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Sample records for spp diptera ceratopogonidae

  1. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  2. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  3. The Immatures of Culicoides trilineatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Potential Vector of the Bluetongue Virus.

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    Diaz, F; Mangudo, C; Spinelli, G R; Gleiser, R M; Ronderos, M M

    2018-03-05

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Culicoides trilineatus Fox (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), a species considered as potential vector of the bluetongue virus in Central and South America, are described, illustrated, and photomicrographed for the first time by using binocular, phase-contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. The immatures were collected by using a siphon bottle in tree holes in Salta Province, Argentina, transported to the laboratory, and there reared to the adult's emergence. They are compared with the immatures of Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), another Neotropical species that develops in tree holes. Details on larval biology and habitat are given.

  4. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

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    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  5. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae in central Tunisia.

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    Darine Slama

    Full Text Available To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%. The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

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    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  7. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  8. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator.

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    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-04

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  9. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

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    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  10. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  11. Flight and swarming behaviour of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a livestock farm in Northern Spain.

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    Gonza Lez, Mikel; Alarco N-Elbal, Pedro M; Venter, Gert J; Lo Pez, Sergio

    2017-06-30

    The efficacy of sweep nets and a CDC white light-suction trap for the sampling of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were compared on a livestock farm in Northern Spain during the Summer of 2013. A total of 6,082 specimens representing 26 species were collected with sweep nets in 4 areas at di erent heights (ground level, 1.5 m, and 3 m), and 8,463 specimens representing 28 species with a single white light trap. Eight species - Culicoides brunnicans, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides lupicaris, Culcoides picturatus, Culicoides achrayi, and Culicoides simulator - were dominant and accounted for 97.4% and 97.2% of the total specimens collected with both methods, sweep nets, and light traps, respectively. The sex ratios with sweep netting and light trapping were strongly female biased (78.4% and 97.1%, respectively). Nulliparous and parous females were predominantly captured with both methods. A high percentage (17%) of gravid females was, however, captured on manure at ground level while sweeping. Searches for male swarms revealed the presence of several C. punctatus swarms consisting of 26 to 196 males and 3 swarms of C. obsoletus that ranged from 1 to 12 males in size. This study suggested that both methods are suitable and complementary tools for Culicoides sampling.

  12. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

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    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  13. Bloodmeal analysis reveals avian Plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae vectors.

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    Diego Santiago-Alarcon

    Full Text Available Changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. Diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. We hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. A corollary of this is that new vector-host, parasite-host, and vector-parasite associations could eventually develop. Thus, we expect to observe atypical vector-host associations. Using molecular bloodmeal analysis via amplification of the mtDNA COI gene we identified the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae species in a sub-urban forest of Southwestern Germany. Bloodmeals were also checked for haemosporidian infections by amplifying a fragment of the mtDNA cyt b gene. We identified a total of 20 Culicoides species, thirteen of which fed on humans. From 105 screened bloodmeals we obtained high quality sequences for 77 samples, 73 (94.8% originated from humans, two from livestock (Bos taurus and Equus caballus, and two from wild birds (Sylvia atricapilla and Turdus merula. We found that four Culicoides species previously assumed to feed exclusively on either birds (C. kibunensis or domestic mammals (C. chiopterus, C. deltus, C. scoticus fed also on humans. A total of six Culicoides abdomens were infected with avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, four of those abdomens contained blood derived from humans. Our results suggest that parasites of wild animals may be transferred to humans through infectious bites of Culicoides vectors. Further, we show that Culicoides vectors believed to be a specialist on specific vertebrate groups can have plastic feeding preferences, and that Culicoides are susceptible to infection by Plasmodium parasites, though vector

  14. First detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Europe: Wolbachia and Cardinium infection across Culicoides communities revealed in Spain

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    Nonito Pagès

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae transmit pathogens that cause important diseases. No effective technique has been found to properly control either Culicoides spp. abundance or their likelihood to transmit pathogens. Endosymbionts, particularly Wolbachia, represent powerful alternatives to control arthropods of health interest. In arthropods, Wolbachia can reduce vector fitness and vector’s pathogen transmission capacity, thus being a potential target for population reduction and replacement strategies. Results The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts was screened in Spanish Culicoides spp. populations at livestock premises and natural habitats. The first detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides spp. in Europe is reported. The putative Palaearctic vectors for bluetongue and Schmallenberg diseases, C. imicola, C. obsoletus (s.s. and C. pulicaris (s.l., were infected with Wolbachia. Four genetic clusters of closely-related Wolbachia strains from A and B supergroups were detected infecting Culicoides. Cardinium strain of the C-group was detected in C. obsoletus (s.l.. Both endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, were detected in Culicoides species of minor epidemiological relevance as well. Higher prevalence of Wolbachia infection was detected in natural habitats, while livestock premises lead to higher prevalence of Cardinium. Significant differences in the prevalence of Wolbachia, but not Cardinium, were also detected between some Culicoides species and between locations. Conclusions The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts in Culicoides is expected to trigger new research towards the control of Culicoides-transmitted diseases. The results of the present study could have an impact beyond the Culicoides arena because successful Wolbachia transfection is possible even across genus and species barriers.

  15. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

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    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  16. Diptera, Ceratopogonidae, Dasyhelea necrophila Spinelli and Rodriguez, 1999: Detection of eggs in ovitraps, in Uruguay

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    Martínez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovitraps with eggs of Dasyhelea necrophila were detected at five localities in Uruguay during surveillance andcontrol of Aedes aegypti. Relevant dates of oviposition in wild of this Ceratopogonidae species are included in additionto previous laboratory work on the species. Eggs of D. necrophila were deposited together with eggs of Culicidae andPsychodidae. These are the first records of the species from Uruguay.

  17. Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States.

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    Hopken, Matthew W; Ryan, Bonnie M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2017-04-04

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of a number of parasites and highly pathogenic viruses. In North America, the complete transmission cycles of many of these pathogens need further elucidation. One way to increase our knowledge about the evolution and ecology of Culicoides species and the pathogens they transmit is to document the diversity of vertebrate hosts that Culicoides feed upon. Our objective was to identify the diversity of Culicoides hosts in the United States. We sequenced two vertebrate mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b) from blood-engorged Culicoides to identify Culicoides species and their blood meals. We detected the mitochondrial DNA of 12 host species from seven different Culicoides species from three states. The majority of the identified blood meals were from the C. variipennis species complex in California. The hosts included both mammals and birds. We documented new host records for some of the Culicoides species collected. The majority of the mammalian hosts were large ungulate species but we also detected a lagomorph and a carnivore. The bird species that were detected included house finch and emu; the latter is evidence that the species in the C. variipennis species complex are not strictly mammalophilic. These results demonstrate that Culicoides will feed on multiple classes of vertebrates and may be more opportunistic in regards to host choice than previously thought. This knowledge can help with identification of susceptible host species, pathogen reservoirs, and new vector species which, in turn, will improve disease outbreak risk assessments.

  18. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  19. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

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    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  20. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematocerosque crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los ‘80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los ‘30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinasde Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de estebioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución,tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.

  1. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  2. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Direni Mancini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06% followed by Forcipomyia (26.94% and Atrichopogon (13.61%. Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%, while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  3. First Record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and Diversity of Species within the Schultzei Group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Mame T.; Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G.; Bellis, Glenn A.; Gottlieb, Yuval; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert J.; Diop, Mariame; Mall, Iba; Seck, Momar T.; Allène, Xavier; Diarra, Maryam; Gardès, Laëtitia; Bouyer, Jérémy; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit. PMID:24386366

  4. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  5. Passage of Ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercideae) Microfilariae Through the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2006-01-01

    .... Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M...

  6. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  7. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A net shed with pitch roof (gable type fitted with hurricane type ventilator at its top serves the purpose of a physical barrier to minimize host-pest contact. Observations recorded in the experiment are sound enough to conclude and to recommend the use of net shed for livestock.

  8. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  9. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Morphometric discrimination of two sympatric sibling species in the Palaearctic region, Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and C. scoticus Downes & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiters, G; Pagès, N; Carpenter, S; Gardès, L; Guis, H; Baylis, M; Garros, C

    2016-05-04

    Some Palaearctic biting midge species (subgenus Avaritia) have been implicated as vectors of bluetongue virus in northern Europe. Separation of two species (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) is considered difficult morphologically and, often, these female specimens are grouped in entomological studies. However, species-specific identification is desirable to understand their life history characteristics, assess their roles in disease transmission or measure their abundance during arboviral outbreaks. This study aims to investigate whether morphometric identification techniques can be applied to female C. obsoletus and C. scoticus individuals trapped at different geographical regions and time periods during the vector season. C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were collected using light-suction traps from the UK, France and Spain, with two geographical locations sampled per country. A total of 759 C. obsoletus/C. scoticus individuals were identified using a molecular assay based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Fifteen morphometric measurements were taken from the head, wings and abdomen of slide-mounted specimens, and ratios calculated between these measurements. Multivariate analyses explored whether a combination of morphometric variables could lead to accurate species identification. Finally, Culicoides spp. collected in France at the start, middle and end of the adult vector season were compared, to determine whether seasonal variation exists in any of the morphometric measurements. The principal component analyses revealed that abdominal characteristics: length and width of the smaller and larger spermathecae, and the length of the chitinous plates and width between them, are the most reliable morphometric characteristics to differentiate between the species. Seasonal variation in the size of each species was observed for head and wing measurements, but not abdominal measurements. Geographical variation in the size of Culicoides spp. was also observed and is

  11. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Kibanga, Uganda Protectorate, A. D. Fraser , VIII- 10 (BMNH). n* _ ~~wnncic A mdilrm-Sized b ______ 5 __ ^_^--_-___ Aark hr~wn spcip. , ---- Females eyes...5,300 ft, S. A. Neave , biting hand at light (1930 hours), 21-28-V-11. Paratype: P, same data as holotype (BMNH). Culicoides julvtthorax (Austen...Intype: Q, vie, KI.uC, I_Jmiro; Uganda Protecto- rate, 3,700 ft elev., S. A. Neave , 1618-VIII-11 (BMNH). Culictides multiguttutu Goetghebuer 193.513

  12. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Colocasia in Java, and Mayer’s description of the larva of this species , are probably misidentifications. Collec- tions of C. anophelis from animal shelters...200m wo1r.t¶* One-hundred and six`. *-:.𔃻Yht species of Culicoides are repcorded from Southeast Asial, E. region comprisir& ’ countries of Burma...based mainly on females) , and an atlas of wing phnoAographs is arrrnged In taxonomiL sequence. For each species there is a completp syr.:.Ni%,my

  13. Morphological and Molecular Characters of Mimegralla spp. (Diptera: Micropezidae on Zingiberaceae in Central Java

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    Rahma Widyastuti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome fly, Mimegralla sp. (Diptera: Micropezidae is a major pest on Zingiberaceae plants. Some of those fly species have been reported attacking some of Zingiberaceae plants, but in Indonesia, only one species, Mimegralla coeruleifrons has been reported as being a pest. Since Indonesia has many species of Zingiberaceae plants, it may raise a prediction that more than one species of Mimegralla was found on this plants. Therefore, a taxonomic research on the species of rhizome flies to find the species other than M. coerulifrons on Zingiberaceae plants is urgently required. This study was conducted by using hand-picking method on Mimegralla adult inhabiting Zingiberaceae plants (ginger, turmeric, javanese ginger, and aromatic ginger, and was then identified by using morphological characters and through molecular technique by using mtCO1 gene. The results showed thatM. albimana and M. coeruleifrons found at four zingiberaceae plants were the member of Mimegralla. As a conclusion, these two species have high values of phylogenic relationship (88% and bootstrap (92. INTISARI Lalat rimpang (Mimegralla spp. adalah hama utama pada beberapa tanaman anggota Family Zingiberaceae. Beberapa spesies lalat rimpang dilaporkan menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae, di antaranya jahe, kunyit, temulawak, dan kencur. Di Indonesia hanya satu spesies yang pernah dilaporkan menyerang tanaman jahe yaituMimegralla coeruleifrons.Sementara itu, jenis tanaman Zingiberaceae yang ditanam di Indonesia sangat beragam, sehingga muncul dugaan bahwa Mimegralla yang menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae di Indonesia tidak hanyaM. coeruleifrons saja. Oleh karena itu, penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies lalat rimpang yang menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae di Indonesia perlu dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode pemungutan/penangkapan (hand-picking imago Mimegralla pada tanaman keempat tanaman Zingiberaceae. Imago yang diperoleh diidentifikasi secara

  14. Diel and Seasonal Activities of Culicoides spp. near Yankeetown, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    immature stages. J. Med. Entomol. 9: 51-59. Lee, V.H. 1968. Parthenogenesis and autogeny in Culicoides bambusicola Lutz (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera). J...method for the isolation of fresh-water invertebrates from soil samples. Ecology 41: 573-574. Williams, R.W. 1961. Parthenogenesis and autogeny in

  15. Aggregation of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) Males on Iris spp. Flowers Releasing Methyl Anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio M. Silva Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae found in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Feces samples were collected in the field at two-week intervals and later were taken to the laboratory to extract pupae by the water flotation method. Each pupa was placed in a capsule of colorless gelatin until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism prevalence was 1.2%.

  17. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  18. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  19. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  20. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.

  1. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  2. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  3. Intensity of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae attacks on Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Leaves Intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em folhas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of height of leaves in the canopy of plants, leaf organic compounds, concentrations of leaf nitrogen and potassium, leaf trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the attack intensity of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara crops by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae, under field conditions. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks, with three replications, each being one tomato crop. Analysis of variance and the Tukey’s multiple range test (5% significance were used to test the effect of canopy height, trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and on the number of T. absoluta eggs. Pearson’s correlation (5% significance was used to evaluate the relationships between leaf organic compounds, leaf N and K concentrations, leaf trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities and the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and the number of T. absoluta eggs. Highest insect attack occurred in the final stage of the culture. A higher number of Liriomyza spp. mines/leaf was recorded in the lower (1.50 than in the upper (0.02 level of the tomato plants, the opposite was observed for the number of T. absoluta eggs/leaf (0.13 and 0.57, respectively. The number of T. absoluta mines/leaf concentrated more on the median (10.23 and apical regions (8.63 than on the basal (4.93. No significant effect of the trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities of leaves was noted on T. absoluta and Liriomyza ssp. populations. Apparently, the terpenes affected oviposition of T. absoluta while leaf potassium affected Liriomyza spp. attack.Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar as influências da posição das folhas no dossel das plantas, dos compostos orgânicos foliares, das concentrações de nitrogênio e

  4. Lulo cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae): a novel model to assay Leishmania spp. and vector interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Luzia Mc; Silva, Roger Mm; Pereira, Bernardo As; Guerra, Camila; Zapata, Angela C; Bello, Felio J; Finkelstein, Léa C; Madeira, Maria F; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Alves, Carlos R

    2011-11-14

    Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi are important parasites in the scenario of leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the life cycle of these parasites, the promastigote forms adhere to the midgut epithelial microvillii of phlebotomine insects to avoid being secreted along with digestive products. Lulo cells are a potential model that will help to understand the features of this adhesion phenomenon. Here, we analyze the interaction between Leishmania spp. promastigotes and Lulo cells in vitro, specifically focusing on adhesion events occurring between three Leishmania species and this cell line. Confluent monolayers of Lulo cells were incubated with promastigotes and adhesion was assessed using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that species from the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia have great potential to adhere to Lulo cells. The highest adherence rate was observed for L. (L.) chagasi after 24 h of incubation with Lulo cells (27.3 ± 1.8% of cells with adhered promastigotes), followed by L. (L.) amazonensis (16.0 ± 0.7%) and L. (V.) braziliensis (3.0 ± 0.7%), both after 48 h. In the ultrastructural analysis, promastigote adherence was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that, for parasites from both subgenera, adhesion occurs by both the body and the flagellum. The interaction of Lulo cells with Leishmania (L.) chagasi showed the participation of cytoplasmic projections from the former closely associating the parasites with the cells. We present evidence that Lulo cells can be useful in studies of insect-parasite interactions for Leishmania species.

  5. Estructura genética en cinco especies de flebótomos (Lutzomyia spp. de la serie townsendi, grupo verrucarum, en Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae

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    Claribel Hernández

    2008-12-01

    relaciones más conspicuas se observaron entre Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida y Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa. Adicionalmente, con un análisis de autocorrelación espacial (índice de Moran la mayoría de los alelos utilizados presentaron una estructura espacial muy débil o inexistente, lo que significa que los eventos de especiación entre las especies estudiadas se dieron en forma independiente de las distancias geográficas existentes actualmente entre ellas.Genetic structure in five Phlebotominae (Lutzomyia spp., townsendi series, verrucarum group, in Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae. Sixteen isoenzyme patterns were analyzed for five Colombian Lutzomyia species. The average unbiased expected heterozygosity levels ranged from 0.098 (Lu. youngi to 0.215 (Lu. torvida. The five species samples, taken all the isoenzymes employed, were significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by homozygous excess with classical as well as Markov chain exact tests. Possible causes: (1 Wahlund effect within populations due to subdivision and/or sampling. Endogamy could be discarded because these loci were affected by highly different levels of homozygous excess. (2 Null alleles could be not discarded, at least for some isoenzymes. The hierarchical Wright´s F analysis showed high and significant values for each parameter. The average F IT value was 0.655 with a conspicous homozygous excess at a global level (all species taken together; the average F IS value was significantly positive (0.515 as well, with homozygous excess within each species. The genetic heterogeneity between the fives species was noteworthy (F ST = 0.288, indicating clear genetic differentiation. The more related species pairs were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida (0.959 and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa (0.960; while Lu. torvida-Lu. youngi (0.805 and Lu. quasitownsendi-Lu. youngi (0.796 were the most divergent (Nei´s genetic identity matrix. UPGMA and Wagner algorithms showed that the most divergent species was Lu

  6. Haemoproteus tartakovskyi (Haemoproteidae): Complete sporogony in Culicoides nubeculosus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications for avian haemoproteid experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiegytė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have addressed the molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of Haemoproteus spp. (Haemoproteidae). Some species of these blood parasites cause severe disease in birds, and heavy infections are often lethal in biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and other blood-sucking insects. However, information about the vectors of haemoproteids is scarce. This presents an obstacle for better understanding the mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Here we investigated the sporogonic development of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi, a widespread bird parasite, in experimentally infected biting midges, Culicoides nubeculosus. These biting midges are widespread in the Europe. The insects were cultivated under laboratory conditions. Unfed females were allowed to take blood meals on wild caught siskins Carduelis spinus naturally infected with H. tartakovskyi (lineage hSISKIN1). Engorged females were maintained at 22-23 °C, dissected at intervals, and examined for sporogonic stages. Mature ookinetes of H. tartakovskyi were seen in the midgut content between 6 and 48 h post infection, oocysts were observed in the midgut wall 3-4 days post infection (dpi). Sporozoites were first reported in the salivary gland preparations 7 dpi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineage in experimentally infected biting midges. This study indicates that C. nubeculosus willingly takes blood meals on birds and is a vector of H. tartakovskyi. These biting midges are readily amenable to cultivation under laboratory conditions. Culicoides nubeculosus transmits Haemoproteus parasites infecting parrots, owls and siskins, birds belonging to different families and orders. Thus, this vector provides a convenient model for experimental research with avian haemoproteids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatores climáticos na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. (diptera: tephritidae e de Scymnus spp. (coleoptera: coccinellidae em um pomar experimental de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.

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    Ricardo Aparecido Calore

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp. em pomar experimental semiorgânico de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., em Pindorama-SP, na Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA e correlacioná-la com fatores meteorológicos. Para o levantamento da dinâmica populacional, os espécimes foram monitorados com armadilhas adesivas amarelas (25 cm x 9,5 cm, trocadas a cada 15 dias, no período de um ano (entre junho de 2009 e junho de 2010. Os insetos foram avaliados e quantificados no Laboratório de Seletividade Ecológica da UNESP-FCAV em Jaboticabal-SP. Observou-se a ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. e Scymnus spp. durante todo o período de amostragem. Com base nos resultados obtidos e nas condições de desenvolvimento do presente trabalho, foram possíveis as seguintes conclusões: a Ocorre aumento na densidade populacional de Anastrepha spp. com o aumento das temperaturas mínima, média e máxima; b Os picos populacionais de Anastrepha spp. ocorrem de janeiro a março e coincidem com o período de disponibilidade de frutos maduros no pomar de goiaba; c Constatam-se as maiores ocorrências do predador Scymnus spp. no período de setembro a dezembro, e as menores ocorrências, em fevereiro e março; d As precipitações não interferem na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp..

  8. Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Trials of traps and attractants for Stomoxys spp. ( Diptera : Muscidae). J Med Entomol 32:283–289. Rosen L, Gubler D. 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect... Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus Author(s): Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, and...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies ( Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus 5a

  9. Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) response to olfactory attractant- and light emitting diode-modified Mosquito Magnet X (MM-X) traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E; Butler, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Mosquito Magnet-X traps were modified for use with blue, green, red, and blue-green-red light-emitting diodes and olfactory attractants to determine the response of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae) field populations to these attractants. Red and blue-green-red-baited traps captured the highest numbers of Lu. shannoni and Lu. vexator, respectively, although, there were no significant differences between the colors. Baiting the traps with CO, attracted significantly higher numbers of Lu. shannoni but showed no effect on Lu. vexator capture. In comparison with CO, alone, Lu. shannoni preferred 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexen-3-ol (0.05 g per trap) in combination with CO.

  10. Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), affect forager size ratios of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, R T; Harris, M K

    2010-10-01

    Multiple species of Pseudacteon phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are currently being released throughout the southern United States to aid biological control of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). It is anticipated that these flies will interfere with S. invicta foraging, allowing native ant assemblages to outcompete S. invicta for available resources. Numerous studies have shown a decrease in S. invicta foraging intensity when exposed to phorids. This study documents a behavioral change in phorid-exposed S. invicta colonies at a phorid release site in central Texas. Significant differences in forager size ratios were detected between phorid-exposed and phorid-absent colonies. A similar phenomenon was recently documented in the native range of these insects in South America as well. Experimental manipulation of ratios of S. invicta worker sizes has been shown to have important effects on colony success. This newly documented phorid-mediated S. invicta colony-level effect represents a significant shift in S. invicta foraging dynamics and may provide an additional mechanism by which phorids can influence S. invicta populations in their United States range.

  11. Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Mills

    Full Text Available Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (qPCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.

  12. Prevalence of Culicoides imicola and other species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae ateight sites in Zimbabwe : to the editor

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    G.N. Musuka

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Presents some prevalence data on Culicoides imicola and Culicoides bolitinos in Zimbabwe. Includes data on other common species, as revealed by collections made over 2 years at 8 widely-separated study sites

  13. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

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    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condições permitiram a existência de uma extensa rêde de "focos potenciais" para a proliferação dos Culicoides que agora infestam a cidade.

  14. Revision of the Culicoides (Avaritia) Imicola complex Khamala & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Australasian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Glenn; Dyce, Alan; Gopurenko, David; Yanase, Tohru; Garros, Claire; Labuschagne, Karien; Mitchell, Andrew

    2014-02-27

    The monophyly of the Imicola complex, a natural species complex within subgenus C. subgen. Avaritia Fox of the biting midge genus Culicoides Latreille, is supported using morphological and molecular analyses. A diagnosis for the group along with comparative redescriptions of the male and female of the species represented in Australasia, C. brevitarsis Kieffer and C. nudipalpis Delfinado and a description of C. asiatica Bellis sp. nov., are presented together with keys for their specific determination and molecular support for their status.

  15. Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody system for the detection of bluetongue virus from Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibur Rahman, A; Manickam, R

    1997-12-01

    A new system, the Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody (TFA) test in which the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes were used for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Culicoides midges, was developed. Twenty-seven pools of Culicoides midges were collected from bluetongue-prone areas of Tamil Nadu by use of the light-trap and suction-trap methods. A suspension of each pool was injected intrathoracically into T. splendens IV instar larvae and inoculated onto Vero cell monolayers. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique and an immunoperoxidase test were used to detect BTV antigen in smears of crushed midges, crushed larval head smears after incubation for 7 d at 28 degrees and cell monolayers showing cytopathic effects 48 h post inoculation. The suspensions were also injected intravenously into embryonated chicken eggs, and the characteristic BTV-induced lesion(s), viz. cherry-red appearance of embryos, were observed after 48 h. Virus was confirmed by a qualitative neutralization test conducted simultaneously in embryonated chicken eggs. A total of seven out of 27 samples (26%) were positive for the presence of BTV antigen in all the diagnostic systems used. Since BTV propagates readily in experimentally infected T. splendens larvae and the BTV antigen can be detected by the fluorescent antibody technique with a sensitivity comparable to that for virus propagated in tissue culture and embryonated eggs, the TFA system can be adopted as a new method for the isolation of BTV from vectors. The advantages of the TFA system are discussed.

  16. Description of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, U; Dik, B

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Konya province, Turkey. The samples taken from 11 different habitats in Konya province were examined for Culicoides species. The collected adult Culicoides specimens were reared in plastic buckets in our laboratory. Among 2,798 specimens reared, 18 species were identified. Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer, 1918 was the most abundant species reared in the samples taken from mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs; C. circumscriptus, C. nubeculosus (Meigen), 1830 and C. shaklawensis Khalaf, 1957 in moist soil with organic matter; C. geigelensis Dzhafarov, 1964 in moist soils, along watering channels and dripping waters; C. festivipennis Kieffer, 1914 and C. circumscriptus along sewage channel; C. festivipennis in reed sites and along garden watering channels; C. circumscriptus in rain pools; C. odiatus Austen, 1921 and C. circumscriptus in mud near the dams; C. geigelensis and C. kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 from sites along the stream. No Culicoides was reared in the samples obtained from livestock dung and tree holes. It was observed that C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis and C. shaklawensis preferred mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is the main vector of bluetongue, was not detected in Konya province. The others vectors of bluetongue, C. obsoletus gr. (Meigen), 1818, C. schultzei gr. (Enderlein), 1908 and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus), 1758 were only obtained in little numbers.

  17. Description of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uslu U.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Konya province, Turkey. The samples taken from 11 different habitats in Konya province were examined for Culicoides species. The collected adult Culicoides specimens were reared in plastic buckets in our laboratory. Among 2,798 specimens reared, 18 species were identified. Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer, 1918 was the most abundant species reared in the samples taken from mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs; C. circumscriptus, C. nubeculosus (Meigen, 1830 and C. shaklawensis Khalaf, 1957 in moist soil with organic matter; C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, 1964 in moist soils, along watering channels and dripping waters; C. festivipennis Kieffer, 1914 and C. circumscriptus along sewage channel; C. festivipennis in reed sites and along garden watering channels; C. circumscriptus in rain pools; C. odiatus Austen, 1921 and C. circumscriptus in mud near the dams; C. gejgelensis and C. kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 from sites along the stream. No Culicoides was reared in the samples obtained from livestock dung and tree holes. It was observed that C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis and C. shaklawensis preferred mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is the main vector of bluetongue, was not detected in Konya province. The others vectors of bluetongue, C. obsoletus gr. (Meigen, 1818, C. schultzei gr. (Enderlein, 1908 and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus, 1758 were only obtained in little numbers.

  18. On morphology and distribution of Neurohelea luteitarsis (Waltl) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-301 ISSN 0037-9271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : phylogeny * eversible sacs * spermatheca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  19. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

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    Lassen Sandra B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374. The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76% out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was the cow, which constituted 77% of the identified blood meals. The second most numerous host species was the common wood pigeon, which constituted 6% of the identified blood meals. Conclusions Our results suggest that some Culicoides species are opportunistic and readily feed on a variety of mammals and birds, while others seems to be strictly mammalophilic or ornithophilic. Based on their number, dispersal potential and blood feeding behaviour, we conclude that Culicoides biting midges are potential vectors for many pathogens not yet introduced to Denmark.

  20. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe-Bauer, M L; Huerta, H; Bernal, S I

    2000-01-01

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  1. Note faunistique sur les Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae du Gouvernorat de Monastir (Tunisie

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    Chaker E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available À la suite de l’arrivée de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO en Tunisie, les auteurs rapportent les résultats de la première enquête effectuée dans le Gouvernorat de Monastir. Ils signalent la présence de neuf espèces de Culicoides dont trois sont nouvelles pour le pays (C. paolae, C. imicola, C. newsteadi, ce qui porte à 22 le nombre d’espèces actuellement connues.

  2. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård

    2012-01-01

    Identification of Culicoides biting midges to species has attracted attention due to the recent outbreak of bluetongue disease in Northern Europe. Identification of Culicoides to species level has been based on morphological characters and is difficult as several species belonging to species...

  3. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...... collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups...

  4. Spatial abundance and clustering of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    with a peak at just below 16 degrees Celcius. Surprisingly, there was a significant positive impact of wind speed. The CAR model for the Pulicaris group also identified a significant attraction to the smaller groups of sheep placed in the field. Furthermore, a large number of spatial covariates which were...

  5. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  6. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: IV - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A observação de 211 pacientes com reação intensa à picada do Culicoides, que procuraram tratamento na Clínica dermatológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade da Bahia, durante os anos de 1959 e 1962, permitiu o estudo clínico dessa Dermatozoonose, cujos dados são aqui apresentados. A lesão parece ser de natureza alérgica e devido ao aspecto polimorfo pelo qual se apresenta, essa Dermatose pode lembrar o Prorigo, a Escabiose, as Lesões liquenoide; quando a manifestação é mais intensa torna-se uma verdadeira eczematização; quando há infecção secundária, lembra o impetigo folicular. O estudo histológico da lesão revelou ser ela a de uma inflamação crônica, com vascularites e preivascularites dermo-epidérmica, provàvelmente de natureza alérgica. Para que haja a formação da lesão, são necessários: a substância inoculada pelo inseto e o componente alérgico do indivíduo. Não se conhece a natureza da substância inoculada pelo inseto e as seguintes hipóteses são apresentadas para explicá-la: substâncias enzimáticas ou a histamina existentes nas glândulas salivares do Culicoides. Após a picada do Culicoisdes forma-se no local uma pequena área eritematosa que logo após se transforma em pápula; as pápulas podem desaparecer ou transformarem-se em vesículas; estas ao se romperem dilaceram a superfície cutânea, descamam-na ou pode advir uma infecção secundária e transformam-se em pústulas.

  7. Sergeia podlipaevi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida), a parasite of biting midges (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, M.; Zídková, L.; Čepička, I.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Votýpka, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2007), s. 423-432 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culicoides * Trypanosoma * trypanosomatids * transmission * biting midges * 18S SSU * GAPDH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.384, year: 2007

  8. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    A large number of biting midges (Culicoides) were collected in light traps operating simultaneously outside and indside 25 Faroese byres. The catch comprised two species: C. (Culicoides) impunctatus Goetghebuer, 1920, accounting for >98% of all biting midges trapped, and C. (Oecacta...

  9. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples f...

  10. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  11. Caracterización de Daños de Moscas del Género Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae en Passiflora spp. (Passifloraceae Cultivadas en Colombia / Characterization of Damage of the Genus Dasiops Flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae from Cultivated Passiflora (Passiflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikol Yohanny Santamaría Galindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las moscas del género Dasiops Rondani constituyen la plaga más limitante en cultivos de pasifloras en Colombia, por lo que el reconocimiento de especies es importante para la toma de decisiones de vigilancia y control. Se caracterizaron los síntomas y daños producidos por moscas Dasiops spp.. en botones florales y frutos de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss y curuba (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Nielsen y Jorgensen. En botones florales de maracuyá, gulupa y granadilla con longitud mayor a 1 cm, la infestación se manifestó con amarillamiento y arrugamiento general. En frutos de gulupa y granadilla, la infestación se evidenció por arrugamiento del epicarpio en frutos inmaduros. En curuba, la infestación en frutos se caracterizó por un estrechamiento en la parte basal, apical o media del fruto. La infestación en botones florales estuvo entre 0,0 y 9,9% en tanto que en frutos presentó un rango entre 0,3 y 28,5%. No obstante, en maracuyá y gulupa se registraron botones florales infestados pero sin los síntomas descritos; en tanto que en gulupa y granadilla se observó el mismo fenómeno en frutos. Este estudio provee a agricultores y técnicos herramientas para el reconocimiento de infestación por moscas Dasiops spp. en cultivos de pasifloras como elemento fundamental para la toma decisiones para la vigilancia y control fitosanitario. / Abstract. The flies of the gender Dasiops Rondani are the most limiting plague in pasifloras crops in Colombia, thus species identification is important for decision making for monitoring and control. The symptoms and damage caused by Dasiops spp. flies in flower buds and fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, sweet passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita

  12. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  13. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-Fran?ois; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Herv?; Simard, Fr?d?ric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex anten...

  15. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... [Sarswat M., Dewan S. and Fartyal R. S. 2016 Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Drosophilid species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) along altitudinal gradient from central Himalayan region of India. ... 2500 species belonging to 55 genera in this family (Wheeler. 1981) with two subfamilies, Steganinae and ...

  16. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... biological research. Drosophilidae is a large family of acalyptrate diptera with worldwide distribution. The first catalogue listed more than. 2500 species ... Although researchers in this region have documented several novel ..... distance estimates than most other methods when the rates of transitional and ...

  17. Diptera: Agromyzidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.

  18. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  19. Physiological Age Structure and Leishmania spp. Detection in Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot, 1936) (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar David; Aklilu, Essayas; Yared, Solomon; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in northern Ethiopia, where P. orientalis is the most important presumed vector. This study was designed to determine the physiological age structure and the occurrence of Leishmania infection in the vector of VL in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps from peridomestic and agricultural fields between May 2011 and April 2012 and P. orientalis females were dissected for age determination and detection of Leishmania promastigotes. Sand flies were also analyzed for L. donovani detection using molecular methods. Of 1,282 P. orientalis examined for abdominal stages and age characterization, 66.2%, 28.2%, 4.1%, and 1.6% were unfed, freshly fed, half-gravid, and gravid. Parous rate in unfed females was 34.1% and 35.4% in peridomestic and agricultural fields, respectively. Out of 921 P. orientalis females dissected, one specimen (0.1%) was found naturally infected with promastigotes. Five pools (25 females) of unfed P. orientalis were also found with DNA of Leishmania spp. In particular, a single P. orientalis was positive for L. donovani (0.5%). Based on this and other evidences (abundance, human blood feeding, and xenodiagnostic studies), P. orientalis is the principal vector of VL in this endemic focus.

  20. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  1. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  2. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...

  3. Assessment of productivity of Culex spp. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in Wrocław (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawień, Piotr; Lonc, Elżbieta; Modelska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    of the study area as the predominant species. In all examined catch basins, autogenous individuals dominated by far. Breeding activity was first detected in early May. Peak abundance of Culex spp. population in many catch basins was observed in June 2012 and August 2013 when average daily temperatures were increasing and rainfall had declined. Dry periods between rainfalls varied during 2 years of the study period and were noted on June 2012 as well as on July and August 2013. Organically enriched catch basins with significant higher concentrations of Na(+) and NO3 (-) were found to be more productive breeding habitats. Differences in the Culex immature stage density based on the variables of habitat type, temperature, and precipitation support the need for ongoing surveillance in communities to guide public health officials in planning for and prioritizing mosquito control efforts.

  4. Culicoides (Avaritia) gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) a possible vector species of the Obsoletus group new to the European fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Dominiak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984, known previously only from Siberia, is a boreal species included into the Obsoletus group of Culicoides sg. Avaritia. Members of the subgenus can act as vectors of various diseases. In Europe they are involved in the transmission of the Schmallenberg virus...... and bluetongue virus. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 is reported for the first time in Europe with new country records from Norway, Poland and Sweden. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 has not been previously mentioned from Europe, even though there has been an extensive monitoring of Culicoides...

  5. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, W. T.; Kerr, P. J.; Jermiin, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  6. Description of fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Pablo I; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth; Ronderos, María M

    2017-01-01

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone are described for the first time. The immatures were collected from stream margins in the northern Brazilian states Rondônia and Piauí, and subsequently reared to adults. Larvae and pupae are illustrated and photomicrographed. Details on the rearing process and feeding behavior in laboratory, bionomics and notes on habitats are also provided.

  7. Quantifying Dispersal of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Vectors between Farms Using a Novel Mark-Release-Recapture Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    specimens of the Obsoletus group on a cattle farm in Denmark. An estimated 9,090 (8,918–9,260) Obsoletus group specimens and 14,272 (14,194–14,448) Pulicaris group specimens were captured in the surroundings and subsequently analysed. Two (0.3%) Obsoletus group specimens and 28 (4.6%) Pulicaris group...

  8. Primera cita de Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Murillo, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceratopogonid Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 is recorded for the first time in Spain based on reliable morphological evidence according to the previous descriptions of other authors. A total of 438 females (349 nulliparous and 89 parous and a single male were collected with CDC miniature light traps at three different livestock-associated locations in Extremadura Autonomous Community (Spain in 2014. Most specimens were captured between June and August, suggesting a univoltine pattern for this species extended over summer and early autumn. Although the number of collections of C. paradoxalis is low in comparison with the dominant species, the occurrence of this species in monitoring surveillance programs should deserve specific attention in order to estimate the accurate ratio of potential vectors unmistakably. Interesting information about the period of flight and illustrated morphological features are presented for C. paradoxalis in the current paper.Se cita por primera vez en España el ceratopogónido Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013, basándose en evidencias morfológicas de acuerdo a las descripciones previas de otros autores. Un total de 438 hembras (349 nulíparas y 89 paras y un macho se recolectaron con minitrampas de luz CDC en tres localidades ganaderas en la Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura (España en 2014. La mayor parte de los especímenes fueron capturados entre junio y agosto, mostrando un único período de vuelo que se extendió durante todo el verano y principios del otoño. Aunque el número de capturas de C. paradoxalis es reducido en comparación con los Culicoides dominantes, la aparición de esta nueva especie merece especial atención en los programas de vigilancia entomológica con el fin de estimar inequívocamente la proporción exacta de vectores potenciales. Se presenta en este artículo información de interés sobre el período de vuelo así como fotografías de las características morfológicas de C. paradoxalis.

  9. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing distribution and abundance of Culicoides obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, C; Farina, F; Magliano, A; Rombolà, P; Scholl, F; Spallucci, V; Scaramozzino, P

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of a bluetongue surveillance program including clinical, serological, and entomological activities, Culicoides biting midges were light trapped weekly in two regions of central Italy, Lazio and Tuscany. In the period January 2002 through December 2005, 3,944 collections were carried out in 189 trap sites distributed in all the provinces of the two regions. Abundance data of C. obsoletus group were analyzed in relation to trap site altitude, distance from the sea, land use, and number of farmed animals. Species seasonality and overall temporal trend were also described. C. obsoletus was distributed over the whole study area, almost in all trapping sites and with high abundances. The species group was dominant among all captured Culicoides, with higher abundances recorded inland and in areas where land cover was partially or completely natural-wooded. Adults on the wing were caught all year round, with peaks in May-June and middle October. The observed trend through years recorded a peak during autumn 2002, in concomitance with a local epidemic of bluetongue.

  10. Comparing larvicidal Effect of Methanol Extract of the Aerial Parts of Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L. and Oleander ( Nerium oleander L. plants on Anopheles spp Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is an infectious disease by fever and chills, anemia and splenomegaly genus Plasmodium parasite is the agent it. One of the easiest and least expensive methods to prevent this disease is removing the vector that usually by been done insecticides and chemical pesticides, but nowadays due to the damaging effects of by toxic chemicals is currently trying to organic toxic and plant compounds used to combat the pests. So in this study used from the Hyoscyamus niger L. and Nerium oleander L. to destroy the larvae of this vectors and positive results were compared these two plants together. Methods In this experimental study, H. niger and N. oleander collected and dried to extraction by methanol usingthe Rotary Evaporator. Mosquito larvae collected from stagnant water pits and ponds around the Birjand, Iran and order to apply the relevant identity tests and isolation of Anopheles spp mosquito larvae. Survival measurement were used to estimate LC50 values using Probit analysis in Excel 2010 and SPSS (ver 20 software. Results Both Hyoscyamus niger and Nerium oleander had positive effects on destroying the Anopheles spp larvae and between obtained results, the most effective extract for destroying the mosquitoes Anopheles spp larvae, was the flower extract of henbane (LC50 = 0/26 ppm and the weakest one, was the leaves extract of oleander (LC50 = 4/85 ppm. Conclusions According to the results, the flower extract of henbane is recommended as a toxic, organic and natural compounds to fight Anopheles spp mosquito larvae, which it is stronger and more effective compared to the other parts of these two plants.

  11. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  12. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  13. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keawrayup S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758, S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2% and S. calcitrans (49.5%. S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%. The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05. The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00 during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies.

  14. Validación de la PCR en la detección de parásitos de Leishmania (Viannia spp. en Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae como herramienta en la definición de especies vectores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santamaría

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available lntroducción. En leishmaniasis se acepta que la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR ha simplificado el proceso de incriminación vectorial. Sin embargo, pocas veces se ha determinado la sensibilidad y la especificidad de cada PCR en la detección y la identificación del parasito en los flebótomos. Objetivo. Evaluar la aplicabilidad de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, basada en los iniciadores 81 y 82, en la detecci6n e identificación de parasitos de Leishmania (Viannia en insectos vectores enteros sin disecar. Metodología. Se determinó la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la PCR empleando diluciones de cultivo de parasitos de Leishmania spp. Se estableció el número máximo de hembras de Lutzomyia que pueden ser procesadas a la vez sin disminuir la sensibilidad de la PCR, procesando el ADN de grupos de una a cinco hembras de Lutzomyia en presencia del ADN de las diluciones de cultivo de parasitos. Además, se comparó en grupos de flebótomos infectados experimentalmente, la sensibilidad de esta PCR en la detección de infección por Leishmania (Viannia frente al método de busqueda de flagelados por disección del insecto y examen microscópico. Resultados. La PCR detectó desde un parasito de Leishmania (Viannia y permiti6 el procesamiento de hasta tres insectos enteros sin alterar la sensibilidad. Los porcentajes de infección experimental detectados con las dos tecnicas fueron similares, 33,3% con la PCR y 30% con el examen microscópico. Además, se confirmó que los iniciadores 81 y 82 son especificos para especies del subgenero Leishmania (Viannia. Conclusión. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la sensibilidad y la especificidad de esta PCR y permiten recomendar su uso en la determinaci6n de infección natural con parasitos de Leishmania (Viannia en poblaciones silvestres de flebótomos.

  15. Métodos de determinar a idade fisiológica em Diptera de importância médica. Uma revisão com especial referência aos vetores de doenças na América do Sul.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlwood, J. D.; Rafael, J. A.; Wilkes, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Resumo Os métodos de determinar a idade fisiológica em Diptera hematófagos de importância médica, que mostram concordância gonotrófica, são revisados. Na primeira parte, são delineadas as mudanças que ocorrem no inseto, após o repasto sangüíneo e discutida a base teórica para determinação da idade fisiológica. Na segundo parte, são dados os métodos aplicáveis a Culicidae, Simuliidae, Phlebotomidae, Ceratopogonidae e Tabanidae. Amplo uso de material fotográfico é adotado, dando proveitoso auxí...

  16. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  17. Diptera. Chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Skuhravá,Marcela; Martinez,Michel; Roques,Alain

    2010-01-01

    Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5%) in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families) of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families) of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Euro...

  18. Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and Sulphobacillus spp. mixed strains for use in cobalt and copper removal from water. ... Such findings suggest that if optimal conditions for biosorption of the metals by micro-organisms are achieved, this should afford a cost-effective method of removing metal ...

  19. Natural Field Infestation of and by Oriental Fruit Fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant T McQuate

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives” which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  20. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  1. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Moussa; Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Assane G; Balenghien, Thomas; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Garros, Claire; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Allène, Xavier; Mall, Iba; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame T; Dusom, Ange M; Ndao, Massouka; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-21

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors. The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year. Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%). Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.

  2. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la identificación, el cual utiliza las caracteristicas de sólo una parte del cuerpo (las alas de los ceratopogónidos del género Culicoides. El nivel de diferenciación es bueno (55.2% de las 58 especies presentes y abarca casi todas las especies implicadas en la transmisión de virus y otros agentes patógenos de animales en la Península Ibérica. El diagnóstico de una especie precisa un máximo de seis criterios. La única excepción importante la constituyen las cuatro especies del grupo Culicoides obsoletus, las hembras de las cuales muestran un diseño alar casi idéntico. La utilización de claves sencillas debería proporcionar una mejor estandarización de la identificación en todos los estudios, incluso los realizados por no sistemáticos. Estas claves pueden servir como el instrumento más importante para desarrollar sistemas informáticos de reconocimiento de géneros, familias y especies de insectos por medio de imágenes.

  3. Taxonomic problems in the subgenus Meloehelea Wirth of the genus Atrichopogon Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) inferred from both morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Sonnek, R.; Bryja, Josef; Vaňhara, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : taxonomy * biting midges * 16S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2008 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume19/abstracts19_1.htm

  4. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  5. Determination of blood meal sources of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in rural areas of the northern Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudino Marco Cantanhede Gusmão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The stomach contents of females from the genus Culicoides were studied to determine their blood food sources and the degree of relations established between these insects and their hosts. The specimens were captured by using CDC light traps within the period from March 2009 to February 2010, in two rural towns in the island of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 930 engorged females were captured, belonging to 12 Culicoides species. Precipitin reaction examination was used, which revealed the blood from 7 different vertebrate types that had been sucked, and the most frequent were: bird (41.9%, rodent (21.2%, dog (15.4%, and human being (7.3%. In double reactions there was a predominance of bird/dog (20% and dog/cat, dog/opossum, bird/rodent, opossum/rodent, and cat/human being (13.3% each. Among the Culicoides species found, C. paucienfuscatus Barbosa, 1947 stood out, because it only sucked blood from birds. The 11 remaining species have sucked blood both from domestic and synanthropic animals, and 4 out of them also sucked human blood. The results allowed us to conclude that C. paucienfuscatus showed specific relations, it was considered as ornithophilous and the other species were generalist. The presence of these animals in a peridomestic environment is a factor that favors the maintenance of Culicoides in rural villages and the presence of human being among the most sucked vertebrates indicates that besides being included in the diet of female Culicoides, it may participate in occasional epidemiological cycles of parasites, due to the eclectic habit of these insects.

  6. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... of species delineation; interspecies differences across Culicoides subgenera approaches 20%, whereas intraspecies differences are below 4% and in most cases below 1%....

  7. Functional validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in midgut tissue of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  8. Herpetomonas ztiplika n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae): a parasite of the blood-sucking biting midge Culicoides kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipaev, Sergei; Votýpka, Jan; Jirků, Milan; Svobodová, M.; Lukeš, Julius

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2004), s. 342-347 ISSN 0022-3395 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 147/2002/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * Trypanosomatidae * Herpetomonas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  9. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  10. Listado de las especies de Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea no Phlebotominae de Venezuela, con seis nuevos registros en el estado Falcón | Checklist of the non Phlebotominae Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea of Venezuela, with six new records in Falcon state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los psicódidos son insectos pequeños de distribución cosmopolita que incluyen taxa de importancia sanitaria. En el presente trabajo, se muestra un catálogo revisado y actualizado de las especies de la familia Psychodidae (Diptera, Nematocera, Psychodomorpha no Phlebotominae registradas para Venezuela. Hasta el presente se han reportado 31 especies, agrupadas en tres subfamilias, tres tribus y 12 géneros, incluyendo la subfamilia Bruchomyiinae, géneros Notofairchildia spp. (1 especie y Boreofairchildia spp. (1 especie; subfamilia Trichomyiinae, género Trichomyia spp. (2 especies; y la subfamilia Psychodinae, Tribu Setomimini, géneros Alepia spp. (5 especies, Arisemus spp. (5 especies, Australopericoma spp. (3 especies, Balbagathis spp. (3 especies, Didimioza spp. (1 especie, Micrommatos spp. (1 especie, Tonnoira spp. (1 especie, Tribu Psychodini, género Psychoda spp. (6 especies. Se describe por vez primera la presencia de P. alternata, P. alternicula, P. cinerea, P. savaiiensis y P. matogrossensis para el estado Falcón, región nor-occidental, así como también de Clogmia albipunctata de la Tribu Paramormiini. Se comenta sobre la importancia bio-ecológica, sanitaria y forense de los psicódidos no Phlebotominae, y las necesidades de investigación en el país.

  11. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of and (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant T. Mcquate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett, and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel. In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges ( Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck and Clementine tangerines ( C. reticulata L. var. Clementine, but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae , including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.

  12. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  13. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  14. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

    2000-05-01

    The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.

  15. Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) males to made and inseminate female flies in different mating ratios to sustain a laboratory tsetsefly colony for sterile insect technique control programme in Ghana.

  16. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  17. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, .... 40 plants. Seeds were grown in a greenhouse and seedlings were transplanted three months later to the experiment station in Hebei province ..... latitude range (from northern latitude 29° to northern.

  18. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective study undertaken at Hillbrow. Hospital in Johannesburg during a 3-month period. All patients from whose sputum cultures Klebsiella spp. were isolated in significant growth on primary blood agar plates following culture of fresh sputum specimens were entered into the study (2+ grO\\:vth was equal to.

  19. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  1. Fannia flavicincta Stein (Diptera, Fanniidae: a new vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae is first recorded as a vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. The material was collected in Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in September, 2002.Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae é registrada pela primeira vez como vetor de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. O material foi coletado em Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil em setembro de 2002.

  2. Identification of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a new species of fruit fly in 2005. It belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, but is difficult to diagnose based on solely morphological identification. It occurs in India, Bhutan and some countries of Africa. In this study, 14 adult samples of fruit flies were ...

  3. Tabanid flies (Insecta: Diptera from Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an account on the Tabanidae (Diptera from Chhattisgarh, which includes 16 species representing five genera under three subfamilies: Pangoniinae, Chrysopsinae and Tabaninae. Among these species, Haematopota latifascia Ricardo is new addition to the fauna of Chhattisgarh. The distributional area of the collection localities, key characters are also provided. 

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  5. Myiasis in domestic animals: new records of calyptrate Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S K

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports one case of wound myiasis by Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera, Calliphoridae) that occurred in a goat and three cases of vaginal myiasis, five cases of cutaneous myiasis and one case of hoof myiasis in goat, buffalo and bull respectively by Seniorwhitea reciproca (Diptera, Sarcophagidae), for the first time in West Bengal, India.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-François; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2017-01-19

    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex antennatus are of epidemiological significance. Anopheles arabiensis is widely distributed throughout the country and its geographic distribution has increased northwards in recent years, shifting its northern limit form 17°32'N in the 1960s to 18°47'N today. Its presence in the central region of Tagant highlights the great ecological plasticity of the species. Conversely, the distribution of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles melas has shrunk compared to that of the 1960s. Anopheles rhodesiensis and An. d'thali are mainly confined in the mountainous areas (alt. 200-700 m), whereas Anopheles pharoensis is widely distributed in the Senegal River basin. Culex poicilipes and Cx. antenattus were naturally found infected with Rift valley fever virus in central and northern Mauritania following the Rift valley outbreaks of 1998 and 2012. Recently, Ae. aegypti emerged in Nouakchott and is probably responsible for dengue fever episodes of 2015. This paper provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the existing literature on mosquito species known to occur in Mauritania and highlights areas where future studies should fill a gap in knowledge about vector biodiversity. It aims to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes particularly in the field of medical entomology to inform evidence-based decision-making for vector control and management strategies.

  7. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? : Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  8. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Ducheyne, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Fife, M.; Garros, C.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Kampen, H.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Losson, B.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Regge, de N.; Rijn, van P.A.; Sanders, C.; Schaffner, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Takken, W.; Werner, D.; Seelig, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  9. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fauna de Hymenoptera em Ficus spp. (Moraceae na Amazônia Central, Brasil Fauna of Hymenoptera in Ficus spp. (Moraceae in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Nazareno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A interação Ficus (Moraceae - vespas de figo é considerada um dos exemplos mais extremos de mutualismo entre planta e inseto. Neste trabalho, descreve-se a fauna de vespas de figo associada a cinco espécies de Ficus na Amazônia Central, considerando alguns aspectos do modo de polinização nas espécies Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. O estudo foi desenvolvido durante o período de abril a julho de 2004 em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Estado do Amazonas. O número de espécies de vespas de figo por hospedeiro variou de uma a 13. Vespas do gênero Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, polinizadoras de Ficus (Urostigma spp., apresentam pentes coxais e bolsos torácicos adaptados à coleta e ao transporte de pólen, indicando modo ativo de polinização. No subgênero Pharmacosycea, a polinizadora do gênero Tetrapus Mayr, 1885, não apresenta estrutura morfológica adaptada ao transporte de pólen, condizente com o modo passivo de polinização. Além das vespas de figo, F. (Pharmacosyceae maxima e F. (Urostigma pertusa apresentaram associação com ácaros, formigas (Solenopsis sp., Formicidae, besouros (Staphylinidae e larvas de Diptera e Lepidoptera.The interaction between Ficus (Moraceae and fig wasps is considered one of the most extreme examples of plant-insect mutualism. In the present study, we reported the fig wasp fauna associated with five Ficus species in the Central Amazon, Brazil, and considered some aspects of the pollination mode found in Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. The study was carried out from April to July 2004, in the cities of Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil. The number of fig wasp species per host tree varied from one to 13. Wasps of the genus Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, pollinators of

  12. Dolichocephala ocellata (Costa, 1854 (Diptera, Empididae new to Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Weele Ruud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Dolichocephala ocellata (Costa, 1854 (Diptera, Empididae for the territory of Slovakia and Central Europe is presented. This increases the number of known empidid species for Slovakia to 286.

  13. Drie soorten zweefvliegen minder op de Nederlandse lijst (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Renema, W.

    2004-01-01

    Three species of hoverflies removed from the Dutch list (Diptera: Syrphidae) Doubtful records of three hoverfly species from the Netherlands are discussed. Two specimens previously identified as Cheilosia acutilabris Becker, 1894 belong to C. proxima (Zetterstedt, 1843). Five specimens previously

  14. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  15. Zoonotic potential of Helicobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mladenova-Hristova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter contains more than 35 species. Helicobacter pylori is the most important in terms of human health. Discovery of these helicobacters gives opportunity to understand the relationship between these bacteria which colonise the animal and human gut and their effect on the host. Infection with Helicobacter spp. and the associated diseases in their hosts allow us to study the pathogenic mechanisms. The potential zoonotic pathway for the transmission of Helicobacter spp. and epidemiology of this genus, deserve more attention to these emerging pathogens.

  16. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador. The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and “Leishmania sp. siamensis”. Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. PMID:28981860

  17. Exploitation of kairomones and synomones by Medetera spp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), predators of spruce bark beetles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulcr, Jiří; Pollet, M.; Ubik, Karel; Vrkoč, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2005), s. 655-662 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0725; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 646; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : kairomones * pheromones * monoterpenes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2005

  18. The North American gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of hackberries (Cannabaceae: Celtis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Gagne; John Moser

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-three species of gall midges occur exclusively on hackberries in North America north of Mexico. Twenty-one of them belong to the genus Celticecis and form complex, dehiscent galls on leaves and the current year's twigs. Celticecis species are definitely known only from the typical subgenus of Celtis, distributed through much of the Holarctic Region....

  19. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cristina; Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-11-07

    The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador.The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and "Leishmania sp. siamensis". Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic agrobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Ivanović, Milan; Ćalić, Anđelka; Gašić, Katarina; Obradović, Aleksa

    2011-01-01

    Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the s...

  1. Identification of Tsetse (Glossina spp. using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Hoppenheit

    Full Text Available Glossina (G. spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae, known as tsetse flies, are vectors of African trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic livestock. Knowledge on tsetse distribution and accurate species identification help identify potential vector intervention sites. Morphological species identification of tsetse is challenging and sometimes not accurate. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS technique, already standardised for microbial identification, could become a standard method for tsetse fly diagnostics. Therefore, a unique spectra reference database was created for five lab-reared species of riverine-, savannah- and forest- type tsetse flies and incorporated with the commercial Biotyper 3.0 database. The standard formic acid/acetonitrile extraction of male and female whole insects and their body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs was used to obtain the flies' proteins. The computed composite correlation index and cluster analysis revealed the suitability of any tsetse body part for a rapid taxonomical identification. Phyloproteomic analysis revealed that the peak patterns of G. brevipalpis differed greatly from the other tsetse. This outcome was comparable to previous theories that they might be considered as a sister group to other tsetse spp. Freshly extracted samples were found to be matched at the species level. However, sex differentiation proved to be less reliable. Similarly processed samples of the common house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae; strain: Lei did not yield any match with the tsetse reference database. The inclusion of additional strains of morphologically defined wild caught flies of known origin and the availability of large-scale mass spectrometry data could facilitate rapid tsetse species identification in the future.

  2. Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J.; Vulule, J.; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.

    2014-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them. PMID:17294916

  3. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  4. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  5. Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    sandßyLutzomyia longipalpis ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in- duces neurophysiological responses and attracts both males and females. J. Insect Physiol. 51...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae...Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    M., H. A. Hanafi, and E. A. Dykstra. 2004. Eval- uation of 1-octen-3-ol and carbon dioxide as attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera ...VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in...forDiseaseControl andPrevention (CDC) light trap for efÞcacy in collecting phlebotomine sand ßies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in a small farming village in the

  7. Genome sizes of forensically relevant Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, C J; Johnston, J S; Tarone, A M

    2012-01-01

    Genome size estimates for both sexes of forensically relevant Diptera from 17 species (four families) are reported herein. Average genome sizes ranged from 425.8 Mb for female Chrysomya rufifacies to 1,197.4 Mb for male Haematobia irritans. These estimates are useful not only for molecular studies, but also for determination of the species and sex of immatures. Species in three of the sampled families had sexually dimorphic genome sizes, presenting a new tool useful for the determination of sex in these species, especially in the immature stages where sexes are morphologically difficult or impossible to identify. In addition, closely related species had significantly different genome sizes, suggesting the use of flow cytometry as a new tool for species identification of some species of forensically relevant larvae.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that......Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine......-monophyletic: Miltogramma, Senotainia and Pterella and (4) the genus Sarcotachina, which traditionally has been considered as belonging to the Paramacronychiinae, is placed in one of the clades of “lower miltogrammines”. Ancestral state reconstruction of larval feeding strategy and five larval characters reveals...

  9. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  10. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  11. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  12. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  13. Biosystematics of Larval Movement of Central American Mosquitoes and its Use for Field Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    chioropterus (Von Humboldt) Panama B 2/24 0.21 SS Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar and Knab) Panama B 0.51 5-51 Trichoprosopon digitatum* (Rondani) All B 2-3...Ceratopogonidae), Chi- Psorophora 2 ronomus (Diptera: Chironoraidae) and Chaobo- Toxorhynchites 1 rus (Diptera: Chaoboridae), as well as in Aedes

  14. Biodiversity and Bionomics for Fruit Flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on biodiversity and bionomics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were conducted in Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania from 2004 to 2006. Specifically studies aimed at determining the biodiversity of fruit flies, their host range, infestation rate, incidence and seasonality. These are among the pre-requisites for ...

  15. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art

    2014-05-20

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  16. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  17. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  18. Biologie en ecologie van de Nederlandse pissebedvliegen (Diptera: Rhinophoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    2001-01-01

    Biology and ecology of the Dutch woodlouse-flies (Diptera: Rhinophoridae) In a previous paper the faunistics of seven Dutch species of Rhinophoridae were summarised (Wijnhoven & Zeegers 1999). In the current publication the distribution, the biology and ecology of six species of woodlouse-flies in

  19. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Haarto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930 and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. P. modestus is also new to the Palaearctic.

  20. Bijzondere vondsten van zweefvliegen in Nederland (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Aartsen, van B.; Renema, W.; Smit, J.T.; Steenis, van W.

    2000-01-01

    Interesting new records of hoverflies in TheNetherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) The preliminary distribution atlas of the Dutch hoverflies (NJN 1998) marked the start of the Syrphidae recording scheme (1998-2002). This publication has proven to be a major stimulus for the study of this interesting

  1. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  2. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  3. Nieuwe en zeldzame zweefvliegen voor de Nederlandse fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van B.

    1993-01-01

    New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus

  4. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.

  5. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get ...

  6. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  7. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  8. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  10. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  11.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...

  12. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  13. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  14. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Karakteristik Tepung Prebiotik Umbi Uwi (Dioscorea Spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Winarti, Sri; Saputro, Erwan Adi

    2013-01-01

    Umbi uwi (Dioscorea spp.) merupakan salah satu jenis umbi yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia memiliki kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi. Keanekaragaman uwi sangat banyak baik dilihat dari bentuk, ukuran, warna, maupun rasa umbinya. Terdapat lebih dari 600 spesies dari genus Dioscorea spp. tersebar di berbagai negara, termasuk Indonesia, antara lain Dioscorea hispida (gadung), Dioscorea esculenta (gembili), Discorea bulbifera (gembolo), Dioscorea alata (uwi ungu/purple yam), Dioscorea opposita (...

  16. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  17. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  18. Spatial relations among environmental factors and phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in central and southern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahime, K; Boussaa, S; El Mzabi, A; Boumezzough, A

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are of considerable public health importance because of their ability to transmit several human parasites, mainly as vectors of Leishmania spp. Over the past decade, the epidemiological situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has significantly increased with its geographic expansion to previously free areas and the emergence of overlapping foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in several provinces of Morocco. A total of 15,313 specimens was collected during this entomological survey. The genera Phlebotomus (57.38%) and Sergentomyia (42.62%) were identified. Sergentomyia minuta (22.01%) was the most prevalent species, followed by S. fallax (18.21%), Phlebotomus perniciosus (14.35%), P. papatasi (14.06%), P. sergenti (12.85%), P. longicuspis (10.74%), P. ariasi (2.68%), S. dreyfussi (1.53%), P. alexandri (1.31%), P. bergeroti (1.14%), S. christophersi (0.62%), S. africana (0.25%), P. chabaudi (0.14%), P. chadlii (0.05%), and P. kazeruni (0.04%). We aimed to determine current distribution of leishmaniases vectors, their ecological characteristics, and the significance of the predominant species at any bioclimate stage, altitude range, and soil texture in terms of the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  20. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  1. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rozo-Lopez; Ximo Mengual

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 reco...

  2. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Mazumdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh.  Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh.  All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon. 

  3. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) Author(s): Kristen Bartlett-Healy, Isik Unlu, Peter Obenauer, Tony Hughes...japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) KRISTEN BARTLETT-HEALY,1,2,3 ISIK UNLU,1,3,4 PETER OBENAUER,5 TONY HUGHES,6

  4. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  5. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  6. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  7. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  8. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  9. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Hllytchaikra Ferraz; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction). The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively). This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  10. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859 Crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2015-02-27

    Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.

  12. Cattle Dung Breeding Diptera in Pastures in Southeastern Brazil: Diversity, Abundance and Seasonallity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Júlio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diptera that breed in undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diversity and abundance, and several species are of veterinary importance and may cause economic losses. To survey the diversity, abundance and seasonality of Diptera associated to this microhabitat, 83 samples of 10 dung pats each were taken from April 1992 to April 1994 in the vicinity of São Carlos, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. A total of 46,135 Diptera belonging to 20 families and at least 51 species were found to breed in the pats. The most abundant and diverse families were Sepsidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Sphaeroceridae. In general, the abundance was higher from October to March, the warm and wet months. The importance of some Diptera, both as horn fly enemies and as cattle dung decaying agents, is discussed.

  13. The Dutch species of the dance fly genus Hilara (Diptera: Empididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der V.S.; Aartsen, van B.; Chvála, M.

    2000-01-01

    De Nederlandse soorten van het dansvliegengeslacht Hilara (Diptera: Empididae) In deze studie wordt alle beschikbare informatie over het dansvliegengeslacht Hilara samengevat. Door kritisch literatuur-, collectie- en veldonderzoek werden 57 soorten voor de Nederlandse fauna vastgesteld, waarvan er

  14. Widespread Oceanospirillaceae Bacteria in Porites spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Speck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that a clade of bacteria in the Oceanospirillaceae is widely distributed in Porites spp. and other hermatypic corals. Bacteria 16S rDNA clone libraries were prepared from community genomic DNA extracted from Porites compressa and Porites lobata surface mucus and adjacent seawater collected along a line transect off Maui. Phylogenetic affiliations of operational taxonomic units (OTUs defined at the 97% level of nucleotide identity varied within and between the respective Porites spp. along the transect and differed from those in the seawater. One OTU (C7-A01, however, occurred in all mucus samples from both Porites species. C7-A01c affiliates with a clade of uncultivated Oceanospirillum-like bacteria; the nearest neighbors of this OTU have been reported only in the surface mucus layer of Porites spp. and other stony corals, in reef-dwelling invertebrates, and the corallivorous six-banded angelfish, Pomacanthus sexstriatus.

  15. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  16. Association of Treponema spp. with canine periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Rühe, Bärbel; Kellermeier, Claudia; Moter, Annette; Schmitz, Rose; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H

    2008-03-18

    To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA-DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic groups I-VII of oral treponemes as well as probes specific for T. socranskii and T. denticola. To assess the periodontal status of affected dogs clinical parameters were measured and the periodontal status was classified from grade 0 (physiological periodont) to 3 (severe periodontitis). The periodontal status correlated significantly with an increasing concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC, r=0.854) determined with a Halimeter, indicating a positive correlation between the presence of VSC-producing bacteria and periodontitis. In this study Treponema spp. of phylogenetic groups III, V-VII were not detected in any sample, whereas T. denticola-like treponemes were found only in 2 of 51 animals. However, treponemes belonging to phylogenetic groups I, II and IV of oral treponemes or T. socranskii were found in up to 64.84% of the dogs. The detection rate of Treponema spp. was significantly associated with an increased periodontal status. Treponemes present in periodontal lesions were also visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization of gingival biopsies showing Treponema spp. not only in the microbial biofilm but also within the gingival tissue. The data presented here indicate that oral Treponema spp. are associated with canine periodontitis. Similar to human periodontitis, treponemes of groups I, II and IV and T. socranskii were found more frequently the higher the degree of periodontitis was.

  17. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  18. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species......,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation....

  19. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  1. Recent advances in the study of avian malaria: an overview with an emphasis on the distribution of Plasmodium spp in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Martins Braga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium have a worldwide distribution except for Antarctica. They are transmitted exclusively by mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae and are of particular interest to health care research due to their phylogenetic relationship with human plasmodia and their ability to cause avian malaria, which is frequently lethal in non-adapted avian hosts. However, different features of avian Plasmodium spp, including their taxonomy and aspects of their life-history traits, need to be examined in more detail. Over the last 10 years, ecologists, evolutionary biologists and wildlife researchers have recognized the importance of studying avian malaria parasites and other related haemosporidians, which are the largest group of the order Haemosporida by number of species. These studies have included understanding the ecological, behavioral and evolutionary aspects that arise in this wildlife host-parasite system. Molecular tools have provided new and exiting opportunities for such research. This review discusses several emerging topics related to the current research of avian Plasmodium spp and some related avian haemosporidians. We also summarize some important discoveries in this field and emphasize the value of using both polymerase chain reaction-based and microscopy-based methods in parallel for wildlife studies. We will focus on the genus Plasmodium, with an emphasis on the distribution and pathogenicity of these parasites in wild birds in Brazil.

  2. Leptospira spp. in commensal rodents, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengmin; He, Hongxuan

    2013-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats (Rattus spp.) are its most common source. We found antibodies to leptospires in 115 (30.2%) of 381 commensal rodents from Beijing, China. Commensal rodents might represent a potential source for human and pet leptospirosis in urban environments.

  3. SPAWNING MIGRATION OF LABEOBARBUS SPP. (PISCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pairwise comparison of the Labeobarbus spp. showed temporal segregation in all sampling months, except L. intermedius and L. brevicephalus that did not show temporal segregation with L. nedgia. The best management option to protect these species is closed season that should be strictly implemented during the ...

  4. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  5. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good

  6. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  7. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  8. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  9. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  10. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  11. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  16. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  19. Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-10-01

    We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil.

  20. Assessment of PCR in the detection of Leishmania spp in experimentally infected individual phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHALSKY Érika M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in the investigation of the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasites in single phlebotomine sandflies. Three phlebotomine/parasite pairs were used: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania amazonensis and Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, all of them incriminated in the transmission of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA extraction was performed with whole insects, with no need of previous digestive tract dissection or pooling specimens. The presence of either mouse blood in the digestive tract of the sandflies or the digestive tract itself did not interfere in the PCR. Infection by as few as 10 Leishmania sp. per individual were sufficient for DNA amplification with genus-specific primers. Using primers for L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes, respectively, it was possible to discriminate between L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in experimentally infected vectors (L. migonei.

  1. Infestation of Phaseolus Vulgaris (L) by the beanfly Ophiomyia Spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Management by Cultural Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayitare, Joseph Sibomana

    1993-04-01

    Cultural practices as management strategy for bean fly control were examined over four cropping seasons in 1991 and 1992 under farmer’s developed field conditions at Oyugis, in Homa Bay District of Western Kenya. In many parts of East and Central Africa, the bean fly is a major constraint to the production of the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris), its incidence causes yield losses averaging 47-87%, Control methods used against the pest are mostly insecticides based. Cultural control as a pest management strategy is a less considered area of research which needs to be studied, since it is the first line of defence against pest populations and results in little or no added cost. For this reason studies on five cultural practices (soil fertility, inter cropping, weeding regimes, plant spacing and planting time) on bean fly infestation were undertaken as possible control methods, Increase in nitrogen levels increased bean fly infestation by 12-66%. Phosphorus served as catalyst for nitrogen assimilation. The fertilized plants were more succulent, tender and had more nutrients and therefore offered better conditions for bean fly penetration into bean stems, fecundity and development. However, the infested plants in fertilized soils were able to compensate for the damage caused to them and grew quickly to pass the critical stages. Thus the bean fly infestation had little effect on grain yield. The effect of bean fly infestation on yield when no nitrogen and phosphorus were applied, was a 48% reduction in yield, Therefore, the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers reduced the effect of bean fly damage and increased grain yield. Inter cropping increased bean fly infestation compared to pure stands of beans. The micro climatic conditions (light intensity, temperature and relative humidity) created by inter cropping of beans with maize increased bean fly infestation compared to that in the bean mono crop. Weeding regimes had no effect on bean fly infestation, however weed-free, and weeding three weeks after plant emergence, provided better grain yield. Plant spacing studies showed an increase of bean fly infestation in wider spacings. The optimal plant density of 222,222/ha (30x15 cm) seemed to give the least bean fly infestation and a high grain yield. Early planting with the first rains reduced bean fly infestation and gave better grain yield. Two species of bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon and O. spencerella Greathead, were identified in Oyugis, where O. Spencerella was more predominant. Parasitoids regulated bean fly population in nature. Six species of parasitoids were identified, with Opius phaseoli being the dominant species. They were host density-dependent and reduced bean fly population by 14-24%, The experimental results indicate that the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, mono cropping system, optimal plant density of 222,222 plants/ha and early planting time were good cultural practices that can form a part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy to reduce bean fly infestation with consequent increase in bean production. (au)

  2. Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Can; Hou, Bo-Hua; Ou-Yang, Ge-Cheng; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. in keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; de la Fuente, José; Biró, Nóra; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Meli, Marina L; Elek, Vilmos; Gönczi, Eniko; Meili, Theres; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. DNA was extracted individually or in pools. Anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living deer keds. Rickettsia helvetica or other, unidentified rickettsiae were also present in one pool of sheep keds, and in four pools of deer keds from both red deer and roe deer. This is the first account of polymerase chain reaction positivity of hippoboscid flies for A. ovis and rickettsiae. These results raise the possibility that-apart from cattle and roe deer as already reported-sheep and red deer might also play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of rickettsioses.

  4. Two new Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane R. de Sousa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Japanagromyza Sasakawa, 1958 (Diptera, Agromyzidae is poorly known from Brazil, with only three species recorded. This contribution increases the knowledge of the genus in Brazil, where two new species are described and illustrations of male and female adults and terminalia are presented. The material was collected in states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Rondônia and is deposited in the collections of Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Molecular screening of Leishmania spp. infection and bloodmeals in sandflies from a leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaku Ş, M; Pekağ Irba Ş, M; Demir, S; Eren, H; Töz, S; Özbel, Y

    2017-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages. Among all Phlebotomus specimens, Phlebotomus neglectus (39%) was noted as the most abundant species, followed by Phlebotomus tobbi (18%). Leishmania DNA was detected in pools from P. neglectus, P. tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata by kDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Leishmania DNA from Phlebotomus specimens was identified as L. infantum, but Leishmania DNA from Sergentomyia spp. could not be identified to species level by ITS-1 real-time PCR. The detection of Leishmania DNA in wild-caught P. neglectus and the high percentage (24.2%) of human DNA in engorged specimens suggests that P. neglectus is probably an important vector species for L. infantum in Aydın province. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  7. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  8. Overwintering biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M; Macedo, Paula A; Kothera, Linda; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-07-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010-2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios or=stage I-II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 +/- 30.7 and 162.85 +/- 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting collections occurred concurrently with diapause termination in field populations based on ovarian morphometrics. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of 18 males and in a

  9. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  10. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  11. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  12. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  14. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  15. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis, production of lytic enzymes, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). The involvement of ISR is typically studied in systems in which the Pseudomonas bacteria and the pathogen are inoculated and rema...

  16. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  18. Comparative Responses of Rhagoletis zephyria and Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Commercial and Experimental Sticky Traps and Odors in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E; Cha, Dong H

    2017-12-08

    Rhagoletis zephyria Snow and Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are morphologically similar flies that attack white-colored snowberry fruit (Symphoricarpos spp.) and yellow/red or dark-colored apple/hawthorn fruit (Malus/Crataegus spp.), respectively. The two flies are caught together on traps in R. pomonella surveys in the western United States, increasing labor needed to process catches. Comparing responses of the two species with different traps could help identify best practices for reducing R. zephyria captures in these surveys and could contribute to understanding population divergence in Rhagoletis flies. In Washington State, United States, we found that R. zephyria responded most to yellow rectangles and more to white than red spheres (RSs) baited with ammonium carbonate (AC), whereas R. pomonella responded most to RSs with AC. Yellow plastic rectangles with AC were more effective in capturing R. zephyria than cardboard rectangles, as has been found for R. pomonella. R. zephyria did not respond to apple fruit volatiles associated with RSs that were attractive to R. pomonella. In contrast, R. zephyria responded more to yellow rectangles with snowberry than apple volatiles. Both species responded to AC. Our results suggest that RSs are better than yellow rectangles for surveying R. pomonella when snowberries are abundant. However, if discrimination from R. zephyria is paramount, RSs with apple volatiles should be used. Differences in the species' responses to traps appear related to odor/color cues of the flies' host fruit, while commonalties appear related to visual/olfactory stimuli associated with protein feeding, for which AC is a general attractant. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. A mathematical model applied for assisting the estimation of PMI in a case of forensic importance. First record of Conicera similis (Diptera: Phoridae) in a corpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, A M; Martínez-Sánchez, A; López, R; García de la Vega, J M; Rica, M; González, M; Disney, R H L

    2013-09-10

    We present a forensic case associated with skeletonized human remains found inside a cistern in a coastal town located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencian Regional Government, Spain). In order to analyse the particular environmental conditions that occurred during oviposition and development of the collected insects, estimated temperatures at the crime scene were calculated by a predictive mathematical model. This model analyses the correlation between the variability of the internal temperature depending on the variability of the external ones. The amplitude of the temperature oscillations inside the tank and the containment of the enclosure is reduced by the presence of water. Such variation occurred within about 2h due to the time required for heat exchange. The differential equations employed to model differences between outdoor and indoor temperatures were an essential tool which let us estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) that was carried out by the study of the insect succession and the development time of the collected Diptera specimens under the adjusted temperatures. The presence of live larvae and pupae of Sarcophagidae and empty pupae of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Piophilidae and the decomposition stage suggested the possibility that the remains were in the tank at least a year. We highlight the absence of Calliphora and Lucilia spp., and the first occurrence of the phorid Conicera similis in a human cadaver among the entomological evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Field efficacy of BG-Sentinel and industry-standard traps for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and West Nile virus surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Price, Dana C; Williams, Gregory M; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Nelder, Mark P

    2009-07-01

    Standard surveillance traps in North America for adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), an invasive mosquito with public health implications, are currently ineffective. We compared the efficacy of the BG-Sentinel trap (BGS) with and without lures (BG-lure, octenol, and CO2), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC) with and without lures, and the gravid trap (GT) for Ae. albopictus collection in two urban sites in New Jersey. The BGS with or without lures collected more Ae. albopictus compared with other trap configurations and was more specific for Ae. albopictus. In Camden County, the BGS with lures collected three times more Ae. albopictus than the CDC (with CO2 only) and five times more than the GT. In Mercer County, BGS with lures collected the most mosquitoes, with 3 times more Ae. albopictus than the CDC with all lures and 50 times more than the GT. The BGS collected more male Ae. albopictus than other traps in both counties, providing further population monitoring. The GT and BGS provided a relative measure of the enzootic activity of West Nile virus in Culex spp. and the potential epidemic activity of WNV in Ae. albopictus. The BGS provides effective chemical and visual cues for host-seeking Ae. albopictus and should be used as a part of existing surveillance programs and new initiatives targeting this mosquito.

  1. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  2. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P Babesia related to B. lengau from Africa.

  3. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryp...

  4. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... revision for this ordinal-level study, with homology assessed beyond their original formulation and across all infraorders. We found significant support for many major clades (including the Diptera, Culicomorpha, Bibionomorpha, Brachycera, Eremoneura, Cyclorrhapha, Schizophora, Calyptratae and Oestroidea...

  8. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  9. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  10. New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, J M; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

    1986-01-01

    A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Kle...

  11. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  12. Suitability of Using Introduced Hydrellia spp. for Management of Monoecious Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    interaction: p < 0.0000, F = 200.92, DF = 2, 103. These differences were apparently not caused by the adult flies’ lack of attraction to the...R. M. Smart, and C. S. Owens. 2002. Impact of herbivory Hydrellia pakistanae ( Diptera : Ephydridae) on growth and photosynthetic potential of...Center. 1996. Reproduction and development of the biocontrol agent Hydrellia pakistanae ( Diptera : Ephydridae) on monoecious hydrilla. Biol. Cont. 7

  13. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...gypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) control with community par- ticipation using a new fumigant formulation. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 577Ð583. Kittayapong, P., and

  14. Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in southern Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 130–133. Burkett DA, Knight R, Dennet JA...Dioxide–Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya Author(s): P.J. Obenauer, B.B. Annajar...00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance

  15. Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing root rot symptoms in other crops intercropped with beans in Southwestern Uganda. Virginia Gichuru, Robin Buruchara, Patrick Okori ...

  16. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  17. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  18. The fauna of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae of Vojvodina province, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hoverfly species of faunal and zoogeographical interest are found in Serbia's northern province of Vojvodina due to the diversity of its biotopes. In this paper, the presence of 252 species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae from 69 genera is documented. Five species are here recorded for the first time in Serbia: Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp Pedersen, 1980; Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus, 1758; Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794; Helophilus hybridus Loew, 1846; and Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794. One species is recorded for the first time in Vojvodina: Cheilosia brunnipennis (Becker, 1894. The records of 12 species from Vojvodina Province are the only ones on the Balkan Peninsula, while the records of 15 species are the only ones in Serbia.

  19. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located. Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 2008 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  20. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  1. The Mondrian Matrix: Culicoides prevalence and seasonal abundance during the 2006-2008 epizootic of bluetongue in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiswinkel, R.; Scolamacchia, F.; Dik, M.; Mudde, J.; Dijkstra, E.; Ven, van der I.J.K.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2014-01-01

    During the northern Europe epidemic of bluetongue (BT), Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were used to capture Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges weekly between November 2006 and December 2008 on 21 livestock farms in the Netherlands. Proven and potential vectors for the

  2. Movements of adult Culicoides midges around stables in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Abstract. Preferences of adult Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were examined to identify focal spots for vectors of African Horse Sickness (AHS). Five similar regions across five farms were sampled at regular periods over one year. The catches were identified to species level and regression analysis was.

  3. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth...

  4. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  5. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  6. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  7. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-10-01

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  8. Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C. Angelo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.

  9. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  10. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  11. Streptomyces spp. in the biocatalysis toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Jelena; Mandic, Mina; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2018-04-01

    About 20,100 research publications dated 2000-2017 were recovered searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of bioactive molecules. However, these bacteria with versatile metabolism are powerful suppliers of biocatalytic tools (enzymes) for advanced biotechnological applications such as green chemical transformations and biopharmaceutical and biofuel production. The recent technological advances, especially in DNA sequencing coupled with computational tools for protein functional and structural prediction, and the improved access to microbial diversity enabled the easier access to enzymes and the ability to engineer them to suit a wider range of biotechnological processes. The major driver behind a dramatic increase in the utilization of biocatalysis is sustainable development and the shift toward bioeconomy that will, in accordance to the UN policy agenda "Bioeconomy to 2030," become a global effort in the near future. Streptomyces spp. already play a significant role among industrial microorganisms. The intention of this minireview is to highlight the presence of Streptomyces in the toolbox of biocatalysis and to give an overview of the most important advances in novel biocatalyst discovery and applications. Judging by the steady increase in a number of recent references (228 for the 2000-2017 period), it is clear that biocatalysts from Streptomyces spp. hold promises in terms of valuable properties and applicative industrial potential.

  12. Morphological observations on the egg and first instar larva of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebidae Observações morfológicas do ovo e da larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of the egg and first intar larvar of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae when viewed by light and scanning electronic microscopes.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera, Cuterebridae são descritos a nível de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.

  13. Primeiro relato do parasitóide Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando pupas Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae no Brasil First report on Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando estágios imaturos de Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em fezes humanas no Brasil. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 18,2%.This work reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing immature stages of Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in human feces in Brazil. The parasitism prevalence was 18.2%.

  14. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  15. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  16. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  17. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from Armenia, with description of Campsicnemus armeniacus sp.n.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Negrobov, O. P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Oboňa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-75 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Dolichopodidae * distributions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  18. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  19. First record of the rare aquatic dance fly Chelifera aperticauda Collin, 1927 (Diptera: Empididae: Hemerodromiinae) from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Baranová, B.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Kisková, K.; Manko, P.; Slowińska, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2016), article number 1894 ISSN 1809-127X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Empididae * Hemerodromiinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.biotaxa.org/cl/article/view/12.3.1894

  20. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages (phi)PD10.3 and (phi)PD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

  1. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... Eggplant (Solanum spp.) production in Arumeru district and other parts of Africa is severely affected by wilting diseases of unknown etiology. Fusarium spp. characterized through morphological and sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor associated with Fusarium wilt of eggplants was.

  2. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida

  3. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to detect and identify the target bacteria, samples were analysed by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques (quantitative real-time PCR). Genetic relatedness was established using Sanger sequencing of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. and ipaH of Shigella spp. Results of this study displayed the ...

  4. Revalidation of Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos with a Redescription of Adults and Illustration of Male Genitalia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    invoeator of Dyar ( 1920 :64). CuZex (MoehZostyraxl inhibitator (in part) of Dyar (1928:317). CuZex (Mezanoeonionb inhibitator (in part) of Edwards (1932...Calif. Press, vi + 360 p., 127 pl. Dyar , H. G. 1920 . The species of Choc:roporpa, a subgenus of Cdex (Diptera, Culicidae). Inset. Inscit. Menst. 8...Diptera: Culicidae)l 239 Pazos of Male Sunthorn Sirivanakarn2 ABSTRACT. Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos, originally described from Cu- ba

  5. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...mtDNA-encoded ND6 gene mutation.14 Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann, a nuisance species, has attracted much attention recently.9,15–20 The aim of...taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  7. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  8. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  9. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  10. First record of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Resumo. Registra-se pela primeira vez a presença de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre, Brasil, a partir de frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e de caramboleira (Averrhoacarambola L., aumentando o conhecimento dos registros geográficos dessa mosca na Amazônia brasileira.

  11. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  13. Review of the European species of the genus Chionea, Dalman, 1816 (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, P.; Reusch, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review of the European species of the genus Chionea (Diptera, Limoniidae), in 2 subgenera, Chionea (2 species) and Sphaeconophilus (7 species) includes an illustrated key to the species and for each species a diagnosis, type material, synonymy, discussion and details about the countries from

  14. Psychoda surcoufi, een motmug van compost, nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.

    2009-01-01

    Psychoda surcoufi, a mothfly of compost, new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Psychodidae) Psychoda surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 is reported as a new species for the Dutch checklist. Adults were collected in large numbers in a compost barrel from late February until April 2009, together with P. albipennis

  15. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  16. Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Smit, J.T.; Steenis, van W.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae) In July 2001 the database of the Netherlands Syrphidae Recording Scheme contained approximately 200 000 records of Syrphidae. This database was used to examine changes in the hoverfly fauna of the Netherlands

  17. De zweefvlieg Cheilosia psilophthalma, een dubbelganger van Cheilosia urbana, nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Smit, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    The hoverfly Cheilosia psilophthalma, a double of C. urbana new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) The hoverflies Cheilosia psilophthalma Becker, 1894 and C. urbana (Meigen, 1822) are very similar in their appearances. Until recently, only C. urbana had been recorded from the Netherlands, but

  18. Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae, with notes on Paragodon Thompson, 1969 (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described, based on specimens from Suriname. Surimyia is the only known genus of Syrphidae in which the katatergum (ventral part of lateral postnotal sclerite of mesonotum) lacks microtrichia. Within Microdontinae, the genus is unique in

  19. Het zweefvliegduo Eupeodes bucculatus en E. goeldlini in Nederland (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Steenis, van J.

    2006-01-01

    The sibling syrphids Eupeodes bucculatus and E. goeldlini in the Netherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) Recently, the hoverfly Eupeodes goeldlini Mazánek, Láska & Bicˇik, 1999 has been described, a species very similar to E. bucculatus (Rondani, 1857). This paper gives the first records of E. goeldlini

  20. Two new species of Meropidia Hippa & Thompson, 1983 (Diptera, Syrphidae from the Andes Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Morales

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Meropidia Hippa & Thompson, 1983 (Diptera, Syrphidae are described, Meropidia nitida Morales, sp. n. and M. flavens Hippa & Ståhls sp. n., from Bolivia and Colombia respectively. A key to all described Meropidia species is provided.

  1. De invasieve Oost-Amerikaanse kersenboorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Dijkstra, E.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive American Eastern Cherry Fruitfly Rhagoletis cingulata in the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) In 2003 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, on request of the Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands, conducted a survey of the distribution and phenology of the American

  2. List of abbreviations for currently valid generic-level taxa in family Culicidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of two letter abbreviations for all genera and three letter abbreviations for all subgenera of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, order Diptera) is given. This information on generic-level taxa of mosquitoes is useful in reducing printed space in publications, tables and lists. The work was comp...

  3. Records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Armenia, with the first Armenian checklist of these families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Starý, J.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 585 (2016), s. 125-142 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Limoniidae * Pediciidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8330

  4. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  5. New records of diptera families Anisopodidae, Bibionidae, Dixidae, Ptychopteridae and Scatopsidae from Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Dvořák, L.; Haenni, J.-P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-67 ISSN 0341-8391 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspots * Armenia * Diptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2016 http://pfeil-verlag.de/publikationen/spixiana-zeitschrift-fuer-zoologie-band-40/

  6. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.

  7. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  8. Pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), collected by dry-ice trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sato, Yukita; Murata, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.

  9. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  10. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  11. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  12. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  13. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae) parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  14. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  15. Pseudomonas spp. convert metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Michiyo; Kobayashi, Miho; Sasaki, Keisuke; Nomura, Masaru; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Meat 'reddening' by bacteria was observed in chilled beef. To identify the reddening bacteria, isolates were inoculated onto beef and the changes in CIE L*a*b* values monitored. As a result, two Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas fragi which is commonly observed in raw meat, were selected and identified as reddening bacteria. The reddening was coincidentally occurred with the appearance of slime, and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was simultaneously suppressed. In myoglobin-containing nutrient broth, it is shown spectroscopically that P. fragi converted metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. It was concluded that the meat reddening was due to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, induced by the very-low-oxygen tension brought about by Pseudomonad's oxygen consumption: This oxygen depletion simultaneously suppressed TBARS increase.

  16. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Epidemiology, chronobiology and taxonomic updates of Rhinoestrus spp. infestation in horses of Sardinia Isle, Western Mediterranean (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, P; Pilo, C; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Francisco, I; Arias, M S; Paz Silva, A; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Morrondo, P; Díez-Baños, P; Scala, A

    2013-02-18

    From January to December 2008, 265 horses slaughtered in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) through the examination of the nasal cavities and pharynges. Larvae were detected in 49% of the horses, with a mean intensity of infestation of 16.09 and abundance of 7.95. A total of 2108 larvae were collected, 66% of which were classified in first instar (L1), 22% in second instar (L2) and 12% in third instar (L3). The most frequent localization of larvae was the ethmoid, while the less one the larynx. According to the dynamics of Rhinoestrus larval stages, three periods in the chronobiology can be considered, the diapause (September-February) characterized by an absolute prevalence of first larval stage; the active phase of the endogenous phase (February-September) with an increase in the percentages of L2 and L3, and the exit phase (May-September), pointed by a further increase of L1. Morphological examination of L3 larvae revealed the presence of the Rhinoestrus purpureus features in 8% of the examined larvae, of 8% of the Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus features, while in 84% of the larvae were evidenced intermediate features. Contrastingly biomolecular analysis of the COI gene of the larvae evidenced uniformity at genetic level, confirming the presence of a unique species in the Mediterranean area. The results of the present paper, reveal the wide diffusion of rhinoestrosis among Sardinian horses, and suggest the need for applying appropriate control measures. Chemotherapy should be very useful if administered during the diapause period, for reducing the presence of L1 stages and interrupting thus the life cycle of this myiasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  19. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  20. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  1. Miíase humana por Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae e Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae em Sucessão Parasitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso raro de sucessão parasitária de duas espécies de larvas de moscas produtora de miíase primária, Dermatobia hominis e Cochliomyia hominivorax, em um jovem de 12 anos atendido em um hospital público no município de São Gonçalo (RJ.Human Myiases for Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Parasitic SuccessionAbstract. The objective this work was to tell a rare case of parasitic succession of two species of larvae of flies producing of primary myiases, Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax, in a 12 year-old youth assisted in an public hospital in São Gonçalo (RJ.

  2. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  3. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  4. Pertumbuhan Optimum Penicillium spp. dan Cunninghamella spp. yang Diisolasi dari Pakan dan Efek Toksiknya pada Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are a major microorganism present in the feedstuffs that able to reduce nutritive value and produce toxin that harmful for animal. Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. were dominant present in the feedstuffs in tropical regions. The objectives of this study were to find out the optimum pH and temperature of Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. on agar media and to find out the effect of feeding diet containing corn contaminated with the fungi at level of 0%, 50% and 100% on the performance and relative organ weight of 45 mice (Mus musculus. Cunninghamella spp. grew at pH range of 3-9, and Penicillium spp. at pH range of 3-7. The temperature for the optimum growth of both fungi was on room temperature (28±2 oC. Feed consumption and daily gain (ADG of mice were not significantly affected by content of corn contaminated with Cunninghamella spp. Conversely, corn contaminated with Penicillium spp. significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption and ADG of mice. Treatments had no effect on liver and hearth relative weight, but significantly influenced relative weight of kidney and lymph. Lymph relative weight of mice fed ration containing Penicillium-contaminated corn was lower (P<0.05 than that of control. Mice treated with contaminated corn from both fungi at the level 100% also significantly (P<0.05 had higher kidney relative weight than that of control. It was concluded that the toxic effect of Penicillium spp. was higher than that of Cunninghamella spp.

  5. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

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    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  6. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae, six vole species (family Cricetidae and six shrew species (family Soricidae. The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%, followed by Apodemus spp. (11% and Clethrionomys spp. (6%. The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST. Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  7. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  8. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  9. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian MM Ahmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO DEVOTO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate forests of southern South America in ten sites along an east-west rainfall gradient (37-40°S on the eastern slope of the Andes. We recorded nine species of Trichophthalma, which showed an overlapped distribution along the gradient and different degrees of floral specificity. Three species are reported for Argentina for the first time and three are first recorded as flower visitors to the local flora. Our results show that while in southern Africa tangle-veined flies are engaged in highly specialized pollination interactions with long-tubed species, the Trichophthalma spp. of Patagonia share their flowers with a diverse and rather unspecialized visitor fauna among which several species of flies, bees and birds are presentLos nemestrínidos constituyen una familia de Dípteros primitiva y de amplia distribución. El género Trichophthalma se encuentra en Australia y Sudamérica y es el único en la familia con una distribución disjunta típicamente gondwánica. La ecología y distribución de la mayoría de las especies sudamericanas permanecen virtualmente desconocidas. Estudiamos la diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de las especies del género Trichophthalma de los bosques templados del sur de Sudamérica en diez sitios ubicados a lo largo de un gradiente de precipitación este-oeste (37-40°S sobre la vertiente occidental de los Andes. Registramos nueve especies de Trichophthalma, las cuales mostraron una distribución superpuesta a lo largo

  11. New data on Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952(Diptera, Muscidae Novos dados sobre Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952 (Diptera, Muscidae

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    M. S. Couri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952, which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here - Mimus saturninus (Mimidae, Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae, Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae, Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae, Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon - are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species.Philornis Meinert é um gênero muito interessante de Muscidae (Diptera, com larvas associadas a várias espécies de aves. Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952 foi descrita da Argentina e, até o momento, apenas a descrição da fêmea e a sua associação com uma espécie de aves eram conhecidas. Durante as estações de procriação nos anos de 2000-2002, exemplares de Philornis foram coletados em seis espécies de aves na província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Todos os exemplares foram identificados como P. seguyi. O material coletado ensejou a descrição da larva, pupário, macho adulto, e terminália do macho e da fêmea. Todas as associações com hospedeiros assinaladas - Mimus saturninus (Mimidae, Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae, Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae, Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae, Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae, e Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae em ninhos de M. saturninus e Troglodytes aedon, são novas para P. seguyi. Dados sobre a biologia desta espécie também são apresentados.

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  13. Horses seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora spp.: Possible risk factors for infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazarotto, Chrystian J; Balzan, Alexandre; Grosskopf, Rhayana K; Boito, Jhonatan P; Portella, Luiza P; Vogel, Fernanda F; Fávero, Juscivete F; de C Cucco, Diego; Biazus, Angelisa H; Machado, Gustavo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    Many parasitic diseases are considered asymptomatic, even though some studies have shown that they may cause pathological changes in the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. in horses, and to identify the risk factors for disease. For this, 174 horses were studied, 90 males and 84 females aged between two and 20 years old. Blood samples were collected and stored in tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum, which was subjected to serological tests for T. gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and Neospora spp. using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA results were as follows: Sarcocystis spp. 41.37% (72/174) (CI95%-34.05-49.09); T. gondii 32.18% (56/174) (CI95%-25.42-39.74) and Neospora spp. 48.27% (84/174) (CI95%-40.68.50-55.93). Out of 174 horses, 81 had simple infection, 61 had mixed infections with two or three of these pathogens, and therefore, only 32 horses showed no antibodies to any of these pathogens. No risk factors for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii infection were identified. However, there was a significant (1.22-CI95%-1.02-1.52) relationship between animal age and Neospora spp. infection, since older animals showed higher prevalence. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that T. gondii and Neospora spp. affect horses in Southern Brazil, however all the animals studied were asymptomatic without reproductive, neurological or locomotor problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Kairomone attractant for the leafmining fly, Liriomyza bryoniae (Diptera, Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bŭda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) towards an economically important leafmining tomato pest, Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). The behavioural reaction of the flies depended very much on the simultaneous presence of both olfactory and visual stimuli. The attractiveness depended on the colour of a sticky trap: MeSa attracted significantly more flies (ca. 2.2 times) when placed in yellow traps than in aluminium foil colour ones, when catches in such traps were compared to a corresponding control. L. bryoniae is the first species within the Agromyzidae family attracted by MeSa. The attractant was attributed to kairomones, as the compound is known as a plant-produced volatile. MeSa can be an effective extra-tool for increasing the attractiveness of traps. It should be evaluated in future whether such trap/bait combination is effective for the mass trapping of L. bryoniae leafminers in greenhouses (closed area).

  19. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  20. A new Acartophthalmites Hennig from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera, Acalyptratae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil fly species, Acartophthalmites willii sp. n. (Diptera: Acalyptratae: Opomyzoidea from Baltic amber (Eocene, 56−33.9 Ma, is described based on a male originally assigned by Hennig (1969 to A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965, who erroneously also referred to it in the same work as “A. electrica Hennig” (unavailable name. The new species, representing the third named species of the extinct genus with unclear familial relationships Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965, is herein described and illustrated in detail, and its systematic implications and relationships are discussed. From the morphological standpoint, the new species represents an intermediate form between the two formerly described species within the genus, therefore expanding the character combination diversity in this lineage of acalyptrate flies. The genus Acartophthalmites is considered to be most closely related to Clusiidae and, therefore, it is herein tentatively classified within the superfamily Opomyzoidea. The current work takes part of an effort to review the Acartophthalmites diversity in order to gain knowledge on the morphological data from the specimens described within the genus and ultimately enable a reliable analysis of its phylogenetic relationships with other acalyptrates.

  1. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of sources of resistance. Phoebe Kirigo Mwaniki, Mathew Musumbale Abang, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Joseph Ngwela Wolukau, Schroers Hans-Josef ...

  2. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  3. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  4. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  5. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  7. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  8. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Yolanda; Ingrid M. Makahinda; Maureen Aprilia; Nikki Sanjaya; Harry Gunawan; Rita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL) from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. METHODS Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced l...

  9. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  10. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  11. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

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    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  12. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  13. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciya, Santhaseelan; Seturaman, Prabha; James, Arthur Rathinam; Tsai, Yi-Hong; Nikam, Rahul; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chang, Fang Rong

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H + , K + , ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, "mesquite" honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

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    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  15. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  16. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  17. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Abdelfattah M; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Gaede, Wolfgang

    2014-12-29

    Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  18. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

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    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  19. Diagnostic doses and times for Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Creswell, Joseph A; Anderson, J Laine; Reese, Conor K; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2016-04-15

    Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. Bioassays were conducted in 1,000-ml glass bottles each containing 10-25 sand flies from laboratory colonies of L. longipalpis or P. papatasi. Four pyrethroids, three organophosphates, two carbamates and one organochlorine, were evaluated. A series of concentrations were tested for each insecticide, and four replicates were conducted for each concentration. Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. For the pyrethroids and DDT, diagnostic doses were determined for both the exposure bioassay and after a 24-hour recovery period. Both species are highly susceptible to the carbamates as their diagnostic doses are under 7.0 μg/ml. Both species are also highly susceptible to DDT during the exposure assay as their diagnostic doses are 7.5 μg/ml, yet their diagnostic doses for the 24-h recovery period are 650.0 μg/ml for Lu. longipalpis and 470.0 μg/ml for P. papatasi. Diagnostic doses and diagnostic times can now be incorporated into vector management programs that use the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Lu. longipalpis and P. papatasi. These findings provide initial starting points for determining diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for other sand fly vector species and wild populations using the CDC

  20. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  1. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  2. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

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    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  3. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

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    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  4. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

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    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  5. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  6. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

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    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  8. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  9. Ocorrência de vetores biológicos da Dermatobia hominis (L.Jr., 1781 (Díptera: Cuterebridae, capturados com armadilha magoom na região metalúrgica do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Ocurrence of biological vectors of Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.,1781(Diptera:Cuterebridae, captured by magoom trap in the matallurgic region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Batista Zenón Rodríguez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Através do uso da armadilha Magoam foram capturados 49.010 insetos no período de junho de 1995 a maio de 1996 no município de Pedro Leopoldo MG. Foram identificadas 10 ordens de insetos. Destes, 95,73% pertencem à ordem Díptera. Três famílias, Sepsidae, Syrphidae e Culicidae participaram com 24,65%, 18,53%, e 17,64% respectivamente dos 46.915 dípteros capturados. Dos três locais pesquisados, a mata (local 3 contribuiu com o maior número de insetos capturados correspondentes a 43,99% do total de espécimes colhidos. Os vetares biológicos de D. hominis (com postura aderida importantes por ordem de frequência foram Fannia spp, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophira sp., sendo esta última notificada pela primeira vez. O gênero Fannia spp. apresentou-se como de maior importância epidemiológica por sua maior frequência e distribuição nos locais de captura.From June 1995 to May 1996, 49,010 insects were captured in the municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, MG, Brazil, using the Magoom's trap. Ten orders were identified and 95.73% of them belong to the order Diptera. Three families, Sepsidae, Syrphidae, and Culicidae, represented 24.65%, 18.53%, and 17.64% respectively, of 46,915 diptera trapped. The bush contributed with the highest number of trapped insects (43,99% when comparsa with stable or pasture. The biological vectors of D. hominis (with adhered, eggs, in order of prevalence, were Fannia spp, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophira sp. This is the first identification of the genus Ophira sp. as biological vector of D. hominis. The genus Fannia was found to be the most important biological vector of D. hominis in Pedro Leopoldo, MG, Brazil, because of its high frequency and distribution in the three environment conditions searched.

  10. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

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    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hong; Xu, Jin; Li, Yong-He; Dan, Wenli; Pan, Yongzhi

    2016-11-01

    Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most serious pest insects in south China and surrounding Southeast Asian countries. The family Tephritidae includes over 4257 species distributed worldwide, so the complete mitochondrial genome would be helpful for bio-identification, biogeography and phylogeny. The B. correcta genome consists of 15 936 bp. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.2% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species and other insects. The phylogenetic tree indicated the presence of three distinct families (Tephritidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae) in Order Diptera.

  12. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  13. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

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    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  15. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  16. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  17. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 111Ð119. Received 16 January 2005; accepted 20 January 2005. 630 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 42, no. 4 ...horizontal transfer Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a perido- mestic mosquito species that exhibits a diurnal, bi- modal feeding pattern in...were col- lected in cups and returned to the large polystyrene/ gauze cages to emerge, mate, blood- feed , and con- tinue the rearing cycle. The colony was

  18. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  19. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

  20. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  1. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  2. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

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    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  3. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  4. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

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    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions.

  5. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

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    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  6. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  7. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

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    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  8. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

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    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  9. Safety evaluation of a new anxiolytic product containing botanicals Souroubea spp. and Platanus spp. in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Aleksandar; Liu, Rui; Simkus, Kristen; Wilson, Jeff; Baker, John; Sanchez, Pablo; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory C; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2018-01-01

    Separation anxiety and noise aversion are common behavioral problems in dogs. They elicit fear responses such as cowering, seeking out the owner, and attempting to escape. This can result in property damage, injury to the dog, and disruption of the owner-pet bond, possibly leading to pet abandonment or euthanasia. A novel botanical anxiolytic product was evaluated for safety in dogs as the target animal species. Its intended use is for the treatment and prevention of anxiety and noise aversion in dogs. It contains a defined mixture of Souroubea spp. vine and Platanus spp. bark, delivering the active principle, betulinic acid, at a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg body weight (BW). In the current target animal safety study, 16 healthy male beagle dogs were administered either a placebo or the newly formulated botanical tablets at 0.5×, 2.5×, or 5× the recommended dose (1 mg/kg BW) over 28 d. The dogs were monitored for occurrence of any systemic or local adverse events. In the investigation presented here, there were no clinically significant adverse effects following treatment, as determined by clinical observations, physical examinations, BW, hematology, clinical biochemistry, and urinalysis. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the concentration of betulinic acid in serum was below 0.020 μg/mL in treated animals. Under the conditions of these studies, the formulated blend of S. sympetala and P. occidentalis, when administered up to 5× the intended dose for 28 consecutive d, showed no adverse effects on the health of dogs.

  10. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  11. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

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    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  13. Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. against Common Fungal Pathogens

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    Tančić-Živanov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organic food production demands more environmental friendly control of plant diseases. Biocontrol based on Trichoderma spp. usage is a promising due to Trichoderma is aggressive to broad range of phytopathogenic fungi. Given that, the aim of this study was to test in vitro antagonistic ability of ten native Serbian Trichoderma strains to ten common fungal pathogens. Study confirmed that Trichoderma spp. inhibits radial growth of Ascochyta pinodella (76.9%, A. pinodes (60.0%, A. pisi (68.5%, Fusarium graminearum (71.1%, F. proliferatum (63.9%, F. verticillioides (62.6%, F. oxysporum (63.9%, Macrophomina phaseolina (63.8%, and Pyrenophora teres (83.9%. These are first reports of Trichoderma spp. in vitro efficacy against A. pisi, A. pinodes, A. pinodella and P. teres. The lowest inhibitory effect was registered in dual cultures with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - 52.2%.

  14. Hemorrhagic stroke secondary to Bothrops spp. venom: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna Beatriz Temoteo; Gondim, Caio Cesar Vaz Lacet; Reichert, Lucas Pereira; da Silva, Pedro Hugo Vieira; Souza, Rodrigo Marmo da Costa E; Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro de Paiva; Calvo, Bernardino Fernandez

    2017-06-15

    The Bothrops spp. venom contain metalloproteinases that contributes to vascular and hemorrhagic effects. This case report describes a 58 years-old patient from the city of Dona Inês, Paraiba, Brazil victim of an ophidian accident by Bothrops spp. The vascular and hemorrhagic effects of venom components have triggered a hemorrhagic stroke. Brazil has about 600 deaths annually due to ophidian accidents. However, as reports have been precarious, the obtaining of epidemiological-clinical data has been affected. This case highlights the importance of prior knowledge of possible neurological and vascular complications in Bothrops spp. venom to increase the effectiveness of an adequate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  16. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  17. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  18. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  1. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  3. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  4. Occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D O; Ramos, G B; Alves, V B A; Ciuffa, A Z; Cuccato, L P; Dos Reis, T F M; Lima, A M C; Gonçalves, M C; Tolesano, G V; Rodrigues, V S; Szabó, M P J

    2017-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of world importance, and its transmission depends on the interaction between humans and animals. Given the necessity to investigate potential hosts of Leptospira spp., this study verified the prevalence of different serovars in the species of Rhipidomys spp., a widespread sigmodont rodent in Brazil. The studied population originates from a semi-evergreen forest located in the county of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 14 serovars. Thirteen out of the 43 wild rodents captured showed a positive agglutination reaction, with a greater prevalence of the serovars Pyrogenes, Copenhageni, and Canicola. This study found a prevalence of 30.3% anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies; all positive animals were reactive to more than one serovar.

  5. A Review of the Genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaganinia S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Обзор рода Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae из Ирана. Хаганинья С., Казерани Ф. - На основа- нии изучения литературных данных и материалов, собранных авторами в провинции Восточный Азербайджан в 2010-2012, представлен список 14 видов Cheilosia Meigen, 1822, известных из Ира- на. Четыре из них: Cheilosia mutabilis (Fallién, 1817, C. nigripes (Meigen, 1822, C. variabilis (Panzer, 1798 и C. vulpina (Meigen, 1822, отмечены впервые для Ирана. Приведены диагностические при- знаки и сведения о распространении видов. Составлена иллюстрированная таблица для определе- ния видов Cheilosia, обитающих в Иране.

  6. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  7. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Potencial mutualismo entre Cipocereus minensis (Werderm.) F.Ritter (Cactaceae) e Silvestritermes spp. e Nasutitermes spp. (Isoptera:Termitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Julya Pires; Lopes, Sabrina Aparecida; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor; Santos, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo foi verificar se a associação entre \\textit{Cipocereus minensis} e \\textit{Silvestritermes spp.} e \\textit{Nasutitermes spp.} influencia o sucesso reprodutivo do cacto, pois os cupinzeiros funcionam como manchas de nutrientes. Foram observados quinzenalmente 30 indivíduos de \\textit{C. minensis} divididos em 2 grupos: 19 indivíduos associados ao cupinzeiro; 11 indivíduos afixados em rochas. Foram empregados modelos lineares generalizados mistos onde o substrato, as temperaturas mé...

  9. Cucumber Lure Trapping of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii and Taiwan: Longevity and Nontargets Captures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Carvalho, Lori A F N; Chen, Chung-Chien; Siderhurst, Matthew S

    2017-02-01

    The melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious pest of tropical horticulture, causing damage to cucurbits, tree fruits, and fruiting vegetables. Melon flies are especially attractive to freshly sliced cucumber, and this has led to the identification of a nine-compound kairomone lure that can be used to trap both female and male flies. In this study, a seven-compound lure, containing (Z)-6-nonenal, (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, hexanal, and 1-hexanol, was formulated into PVC plugs (100 or 300 mg/plug) for field testing in wet traps. In Hawaii, 100 mg of the seven-compound cucumber lure, loaded in either plugs or glass capillaries, attracted more flies than traps containing Solulys protein over a 9-wk period. However, both cucumber lure formulations showed marked declines in the number of flies trapped after 3 wk. Similar results were obtained during a 6-wk field trial using 100 mg cucumber lure plugs in Taiwan. Increasing the cucumber lure loading rate to 300 mg/lure increased the effective trapping life of the attractant during a second 9-wk field trial conducted in Hawaii. The synthetic cucumber lure showed female-biased sex ratios in trap captures in the Taiwanese and second Hawaiian field trials. Protein lures captures were female-biased in all three field trials. Wet traps in Hawaii containing the cucumber lure were found to capture 25-30 nontarget insects/trap/week, less than half that captured with Solulys. Captured nontarget insects represented 37 families in 10 orders. The most common families caught were Ceratopogonidae (∼9 flies/trap) and Gryllidae (∼7 crickets/trap). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. An integrated approach to delimiting species borders in the genus Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803 (Diptera: Syrphidae), with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedeljković, Z.; Ačanski, J.; Đan, M.; Obreht-Vidaković, D.; Ricarte, A.; Vujić, A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy tests the validity of taxa using methods additional to traditional morphology. The existence of two different morphotypes in specimens identified as Chrysotoxum vernale Loew (Diptera: Syrphidae) prompted their taxonomic study using an integrative approach that included

  11. Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation of marine elasmobranchs in the modern era? ... African Journal of Marine Science ... This paper traces the decline in sawfish catches from 1951 and assesses the current population status and local extinction risk, based on historical and current records up ...

  12. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  13. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium.

  14. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We ...... Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen....

  15. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remarks concerning two sympatric seedeaters Poliospiza spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D.A., Finch, B.F, & Hunter, N.D. Remarks concerning the all-black coastal boubous. (Laniarius spp.) of Kenya and southern Somalia. Bulletin of the British ... northern striatipectus bears little or no similarity to the southern African nominate reichardi, itself largely endemic to the miombo woodlands of Zambia and ...

  17. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona...

  14. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide, especially in the Far East. This has en- couraged industries that involve not only harvesting natural populations but also, as such populations have declined, setting up artificial cultures of appropriate species (Lo-Chai Chen 1990, Britz 1996, Knauer et al. 1996).

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  16. Response of Soybean to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop in Ethiopia. However, its productivity is constrained by a number of factors among which soil salinity is one the major problems. Therefore, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of exotic and locally isolated Bradyrhizobium spp.

  17. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  18. Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty six (146) isolates of Trichoderma spp. were obtained from rhizosphere soils of potato plants in the middle areas of Gansu Province, China. By means of dual culture method, they were examined for antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum, which causes potato dry rot. Ten of the isolates were found ...

  19. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses from Central Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Vet. Parasitol. 79:269-274. Hoane JS, Gennari SM, Dubey JP, Ribeiro MG, Borges AS Yai, LE,. Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Bonesi GL, Howe DK (2006). Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. infection in horses from. Brazil based on presence of serum antibodies to parasite surface antigen.

  1. Molecular detection of Brucella spp. from broth culture of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR was employed to detect Brucella spp. from broth cultures of clinical samples using a group specific primer based on IS6501 sequence. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis using a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe while reproducibility of the analysis was ...

  2. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  3. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  4. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  5. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  6. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin.

  7. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2017-01-01

    The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin. PMID:29213272

  8. Occurrence of Trichinella spp . in wild animals in northwestern Libya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were ...

  9. Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du Bénin : Évaluation Des Performances Techniques Des Équipements Et Procédés De Fumage. ... This study aims to evaluate and compare the technical performances of the main important traditional smoking processes in the south of Benin. Therefore ...

  10. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  11. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  12. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  14. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  15. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  16. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M Estevinho

    Full Text Available Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors. Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  17. [Population genetics of Pomacea spp. in mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Li, Shi-Zhu; Hu, Wei; Jürg, Utzinger; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-04-01

    To reveal the population structure of Pomacea spp. using genetic markers so as to provide the evidence for studying the invasion and expansion of it in the mainland of China. The genetics of 581 specimens of Pomacea spp. from 60 sites was analyzed by sequencing CO I gene. The diversity of nucleotide and haplotypes were calculated in DnaSP 5.10.01. The haplotype network analysis was performed in Network 4.2.0.1. A phylogenetic tree was produced based on the haplotypes from the present study and those available from GenBank in order to understand the taxonomic status of Pomacea spp. in China. A total of 556 sequences were acquired in the present study and produced 25 unique haplotypes. Six haplotypes frequently occurred in the specimens and accounted for 96.0%. The phylogenetic analysis identified two Pomacea species in China, i. e. P. canaliculata and P. insularum. The usage of haplotypes of P. insularum in China reversed from the existing pattern in other countries. The complexity of population structure of Pomacea spp. in the mainland of China indicates multi-original introduction and complicated expansion patterns.

  18. In vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dai; Niu, Xiaoxi

    2017-05-01

    Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, can affect the growth of certain microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp., which play a crucial role in the maintenance of vaginal health. Growth and metabolic viability of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. incubated with different concentrations of farnesol were determined by measuring the optical density of the cultures and with the MTT assay. Morphology of the farnesol-treated cells was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. In vitro adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus cells treated with farnesol was determined by co-incubating with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of farnesol for vaginal Lactobacillus spp. was 1500μM. No morphological changes were observed when the farnesol-treated Lactobacillus cells were compared with farnesol-free cells, and 100μM farnesol would reduce the adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus to VECs. Farnesol acted as a potential antimicrobial agent, had little impact on the growth, metabolism, and cytomorphology of the vaginal Lactobacillus spp.; however, it affected their adhering capacity to VECs. The safety of farnesol as an adjuvant for antimicrobial agents during the treatment of vaginitis needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... Erianthus fulvus” F1 hybrids was performed with ITS analysis. Out ... ITS analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials included hybrid parents Yacheng 89/9 (Saccharum spp.), E. fulvus, and 126 hybrid F1 plants, planted in the ... ground to powder in liquid nitrogen, using a mortar and pestle. The.

  20. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter.

  1. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  2. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Most resistant microorganism to these bacteria was Proteus mirabilis. Two of Gram positive bacteria, S. lugdenensis (K15-9) and S. aureus (SDA48), were also found as resistant. Conclusions: In this study, Bacillus spp isolated from conjunctiva showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  4. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  5. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  6. Production, characterization and application of banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasting properties of flour from six varieties of matured green banana (Musa spp) fruits identified as Gross michel (GM), Dwarf Cavendish (DC), Cavendish (CA), Lacatan (LA), Poyo (PO) and Red skin (RS) were determined. Flour of CA, used in formulation of banana–whole maize meal was assessed organoleptically for ...

  7. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  8. Effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation of four sweetpotato varieties 'Sauti', 'Okumkom','Santompona' and 'Faara' was determined in a field trial at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Data on number of leaves and branches on upper plant canopy (top 30cm), vine thickness, internode ...

  9. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  10. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  11. Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Marchiori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.

  12. Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...

  13. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was.

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  17. Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera); Proposed Validation and Interpretation Under the Plenary Powers of the Species So Named. Z.N.(S.) 1216

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-07-01

    aegypti Linnaeus in its current connotation was Dyar (H. G.) ( 1920 , Insecutor Ins&. menst. 8 : 204). Dyar’s identification of this species was not...JUL 1962 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1962 to 00-00-1962 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex Aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera... CULEX AEGYPTI LINNAEUS, 1762 (INSECTA, DIPTERA); PRO- POSED VALIDATION AND INTERPRETATION UNDER THE PLENARY POWERS OF THE SPECIES SO NAMED. Z.N.(S

  18. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz,Ivan; Silva,Rafael Braga da; Figueiredo,Maria de Lourdes Corrêa; Penteado-Dias,Angélica Maria; Sarto,Mário César Laboissiérè Del; Nuessly,Gregg Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae), known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and ass...

  19. Updated Distribution Records for Anopheles vagus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and Considerations Regarding Its Secondary Vector Roles in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    181 Tropical Biomedicine 28(1): 181–187 (2011) Research Note Updated distribution records for Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of...Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and considerations regarding its secondary vector roles in Southeast Asia 5a...on cows and water buffalos and was usually ranked the least attracted to humans of all the Anopheles tested (Reid, 1961, 1968; Bruce-Chwatt et al

  20. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-31

    ras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. IV. Freqfidcia mensal em armadilhas luminosas (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 80:465-482...r6giones endtmicas leishmaniasis cutbnea del Paraguay. Rev. Med. Paraguay 2:12. Gonzalez, R. B. & 1. Garcia Avila. 1981. Estudio y distribucion de la...50. 1983. Los fleb6tomos del Peru y su distribucion geographica (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). Rev. Peru. Ent. (1981) 24:183-184. Llanos, B. Z

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  2. Seabirds (Laridae) as a source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Elisabet; Ayats, Teresa; Ryan, Peter G; Naicker, Preneshni R; Keddy, Karen H; Gaglio, Davide; Witteveen, Minke; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-10-01

    Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n = 129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n = 100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI 95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27.5% (CI 95% : 21.9-33.9) overall, with a higher prevalence in gulls (43.0%, CI 95% : 34.8-52.4) than terns (7.0%, CI 95% : 3.1-14.4). Among the 16 different S. enterica serovars found, Anatum, Enteritidis and Hadar were the most frequent. The same or highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype was found in some Salmonella isolates from seabirds and humans presenting with salmonellosis in Cape Town hospitals. Both Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance to several agents, including critically important antimicrobials (quinolones, tetracyclines and β-lactams) and multidrug resistance in Salmonella serovars from kelp gulls. Our results highlight the importance of seabirds as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella resistant strains and their role in the maintenance and transmission of these bacteria in the environment, with implications for public health. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Multilocus sequence typing of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from gastric niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Gohil, Kushal; Misra, Vatsala; Kakrani, Arjun L; Misra, Sri P; Patole, Milind; Shouche, Yogesh; Dharne, Mahesh

    The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers and gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Frida; Svartström, Olov; Belák, Katinka; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-08-30

    Porcine shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis are a significant animal welfare concern and impair efficient livestock production. Although spirochetes have been detected in both types of lesions the potential role of these bacteria in lesion propagation has received little attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of spirochetes of the genus Treponema in shoulder ulcers or ear necrosis in pigs and compare these with treponemes from porcine gingiva. Samples were collected from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in 169 pigs. Presence of spirochetes was observed in silver stained histological sections and by phase contrast microscopy in scrapings from the necrotic lesions. Additionally, PCR of the 16SrRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) was used to detect Treponema spp. in all samples. Combined analysis showed that 73% of the shoulder ulcers and 53% of the ear necroses were positive for spirochetes. Treponema spp. were detected in 9.7% of the gingival samples. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of the ISR2 sequences revealed the presence of three distinct genetic phylotypes of Treponema spp. corresponding to Treponema pedis, and as yet two unnamed phylotypes represented by GenBank sequences C1UD1 (Acc. No. AY342041) and C1BT2-8 (Acc. No. AY342046). Detection of identical ISR2 sequences from gingiva and ulcer samples indicates that oral Treponema spp. are spread from mouth to ulcer. We conclude that Treponema spp. frequently occur in shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis in pigs, and suggest a possible infection route through biting and licking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  6. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  7. First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae in pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil/ Primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae em pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae coletados em plantas de milho em Itumbiara, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Cleiber Rabelo Costa

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás. This work reports, for the first time, Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in a maize crops in Itumbiara, GO. The prevalence was of 33,3%.Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, de Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitando pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae em cultura de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 33,3%.

  8. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  9. List of descriptions and other taxonomic proposals on american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae: 1975-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisóla Marcondes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of new species, descriptions of other sex of previously described species, redescriptions, proposals of synonymy, and new status for species previously in synonymy or described as subspecies for american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, for the period 1975-1993, and not included in the revision of Martins el at. (1978, are presented.

  10. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  11. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  12. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  13. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  14. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  15. Increasing temperature reduces wheat resistance mediated by major resistance genes to the gall midge Mayetiola destructor (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a destructive pest of wheat and is mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, wheat resistance to Hessian fly is often lost when temperatures rise to a certain level. This study analyzed temperature sensitivity of 20 whea...

  16. Low-dose irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging for mango against the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...

  17. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  18. Oviposition responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) and identification of volatiles from bacteria-containing solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by

  19. Fluke’s catalogue of neotropical Syrphidae (Insecta, Diptera), a critical study with an appendix on new names in Syrphidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der V.S.

    1964-01-01

    Fluke made, during nearly forty years, a literature survey as a supplement to Aldrich’s catalogue of North American Diptera. In the course of the years the South American species were included as well. In the last years of his life FLUKE (1956—1959) assembled his catalogue of neotropical Syrphidae

  20. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.