonotic disease that is endemic in Central and West Africa, where it can cause a smallpox-like disease in humans. Despite many epidemiologic and field investigations of MPX, no definitive reservoir species has been identified. Using recombinant viruses expressing the firefly luciferase (luc) gene, we previously demonstrated the suitability of in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to study the pathogenesis of MPX in animal models. Here, we evaluated BLI as a novel approach for tracking MPX virus infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Prairie dogs were affected during a multistate outbreak of MPX in the US in 2003 and have since been used as an animal model of this disease. Our BLI results were compared with PCR and virus isolation from tissues collected postmortem. Virus was easily detected and quantified in skin and superficial tissues by BLI before and during clinical phases, as well as in subclinical secondary cases, but was not reliably detected in deep tissues such as the lung. Although there are limitations to viral detection in larger wild rodent species, BLI can enhance the use of prairie dogs as an animal model of MPX and can be used for the study of infection, disease progression, and transmission in potential wild rodent reservoirs.
Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila
Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.
See, Isaac; Nguyen, Duc B.; Chatterjee, Somu; Shwe, Thein; Scott, Melissa; Ibrahim, Sherif; Moulton-Meissner, Heather; McNulty, Steven; Noble-Wang, Judith; Price, Cindy; Schramm, Kim; Bixler, Danae; Guh, Alice Y.
Objective To determine the source and identify control measures of an outbreak of Tsukamurella species bloodstream infections at an outpatient oncology facility. Design Epidemiologic investigation of the outbreak with a case control study. Methods A case was an infection in which Tsukamurella spp. was isolated from a blood or catheter tip culture during January 2011–June 2012 from a patient of the oncology clinic. Laboratory records of area hospitals and patient charts were reviewed. A case-control study was conducted among clinic patients to identify risk factors for Tsukamurella spp. bloodstream infection. Clinic staff were interviewed and infection control practices were assessed. Results Fifteen cases of Tsukamurella (T. pulmonis or T. tyrosinosolvens) bloodstream infection were identified, all in patients with underlying malignancy and indwelling central lines. Median age of case-patients was 68 years; 47% were male. The only significant risk factor for infection was receipt of saline flush from the clinic during September–October 2011 (P=0.03), when the clinic had been preparing saline flush from a common-source bag of saline. Other infection control deficiencies that were identified at the clinic included suboptimal procedures for central line access and preparation of chemotherapy. Conclusion Although multiple infection control lapses were identified, the outbreak was likely caused by improper preparation of saline flush syringes by the clinic. The outbreak demonstrates that bloodstream infections among oncology patients can result from improper infection control practices and highlights the critical need for increased attention to and oversight of infection control in outpatient oncology settings. PMID:24521597
Sutcu, Murat; Salman, Nuran; Akturk, Hacer; Dalgıc, Nazan; Turel, Ozden; Kuzdan, Canan; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Sener, Dicle; Karbuz, Adem; Erturan, Zayre; Somer, Ayper
The purpose of this study was to establish species distribution of Candida isolates from pediatric patients in Istanbul, Turkey, and to determine risk factors associated with nosocomial Candida infections. This study was conducted between June 2013 and June 2014 by participation of 7 medical centers in Istanbul. Candida spp strains isolated from the clinical specimens of pediatric patients were included. Clinical features were recorded on a standardized data collection sheet. A total of 134 systemic Candida infections were identified in 134 patients. The patients were admitted in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (41.8% and 9.7%, respectively) and in pediatric wards (48.5%). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (47%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (13.4%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (4.5%), Candida lusitaniae (3.7%), Candida kefyr (2.2%), Candida guilliermondii (1.5%), Candida dubliniensis (0.7%), and Candida krusei (0.7%). Types of Candida infections were candidemia (50.7%), urinary tract infection (33.6%), surgical site infection (4.5%), central nervous system infection (3.7%), catheter infection (3.7%), and intra-abdominal infection (3.7%). In multivariate analysis, younger age (1-24 months) and detection of non-albicans Candida spp was found to be risk factors associated with candidemia (P = 0.040; odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-15.86; and P = 0.02; OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.10-5.53, respectively). This study provides an update for the epidemiology of nosocomial Candida infections in Istanbul, which is important for the management of patients and implementation of appropriate infection control measures. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the D...
Solano, Miguel A; Danielski, Alan; Kovach, Karla; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Farrell, Michael
To assess the influence of locking plate and screw implants on postoperative infection rate in dogs >50 kg undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Retrospective case series. Dogs >50 kg (n = 208) that had TPLO. Medical records (January 2003-September 2011) were reviewed for dogs that had TPLO. Type of implant used (locking plate and screw fixation [LP] and dynamic compression plate and screw fixation [NLP]), use of postoperative antibiotics and presence of postoperative infection were recorded. Multivariate analysis was performed. Forty dogs (21.3%) had clinical signs compatible with postoperative infection. A positive microbiology swab was available in 16/40 cases (40%). Administration of postoperative antibiotics was associated with a lower incidence of infection (P = .006) and the use of NLP was associated with a higher incidence of infection (P = .01). Use of LP construct and postoperative antibiotic therapy significantly decreased infection rate in dogs >50 kg that have TPLO. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of infestation of stray dogs that attend public areas of Tirana by geohelminths zoonotic: Toxocara canis (T. canis, Ancylostomatids and Trichuris spp., and indirectly to assess the level of environment contamination by invasive exogenous stages of these parasites. Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples was collected from stray dogs in public three urban areas of Tirana. These samples were analyzed by using the centrifugation-flotation technique. Results: Result showed that 54.6% of the dogs were infested from T. canis, Ancylostomatids (Ancylostoma spp. and Uncinaria spp. and Trichuris spp. Those infested dogs from Ancylostomatids were 37 (15.4%, from T. canis were 47 (19.6% and from Trichuris sp. were 47 (19.6%. Conclusions: Tirana public places are contaminated by exogenous stages of invasive intestinal dog’s geohelminths all through the year. But the contamination level is higher during the spring and autumn and the parks with trees and grass are more polluted than the bare areas. So these environments have become a permanent risk factor of infection from parasitic zoonoses for the humans and animals that frequent those places. It is the duty of local authorities who takes care of legislation compilation, to prevent the public areas to become fecalized from dogs and to implement a plan with different actions to minimize the number of stray dogs.
University, Manassas, VA, USA, 4 PerkinElmer, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Burkholderia is a diverse genus of gram-negative bacteria that causes high...host-Burkholderia spp. interaction is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of infection as well as identifying therapeutic targets for drug ... Drug Discov. 2, 233–241. doi: 10.2174/157489107782497335 Han, C., Jin, J., Xu, S., Liu, H., Li, N., and Cao, X. (2010). Integrin CD11b negatively
Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.
Adkins, P R F; Dufour, S; Spain, J N; Calcutt, M J; Reilly, T J; Stewart, G C; Middleton, J R
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. intramammary infections (IMI) in periparturient heifers and determine the relationship of precalving body site isolation with precalving IMI and postcalving IMI using molecular speciation and strain-typing methods. Primiparous heifers were enrolled at approximately 14 d before expected calving date. Precalving mammary quarter secretions and body site swabbing samples (teat skin, inguinal skin, muzzle, and perineum) were collected. Postcalving, mammary quarter milk samples were collected for culture and somatic cell counting. Precalving body site samples were cultured, and up to 10 staphylococcal colonies were saved for characterization. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or sequencing of rpoB or tuf. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to strain type a subset of isolates. Overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus agnetis, and Staphylococcus simulans were the most common species identified in precalving mammary secretions, whereas S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, and S. agnetis were the most common species found in postcalving milk samples. The most common species identified from body site samples were S. chromogenes, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Mammary quarters that had a precalving mammary secretion that was culture positive for S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, or Staphylococcus devriesei had increased odds of having an IMI with the same species postcalving. A S. chromogenes IMI postcalving was associated with higher somatic cell count when compared with postcalving culture-negative quarters. Among heifers identified with a non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. IMI either precalving or postcalving, heifers that had S. agnetis or S. chromogenes isolated from their teat skin had increased odds of having the same species found in their precalving mammary secretions, and heifers
Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki
Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.
Alho, Ana Margarida; Mouro, Sofia; Pissarra, Hugo; Murta, Ana; Lemos, Marta; Gomes, Lídia; Lima, Clara; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira
Nasal eucoleosis is an uncommonly diagnosed parasitic infection in domestic dogs. Depending on the parasite load, dogs with Eucoleus boehmi may exhibit mild upper respiratory signs such as sneezing and nasal discharge or may not exhibit any clinical signs. The present study describes the case of a 6-year-old male dog, presented with reverse sneezing of 2 months' duration and bilateral nasal serous discharge. The patient had been taking prednisolone for years due to an immune mediated arthritis of the carpal joint. Physical examination, complete blood count, serum chemistry and thoracic radiography were unremarkable. A computed tomography scan of the nasal cavity was compatible with bilateral chronic rhinitis of unknown aetiology. Further investigation by rhinoscopy revealed diffuse erythematous mucosae with several white and serpentine-shaped worms on the turbinates' surface. Morphological identification of the worms collected in situ was performed, revealing filiform nematodes (15-30 mm in length) containing several bipolar plugged and barrel-shaped eggs in their medial segment. The eggs contained a multicellular embryo, a pitted surface and measured 54-60 μm long by 30-35 μm wide. Morphological and morphometric characteristics were consistent with E. boehmi. Treatment with imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on formulation along with preventing measures to minimise reinfection were prescribed and successfully achieved, as confirmed by negative faecal examinations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first report of E. boehmi infection in a dog from Portugal. Nasal eucoleosis appears to be underestimated and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in canids suffering from upper respiratory distress.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.
Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor
Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.
Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J
Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gingrich, E N; Scorza, A V; Clifford, E L; Olea-Popelka, F J; Lappin, M R
Dogs on the Galapagos Islands are a unique population created by isolation from the mainland and regulations prohibiting further importation. The effect of infectious agents of these domestic dogs on the indigenous fauna is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs on the Galapagos Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 97 dogs presented during neutering campaigns on Santa Cruz (n=51), San Cristobal (n=17), and Isabela (n=29) islands. Feces were evaluated for parasites by microscopic examination after zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation as well as by a commercially available IFA for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Polymerase chain reaction for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA and Giardia spp. DNA was performed on all positive samples to provide the infecting genotypes. Ancylostoma caninum (57.7%) and Toxocara canis (16.5%) were most commonly detected, followed by Giardia spp. (5.2%), Isospora canis (4.1%), Sarcocystis canis (3.1%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1%). Adequate DNA for sequencing was available for one Giardia spp. which was shown to be assemblage D. Despite being isolated, the dogs on the Galapagos have many of the same enteric parasites detected on the mainland of South America. These dogs are not routinely administered anthelmintics or other drugs, but are often allowed to roam the streets and live in close proximity to humans. Parasite prophylaxis is necessary to decrease the parasite burden within the population and to lessen the risk of spread to humans or other animals also inhabiting the islands. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.
The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...
Kernif, Tahar; Aissi, Meriem; Doumandji, Salah-Eddine; Chomel, Bruno B.; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir
Bartonella species are being recognized as important bacterial human and canine pathogens, and are associated with multiple arthropod vectors. Bartonella DNA extracted from blood samples was obtained from domestic dogs in Algiers, Algeria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analyses of the ftsZ gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ITS) were performed. Three Bartonella species: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonells elizabethae were detected infecting Algerian dogs. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of detection by PCR amplification of Bartonella in dogs in North Africa. PMID:20682871
Felipe, Ilana Mirian Almeida; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Kuppinger, Oliver; Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Barbosa, David Soeiro; Barral, Aldina; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Caldas, Arlene de Jesus Mendes
Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.
Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.
Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui
Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens
Muma, John Bwalya; Lund, Arve; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Matope, Gift; Nielsen, Klaus; DJønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques; Tryland, Morten; Skjerve, Eystein
One of the diseases of veterinary and public health importance affecting the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) on the Kafue flats is brucellosis, for which only scant information is available. During the 2003 (October), 2004 (December), and 2008 (July-December) hunting seasons in the Kafue flats, we conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in the Kafue lechwe and to evaluate serologic tests for detection of Brucella spp. antibodies in lechwe. The Rose Bengal Test (RBT), competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used. A total of 121 Kafue lechwe were hunted for disease investigations in 2003, 2004, and 2008 in the Kafue Flat Game Management Area. Of these, 21.6%, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.2-29.1%) had detectable antibodies to Brucella spp. The Kafue lechwe in Lochnivar National Park had higher antibody results than those in Blue Lagoon National Park (odds ratio=3.0; 95% CI: 0.94-9.4). Infection levels were similar in females (21.6%) and males (21.7%). Results were similar among RBT, FPA, cELISA tests, suggesting that these could effectively be used in diagnosing brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe. Our study demonstrates the presence of Brucella infections in the Kafue lechwe in two national parks located in the Kafue flats and further highlights the suitability of serologic assays for testing the Kafue lechwe. Because the Kafue lechwe is the most hunted wildlife species in Zambia, hunters need to be informed of the public health risk of Brucella spp. infection.
Bier, Daniele; Martins-Bede, Flavia Toledo; Morikawa, Vivien Midori; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina [UNESP; Kikuti, Mariana [UNESP; Langoni, Hélio [UNESP; Canever, Ricardo Jose; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Molento, Marcelo Beltrao
Background: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease associated with poor areas of urban settings of developing countries and early diagnosis and prompt treatment may prevent disease. Although rodents are reportedly considered the main reservoirs of leptospirosis, dogs may develop the disease, may become asymptomatic carriers and may be used as sentinels for disease epidemiology. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with spatial analysis techniques allows the mappi...
Nívia Carolina Nogueira-Paiva
Full Text Available Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78 T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.
Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission.
Érica Chaves Lúcio
Full Text Available Distemper is caused by a Morbillivirus and has worldwide distribution, the dog being the major reservoir for this virus. Transmission occurs by aerosols and the virus can be excreted at the end of the acute phase. It is a disease with no predilection for race, age or sex; however the literature suggests that puppies are most affected. In this study were analyzed serum samples from pet dogs in the city districts and neighborhoods of Garanhuns Boa Vista, Cohab 1, Cohab 2, Magano and center during the period from August to December 2012. Samples were collected from dogs older than three months, not vaccinated against distemper. To produce the maps of geographical distribution of animals were collected coordinates for each home visit. Of the samples analyzed, 90.38% were positive, and 28.72% had high antibody concentration, 47.88% and 23.40% average concentration or low. By analyzing the distribution by districts observed a higher prevalence of infection in neighborhoods with Cohab 2 100.00% and Cohab 1 with 96.00%; Boa Vista with 93.10%; Magano with 78.26%; center with 50.00%. This study did not identify any variable associated with infection related to sex and 100.0% of the animals, including positive and negative, were not castrated. It was shown that 75.0% of the animals had never been taken to the veterinarian, and of these, 94.8% were positive, a fact that may be related to higher seropositivity in these animals. The results of this study show that the canine distemper virus is widespread in the canine population of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, highlights the importance of epidemiological studies to characterize the real situation of infection by this virus in canine populations, in order to reduce damage to animal health caused by this agent.
Faria, Angélica Rosa; de Castro Veloso, Luciano; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Damasceno, Leonardo Miranda; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Andrade, Hélida M.
Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Worldwide, approximately 20% of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum, also known as Leishmania chagasi in Latin America. Current diagnostic methods are not accurate enough to identify Leishmania-infected animals and may compromise the effectiveness of disease control. Therefore, we aimed to produce and test two recombinant multiepitope proteins as a means to improve and increase accuracy in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten antigenic peptides were identified by CVL ELISA in previous work. In the current proposal, the coding sequences of these ten peptides were assembled into a synthetic gene. Furthermore, other twenty peptides were selected from work by our group where good B and T cell epitopes were mapped. The coding sequences of these peptides were also assembled into a synthetic gene. Both genes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, producing two multiepitope recombinant proteins, PQ10 and PQ20. These antigens have been used in CVL ELISA and were able to identify asymptomatic dogs (80%) more effectively than EIE-LVC kit, produced by Bio-Manguinhos (0%) and DPP kit (10%). Moreover, our recombinant proteins presented an early detection (before PCR) of infected dogs, with positivities ranging from 23% to 65%, depending on the phase of infection in which sera were acquired. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that ELISA using the multiepitope proteins PQ10 and PQ20 has great potential in early CVL diagnosis. The use of these proteins in other methodologies, such as immunochromatographic tests, could be beneficial mainly for the detection of asymptomatic dogs. PMID:25569685
Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida
Full Text Available SUMMARY It is estimated that about 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, mostly in Latin America and more than 25 million are at risk of acquiring this infection in endemic areas. Dogs are an important reservoir for this pathogen and thus, considered a risk factor for human populations. This report describes one case of Chagas disease in a dog from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The diagnosis was obtained by direct examination of trypomastigote forms in blood smears. Amastigotes forms were visualized in microscopy of the bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and brain. The T. cruzi (ZIII infection was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and sequencing. The animal presented multisystemic failure and died. Although acute Chagas disease in humans is not reported in Cuiabá, this is the first report of a canine case in this region. This case represents a warning, to health professionals and authorities, to the possibility of transmission of this zoonosis in Cuiabá.
Omar A Saldarriaga
Full Text Available Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V. braziliensis (n = 33, L. (V. guyanensis (n = 17, L. (V. panamensis (n = 9. The less common L. (V. lainsoni, L. (V. shawi, and L. (V. naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13 we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.
Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E
Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hasegawa, T; Fujii, M; Fukada, T; Tsuji, C; Fujita, T; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T; Ogawa, H
Severe gangrenous mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus infection was diagnosed in a 7 year-old intact female beagle which was presented with swelling of mammary glands after dystocia. Leukocytosis (25,200-48,600/microliters), decreased platelets (107,000-179,000/microliters), and abnormal platelet pattern continued during the critical condition. Consistent with platelet pattern, large platelets were observed in the blood smear. The number of leukocytes and platelets rapidly returned to normal during treatment, and the platelet pattern was also restored. The number and pattern of platelet may provide a clue for the evaluation of the clinical condition and/or severity of the lesions in the dog with mastitis.
Labarthe, Norma Vollmer; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Reifur, Larissa; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Merlo, Alexandre; Carvalho Pinto, Carlos Jose; Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Alves, Leucio Câmara
Canine heartworm infections were frequently diagnosed in Brazil before the new millennium. After the year 2000, the frequency of diagnosis showed a sharp decline; however, a few years later, new evidence indicated that the parasite was still present and that canine infection rates seemed to be increasing. Therefore, an updated survey of canine heartworm prevalence was conducted in several locations in south, southeast, and northeast Brazil. Dogs from 15 locations having previously reported a high prevalence of heartworm infection were included in the survey according to defined criteria, including the absence of treatment with a macrocyclic lactone for at least 1 year. Blood samples from 1531 dogs were evaluated by an in-clinic immunochromatography test kit (Witness® Heartworm, Zoetis, USA) for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. At each location, epidemiologic data, including physical characteristics and clinical signs reported by owners or observed by veterinarians, were recorded on prepared forms for tabulation of results by location, clinical signs, and physical characteristics. The overall prevalence of canine heartworm infection was 23.1%, with evidence of heartworm-infected dogs detected in all 15 locations studied. There was a tendency for higher prevalence rates in environmentally protected areas, despite some locations having less-than-ideal environmental temperatures for survival of vector mosquitoes. Among physical characteristics, it was noted that dogs with predominantly white hair coats and residing in areas with a high (≥20%) prevalence of heartworm were less likely to have heartworm infection detected by a commercial heartworm antigen test kit than were dogs with other coat colors. In general, dogs older than 2 years were more frequently positive for D. immitis antigen than were younger dogs. Clinical signs of heartworm infections were rare or owners were unable to detect them, and could not be used for reliable prediction of the
Cleaveland, S; Appel, M G; Chalmers, W S; Chillingworth, C; Kaare, M; Dye, C
Following an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Serengeti lions in 1994, the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of the disease was investigated by serological and demographic analyses. From 1992 to 1994, data were collected from two domestic dog populations bordering the Serengeti National Park. Several lines of evidence indicated that patterns of CDV infection differed significantly between higher-density dog populations of Serengeti District to the west of the park and lower-density populations of Ngorongoro District to the south-east: (a) CDV age-seroprevalence patterns differed significantly between years in Ngorongoro District populations but not in Serengeti District populations; (b) CDV seropositive pups (Ngorongoro District only in 1994, whereas a proportion of pups in Serengeti District were seropositive in each year of the study; (c) in Ngorongoro District, the proportion of deaths attributed to disease was significantly higher in 1994 than in 1993, whereas in Serengeti District, there was no significant difference in disease-related mortality between years; (d) in Ngorongoro District, significantly more CDV seronegative dogs than seropositive dogs died in 1994, whereas there was no difference in survival of CDV seropositives and seronegatives between years in Serengeti District. We concluded that, between 1992 and 1994, CDV persisted in higher-density dog populations of Serengeti District, but occurred only sporadically in lower-density Ngorongoro District populations. Data from Ngorongoro District are consistent with exposure of dogs to CDV in 1991 and 1994, but not in 1992 and 1993. These findings suggest that higher-density domestic dog populations to the west of the Serengeti National Park were a more likely source of CDV infection for wildlife during 1994 than lower-density pastoralist dogs to the south and east of the park.
Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen
Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.
Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.
Fernando de Souza Rodrigues
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.
IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs’ experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken. PMID:28717056
Rees, P; Schoeman, J P
Hypoglycaemia has been identified as a life-threatening metabolic complication in almost 20% of severely ill dogs suffering from babesiosis due to Babesia canis rossi infection, and has been correlated with mortality. Hyperinsulinaemia as a result of inappropriate insulin secretion may precipitate hypoglycaemia, and has been suggested as a possible cause of hypoglycaemia in human and murine malaria. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, including 94 dogs with naturally occurring virulent babesiosis, sought to identify the presence of inappropriate insulin secretion in hypoglycaemic canine babesiosis. Pre-treatment jugular blood samples were collected for simultaneous determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Animals were retrospectively divided into three groups: hypoglycaemic (BG5.5 mmol/L; n=16). The median insulin concentrations for the hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic, and hyperglycaemic groups were 10.7 pmol/L, 10.7 pmol/L, and 21.7 pmol/L, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in insulin concentration between the three groups. Additionally, the median insulin concentration in the hypoglycaemic and normoglycaemic groups was below the detection limit of the assay, suggesting that insulin secretion was appropriately low (i.e. undetectable) in these cases. Only two dogs had inappropriately elevated insulin concentrations. One of these dogs was hypoglycaemic. We conclude that hyperinsulinaemia is an infrequent cause of hypoglycaemia in virulent canine babesiosis. Other causes of hypoglycaemia, such as increased glucose consumption, depletion of hepatic glycogen stores, and hepatic dysfunction with impaired gluconeogenesis, are speculated to play more important roles in the pathophysiology of hypoglycaemia in canine babesiosis.
Full Text Available In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented. The aim of this work was to survey intestinal parasites in canine feces from two low-income urban neighborhoods of Bariloche city, Argentina, and to assess their seasonal variation. During 2016, 188 fresh dog feces were collected from sidewalks in 40 randomly selected blocks from the neighborhoods. Each sample was processed by Sheater flotation and tested for a coproantigen (CAg by ELISA. The percentage of parasitized feces was 65.3% (95% CI: 55.9%-73.8%. Eleven parasite species were found, 3 protozoan, 3 cestodes, and 5 nematodes. Echinococcus sp. was present in 9.3% of the samples (95% CI: 4.7%-16.1%. Canine echinococcosis rates resulted similar to rates found previously in other neighborhoods of the city. The life cycle of Echinococcus sp. is sustained in urban areas by the entry of parasitized livestock, domiciliary slaughtering, and inadequate deposition of offal. The risk of Echinococcus sp. transmission to people in these neighborhoods is very high, due to high density of free-roaming dogs and high percentages of infected feces, similar to percentages observed in rural areas.
Dubey, Jitender P; Brown, Justin; Ternent, Mark; Verma, Shiv K; Hill, Dolores E; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Humphreys, Jan G
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the metazoan Trichinella spp. infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. Both parasitic infections can cause serious illness in human beings and can be acquired by ingesting under-cooked meat harboring infective stages. Approximately 3500 black bears (Ursus americanus) are legally-harvested each year in Pennsylvania, USA during the November hunting season. Among animals found infected with T. gondii, the prevalence of T. gondii is the highest among black bears in the USA; however, little is currently known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host species. Serum samples were collected during the winters of 2015 and 2016 from adult female bears and their nursing cubs or yearlings while they were still in their dens. Additionally, archived sera from bear samples collected throughout the year, including hunter-harvested bears in November and trapped bears in the summer, were serologically tested. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) and antibodies to Trichinella spp. were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, T. gondii antibodies were found in 87.6% (206/235) of adults, and 44.1% (30/68) of yearlings. In March 2015/2016 sampling, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 94% (30/32) adult female bears while in their den. Antibodies were detected in 5% (3/66) of the nursing cubs in the dens of these sows. One positive cub had a MAT titer of 1:160 and two were positive at the 1:25 dilution but not at 1:50. The adult females of these cubs had MAT titers ranging from 1:400 to 1:3200. Antibodies to Trichinella spp. were found in 3% (6/181) of adults and 3.6% (1/28) of yearlings; these 7 bears were also seropositive for T. gondii. No antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected in the sera of 44 nursing cubs tested. The finding of T. gondii antibodies in only 3 of 66 cubs, and higher
Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D
We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.
Moço, Tatiana Cristina; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Madeira, Newton Goulart; Dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Leal, Denise Dutra Menezes; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena
Hepatozoon spp. are the most frequent intracellular protozoa in snakes. Considering the variety of parasites infecting specimens of Caudisona durissa terrifica and the divergent data in literature where only two species, Hepatozoon romani and Hepatozoon capsulata, are described, the aim of this study was to morphologically, morphometrically, and molecularly characterize Hepatozoon spp. from some naturally infected specimens of C. durissa terrifica, and observe changes caused by these protozoa in parasitized erythrocytes. Four snakes were examined. Two of them had two morphological distinct gamonts, while the other two had only one type of gamont. The six distinct gamonts were provisionally named gamonts A, B, C, D, E, and F. Statistical analysis, however, confirmed the existence of only four parasite populations, those which were capable of inducing significant alterations in determined red blood cells variables. Attempts to infect Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were done for each snake specimen. Some mosquitoes became infected and oocysts were recovered and measured. The detection of Hepatozoon DNA was obtained with success but the molecular characterization was unable to differentiate species of the samples, with respect to the fragment studied.
Zorana M. Djordjevic
Full Text Available Background: The alarming spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections has been extensively reported in recent medical literature. Aims: To compare trends in antimicrobial consumption and development of resistance among isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause hospital infections. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A study was conducted in a tertiary healthcare institution in central Serbia, during the 7-year period between January 2009 and December 2015. The incidence rate of infections caused by Acinetobacter or Pseudomonas, as well as their resistance density to commonly used antibiotics, were calculated. Utilization of antibiotics was expressed as the number of defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days. Results: A statistically significant increase in resistance density in 2015 compared to the first year of observation was noted for Acinetobacter, but not for Pseudomonas, to third-generation cephalosporins (p=0.008, aminoglycosides (p=0.005, carbapenems (p=0.003, piperacillin/tazobactam (p=0.025, ampicillin/sulbactam (p=0.009 and tigecycline (p=0.048. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is an association between the resistance density of Acinetobacter spp. and utilization of carbapenems, tigecycline and aminoglycosides. A multifaceted intervention is needed to decrease the incidence rate of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas hospital infections, as well as their resistance density to available antibiotics
Kostopoulou, Despoina; Claerebout, Edwin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Ligda, Panagiota; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Casaert, Stijn; Sotiraki, Smaragda
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and infection intensity of intestinal parasites in different dog and cat populations in Crete, Greece, estimate the zoonotic risk and identify risk factors. Faecal samples from shelter, household and shepherd dogs and shelter and household cats were analyzed using sedimentation/flotation techniques. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected by a quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). PCR and sequencing was performed to evaluate the zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium positive samples. Totals of 879 dog and 264 cat faecal samples were examined. In dogs, the overall prevalence was 25.2% (CI: 22.4-28.1) for Giardia spp.; 9.2% (CI: 7.3-11.1) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 7.6% (CI: 5.9-9.4) for Toxocara spp.; 5.9% (CI: 4.4-7.5) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.6% (CI: 3.2-5.9) for Cystoisospora spp.; 2.7% (CI: 1.7-3.8) for Toxascaris leonina; 1.7% (CI: 0.9-2.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0.2-1.4) for taeniid eggs; 0.2% (CI: 0-0.5) for Dipylidium caninum; and 0.1% (CI: 0-0.3) for Strongyloides stercoralis. In cats, the prevalence was 20.5% (CI: 15.6-25.3) for Giardia spp.; 9.5% (CI: 5.9-13.0) for Cystoisospora spp.; 8.3% (CI: 5.0-11.7) for Toxocara spp.; 7.6% (CI: 4.4-10.8) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 6.8% (CI: 3.8-9.9) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.2% (CI: 1.8-6.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0-1.8) for taeniid eggs; and 0.4% (CI: 0-1.1) for Hammondia/Toxoplasma. Concerning the risk factors evaluated, there was a negative association between age and Giardia infection and between age and T. leonina infection intensity for dogs. Sequencing results revealed the presence of mainly animal-specific G. duodenalis assemblages C and D in dogs and assemblages F, C and BIV-like in cats, with only a limited number of (co-)infections with assemblage A. As for Cryptosporidium, the dog-specific C. canis and the pig-specific C. scrofarum were detected in dogs and the cat-specific C. felis was
Full Text Available The data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled “ The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis” (Kouguchi et al., 2016 . This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2 Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379. The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE105098. Keywords: E. multilocularis, Microarray, Dog, Echinococcosis, Vaccine
Mallawarachchi, Chandana H; Nilmini Chandrasena, T G A; Premaratna, Ranjan; Mallawarachchi, S M N S M; de Silva, Nilanthi R
Post-mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance during the lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program in Sri Lanka, revealed the re-emergence of brugian filariasis after four decades. This study was done with the objectives of investigating the epidemiology and age-specific vulnerability to infection. Surveillance was done using night blood smears (NBS) and the Brugia rapid test (BRT), to detect microfilaria (MF) and anti-Brugia IgG4 antibodies in blood samples collected from an age-stratified population enrolled from two high-risk study areas (SA)s, Pubudugama and Wedamulla in the Gampaha District. The periodicity of the re-emergent Brugia spp. was characterized by quantitative estimation of MF in blood collected periodically over 24 h using nucleopore-membrane filtration method. Of 994 participants [Pubudugama 467 (47.9%) and Wedamulla 527 (53%)] screened by NBS, two and zero cases were positive for MF at Pubudugama (MF rate, 0.43) and Wedamulla (MF rate, 0), respectively, with an overall MF rate of 0.2. Of the two MF positives, one participant had a W. bancrofti while the other had a Brugia spp. infection. Of 984 valid BRT test readings [Pubudugama (n = 461) and Wedamulla (n = 523)], two and seven were positive for anti-brugia antibodies by BRT at Pubudugama (antibody rate 0.43) and Wedamulla (antibody rate 1.34), respectively, with an overall antibody rate of 0.91. Both MF positives detected from SAs and two of three other Brugia spp. MF positives detected at routine surveillance by the National Anti-Filariasis Campaign (AFC) tested negative by the BRT. Association of Brugia spp. infections with age were not evident due to the low case numbers. MF was observed in the peripheral circulation throughout the day (subperiodic) with peak counts occurring at 21 h indicating nocturnal sub-periodicity. There is the low-level persistence of bancroftian filariasis and re-emergence of brugian filariasis in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. The periodicity
Beugnet, Frédéric; Meyer, Leon; Fourie, Josephus; Larsen, Diane
The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra ® (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra ® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10-33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10) of the control dogs and 0% (0/10) of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p < 0.0031). Through its efficacy against fleas, NexGard Spectra ® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Full Text Available The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial, a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10–33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10 of the control dogs and 0% (0/10 of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p < 0.0031. Through its efficacy against fleas, NexGard Spectra® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study.
Naucke Torsten J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L. infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72. The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78. Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany.
Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Schubach, Armando de O; Schubach, Tânia M P; Serra, Cathia M B; Pereira, Sandro A; Figueiredo, Fabiano B; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Quintella, Leonardo P; Marzochi, Mauro C A
Nineteen dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were studied in order to determine the presence of the parasite outside cutaneous lesions. Eleven (57.9%) animals showed single cutaneous or mucosal lesions and eight (42.1%) presented two or three lesions. Twenty-eight active lesions were biopsied. Isolation in culture and characterization by enzyme electrophoresis were possible in 100% of cases and amastigote forms were visualized upon histopathological examination in three samples (n=25, 12%). Isolation of the parasite in culture from peripheral blood and intact skin fragments obtained from the scapular region was negative in all animals, as was the histopathological analysis of skin from this region. Serological reactivity determined by an immunofluorescent antibody test and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was demonstrated in 15 animals. The results obtained suggest that L. braziliensis preferentially remains at the site of lesion, in contrast to the systemic distribution of parasites observed in dogs infected with L. (Leishmania) chagasi. A better understanding of this aspect may help direct diagnostic and control strategies applicable to areas characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis, as is the case for the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Melo, Lilian; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Azevedo, Maíra Araújo; Gonçalves, Karolina Ribeiro; da Silva do Nascimento, Alvaro Fernando; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; de Figueiredo Diniz, Lívia; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Torres, Rosália Moraes; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Talvani, André
Chagas cardiomyopathy remodeling is based on the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in heart tissue and on the complex inflammatory response leading to a myocardium fibrosis and alterations in conductive and functional heart parameters. This study aims to evaluate Simvastatin on the inflammatory response and heart functionality using dogs infected with Y strain of T. cruzi. Animals were treated daily with Simvastatin (20 mg) for 6 months and submitted to clinical and immunopathological evaluations. Simvastatin reduced heart expression and serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) but not interleukin-10 (IL-10), possibly favoring blood parasitism but reducing inflammation and fibrosis in the left ventricle and right atrium. Simvastatin also ameliorated ejection fraction, diastolic diameter, and mass index of the left ventricle 6 months after infection. This study suggests that more investigation should be performed on the use of statins as a prophylactic therapy against cardiac remodeling because of their effects on modifying immune response and benefiting functional parameters in dogs with T. cruzi-induced ventricular dysfunctions. PMID:21292909
Bowman, Dwight D; Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joseph A; Keil, Daniel J; Settje, Terry L; Charles, Samuel D
Prior work has shown that the levels of moxidectin in dogs treated with Advantage Multi® for Dogs (Bayer Animal Health) remain at a high plasma concentration for the full month after application. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution (Advantage Multi® for Dogs, also known as Advocate® for Dogs) for the prevention of heartworm infection and disease 30 days after just one application. Two groups of eight dogs each were included. Dogs in Group 1 received the product (Advantage Multi® for Dogs) while those in Group 2 remained as nontreated controls. All dogs entering the study completed a physical examination including examination for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and circulating microfilariae. Dogs in Group 1 were treated on Study Day (SD) -30 as per the label recommendation. Thirty days later (SD 0) dogs in Groups 1 and 2 were subcutaneously infected in the inguinal region with approximately 50 infective third-stage D. immitis larvae ("Missouri" isolate). Blood was collected on SDs 120 and 147 for examination for D. immitis antigen and circulating microfilariae. On SD 148, all animals were euthanized and necropsied for recovery of adult heartworms. All procedures were performed in accordance with the VICH GL9 guidelines. Examination and worm counts made at necropsy showed no heartworms in the treated dogs (Group 1) compared with six of eight nontreated dogs (Group 2) with heartworms (range of 2-33). The treated dogs (Group 1) had significantly fewer heartworms (p Dogs) is efficacious for the prevention of heartworm infection and disease all month long with no observation of treatment-related adverse events.
Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y
To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.
Moreno, Luisa Z; Paixão, Renata; Gobbi, Débora D S; Raimundo, Daniele C; Ferreira, Thais P; Moreno, Andrea M; Hofer, Ernesto; Reis, Cristhiane M F; Matté, Glavur R; Matté, Maria H
Listeria species are susceptible to most antibiotics. However, over the last decade, increasing reports of multidrug-resistant Listeria spp. from various sources have prompted public health concerns. The objective of this study was to characterize the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria spp. and the genetic mechanisms that confer resistance. Forty-six Listeria spp. isolates were studied, and their minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined by microdilution using Sensititre standard susceptibility MIC plates. The isolates were screened for the presence of gyrA, parC, lde, lsa(A), lnu(A), and mprF by PCR, and the amplified genes were sequenced. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and carbapenems. Resistance to clindamycin, daptomycin, and oxacillin was found among L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and all species possessed at least intermediate resistance to fluoroquinolones. GyrA, parC, and mprF were detected in all isolates; however, mutations were found only in gyrA sequences. A high daptomycin MIC, as reported previously, was observed, suggesting an intrinsic resistance of Listeria spp. to daptomycin. These results are consistent with reports of emerging resistance in Listeria spp. and emphasize the need for further genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance in this genus.
Simpson, Andrew C; Schissler, Jennifer R; Rosychuk, Rod A W; Moore, A Russell
Oclacitinib is a selective Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of canine allergic pruritus and atopic dermatitis in dogs. Glucocorticoids and ciclosporin increase urinary tract infection (UTI) frequency in dogs with inflammatory skin disease. Prospective study to evaluate the frequency of UTI and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis receiving oclacitinib. Client-owned dogs ≥2 years of age with a history of allergic dermatitis without apparent history of urinary tract disease or predisposition to UTI were included. Prior to enrolment, urinalysis and quantitative urine culture were performed after a washout period of at least 14 days from systemic antimicrobial drugs and 28 days for ciclosporin and systemic glucocorticoids. Dogs received oclacitinib at labelled dosing for an intended period of 180-230 days with a follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed regardless of urinary tract signs. Systemic antimicrobial and immune-modulating drugs were not administered during the study. None of the 55 dogs in this study developed UTI while receiving oclacitinib based on follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed during a range of 58-280 days (mean 195 days). Two dogs developed self-limiting abnormal urinary tract signs without urine culture or urinalysis findings consistent with UTI. These findings indicate that bacteriuria is not an expected adverse effect in dogs treated with oclacitinib without a prior history of UTI or predisposing condition during this treatment period. Therefore, routine urine culture is not indicated for such dogs in the absence of abnormal urinalysis or clinical signs of urinary tract disease. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.
Full Text Available Dog parks represent a recent trend in western countries, enabling owners to spend quality time with their pets in a controlled environment. Despite their growing popularity, few studies have been performed to date on these parks to investigate dog intestinal parasitic infections and soil contamination. The present study examined 369 faecal and 18 soil samples collected from 3 dog parks in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. Additionally, 102 interviews were performed with dog owners to assess dog-walking behaviours and parasite risk. In total, 33% of the faecal dog samples were infected with at least one parasitic agent: hookworms (16.5%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.9%, Giardia spp. (11.4%, Toxascaris leonina (1.1%, Cystoisospora spp. (1.1%, Toxocara spp. (0.5%, and Sarcocystis sp. (0.3%. The soil of all the parks was contaminated with hookworm eggs. This is the first study performed in a European urban area to assess canine faecal contamination and parasitic agents in dog parks. Our results highlight the potential of these parks as a source of transmission for canine parasites, including some with zoonotic potential. Public awareness and effective preventive measures should be promoted to minimise the health-risk impact to both animals and humans, under the scope of environmental and public health.
Ferreira, Ana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Otero, David; Gomes, Lídia; Nijsse, Rolf; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís
Dog parks represent a recent trend in western countries, enabling owners to spend quality time with their pets in a controlled environment. Despite their growing popularity, few studies have been performed to date on these parks to investigate dog intestinal parasitic infections and soil contamination. The present study examined 369 faecal and 18 soil samples collected from 3 dog parks in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. Additionally, 102 interviews were performed with dog owners to assess dog-walking behaviours and parasite risk. In total, 33% of the faecal dog samples were infected with at least one parasitic agent: hookworms (16.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. (11.9%), Giardia spp. (11.4%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Cystoisospora spp. (1.1%), Toxocara spp. (0.5%), and Sarcocystis sp. (0.3%). The soil of all the parks was contaminated with hookworm eggs. This is the first study performed in a European urban area to assess canine faecal contamination and parasitic agents in dog parks. Our results highlight the potential of these parks as a source of transmission for canine parasites, including some with zoonotic potential. Public awareness and effective preventive measures should be promoted to minimise the health-risk impact to both animals and humans, under the scope of environmental and public health.
Curi, N H A; Paschoal, A M O; Massara, R L; Santos, H A; Guimarães, M P; Passamani, M; Chiarello, A G
Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47%) followed by Toxocara (18%) and Trichuris (8%). Other less prevalent (dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.
Full Text Available Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. affecting potato in Europe viz. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, P. wasabiae (Pwa and Dickeya solani (Dso with the objective to assess their potential as biological disease control agents. Two lytic bacteriophages infecting stains of Pcc, Pwa and Dso were isolated from potato samples collected from two potato fields in central Poland. The ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages have morphology similar to other members of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order, with a head diameter of 85 and 86 nm and length of tails of 117 and 121 nm, respectively. They were characterized for optimal multiplicity of infection, the rate of adsorption to the Pcc, Pwa and Dso cells, the latent period and the burst size. The phages were genotypically characterized with RAPD-PCR and RFLP techniques. The structural proteomes of both phages were obtained by fractionation of phage proteins by SDS-PAGE. Phage protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to gain knowledge of the length, organization and function of the ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 genomes. The potential use of ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages for the biocontrol of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. infections in potato is discussed.
Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa
Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. affecting potato in Europe viz. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), P. wasabiae (Pwa) and Dickeya solani (Dso) with the objective to assess their potential as biological disease control agents. Two lytic bacteriophages infecting stains of Pcc, Pwa and Dso were isolated from potato samples collected from two potato fields in central Poland. The ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages have morphology similar to other members of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order, with a head diameter of 85 and 86 nm and length of tails of 117 and 121 nm, respectively. They were characterized for optimal multiplicity of infection, the rate of adsorption to the Pcc, Pwa and Dso cells, the latent period and the burst size. The phages were genotypically characterized with RAPD-PCR and RFLP techniques. The structural proteomes of both phages were obtained by fractionation of phage proteins by SDS-PAGE. Phage protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to gain knowledge of the length, organization and function of the ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 genomes. The potential use of ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages for the biocontrol of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. infections in potato is discussed.
Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Grenouillet, Frédéric; François, Nadine; Skana, Florence; Millon, Laurence
With the increasing incidence and diverse etiologies of fungal infections, chromogenic yeast culture media are increasingly used for routine diagnosis. Rhodotorula species, which are characterized by the production of carotenoid pigments, are considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens. We recently diagnosed two fungemia due to Rhodotorula spp. and noticed that in both cases, the yeast failed to grow in subculture on the chromogenic yeast culture medium. This study was thus undertaken to investigate more thoroughly the ability (or inability) of Rhodotorula species to grow on different commercially available chromogenic media for yeast. Eighteen Rhodotorula spp. were checked for their ability to grow on four chromogenic yeast culture media: CHROMagar Candida (BD), Candi 4 Select (Biorad), Brilliance Candida (Oxoid), and Candida ID 2 (BioMerieux). All the Rhodotorula spp. strains grew on Brilliance and Candida ID 2, while only six isolates grew on Candi 4, and seven on CHROMagar. Two chromogenic yeast culture media showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula species. As all Rhodotorula species are resistant to echinocandins and fluconazole, it is essential to isolate and identify these yeast quickly to initiate appropriate amphotericin B antifungal treatment as early as possible. The choice of media for routine use should take into account the ability of different media to allow all emerging fungal pathogens to grow. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vaniscotte, A; Raoul, F; Poulle, M L; Romig, T; Dinkel, A; Takahashi, K; Guislain, M H; Moss, J; Tiaoying, L; Wang, Q; Qiu, J; Craig, P S; Giraudoux, P
On the Eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Sichuan province, China) dogs are regarded as important definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied dog spatial behaviour in 4 Tibetan villages in order to determine the role of dogs in environmental contamination and their potential interactions with small mammal intermediate hosts. We identified definitive host species and Echinococcus spp. infection status of feces collected in the field by PCR methods and analysed the spatial distribution of canid feces. Nocturnal space utilization of GPS collared dogs in and around villages was also undertaken. E. multilocularis DNA was amplified in 23% of dog feces (n=142) and in 15% of fox feces (n=13) but this difference was not significant. However, dog feces were more frequently observed (78% of collected feces) than fox feces and are therefore assumed to largely contribute to human environment contamination. Feces were mainly distributed around houses of dog owners (0-200 m) where collared dogs spent the majority of their time. Inside villages, the contamination was aggregated in some micro-foci where groups of dogs defecated preferentially. Finally, small mammal densities increased from the dog core areas to grasslands at the periphery of villages occasionally used by dogs; male dogs moving significantly farther than females. This study constitutes a first attempt to quantify in a spatially explicit way the role of dogs in E. multilocularis peri-domestic cycles and to identify behavioural parameters required to model E. multilocularis transmission in this region.
Gerhold, Richard; Newman, Shelley J; Grunenwald, Caroline M; Crews, Amanda; Hodshon, Amy; Su, Chunlei
A two-year-old male, neutered, basset hound-beagle mix with progressive neurological impairment was examined postmortem. Grossly, the dog had multiple raised masses on the spinal cord between nerve roots. Microscopically, the dog had protozoal myeloencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona were detected in the CNS by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sarcocysts in formalin-fixed muscle were negative for Sarcocystis by PCR. Banked serum was negative for T. gondii using the modified agglutination test, suggesting an acute case of T. gondii infection or immunosuppression; however, no predisposing immunosuppressive diseases, including canine distemper, were found. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dual T. gondii and S. neurona infection in a dog. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I
Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Occurrence of anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dog sera from Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de LondrinaOcorrência de anticorpos contra Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum E Toxoplasma gondii em soros de cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Pr
Dauton Luiz Zulpo
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the presence of IgG antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from a Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Blood samples from 112 animals were obtained by jugular venipuncture to obtain sera. The samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence to detect antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii. Thirteen (11.61%, 25 (22.32%, and 57 (50.89% samples were positive for Leishmania spp., N. caninum, and T. gondii, respectively. The co-presence of anti-Leishmania spp. and N. caninum was observed in 6 (5.36%, anti-Leishmania spp. and anti-T. gondii in 8 (14.7%, and anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii in 18 (16.07% samples. The co-presence of anti-Leishmania spp., anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii was observed in 5 (4.46% dogs. There was a higher prevalence of Leishmania in Toxoplasma and Neospora positive animals, however, these results were not statistically significant (range p = 0.052 p = 0.06. The dogs have an important role in the epidemiological cycle of these diseases, which are important in animal and public health. The northern state of Paraná is an endemic area for human cutaneous leishmaniasis, therefore, studies should be conducted to uncover the real role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania to humans in the state. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar a presença de anticorpos contra Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Amostras de 112 animais foram obtidas por venopunção jugular ou cefálica com posterior obtenção dos soros. Estas foram submetidas à técnica de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos da classe IgG anti-Leishmania spp, anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii. Dos 112 soros examinados, 13 (11,61%, 25 (22,32% e 57 (50,89% foram positivos para Leishmania spp., N. caninum e T
Segarra, Sergi; Miró, Guadalupe; Montoya, Ana; Pardo-Marín, Luis; Teichenné, Joan; Ferrer, Lluís; Cerón, José Joaquín
The prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in clinically healthy dogs can be several times higher than that of clinical disease in endemic areas. Although treatment is not recommended in dogs with subclinical infection, these animals should be managed to prevent disease progression and parasite transmission to human beings or to other dogs. Dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) have been shown to modulate the immune response. A recent study in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis receiving an initial 28-day course of methylglucamine antimoniate showed that six-month administration of a dietary supplement containing nucleotides plus AHCC achieves similar efficacy to allopurinol. Since the type of immune response plays a key role in the evolution of patients with leishmaniosis, the present study was aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of this supplement in avoiding or delaying disease progression in clinically healthy Leishmania-infected dogs. Forty-six dogs were included in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dogs received once-daily oral administration of a placebo or a dietary supplement containing nucleotides plus AHCC. Disease progression was monitored throughout the study in both groups. At 0, 60, 180 and 365 days of treatment, clinical signs were evaluated using a validated clinical scoring system, and several analytes were measured from blood, urine, and bone marrow samples. During the study, a significantly lower (P = 0.047) proportion of dogs changed their clinical status and became sick in the supplement group (3/20; 15%), compared to the placebo group (10/22; 45.5%). ELISA-determined antibody titers were significantly reduced compared to baseline at all time points with the supplement (P < 0.01), but not with the placebo. The mean clinical score of disease severity was significantly lower in the supplement group after 180 days (P = 0.014). No significant differences were
CALZADA, JOS? E.; SALDA?A, AZAEL; GONZ?LEZ, KADIR; RIGG, CHYSTRIE; PINEDA, VANESSA; SANTAMAR?A, ANA MAR?A; RODR?GUEZ, INDRA; GOTTDENKER, NICOLE L.; LAURENTI, MARCIA D.; CHAVES, LUIS F.
SUMMARY American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. para...
Oswaldo Margarito Torres-Chablé
Full Text Available Abstract The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5% dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2% were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3% were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9% dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19, Toxocara canis (n = 7 and Giardia spp. (n = 3. Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections.
Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G.J.; Wolf, van der J.M.
Detailed studies were conducted on the distribution of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Dickeya spp. in two potato seed lots of different cultivars harvested from blackleg-diseased crops. Composite samples of six different tuber sections (peel, stolon end, and peeled potato tissue
José Cláudio Carneiro de Freitas
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease with different clinical manifestations. Parasitism often occurs in bone marrow, but changes have been observed in peripheral blood and serum biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemical parameters in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Eighty-five adult dogs of both sexes and various weights and ages from the Zoonosis Control Center of Fortaleza (CCZ were used, selected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and considered positive with IFA titers greater than 1:40 and by visualizing amastigotes of Leishmania chagasi in smears obtained by bone marrow aspiration. The dogs (n = 85 were grouped according to clinical signs: negative (CN = 7, subclinical (CS = 10, and clinical (CC = 68. Blood samples were collected for determination of hematological and biochemical serum values. The experimental protocol was approved by the CEUA/UECE. RESULTS: The most frequent clinical signs were cachexia (77.9%, keratitis (61.8%, and lymphadenopathy (55.9%, and 86.8% of the animals showed more than one clinical sign characteristic of CVL. In CC were observed reductions in red blood cells (63%, hematocrit (72%, and hemoglobin (62%, as well as leukocytosis (33%, neutropenia (28%, thrombocytopenia (50%, uremia (45%, hyperproteinemia (53%, p<0.05, hypergammaglobulinemia (62%, p<0.01, and hypoalbuminemia (58%. CONCLUSIONS: Animals with the clinical form of the disease demonstrate hematological and biochemical changes consistent with anemia, uremia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia, which present themselves as strong clinical markers of visceral leishmaniasis associated with the signs previously reported.
P. de Vries (Petra); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractThe potential of immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms), a novel form of antigenic presentation, for the induction of protective immunity against morbillivirus infection was shown by immunizing dogs with canine distemper virus (CDV) iscoms, which contained the fusion (F) protein and a
Ruinemans, G Maarten F; Haagsma, Cees J; Hendrix, Ron
Tenosynovitis caused by a Pseudallescheria boydii infection is an extremely rare complication after a dog bite and is easily misdiagnosed, leading to a delay in treatment. Careful history taking and adequate cultures can lead to a timely diagnosis, and longstanding antimycotic treatment can successfully eradicate the fungus.
Abbasi, Ibrahim; Branzburg, Anna; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Abdel Hafez, Sami K; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S; Hamburger, Joseph
Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by detecting adult worms recovered post mortem or purged from the intestines after treatment with arecoline is not suitable for mass screening. Large-scale diagnosis by detection of copro-antigens is useful but only with relatively high
Farahiyah Mohd. Rani
Full Text Available Acinetobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, which have become a global public health threat due to increasing resistance to carbapenems and almost all other antimicrobial compounds. High rates of resistance have been reported among countries in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia. In this review, we examine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Acinetobacter spp. hospital isolates from Malaysia over a period of nearly three decades (1987–2016 with data obtained from various peer-reviewed publications as well as the Malaysian National Surveillance on Antibiotic Resistance (NSAR. NSAR data indicated that for most antimicrobial compounds, including carbapenems, the peak resistance rates were reached around 2008–2009 and thereafter, rates have remained fairly constant (e.g., 50–60% for carbapenems. Individual reports from various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia do not always reflect the nationwide resistance rates and often showed higher rates of resistance. We also reviewed the epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance that have been investigated in Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates, particularly carbapenem resistance and found that blaOXA-23 is the most prevalent acquired carbapenemase-encoding gene. From the very few published reports and whole genome sequences that are available, most of the Acinetobacter spp. isolates from Malaysia belonged to the Global Clone 2 (GC2 CC92 group with ST195 being the predominant sequence type. The quality of data and analysis in the national surveillance reports could be improved and more molecular epidemiology and genomics studies need to be carried out for further in-depth understanding of Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates.
Tavalla, Mehdi; Sabaghan, Mohammad; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Khademvatan, Shahram; Rafiei, Abdollah; Razavi Piranshahi, Anahita
Background: Because of the economic importance of the Arab race horses and also the role of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. in abortion and reproductive failure of these animals, we decided to perform this study. Objectives: We designed this study to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora spp. antibodies in Arab horses from 12 cities of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: From October 2009 to March 2011, a total of 235 blood samples were collected from jugular veins of Arab horses of different ages and genders from 12 cities of Khuzestan province. All the sera were tested for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the existence of anti-Neospora antibodies were tested using N-MAT for Neospora spp. Results: According to the MAT results, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 114 (48.5%) of 235 sera with titers of 1:20 in 84, 1:40 in 19, 1:80 in four, 1:160 in four, and 1:320 in three horses. According to the N-MAT results, antibodies to Neospora spp. were found in 47 (20%) of 235 sera with titers of 1:40 in 39, 1:80 in five, and 1:160 in three horses. We did not observe any statistically significant differences regarding age groups and genders between seropositive and seronegative horses for Neospora spp. using chi-square (χ2) test, but it seemed that anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were more prevalent in older horses (≥ 10 years old). Conclusions: The results indicated that Arab horses are exposed to these parasites in southwest of Iran. Further research is required to determine the genomic structures of these parasites in Arab horses in southwest of Iran. PMID:25834714
Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Yasin, Golam; Kato, Hirotomo; Katakura, Ken
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is mainly caused by two closely related Leishmania species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic VL, with dogs as the main reservoir host in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by L. donovani and is considered anthroponotic, although the only known vector, the sand fly, is zoophilic in nature. The role of domestic and stray dogs in VL transmission is still unclear in this area. We screened 50 stray dogs from VL-endemic areas of Bangladesh for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection. We detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in six (12%) dog serum samples using rK39 immunochromatographic tests. We observed Leishmania kinetoplast DNA in 10 (20%) buffy coat DNA samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five of which were positive based on internal transcribed spacer 1-PCR. A sequencing analysis of the amplified products confirmed that the parasitic DNA was derived from L. donovani Our findings support the hypothesis that stray dogs are an animal reservoir for L. donovani in this endemic region. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of dogs in the epidemiology of VL in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
de Souza Rodrigues, Fernando; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; de Menezes, Fernanda Rezer; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia
This study evaluated the efficacy and the economic viability of two anticoccidial treatment regimens tested in lambs naturally exposed to Eimeria spp. re-infections in a grazing system during a 140-day period. Twenty-four suckling lambs were distributed into three groups based on the individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and body weight. Animals were treated with toltrazuril 5% (20 mg/kg) at 14- (GI) or 21-day (GII) intervals, and GIII was kept as untreated control. A cost-benefit analysis of each treatment regimen was calculated. Additionally, economic analysis was performed on four hypothetical scenarios, in which lambs could be having 10, 25, 50, or 85% decrease in their expected body weight gain due to clinical. Efficacy of toltrazuril against Eimeria spp. was 96.9-99.9% (GI) and 74.2-99.9% (GII). E. ovinoidalis was most frequently identified, but no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in lambs. There were no differences in weight gain among the groups. The cost of treatment per lamb was $13.09 (GI) and $7.83 (GII). The estimation model showed that the cost-benefit ratio favored treatment with toltrazuril when lambs fail to gain weight. In the studied flock, the break-even point for toltrazuril administered at 14-day intervals was reached with 85% decrease in mean weight gain. In conclusion, toltrazuril can be used at 14-day intervals to control Eimeria spp. (re)-infection in lambs raised on pasture. This treatment regimen was not economically feasible for subclinical coccidiosis; however, it may be feasible when used to prevent weight loss caused by clinical coccidiosis.
Oseni Saheed Oluwasina
Full Text Available Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777 dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P>0.05. There was no significant difference between sexes (P>0.05. However, significant difference (P<0.05 was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Grouper (Epinephelus spp is an economically important fish species worldwide. However, viral pathogens such as nervous necrosis virus (NNV have been causing severe infections in the fish, resulting in great loss in the grouper aquaculture industry. Yet, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV is still inadequate, mainly due to insufficient genomic information of the host. Results De novo assembly of grouper transcriptome in the grouper kidney (GK cells was conducted by using short read sequencing technology of Solexa/Illumina. A sum of 66,582 unigenes with mean length of 603 bp were obtained, and were annotated according to Gene Ontology (GO and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. In addition, the tag-based digital gene expression (DGE system was used to investigate the gene expression and pathways associated with NNV infection in GK cells. The analysis revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response was prominently affected in NNV-infected GK cells. A further analysis revealed an interaction between the NNV capsid protein and the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP. Furthermore, exogenous expression of NNV capsid protein was able to induce XBP-1 mRNA splicing in vivo, suggesting a role of the capsid protein in the NNV-induced ER stress. Conclusions Our data presents valuable genetic information for Epinephelus spp., which will benefit future study in this non-model but economically important species. The DGE profile of ER stress response in NNV-infected cells provides information of many important components associated with the protein processing in ER. Specifically, we showed that the viral capsid protein might play an important role in the ER stress response.
Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John
Lungworms of the cosmopolitan genus Rhabdias are among the most common parasites of amphibians and squamate reptiles. The present study used experimental infections, field studies, and a molecular phylogeny to determine the host specificity of 6 Rhabdias spp. that infect snakes and anurans from North America. The molecular phylogeny suggests Rhabdias ranae from Nebraska and Mississippi may represent separate, cryptic species. In addition, the phylogeny strongly supports separate clades for anuran and snake lungworms. Field studies and experimental infections indicate that snake lungworms are generalist snake parasites; however, laboratory experiments also suggest that lizards can be infected under some environmental conditions. Lungworms from anurans were found not to infect salamanders or reptiles, in nature or in the laboratory; anuran lungworm species ranged from strict host specificity, e.g., R. ranae from Nebraska, to relative generalist, e.g., Rhabdias joaquinensis from Nebraska. Overall, host specificity for species of Rhabdias does not provide support for the evolution of progressive specialization over time. For most species of lungworms, host specificity in nature appears to be limited by both ecological and physiological factors, which vary between species and their hosts. Furthermore, some lungworms, e.g., Rhabdias bakeri from Missouri, appear to be tracking host resources instead of host phylogenies, an example of ecological fitting.
Jian, Fuchun; Qi, Meng; He, Xiaoyi; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Dong, Heping; Zhang, Longxian
Cryptosporidiosis in dogs has been reported worldwide, involving both asymptomatic and diarrheic dogs. Large-scale surveys of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs have been performed in some countries using different diagnostic methods. But, few data are available on the infection rate and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in China. In this study, 770 fecal samples from 66 locations in Henan Province were examined. The average Cryptosporidium infection rate was 3.8%, with dogs in kennels having the highest rate of 7.0% (χ² = 14.82, P dogs younger than 90 days, which was significantly higher than that in the other age groups (1.1-3.8%;χ² = 18.82, P dogs. Twenty-nine Cryptosporidium-positive samples were amplified at the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin loci using PCR. Sequence analysis of these amplicons identified only Cryptosporidium canis, which showed 100% identity with the published sequences of the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes. Our results confirm that C. canis is popular in the dog population in China, considering the large number of dogs in China and the close contact between dogs and humans, the role of C. canis in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis warrants attention.
Full Text Available A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection in a 4-year old German shepherd dog weighing 26-kg was presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya, with the history of anorexia and difficulty in breathing. The clinical manifestations were fever, pale mucous membrane, dyspnea and wasting. Blood examination revealed the existence of trypanosome parasites, and showed mild anemia. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS based polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type. Along with supporting therapy, the case was successfully managed using diminazene aceturate injection (dosed at 3.5 mg/kg body weight through intramuscular route. Complete recovery of the case was observed on day 6 of post-treatment.
Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Kampkoetter, Andreas; Krieger, Klemens
The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril per ml) were studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each with a total of 1 x 10(5) oocysts of a mixture of Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta. In the infectious material, the quantitative relation of I. felis and I. rivolta was about 1:5. Following a three-days period after infection, two groups of 6 kittens were treated during the prepatent period with either a single dose of 0.45 mg emodepside + 9 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight or 0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight. A group of six kittens without any treatment served as a control. On day 5 post infection, the untreated kittens started the excretion of oocysts. Treatment with both toltrazuril doses significantly reduced oocyst excretion. Following the single higher dose, the reduction of oocysts of both Isospora spp. was more pronounced (96.7 % to 100 %) in comparison to the lower dose (57.2 % to 100 %). The Procox(®) application was well tolerated and no adverse events were seen with any of the applied dosages.When administered to kittens and as a single treatment during the prepatent period, Procox(®) is suitable to control the number of oocysts excreted in the faeces in case of an Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta infection.
Kato, Daiki; Oishi, Mariko; Ohno, Koichi; Nakashima, Ko; Wada, Atsuhito; Fukumoto, Shin-Ichiro; Morita, Tatsushi; Imai, Soichi; Tsuboi, Masaya; Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime
NOTE Internal Medicine The first report of the ante-mortem diagnosis of Ollulanus tricuspis infection in two dogs Daiki KATO 1) , Mariko OISHI 1) , Koichi OHNO 1)* , Ko NAKASHIMA 1) , Atsuhito WADA 1) , Tatsushi MORITA 2) , Soichi IMAI 2) , Masaya TSUBOI 3) , James K. CHAMBERS 3) , Kazuyuki UCHIDA 3) and Hajime TSUJIMOTO 1) 1) Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan 2) Division of Veterinary Infectious Disease, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonanchyo Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan 3) Department of Veterinary Pathology, Graduate School of Agricultural Should have been NOTE Internal Medicine The first report of the ante-mortem diagnosis of Ollulanus tricuspis infection in two dogs Daiki KATO 1) , Mariko OISHI 1) , Koichi OHNO 1)* , Ko NAKASHIMA 1) , Atsuhito WADA 1) , Shin-ichiro FUKUMOTO 2) , Tatsushi MORITA 3) , Soichi IMAI 3) , Masaya TSUBOI 4) , James K. CHAMBERS 4) , Kazuyuki UCHIDA 4) and Hajime TSUJIMOTO 1) 1) ,Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan 2) Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan 3) Division of Veterinary Infectious Disease, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonanchyo Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan 4) Department of Veterinary Pathology, Graduate School of Agricultural.
Gibson, Justine S; Cobbold, Rowland N; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Heisig, Peter; Trott, Darren J
Fluoroquinolone resistance is an emerging problem in companion animal practice. The present study aimed to determine comparative fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin and identify plasmid-mediated quinolone