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Sample records for spp coleoptera chrysomelidae

  1. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  2. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).

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    Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.

  3. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

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    Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W

    2007-06-01

    The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.

  4. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

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    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  5. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

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    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  6. Seasonal timing of diapause induction limits the effective range of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

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    Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C

    2007-02-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.

  7. Biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a promising biological control agent of Chinese privet.

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    Y-Z Zhang; J. Sun; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    The biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied under laboratory and outdoor conditions in Huangshan City of Anhui Province, China, in 2006. A. tsekooni larvae are leafminers that...

  8. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

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    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  9. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

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    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...

  10. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera in Peregrina Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

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    Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%, Eumolpinae (3.6%, Cryptocephalinae (2.2%, Chrysomelinae (2.2%, and finally Criocerinae (1.3%. The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%, Cryptocephalinae (9.7%, Eumolpinae (9.7%, Chrysomelinae (6.5% and Criocerinae (5.2%. The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals, Centralaphthona diversa (Baly (248, Margaridisa sp.1 (219, Acallepitrix sp.1 (134, Longitarsus sp.1 (104, Heterispa vinula (Erichson (91, Epitrix sp.1 (84 and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72. Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance and 52 were singletons (2.33%. The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site had distinct

  11. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  12. Impact of planting dates and insecticide strategies for managing crucifer flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in spring-planted canola.

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    Knodel, Janet J; Olson, Denise L; Hanson, Bryan K; Henson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Integration of cultural practices, such as planting date with insecticide-based strategies, was investigated to determine best management strategy for flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). We studied the effect of two spring planting dates of B. napus and different insecticide-based management strategies on the feeding injury caused by fleabeetles in North Dakota during 2002-2003. Adult beetle peak emergence usually coincided with the emergence of the early planted canola, and this resulted in greater feeding injury in the early planted canola than later planted canola. Use of late-planted canola may have limited potential for cultural control of flea beetle, because late-planted canola is at risk for yield loss due to heat stress during flowering. Flea beetle injury ratings declined when 1) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied 21 d after planting was used, 2) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment only was used, or 3) two foliar insecticide sprays were applied. These insecticide strategies provided better protection than the low rates of insecticide seed treatments or a single foliar spray, especially in areas with moderate-to-high flea beetle populations. The foliar spray on top of the seed treatment controlled later-emerging flea beetles as the seed treatment residual was diminishing and the crop became vulnerable to feeding injury. The best insecticide strategy for management of flea beetle was the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied at 21 d after planting, regardless of planting date.

  13. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

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    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  14. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

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    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  15. Effectiveness of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) areawide pest management in South Dakota.

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    French, B Wade; Chandler, Laurence D; Riedell, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize, Zea mays L. To reduce the amount of toxicants released into the environment, the Agricultural Research Service implemented a 5-yr (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in South Dakota. The objective was to use integrated pest management tactics to suppress adult Diabrotica populations over a broad geographic area by using aerially applied semiochemical-baited insecticides. Suppressed populations theoretically should reduce oviposition, limit larval feeding damage to maize roots, and result in fewer beetles emerging in subsequent years. We used emergence cages, sticky traps, and CRW lure traps to monitor adult D. barberi and D. v. virgifera populations. We sampled for Diabrotica eggs, and we determined damage to maize roots. We sampled in several maize fields (control) located near the areawide site. The baited insecticides were effective in reducing adult populations 1 and 2 wk after application, and most remained low for the duration of the maize growing season. Fewer beetles were captured in both sticky and lure traps in the areawide site than in the control site. With a few exceptions, egg counts, adult emergence, and maize root damage were similar between the areawide and control sites; however, maize roots had greater fresh weight in the control site. Although not all goals were accomplished, when considering the amount of toxicant released into the environment, using semiochemical-baited insecticides to suppress adult pest Diabrotica populations seems to be an effective areawide management tool.

  16. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding.

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    Birthe Thormann

    Full Text Available Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates.Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs (n = 284-289. Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2 and 469-481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation.Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons, the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities. Therefore, DNA-based species delimitation is confirmed as a

  17. Molecular genetic and hybridization studies of Diorhabda spp. released for biological control of tamarix

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    The tamarisk beetle Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) native to Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, is an effective biocontrol agent for use against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) an invasive shrub in western North America. The genus Diorhabda was recently revised, using morphological characters, i...

  18. Physiological time model for predicting adult emergence of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Texas High Plains.

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    Stevenson, Douglass E; Michels, Gerald J; Bible, John B; Jackman, John A; Harris, Marvin K

    2008-10-01

    Field observations at three locations in the Texas High Plains were used to develop and validate a degree-day phenology model to predict the onset and proportional emergence of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Climatic data from the Texas High Plains Potential Evapotranspiration network were used with records of cumulative proportional adult emergence to determine the functional lower developmental temperature, optimum starting date, and the sum of degree-days for phenological events from onset to 99% adult emergence. The model base temperature, 10 degrees C (50 degrees F), corresponds closely to known physiological lower limits for development. The model uses a modified Gompertz equation, y = 96.5 x exp (-(exp(6.0 - 0.00404 x (x - 4.0), where x is cumulative heat (degree-days), to predict y, cumulative proportional emergence expressed as a percentage. The model starts degree-day accumulation on the date of corn, Zea mays L., emergence, and predictions correspond closely to corn phenological stages from tasseling to black layer development. Validation shows the model predicts cumulative proportional adult emergence within a satisfactory interval of 4.5 d. The model is flexible enough to accommodate early planting, late emergence, and the effects of drought and heat stress. The model provides corn producers ample lead time to anticipate and implement adult control practices.

  19. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

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    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  20. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

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    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-01

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  1. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae collected by malaise trap method in Gölcük Natural Park (Isparta, Turkey, with a new record for Turkish fauna

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    Aslan Gül E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on Alticinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae material collected by Malaise trapping which is different from other standardized collecting methods. A total of 19 flea beetle species belonging to 6 genera were collected from Gölcük Natural Park, Isparta (Turkey during 2009. The species are listed in a table together with distributional data in Turkey. Among them, Longitarsus curtus (Allard, 1860 is recorded for the first time in Turkey. L. monticola Kutschera, 1863 and L. curtus are recently separated synonyms and thus all data referring to the distribution of both species are currently important. Hence, the zoogeographical distribution of the new record is reviewed with some remarks; habitus and genitalia are illustrated.

  2. Chrysomelinae species (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and new biological data from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Flinte, Vivian; Abejanella, André; Daccordi, Mauro; Monteiro, Ricardo F.; Macedo, Margarete Valverde

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chrysomelinae is one of the largest subfamilies in Chrysomelidae, yet much basic information remains unknown for Neotropical species. The present study aims to compile the first regional list of Chrysomelinae for the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and assemble natural history traits obtained from our fieldwork from 2005 to 2010 in Serra dos Órgãos National Park, a mountainous area of Atlantic forest. The species list was compiled from data from field work, collections, and literature, and recorded a total of 100 species, belonging to 21 genera in one tribe (Chrysomelini) and three subtribes: Chrysolinina (91 species), Chrysomelina (eight species) and Entomoscelina (one species). Of these, 91 species are new records for the state. Serra dos Órgaõs National Park holds records of 43 species, with Platyphora being the most species-rich genus, and Solanaceae the most common host plant family. Some new records of reproductive mode (larviparous vs. oviparous) and larval behavior are also given. These Brazil Chrysomelinae species exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with more species recorded in the hot and rainy season from October to January, and considerably fewer species from June to August, during the drier and colder months. The fraction of new records in comparison with published species and natural history information illustrates how little we know of Chrysomelinae in the state and in the country. PMID:29391849

  3. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with phylogenetic analysis.

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    Yao, Jie; Yang, Hong; Dai, Renhuai

    2017-10-01

    Acanthoscelides obtectus is a common species of the subfamily Bruchinae and a worldwide-distributed seed-feeding beetle. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. obtectus is 16,130 bp in length with an A + T content of 76.4%. It contains a positive AT skew and a negative GC skew. The mitogenome of A. obtectus contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (D-loop). All PCGs start with an ATN codon, and seven (ND3, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND6, and Cytb) of them terminate with TAA, while the remaining five (COI, COII, ND1, ND4, and ND5) terminate with a single T, ATP8 terminates with TGA. Except tRNA Ser , the secondary structures of 21 tRNAs that can be folded into a typical clover-leaf structure were identified. The secondary structures of lrRNA and srRNA were also predicted in this study. There are six domains with 48 helices in lrRNA and three domains with 32 helices in srRNA. The control region of A. obtectus is 1354 bp in size with the highest A + T content (83.5%) in a mitochondrial gene. Thirteen PCGs in 19 species have been used to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Our results show that A. obtectus belongs to the family Chrysomelidae (subfamily-Bruchinae). This is the first study on phylogenetic analyses involving the mitochondrial genes of A. obtectus and could provide basic data for future studies of mitochondrial genome diversities and the evolution of related insect lineages.

  4. Comparison of leaf beetle assemblages of deciduous trees canopies in Hungary (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

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    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2005-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in deciduous tree canopies in Hungary. Apple and pear orchards were investigated in Nagykovácsi, Kecskemét and Sárospatak in 1990-94, and limes and maples in Keszthely in 1999-2002. Faunistic results and conclusions of these investigations were published elsewhere. Examination of the fauna of parks, avenues and other planted urban plant stocks has only begun to occupy researchers in the last decade in Hungary. The proportion of leaf-beetle species in the material gathered on maples and limes ranged between 17.0 and 21.3 per cent. The commonest leaf-beetle specimens collected in the lime canopy were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. pratensis and L. succineus. The commonest on maple were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema concinna, C. tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. succineus, Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. vittula. This study presents the details on the composition of the chrysomelid communities that was compared by metric ordination using the Syntax 5.1 program.

  5. Ação inseticida do extrato de Derris amazonica Killip para Cerotoma arcuatus Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Insecticide action of the extract of Derris amazonica Killip for Cerotoma arcuatus Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Márcio Rodrigo Alecio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e o potencial inseticida de Derris amazonica e a necessidade de controle de Cerotoma arcuatus Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp estimularam a realização desta pesquisa, que objetivou avaliar a ação inseticida do extrato de D. amazonica a adultos de C. arcuatus em condições de laboratório. Os bioensaios testaram as vias de intoxicação por ingestão de folhas contaminadas, contato com superfície contaminada e aplicação tópica, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os valores de mortalidade e consumo foliar dos insetos foram submetidos à análise de regressão, sendo utilizada a análise de Probit para determinação das CL50, da DL50 e dos TL50. O extrato de D. amazonica, contendo 3,7% de rotenona, foi tóxico para adultos de C. arcuatus via ingestão de folhas contaminadas (CL50=15,14 µL do extrato.mL-1 de água, superfície contaminada (CL50=0,45 µL do extrato.cm-2 e aplicação tópica (DL50=1,44 µL do extrato.g-1 do inseto. Mortalidades de adultos de C. arcuatus superiores a 80% e os menores tempos letais médios foram obtidos na concentração de 5% (v v-1 do extrato em todos os bioensaios. O consumo foliar de adultos de C. arcuatus foi inversamente proporcional a concentração do extrato quando expostos por via de ingestão foliar ou aplicação tópica, sendo inclusive observada inibição da alimentação dos indivíduos. O extrato de D. amazonica é tóxico para C. arcuatus e inibe a alimentação dos insetos a partir da concentração de 1% (v v-1.The abundance and insecticidal potential of Derris amazonica in addition to need of controlling Cerotoma arcuatus for bean crop stimulated this research. The objective of this work was to evaluate insecticide action of the extract of D. amazonica to adults of C. arcuatus in laboratory conditions. The bioassays were carried out using three distend methodologies: leaf

  6. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Trials on the Timing of Chemical Control of Lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Lentil Field in Gachsaran Region (Iran

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    K. Saeidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is the most serious pest of lentil in Iran. Economic losses due to this pest reach up to 40% of the lentil crop. Over a two-year study (2012 and 2013 in Agricultural Research Station of Gachsaran Region, best timing of chemical control of B. lentis was determined. A field experiment with cultivation of lentil Sina variety Lens culinaris Medik was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of spraying four times (respectively, during the early flowering, 10 days after the first spraying, 10 days after the second spraying; 10 days after the third spraying and control (without spraying. For the spraying from Endosulfan insecticide EC50% at ratio one liter per hectare was used. Three samples were taken from the pods and totally 150 pods from each replicate for contaminations of seeds were investigated. After the determination of the percent of seeds contamination, results were statistically analysed. Based on the results obtained, first spray treatment, with the mean contamination of 15.45% and second spray treatment with the mean contamination of 12.25% had the highest impact on reducing contamination lentil seeds to B. lentis and between them there was no statistically significant difference and were in one group. Therefore, spraying one time during the early flowering until 15 days after it was the best time to control of B. lentis.

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Host Plant Resistance in Two Populations of Doubled Haploid Lines in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Martin O; Marroquin, Juan J; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Dashiell, Kenton; Willmot, David B; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2018-02-09

    Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i.e., host plant) resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding are currently commercially available. We investigated the genetic basis of western corn rootworm resistance in maize materials with improved levels of resistance using linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. Two populations of topcrossed doubled haploid maize lines (DHLs) derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible maize lines were evaluated for their level of resistance in three to four different environments. For each DHL topcross an average root damage score was estimated and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We found genomic regions contributing to western corn rootworm resistance on all maize chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. Models fitting all QTL simultaneously explained about 30 to 50% of the genotypic variance for root damage scores in both mapping populations. Our findings confirm the complex genetic structure of host plant resistance against western corn rootworm larval feeding in maize. Interestingly, three of these QTL regions also carry genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, a key compound we hypothesize is involved in the expression of western corn rootworm resistance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Occurrence and damage caused by Pygiopachymerus lineola (Chevrolat, 1971 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae fruits in Maceió, Brazil

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    Emmelyne Ketllen Soares Luz da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae is an ornamental plant popularly known by golden–shower, Indian– laburnum or purging–cassia; in Brazil it is named canafístula, cássia–imperial or cássia–chuva–de–ouro. Native to Asia, it also occurs in the Americas and Africa, being one of the most used in landscaping projects, seedling production and urban forestry in Brazil by the large yellow hanging beauty flowers. It is known that many tree species have their seeds signifi­cantly damaged by several insect groups, especially seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae, that become the seeds unviable and consequently diminishing the seedlings production. The objective of this study was to determine the natural control agents of the C. fistula seeds (seed predators through the determination of species involved in the predation, the ratio of egg viability and description the some biological functions aspects (feeding and reproduction. The work was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Natural History Museum, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió. Were collected from each plant of C. fistula 20 fully developed pods and with dried eggs on its surface. The insects were placed in 70% alcohol and identified to the species level. In the sample A, 89% of string beans showed the predation phenomenon; in B, 95%; and C, 88%. The hole numbers / pod in samples A, B and C were respectively: 3–26, 1–19 and 1 to 18. The predator numbers / pod were: in A, 10 to 26; in B, 1–8; and in C, 2 to 14. The three samples showed high positive correlation (r > 0.8, revealing that the number of holes is very close to the number of insects that emerged from the pods. Viable eggs oc­curred in the 84.2% of pods in A, 100% in B, and 83.3% in C.

  10. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  11. A new species of Bruchidius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from Albizia in Northern Thailand and a review of Bruchidius group 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Midori

    2008-04-01

    A new species, Bruchidius paicus (Insecta, Coleoptera) reared from the seeds of a leguminous tree, Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae), is described from Northern Thailand. Inspection of genital and external morphological traits of B. paicus revealed that the new species belongs to Bruchidius Group 5 (sensu ). The definition of Group 5 is reviewed based on both external and genital morphology. Further comparison of the group to molecular Clade I of Bruchidius (sensu ) indicates the two groups correspond to each other.

  12. Faunistic patterns of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) within elevational and temporal gradients in Sierra de San Carlos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M.; Jones, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m2 where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and

  13. First records of Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera on blueberries in Argentina: new associations between native chrysomelids and an exotic crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora CABRERA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El arándano, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, es un arbusto nativo del hemisferio Norte, que fue introducido en la Argentina donde ocupa pequeñas áreas cultivadas, principalmente en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos y Tucumán. Hasta la actualidad, se conoce poco sobre los insectos asociados con este cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es relevar las especies de crisomélidos presentes en los cultivos de arándano de diferentes regiones, y aportar nuevas asociaciones crisomélidos-arándano para la Argentina. Para cada especie registrada, se brinda la diagnosis para su reconocimiento, su distribución geográfica, la asociación con otras plantas y algunos aspectos de su biología. Se registraron siete especies de Chrysomelidae que utilizan el arándano como recurso alimenticio en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos: subfamilia Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes exclamationis (Boheman, Caeporis stigmula Germar, Cacoscelis melanoptera Germar; subfamilia Eumolpinae: Percolaspis varia (Lefèvre y Spintherophyta semiaurata (Klug; y subfamilia Cryptocephalinae: Lexiphanes coenobita Suffrian.

  14. Observaciones sobre el gualapán (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae y otras limitantes entomológicas en cultivos de chontaduro en el Bajo Anchicayá

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    Alarcón Andrés

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones y colectas sistemáticas desde enero a diciembre de 1996, en compañía de agricultores del Bajo Anchicayá, Valle (60-140 msnm, Bosque pluvial tropical, 24º C, precipitación mayor a 4000 mm. Alurnus sp, localmente llamado “gualapánâ€? o “llagaâ€?, puede afectar del 50 al 100% del follaje joven de la palma y en asocio circunstancial con curculionidos barrenadores del estipe conformar complejos letales (Rhynchophorus palmarum L., Dynamis borassi Fabr, Rhinostomus barbirostris Fabr., Metamasius hemipterus Fabr., y M. dasyurus Champion. Se aportan observaciones sobre la etiología, aspectos autoecológicos de la plaga y de los complejos entomológicos. Las limitaciones edáficas, desbalances nutricionales, sumados a prácticas agrícolas inadecuadas (escalamiento de palmas y uso descuidado de plaguicidas contribuyen significativamente con la problemática entomológica, se propone un manejo con enfoque ecológico integral. ABSTRACT Observations on “Gualapanâ€? (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae and others entomological limitations chontaduro’s crops located in Bajo Anchicaya, Valle, Colombia.We did several observations and collect from January to December of 1996, with the help of local farmers of Bajo Anchicaya, Valle (altitude of 60 to 140 m.a.s.l., it’s a tropical rainforest, temperature 24 C, and rainfall is 4000 millimeters. Alurnus sp, named “Gualapanâ€? or “Soreâ€? by the local people, may affect from 50 to 100% of the palm’s foliage, and in rare cases with the help of curculionids could be a lethal partnership (Rhynchophorus palmarum L., Dynamis borassi Fabr, Rhinostomus barbirostris Fabr., Metamasius hemipterus Fabr., y M. dasyurus Champion. The edafologics limitants, nutritional imbalances, in conjunction with inappropriate agricultural practices (e.g.: escalade of palms trees and inappropriate use of pesticides contribute enormously

  15. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7

  16. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Wang

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 34 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, Aqua

  17. Lack of establishment of the Mediterranean tamarisk beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on athel (Tamarix aphylla) (Tamaricaceae) in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Mediterranean tamarisk beetles, Diorhabda elongata (Brullé), a defoliator of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), were released into four field cages containing small saltcedar trees or closely-related exotic athel trees (Tamarix aphylla (L.). Karsten) and onto uncaged beneficial mature athel tree...

  18. A model species for agricultural pest genomics: the genome of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Chen, Yolanda H; Andersson, Martin N; Benoit, Joshua B; Bhandari, Anita; Bowsher, Julia H; Brevik, Kristian; Cappelle, Kaat; Chen, Mei-Ju M; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Christiaens, Olivier; Clements, Justin; Didion, Elise M; Elpidina, Elena N; Engsontia, Patamarerk; Friedrich, Markus; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Gibbs, Richard A; Goswami, Chandan; Grapputo, Alessandro; Gruden, Kristina; Grynberg, Marcin; Henrissat, Bernard; Jennings, Emily C; Jones, Jeffery W; Kalsi, Megha; Khan, Sher A; Kumar, Abhishek; Li, Fei; Lombard, Vincent; Ma, Xingzhou; Martynov, Alexander; Miller, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert F; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Muszewska, Anna; Oppert, Brenda; Palli, Subba Reddy; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pauchet, Yannick; Perkin, Lindsey C; Petek, Marko; Poelchau, Monica F; Record, Éric; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Rosendale, Andrew J; Ruiz-Arroyo, Victor M; Smagghe, Guy; Szendrei, Zsofia; Thomas, Gregg W C; Torson, Alex S; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Weirauch, Matthew T; Yates, Ashley D; Yocum, George D; Yoon, June-Sun; Richards, Stephen

    2018-01-31

    The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation. Two factors that might facilitate rapid evolutionary change include transposable elements, which comprise at least 17% of the genome and are rapidly evolving compared to other Coleoptera, and high levels of nucleotide diversity in rapidly growing pest populations. Adaptations to plant feeding are evident in gene expansions and differential expression of digestive enzymes in gut tissues, as well as expansions of gustatory receptors for bitter tasting. Surprisingly, the suite of genes involved in insecticide resistance is similar to other beetles. Finally, duplications in the RNAi pathway might explain why Leptinotarsa decemlineata has high sensitivity to dsRNA. The L. decemlineata genome provides opportunities to investigate a broad range of phenotypes and to develop sustainable methods to control this widely successful pest.

  19. Revision of the Metallactus kollari species-group with a new diagnosis of the genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Davide

    2018-04-20

    The genus Metallactus has been controversial since its introduction due to the ambiguous nature of the original diagnosis. This has caused some confusion in the taxonomy of Neotropical Pachybrachina. In this work the morphology of endophallus, which is useful for the characterization of species groups in several groups of Coleoptera, including Cryptocephalinae, has been analyzed. This has proven to be a good resource also in the taxonomic treatment of the species belonging to the genus Metallactus. After a careful survey on most of the species described so far, the endophallus shape in Metallactus turned out to be remarkably distinctive and very promising in the delimitation of species groups. The present work includes: a) a new diagnosis of the genus Metallactus on the basis of the aedeagal anatomy; b) the designation of the type species of the nominal genus; c) the revision of a first species-group of the genus, including the type species, hereinafter called Metallactus kollari species-group. Before this revision, catalogues had been reporting 13 species attributable to this group, in the present work three species have been synonymized and seven have been described as new to science. Therefore, the group includes 17 species. The species described as new are: Metallactus rileyi n. sp., M. bellatrix n. sp., M. longicornis n. sp.; M. londonpridei n. sp., M. regalini n. sp., M. bezoar n. sp., M. guarani n. sp. The new synonymies are as follows: Metallactus albipes Suffrian, 1866 (= M. nigrofasciatus Suffrian, 1866 n. syn.), M. albifrons Suffrian, 1866 (= M. flavofrontalis Jacoby, 1907 n. syn.), M. dodecastictus Suffrian, 1866 (= Griburius nigritarsis Jacoby, 1907 n. syn.). The lectotypes of all previously described species have been designated. The new synonymies, the name-bearing type fixations and designations and the nomenclatural acts have been critically discussed. An identification key for the species-group is also provided.

  20. Selectivity of a biological control agent, Diorhabda carinulata Desbrochers, 1870 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for host species within the genus Tamarix Linneaus, 1753

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.L. Dudley; D.W. Bean; R.R. Pattison; A. Caires

    2012-01-01

    Initial field releases of the saltcedar leaf beetle, Diorhabda carinulata Desbrochers, 1870 (Chrysomelidae), against saltcedars, Tamarix Linneaus, 1753 (Tamaricaceae) in North America were unsuccessful at sites where the target taxon was T. parviflora de Condolle, 1828 as opposed to the more widespread T....

  1. Influence of nutrient levels in Tamarix on Diorhabda sublineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) survival and fitness with implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, D A; Gardner, K T; Thompson, D C

    2011-02-01

    Establishment of the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) has been unpredictable when caged or released in the field for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) biocontrol. It has been observed that one caged tree might be voraciously fed upon by beetles while an adjacent tree in the cage is left untouched. We hypothesized that differences in the nutrient content of individual trees may explain this behavior. We evaluated survival, development rate, and egg production of beetles fed in the laboratory on saltcedar foliage from trees that had been grown under a range of fertilizer treatments. Tissue samples from the experimental trees and from the field were analyzed for percent nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. There was essentially no survival of beetle larvae fed foliage from saltcedar trees at nitrogen levels below 2.0%. At levels above 2.0% N, beetle larvae had corresponding increased survival rates and shorter development times. Multiple regression analyses indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus are important for larval survival and faster development rates. Higher levels of potassium were important for increased egg cluster production. The plant tissue analysis showed that the percentage of nitrogen in the experimental trees reflected the range of trees in the field and also that there is high variability within trees in the field. Our research indicates that if beetles are released on trees with poor nutrient quality, the larvae will not survive. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  2. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de; Lima, Eduardo; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha -1 of N + K with 27.03% at P -1 , in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  3. Resinosis Inhibits Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Colonization of Healthy Shortleaf Pines in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2018-05-14

    The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.

  4. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  5. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  6. First records of Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera on blueberries in Argentina: new associations between native chrysomelids and an exotic crop Primeros registros de Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera sobre arándanos en Argentina: nuevas asociaciones entre crisomélidos nativos y un cultivo exótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabrera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, is a shrub native to the northern Hemisphere introduced in Argentina, where it occupies small cultivated areas mainly in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Tucumán. At present, little is known about insects associated with this crop in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Chrysomelidae present in blueberry crops in different regions of Argentina, and to present new chrysomelids-blueberry associations. Identification diagnosis, geographical distribution, association with other plants and aspects of their biology is given for each species. Seven species of crop-damaging Chrysomelidae were recorded in blueberry crops of Buenos Aires and Entre Rios. They belong to the subfamilies Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes exclamationis (Boheman, Caeporis stigmula Germar, and Cacoscelis melanoptera Germar; Eumolpinae: Percolaspis varia (Lefèvre, and Spintherophyta semiaurata (Klug; and Cryptocephalinae: Lexiphanes coenobita Suffrian.El arándano, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, es un arbusto nativo del hemisferio Norte, que fue introducido en la Argentina donde ocupa pequeñas áreas cultivadas, principalmente en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos y Tucumán. Hasta la actualidad, se conoce poco sobre los insectos asociados con este cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es relevar las especies de crisomélidos presentes en los cultivos de arándano de diferentes regiones, y aportar nuevas asociaciones crisomélidos-arándano para la Argentina. Para cada especie registrada, se brinda la diagnosis para su reconocimiento, su distribución geográfica, la asociación con otras plantas y algunos aspectos de su biología. Se registraron siete especies de Chrysomelidae que utilizan el arándano como recurso alimenticio en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos: subfamilia Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes

  7. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. Robbins; Steven R. Alm; Charles D. Armstrong; Anne L. Averill; Thomas C. Baker; Robert J. Bauernfiend; Frederick P. Baxendale; S. Kris Braman; Rick L. Brandenburg; Daniel B. Cash; Gary J. Couch; Richard S. Cowles; Robert L. Crocker; Zandra D. DeLamar; Timothy G. Dittl; Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Kathy L. Flanders; Tom Forgatsch; Timothy J. Gibb; Bruce D. Gill; Daniel O. Gilrein; Clyde S. Gorsuch; Abner M. Hammond; Patricia D. Hastings; David W. Held; Paul R. Heller; Rose T. Hiskes; James L. Holliman; William G. Hudson; Michael G. Klein; Vera L. Krischik; David J. Lee; Charles E. Linn; Nancy J. Luce; Kenna E. MacKenzie; Catherine M. Mannion; Sridhar Polavarapu; Daniel A. Potter; Wendell L. Roelofs; Brian M. Rovals; Glenn A. Salsbury; Nathan M. Schiff; David J. Shetlar; Margaret Skinner; Beverly L. Sparks; Jessica A. Sutschek; Timothy P. Sutschek; Stanley R. Swier; Martha M. Sylvia; Niel J. Vickers; Patricia J. Vittum; Richard Weidman; Donald C. Weber; R. Chris Williamson; Michael G. Villani

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera...

  8. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

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    JOSE RUBIO-GOMEZ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Palabras clave: picudos, plátano, banano, Polytus, Colombia. ABSTRACT This synopsis is about beetle’s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Key words: weevils, plantain, banana, Polytus, Colombia.

  9. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  10. Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as pests in horticulture: genetics and management options with entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) cause damage with detrimental economic effects to many horticultural crops due to the root feeding of their larvae as well as foliage feeding of their adults. Aside from the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus, which is the best-known pest within this genus, numerous other Otiorhynchus species have been increasingly recognized as pests in recent years. Nocturnal adult weevils and soil-inhibiting larvae are in princip...

  11. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Field Trial Performance of Herculex XTRA (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 + Cry3Bb1) Hybrids and Soil Insecticides Against Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K D; Campbell, L A; Lepping, M D; Rule, D M

    2017-06-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. The identification of resistance to Cry3 (Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and eCry3.1Ab) hybrids led to concerns about durability and efficacy of products with single traits and of products containing a pyramid of a Cry3 protein and the binary Bt proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1. From 2012 to 2014, 43 field trials were conducted across the central United States to estimate root protection provided by plants expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 alone (Herculex RW) or pyramided with Cry3Bb1 (SmartStax). These technologies were evaluated with and without soil-applied insecticides to determine if additional management measures provided benefit where Cry3 performance was reduced. Trials were categorized for analysis based on rootworm damage levels on Cry3-expressing hybrids and rootworm feeding pressure within each trial. Across scenarios, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 hybrids provided excellent root protection. Pyramided traits provided greater root and yield protection than non-Bt plus a soil-applied insecticide, and only in trials where larval feeding pressure exceeded two nodes of damage did Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 single-trait hybrids and pyramided hybrids show greater root protection from the addition of soil-applied insecticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Host plant quality of Tamarix ramosissima and T. parviflora for three sibling species of the biocontrol insect Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; O'Neal, Melissa J; Dudley, Tom; Bean, Daniel W

    2009-10-01

    Several sibling species of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) have been introduced into North America for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but only one, D. carinulata (Desbrochers), has been extensively used in the field. The first open releases took place in 2001, and widespread defoliation occurred at sites infested by Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrid forms. The beetles failed, however, to establish at sites where other Tamarix species are targeted for control. In this study, we compared the preference and performance of three Diorhabda sibling species using adult choice and larval performance experiments on the two formally targeted Tamarix species: T. ramosissima and T. parviflora. In the adult choice experiment, a greater proportion of D. carinulata was found on T. ramosissima than on T. parviflora. For the other two sibling species, D. elongata (Brullé) and D. carinata (Faldermann), adults were found in similar proportions on the two host plants. In the larval performance experiment, larval growth and survival did not differ between Tamarix species for any Diorhabda type; however, D. carinata larval biomass was 35-50% greater than the other beetles regardless of host species. Based on the few adults of D. carinulata found on T. parviflora in the adult choice experiment, we do not recommend introducing this beetle at sites where T. parviflora is targeted for biological control. The species D. carinata seems especially promising for future release because its larvae gained substantially more biomass than the other beetles during the same time period on both Tamarix species.

  14. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  15. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  16. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965

  17. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, A; Lemic, D; Bazok, R; Mikac, K M; Mclean, C M; Ivezić, M; Igrc Barčić, J

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species' abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  19. Persebaran agens hayati Neochetina spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae di jawa barat dan DKI jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapdi Sapdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Neochetina spp. as biocontrol agent of waterhyacinth are related to the weevil’s ability to disperse and to increase their population sizes. The objective of this research was to study the distribution and abundance of Neochetina spp. at several areas in West Java and DKI Jakarta. The field research was done in several freshwater ecosystem infested by waterhyacinth, including Cibinong and Lido lakes in Bogor, irigation canal in Karawang, Muara Angke Sanctuary in North Jakarta, and Citarum Hulu river in Purwakarta, during April to August 2004. Coordinate and elevation of the research sites where N. eichhorniae and N. bruchi found were reported, while their abundances were observed by direct hand-collection technique. The results of the research showed that N. eichhorniae was widely distributed and established in most sampling sites, except in Karawang, whereas N. bruchi was not found in any sampling sites. Our observations also indicated that N. eichhorniae was distributed passively so that the weevil couldn’t colonize isolated habitats or locations.

  20. Especies de dryophthorinae (coleoptera: curculionidae) asociadas a plátano y banano (musa spp.) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO-GOMEZ, JOSE; SEPULVEDA-CANO, PAULA

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824), Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum...

  1. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

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    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  2. Inhibitory activity of Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma spp. on the insect pests Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrisomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Mayo, Sara; González-López, Óscar; Reinoso, Bonifacio; Gutierrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively. T. atroviride and T. citrinoviride had a lower inhibitory activity, with inhibition values of 74.1 and 73.3% respectively. These fungi can be considered a highly effective tool for the control during the immature stages of these species.

  3. The first precinctive Carabidae from Moorea, Society Islands: new Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera from the summit of Mont Tohiea

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    James Liebherr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp from Moorea, Society Islands are newly described; M. perraulti sp. n., M. pahere sp. n., M. menemene sp. n., M. mahatahi sp. n., M. popotioaoa sp. n., M. mapo sp. n., and M. fatata sp. n. These constitute the first Mecyclothorax species described from Moorea, and the first carabid beetle species shown to be geographically restricted to that island. Each of the newly described species is most similar to a different species on the island of Tahiti, suggesting that none of the seven Moorean taxa are evolutionary end-products of autochthonous speciation within Moorea. The occurrence of precinctive Mecyclothorax species on both Moorea and Tahiti demonstrates that radiation of Mecyclothorax in the Society Islands has been facilitated by speciation events implicating both islands. Whether this speciation has been preceded by vicariance or dispersal is discussed, with the generality of a dispersal hypothesis tested using information from Society Island Nabidae (Hemiptera. Salient morphological characters for taxa in the Society and Hawaiian Islands are compared to those representing a broad survey of southwest Pacific Mecyclothorax spp. This comparison supports the independent founding of each radiation in the Societies and Hawaii from an Australian ancestral propagule, likely drawn from the ecologically general, geographically widespread M. punctipennis (Macleay.

  4. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  5. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Nilton Carlos Cáceres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp. was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 % was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51 % of 84 faecal samples left in the field where they either buried scats of opossums or were attracted, together with ants, to pitfalls (N= 10 baited with opossum scats. Dung beetles were the main post-dispersal agents of seeds found in scats of opossums, rolling the scats away or burying then on the site of deposition. They buried faeces at 4 to 15 cm in depth (N= 22 tunnels. The main dung beetles identified (medium to large size were Eurysternus (28.7 % in pitfalls and Dichotomius (13.7 %, Coprophanaeus (seen only directly on faeces, besides small-bodied beetles (Por dos años estudiamos los escarabajos coprófagos y las hormigas que actúan en las heces de zarigüellas (Didelphis. Se dejaron excrementos en el campo para descubrir los agentes secundarios de dispersión. Una parte de cada excremento (30 % fue analizada en laboratorio para estimar el número de semillas. Se recolectaron escarabajos del suelo (51 % de 84 excrementos dejados en el campo. También capturamos escarabajos y hormigas con trampas (N= 10. Los escarabajos coprófagos son los principales agentes secundarios de dispersión. Ruedan los excrementos o los entierran a 4-15 cm de profundidad (N= 22 túneles. Los escarabajos coprófagos de mayor tamaño fueron Eurysternus cyanescens (28.7 % en trampas, Dichotomius assifer (13.7 % y Coprophanaeus saphirinus (sólo visto en madrigueras y directamente sobre los excrementos. Los escarabajos de menos de 10 mm fueron el 57.6 %. La hormiga Acromirmex sp. fue 25.5 % del total de hormigas capturadas en trampas. Hallamos varias especies de semillas en los excrementos, muchos de ellos enterrados por los escarabajos, y algunas fueron extraídas por

  6. The genera of Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Costa Rica

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    R. Wills Flowers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Keys in Spanish and English are given for the genera of Chrysomelinae known from Costa Rica. For each genus, a list of species compiled from collections in the University of Costa Rica, the National Biodiversity Institute, and the entomological literature is presented. The genus Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 is recorded for the first time from Central America, and the genus Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 is synonymized with Stilodes Chevrolat 1843Se presenta claves en español y inglés para los géneros de Chrysomelinae conocidas de Costa Rica. Para cada género, se presenta una lista de especies compiladas de las colecciones de la Universidad de Costa Rica, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, y la literatura entomológica. El género Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 está registrado por primera vez de América Central, y el género Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 está sinonomizado con Stilodes Chevrolat 1843

  7. Behavioral responses of Laricobius spp.and hybrids (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and adelgid host tree odors in an olfactometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arielle L. Arsenault; Nathan P. Havill; Albert E. Mayfield; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2015-01-01

    The predatory species Laricobius nigrinus (Fender) and Laricobius osakensis (Shiyake and Montgomery) (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) have been released for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in eastern North America. L. osakensis is native to Japan, whereas L. nigrinus is endemic to the Pacific Northwest of the United States...

  8. Quercivorol as a lure for the polyphagous and Kuroshio shot hole borers, Euwallacea spp. nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae, vectors of Fusarium dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dodge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The polyphagous shot hole borer and Kuroshio shot hole borer, two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, are invasive ambrosia beetles that harbor distinct species of Fusarium fungal symbionts. Together with the damage caused by gallery construction, these two phytopathogenic Fusarium species are responsible for the emerging tree disease Fusarium dieback, which affects over 50 common tree species in Southern California. Host trees suffer branch dieback as the xylem is blocked by invading beetles and fungi, forcing the costly removal of dead and dying trees in urban areas. The beetles are also threatening natural riparian habitats, and avocado is susceptible to Fusarium dieback as well, resulting in damage to the avocado industries in California and Israel. Currently there are no adequate control mechanisms for shot hole borers. This paper summarizes efforts to find a suitable lure to monitor shot hole borer invasions and dispersal. Field trials were conducted in two counties in Southern California over a span of two years. We find that the chemical quercivorol is highly attractive to these beetles, and perform subsequent field experiments attempting to optimize this lure. We also explore other methods of increasing trap catch and effects of other potential attractants, as well as the deterrents verbenone and piperitone.

  9. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  10. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  11. Medicinal plant extracts on the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous, alcoholic, and oil extracts from leaves of eight medicinal plants against Diabrotica speciosa prepared at five concentrations. The extracts that used commercial soybean oil as solvent showed the highest D. speciosa mortality due to the solvent itself, regardless of the used plants and their concentrations. Thus, commercial soybean oil was discarded as solvent since at these volumes it would cause serious phytotoxicity problems. After 24 hours of exposure of the pest to the extracts, the highest D. speciosa mortality values were observed for Copaifera langsdorfii and Chenopodium ambrosioides extracts, both in 5% alcohol, and Artemisia verlotorum, in 10% water. However, in the last mortality assessment (48 h, C. langsdorfii extract in 5% alcohol showed higher mortality of this pest, followed by C. ambrosioides extract in 5% alcohol, compared to the remaining plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida de extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e oleosos de folhas de oito plantas medicinais contra Diabrotica speciosa preparadas em cinco concentrações. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial como solvente apresentaram as maiores mortalidades de D. speciosa em função do próprio óleo, independentemente das plantas utilizadas em suas concentrações. Sendo assim, o óleo de soja comercial foi descartado como solvente, pois nestes volumes acarretaria sérios problemas de fitotoxidade. Após 24 horas de exposição da praga aos extratos, os maiores valores de mortalidade de D. speciosa foram observados nos extratos de Copaifera Langsdorfii e de Chenopodium ambrosioides, ambos em álcool 5%, e de Artemisia verlotorum, em água 10%. Entretanto, na última avaliação de mortalidade (48 h, o extrato de C. langsdorfii em álcool a 5% apresentou maior mortalidade dessa praga, seguida pelo extrato alcoólico a 5% de C. ambrosioides comparada às demais plantas.

  12. Trap attributes influencing capture of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on common bean fields Atributos da armadilha influenciam captura de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in trap characteristics may improve ability to monitor and mass-trap beetles. Field assays were conducted in common bean fields to assess responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar to some trap characteristics. Golden yellow plastic cups (750 mL traps caught more D. speciosa females and males than did clear traps. Carrot slices in Petri dishes baited with Lagenaria vulagaris L. powder (cucurbitacin source - 0.28% caught more beetles than did dishes with carrot alone. Dispensers for the floral volatile attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenze were also compared. Rubber septa dispenser attracted more beetles than did control (dental wicks saturated with acetone. Captures on dental wick, starch matrix and feminine pad dispensers were intermediate and did not differ from those on rubber septa and unbaited controls. Perforated bottle traps (2000 mL, when baited with the floral attractant, caught more beetles than did window bottle traps (both traps contained L. vulgaris powder in most assessments done from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Traps with the insecticide carbaryl captured more beetles than did traps without it, 2-4 and 8-10 days after trap placement in the field, but not in the remaining periods (0-2, 4-6 and 6-8 days. Traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene captured more beetles than did the unbaited ones in all assessments (each other day from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Finally, similar amounts of beetles were captured using plastic bottle traps (2000 mL: perforated, window (both with cucurbitacin and sticky (without cucurbitacin traps, when were baited with the floral attractant.Refinamentos em caraterísticas de armadilhas podem incrementar sua habilidade para monitorar e capturar em massa os insetos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em lavoura de feijoeiro para verificar as respostas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar a algumas características de armadilhas. Armadilhas de copos plástico (750 mL amarelo ouro capturaram mais fêmeas e machos de D. speciosa do que transparentes. Placas de Petri com pedaços de cenoura, com pó seco de purungo, Lagenaria vulgaris L. (fonte de cucurbitacina - 0,28% capturaram mais insetos do que placas com somente cenoura. Liberadores para o atraente floral 1,4-dimetoxibenzeno foram também comparados. Liberador de septo de borracha atraiu mais insetos do que o controle (flocos dentais saturados com acetona. Capturas nos tratamentos com liberadores de floco dental, matriz borato e absorvente higiênico foram intermediárias mas não diferiram da testemunha e septo. Modelo de armadilha de garrafa (2000 mL furada capturou mais insetos do que armadilha vazada ("janelas" (ambas contendo pó seco de purungo na maioria das avaliações, dos dois até os dez dias após a instalação das armadilhas no campo. Armadilhas com inseticida carbaryl capturaram mais insetos do que armadilhas sem, nos intervalos de 2-4 e 9-10 dias após a instalação das armadilhas no campo. Nos períodos restantes (0-2, 4-6- e 6-8 dias, diferenças não foram detectadas. Armadilhas com 1,4-dimetoxibenzeno capturaram mais insetos do que armadilhas sem o volátil (avaliações a cada dois dias dos dois aos dez dias após a instalação no campo. Finalmente, quantidades similares de insetos foram capturadas usando armadilhas de garrafa pet (2000 mL: vazadas ("janelas", furadas (ambas com cucurbitacina e adesivas quando estas foram iscadas com o atraente floral.

  13. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  14. Development of an improved attractive lure for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Peter de Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott; Taylor Scarr

    2003-01-01

    1) The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992. 2) Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to...

  15. Host range expansion and increased damage potential of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) vector Fusarium spp. fungi pathogenic to susceptible hosts, including avocado. The Florida avocado production area in Miami-Dade County was surveyed for E. nr. fornicatus upon observations of initial damage in 2016...

  16. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  17. Patch colonization by Trirhabda canadensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): effects of plant species composition and wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, P A; Tonkyn, D W; Goldburg, R J

    1989-10-01

    The goldenrod leaf beetle, Trirhabda canadensis, is known to respond to odors of host and non-host species in the laboratory. Here we report movements of T. canadensis in the field in response to volatile odors from monocultures and polycultures of host plants. Overall, beetles preferentially colonized plots with a higher density of host plants and lower diversity of allelochemicals, but under some wind conditions there were marked exceptions. At high windspeeds, they colonized whichever plot(s) was upwind. At low windspeeds, beetles colonized preferred plots even when they were not upwind. The data suggest that odor dispersion varies in a complex way with windspeed: at low windspeeds beetles received information from a wide are of vegetation and made choices while at high windspeeds information was available only from upwind plot(s).

  18. Oxygen Consumption and Acoustic Activity of Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) during Hermetic Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Anastasia W; Mankin, Richard W; Smith, Bradley W; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-04-20

    Acoustic monitoring was applied to consider hermetic exposure durations and oxygen levels required to stop adult Callosobruchus maculatus activity and economic damage on cowpea. A 15-d study was conducted with six treatments of 25, 50, and 100 C. maculatus adults in 500 and 1000 mL jars using acoustic probes inserted through stoppers sealing the jars. Acoustic activity as a result of locomotion, mating, and egg-laying was measured by identifying sound impulses with frequency spectra representative of known insect sounds, and counting trains (bursts) of impulses separated by intervals of <200 ms, that typically are produced only by insects. By the end of the first week of storage in all treatments, oxygen levels declined to levels below 4%, which has been demonstrated to cause mortality in previous studies. Concomitantly, insect sound burst rates dropped below an acoustic detection threshold of 0.02 bursts s −1 , indicating that the insects had ceased feeding. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between two different measures of the acoustic activity and the residual oxygen level. Based on the experimental results, a simple equation can be used to estimate the time needed for oxygen to decline to levels that limit insect feeding damage and thus grain losses in hermetic storage containers of different insect population levels and various volumes.

  19. Using trap crops for control of Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces insecticide use in butternut squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A; Hazzard, R; Adler, L S; Boucher, J

    2009-06-01

    Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F., is the primary insect pest of cucurbit crops in the northeastern United States. Adult beetles colonize squash crops from field borders, causing feeding damage at the seedling stage and transmitting bacterial wilt Erwinia tracheiphila Hauben et al. 1999. Conventional control methods rely on insecticide applications to the entire field, but surrounding main crops with a more attractive perimeter could reduce reliance on insecticides. A. cittatum shows a marked preference for Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) over butternut squash (C. moschata Poir). Given this preference, Blue Hubbard squash has the potential to be an effective perimeter trap crop. We evaluated this system in commercial butternut fields in 2003 and 2004, comparing fields using perimeter trap cropping with Blue Hubbard to conventionally managed fields. In 2003, we used a foliar insecticide to control beetles in the trap crop borders, and in 2004, we compared systemic and foliar insecticide treatments for the trap crop borders. We found that using a trap crop system reduced or eliminated the need to spray the main crop area, reducing insecticide use by up to 94% compared with conventional control methods, with no increase in herbivory or beetle numbers. We surveyed the growers who participated in these experiments and found a high level of satisfaction with the effectiveness and simplicity of the system. These results suggest that this method of pest control is both effective and simple enough in its implementation to have high potential for adoption among growers.

  20. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-02-06

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment.

  1. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between ...

  2. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  3. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  4. A cytogenetic study on three Chilean species of Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Three species of Chilean leaf beetles were chromosomally analyzed. The endemic Araucanomela wellingtonensis displays a male meioformula of 13 + Xyp with 2n = 28 chromosomes and an asymmetric karyotype with two large autosome pairs and 12 medium/small pairs of autosomes and sex-chromosomes, a diploid number which had not been found among the other species of the subtribe Paropsina sensu lato studied to date. Strichosa eburata presents a meioformula of 11 + Xyp, 2n = 24 chromosomes, as occurs in many species of chrysomelines belonging to different subtribes. Furthermore, Phaedon cyanopterum has a 16 + Xyp meioformula, that is 2n = 34 chromosomes, of small size mostly, also in agreement with the karyological findings obtained in all the other congeneric species so far examined. These cytogenetic data are discussed with respect to the previous ones in this subfamily and with other characters of taxonomic and evolutionary value.

  5. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Br?thes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays ...

  6. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily. PMID:24260673

  7. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  8. Karyotype, heterochromatin distribution and meiosis of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Ronan X.; Santos, Igor S.; Silva, Janisete G.; Costa, Marco A.; Pompolo, Silvia G.

    2008-01-01

    Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) has been extensively studied in its agronomic and biochemical aspects due to its importance as a damaging insect to leguminous grains during storage. The few cytogenetic studies published on this species yielded conflicting results. In this study, the karyotype was analyzed in order to accurately describe the chromosome C-banding patterns and meiosis. The brain ganglion at the pre pupa and the adult and pupal testes were analyzed. All individuals had 26 chromosomes in both brain ganglion and spermatogonic mitotic metaphases. These chromosomes were classified as follows: the 12 th pair and the Y chromosome were telocentric; the X chromosome was acrocentric; the 4 th and 5 th pairs were sub metacentric; and the remaining pairs were all metacentric. One of the members of the 5 th pair presented a secondary constriction. All chromosomes presented pericentromeric heterochromatin. The large arms of the pairs 5, 9 and X presented heterochromatin. The X chromosome showed to be heteropyknotic throughout the prophase of the fi rst meiotic division. The sub phases of prophase I were atypical and meiosis II was rarely identified. Testes of all males showed a few cells; the bivalents were rod-like shaped in metaphase I. Karyological formulae were 2n = 24 + XX in females and 2n = 24 + XYp and either n = 12 + X or n = 12 + Y in males. (author)

  9. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe.

  10. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.

  11. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Petitpierre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864 show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864 has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of H. porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  12. Bruchus brachialis, een zaadkever nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, O.

    2014-01-01

    Onlangs werd op een braakliggend terrein in Roermond de zaadkever Bruchus brachialis verzameld. Dit is de eerste Nederlandse vondst van deze zuidelijke soort. Een reeks recente waarnemingen uit de ons omringende landen laat zien dat deze soort al enige jaren in een noordwaartse areaaluitbreiding

  13. The genus Ivalia Jacoby 1887 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) of the mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following new species of Ivalia Jacoby 1887 are described from the mount Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia): I. besar, I. biasa, I. fulvomaculata, I. haruka, I. marginata, I. minutissima, I. nigrofasciata, I. pseudostriolata, I. rubrorbiculata, I. striolata. Chabria kinabalensis Bryant 1938 is transferr...

  14. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  15. Andersonoplatus, a new, remarkable, leaf litter inhabiting genus of Monoplatina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersonoplatus, new genus with 16 new species from Venezuela and Panama is described and illustrated. All the specimens are collected in leaf litter by R. Anderson and S. and J. Peck. Andersonoplatus is compared to Andersonaltica Linzmeier and Konstantinov, Apleuraltica Bechyne, Distigmoptera Blake...

  16. Attraction of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to eugenol-baited traps in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (the northern corn rootworm) is a native North American leaf beetle and a major pest of corn. However, adult D. barberi forage in various habitats outside of corn, including soybean, roadside vegetation, and prairie. Eugenol is a common floral volatile that ha...

  17. Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera ; Chrysomelidae) in the Campus and Agricultural Research Stations of Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, S; Tayutivutukul, J; Nakamura, H

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative surveys of leaf beetles were conducted at 5 survey sites (Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Staion, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb of Chiang Mai City) in Chiang Mai, Thailand using sweeping and beating methods from October 19th to October 30th, 2003. A total of 24 species of 8 subfamilies was collected from five survey sites ; 11 species, 3 species, 2 species, 11 species, 4 species from Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Station, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb...

  18. A comprehensive guide to the Argentinian case-bearer beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Camptosomata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrain, Federico A.; Chamorro, Maria Lourdes; Cabrera, Nora; Sassi, Davide; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of Argentinian Camptosomata has largely remained static for the last 60 years since the last publication by Francisco de Asis Monrós in the 1950’s. One hundred and ninety Camptosomata species (182 Cryptocephalinae and 8 Lamprosomatinae) in 31 genera are recorded herein from Argentina. Illustrated diagnostic keys to the subfamilies, tribes, subtribes and genera of Argentinian Camptosomata, plus species checklists and illustrations for all genera of camptosomatan beetles cited for each political region of Argentina are provided. General notes on the taxonomy and distribution, as well as basic statistics, are also included. This study provides basic information about the Camptosomata fauna in Argentina that will facilitate in the accurate generic-level identification of this group and aid subsequent taxonomic revisions, and phylogenetic, ecological, and biogeographic studies. This information will also facilitate faunistic comparisons between neighboring countries. Two nomenclatural acts are proposed: Temnodachrys (Temnodachrys) argentina (Guérin, 1952), comb. n., and Metallactus bivitticollis (Jacoby, 1907), comb. n. The following are new records for Argentina: Stegnocephala xanthopyga (Suffrian, 1863) and Lamprosoma azureum Germar, 1824. Currently, the most diverse camptosomate tribe in Argentina is Clytrini, with almost twice the number of species of Cryptocephalini. New records for Argentina are predicted. PMID:28769688

  19. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G Allan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n.

  20. Cytogenetic effect of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) on Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant polyploidy potentially affects plant-insect interactions; however, its effect on insect fitness remains largely unexplored. Alternanthera philoxeroides is a South American amphibious Amaranthaceae, which invades aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Different morphotypes and cytotypes were identif...

  1. Response of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1990-01-01

    A standardized laboratory bioassay was used to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal responses of larval and adult cottonwood leaf beetles, Chrysomela scripta F., to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, formulated as M-One standard powder (Mycogen Corporation, San Diego). The median lethal concentration (LC

  2. The genus Ivalia Jacoby 1887 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini of the mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Takizawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species of Ivalia Jacoby 1887 are described from the mount Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia: Ivalia besar sp. nov., I. biasa sp. nov., I. fulvomaculata sp. nov., I. haruka sp. nov., I. marginata sp. nov., I. minutissima sp. nov., I. nigrofasciata sp. nov., I. pseudostriolata sp. nov., I. rubrorbiculata sp. nov., I. striolata sp. nov..

  3. A REVISION OF THE PACHNEPHORUS FROM THE AFROTROPICAL REGION (COLEOPTERA, CHRYSOMELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zoia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Pachnephorus Chevrolat, 1837 from the Afrotropical Region is given and a key to the species is provided. Types of all the previously known taxa have been studied and redescribed; 40 new taxa are described and illustrated: P. achardi n. sp. (Mali, P. aequatorianus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. aethiopicus n. sp. (Etiopia, P. baehri n. sp. (Namibia, P. balyi n. sp. (Angola, P. beharui n. sp. (Etiopia, P. bertiae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. bezdeki n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bracarumvestitus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bryanti n. sp. (Mali, P. burgeoni n. sp. (Natal, P. camerun­ensis n. sp. (Camerun, P. cristiani n. sp. (Namibia, P. crocodilinus n. sp. (Zambia, P. daccordii n. sp. (Yemen, P. danielssoni n. sp. (Sierra Leone, P. danielssoni congoanus n. ssp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. demeyeri n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. episternalis n. sp. (Madagascar, P. fabianae n. sp. (Congo, P. fasciatus occidentalis n. ssp. (Nigeria, P. gardinii n. sp. (Etiopia, P. gerstaeckeri n. sp. (Namibia, P. grobbelaarae n. sp. (South Africa, P. hajeki n. sp. (Madagascar, P. lopatini n. sp. (Senegal, P. malicus n. sp. (Mali, P. maroantsetranus n. sp. (Madagascar, P. medvedevi n. sp. (Zambia, P. mo­seykoi n. sp. (Chad, P. pacificus n. sp. (Central Afr. Rep., P. parentorum n. sp. (Ghana, P. poggii n. sp. (Somalia, P. regalini n. sp. (Zambia, P. rigatoi n. sp. (Kenya, P. sas­sii n. sp. (Guinea Bissau, P. shuteae n. sp. (Rep. South Africa, P. sprecherae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. uhligi n. sp. (Namibia, P. willersi n. sp. (Namibia. The lectoypes of P. conspersus Gerstaecker, 1871, P. senegalensis Achard, 1914, P. latior Pic, 1921 and P. testaceipes Fairmaire, 1880 are designated. A new synonymy (P. costatus Achard, 1914 n. syn. of P. torridus Baly, 1878 and a nomenclatural change (Mecistes lineatus (Pic, 1921 n. comb. for Pachnephorus lineatus Pic, 1921 are proposed; the Lectotypes of M. lineatus and of M. flavipes (Gerstaecker, 1855 are designated.

  4. Karyotype, heterochromatin distribution and meiosis of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Ronan X.; Santos, Igor S.; Silva, Janisete G.; Costa, Marco A. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Pompolo, Silvia G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-09-15

    Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) has been extensively studied in its agronomic and biochemical aspects due to its importance as a damaging insect to leguminous grains during storage. The few cytogenetic studies published on this species yielded conflicting results. In this study, the karyotype was analyzed in order to accurately describe the chromosome C-banding patterns and meiosis. The brain ganglion at the pre pupa and the adult and pupal testes were analyzed. All individuals had 26 chromosomes in both brain ganglion and spermatogonic mitotic metaphases. These chromosomes were classified as follows: the 12{sup th} pair and the Y chromosome were telocentric; the X chromosome was acrocentric; the 4{sup th} and 5{sup th} pairs were sub metacentric; and the remaining pairs were all metacentric. One of the members of the 5{sup th} pair presented a secondary constriction. All chromosomes presented pericentromeric heterochromatin. The large arms of the pairs 5, 9 and X presented heterochromatin. The X chromosome showed to be heteropyknotic throughout the prophase of the fi rst meiotic division. The sub phases of prophase I were atypical and meiosis II was rarely identified. Testes of all males showed a few cells; the bivalents were rod-like shaped in metaphase I. Karyological formulae were 2n = 24 + XX in females and 2n = 24 + XYp and either n = 12 + X or n = 12 + Y in males. (author)

  5. Synthetic feeding stimulants enhance insecticide activity against western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In behavioral bioassays, the addition of a synthetic feeding stimulant blend improved the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam against neonate western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae. In 4-h bioassays, the concentration of thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality (LC...

  6. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  7. Development of a satellite-based hazard rating system for Dendrctonus frontallis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Cook; Shane Cherry; Karen Humes; James Guldin; Christopher Williams

    2007-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is the most damaging forest insect pest of pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the southeastern United States. Hazard rating schemes have been developed for D. frontalis, but for these schemes to be accurate and effective, they...

  8. Biology and natural enemies of Agrilus fleischeri (Coleoptera:Buprestidae), a newly emerging destructive buprestid pest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...

  9. Can Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emerge from logs two summers after infested trees are cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut...

  10. Orientation behavior of the predator Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly F. Wallin; Tanya M. Latty; Darrell W. Ross

    2011-01-01

    We studied the adult ambulatory response of the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), to odors from its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), and other conifers. Both the predator and hemlock woolly...

  11. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion.A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini.The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage.Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  12. Asymmetric Interspecific Competition Between Specialist Herbivores That Feed On Tamarisk In Western Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Louden, Nina P.

    2010-01-01

    Four closely related species of leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.; Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into the western United States as biocontrol agents for the invasive Eurasian shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.; Violales:Tamaricaceae). These beetles have since continued to spread and establish throughout the western United States. Another exotic insect, the tamarisk leafhopper (Opsius stactogalus, Fieber;Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), had previously become established in these areas and now s...

  13. Predação de sementes de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Grenha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de sementes da palmeira Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 foi avaliada de setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ. A biologia e o comportamento de P. nucleorum em A. arenaria e as taxas de predação de sementes foram descritas. Frutos encontrados sob 50 palmeiras foram coletados, mensalmente, em cada uma das duas áreas amostradas no PNRJ (mata de cordão arenoso e formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia Sclthdl, Clusiaceae. A avaliação dos cocos predados foi feita a partir da contagem dos orifícios de saída dos bruquíneos no campo, da emergência dos insetos no laboratório e da abertura dos frutos remanescentes. Através de observações e experimentos em 60 infrutescências, verificou-se que a oviposição de Pachymerus nucleorum em A. arenaria ocorre na infrutescência ainda em desenvolvimento diferentemente de registros na literatura em outras espécies de palmeiras, onde a oviposição ocorre nos frutos no chão. A predação dos frutos por P. nucleorum foi de 29,3% na área de mata de cordão arenoso e 20,6% na formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia. O ciclo de vida de P. nucleorum foi bastante longo e com amplitudes bem grandes dentro de uma mesma amostra, o que sugere uma possível diapausa em alguma fase do seu ciclo de vida.Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae palm by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 was evaluated from September 2003 to September 2005 at the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The biology and behaviour of P. nucleorum on A. arenaria and predation rates were described. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ (ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl (Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field, the emergence of these insects in the laboratory and from fruits dissected. It was verified that Pachymerus nucleorum oviposit on young developing infrutescences, different from literature records for other palm species, for which oviposition takes place on the fruit already on the ground. Fruit predation by P. nucleorum was 29.3% at ridge forest and 20.6% at Clusia open shrubland formation. The life cycle of P. nucleorum was long and with wide range of variation within samples, what suggests a possible diapause in some stage of life cycle.

  14. A diversidade inventarial de Coleoptera (Insecta em uma paisagem antropizada do Bioma Araucária The inventory diversity of Coleoptera (Insecta of an anthropized landscape in the Biome Araucaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como parte do Projeto PROVIVE, foram analisadas a riqueza de espécies, a composição taxonômica, a proporção de espécies raras e a constância taxonômica ao nível de família relacionada à riqueza de espécies, em comunidades de Coleoptera, em Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de coletas através de armadilha malaise no estrato do sub-bosque de cinco áreas com diferentes graus de intervenção antrópica, de setembro de 1999 a agosto de 2000. As 52 semanas de amostragem nas cinco áreas resultaram na coleta de 10.822 indivíduos de 1659 espécies. Todas as áreas apresentaram alta riqueza de espécies e diversidade, como indicado por vários índices. A área em estágio mais avançado de sucessão vegetal foi menos rica do que aquelas em estágio inicial/intermediária. De acordo com diferentes estimadores de riqueza de espécies, o número de espécies coletadas poderia aumentar de 22-123% com o aumento do esforço de coleta. As áreas menos conservadas foram mais ricas em espécies raras ("singletons", "doubletons" e únicas do que as mais conservadas. Nas cinco áreas houve uma constância taxonômica entre as famílias mais ricas (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Mordelidae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, Coccinellidae e Tenebrionidae envolvendo 60% do total de espécies, como observado para a abundância de indivíduos. A existência de um padrão de constância taxonômica de famílias, quando considerados 60% da riqueza de espécies e/ou de abundância de indivíduos por local, poderá tornar mais fácil e rápido o estudo de comunidades de Coleoptera, habilitando a ordem a ser um táxon indicador de condições ambientais de áreas florestadas.The species richness, taxonomic composition, rare species, and taxonomic constancy at family level were studied in communities of Coleoptera in Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, as part of PROVIVE project. The data were gathered

  15. Radioactive tracers in the study of energy turnover by a grazing insect (Chrysochus auratus Fab. ; coleoptera chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jr, E C; Reichle, D E

    1968-01-01

    Radioisotope tags of rubidium-86 and phosphorus-32 were used to measure food consumption by the chrysomelid beetle Chrysochus auratus feeding upon the old field herb Apocynum cannabinum. The elimination of isotope by beetles which had fed upon tagged plants was used to estimate the rates of food consumption. For individuals at isotopic equilibrium with their food base, isotope input (I) equals the biological turnover of isotope: I = kQ/sub e/M/a, where k is the turnover rate of isotope, Q/sub e/ is the equilibrium concentration of isotope in the beetles, M is mass (mg dry wt), and a is the assimilation coefficient for the particular radioisotope. Turnover rates (k) were calculated from biological half-lives (T/sub b/), where k = 0.693/T/sub b/. The biological half-life of YWRb in Chrysochus was one day, while that of TSP was 7.5 days in females and 10.2 days in males. The calorific value of Apocynum leaves was 4625 cal/g dry wt (5640 cal/g ash-free wt); that of Chrysochus was 5227 cal/g dry wt (5537 cal/g ash-free wt). Individuals consumed 56.8% (15.9 mg) of their dry body weight in food per day. Of the ingested foliage, 43% of the ash-free dry matter was digested, 56% of the energy assimilated, and 71% of the ash content assimilated. The calorific value (cal/g) of digested food was 1.17 times greater than that consumed. Beetles assimilated 87% of the YWRb and 74% of the TSP present in food. Ranking of turnover times showed Chrysochus to be most conservative in its expenditure of food energy and dry matter, followed by mineral constituents. 9 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  17. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  19. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  20. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-09-05

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants.

  1. Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1 resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. Howeve...

  2. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mary A; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2009-02-01

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4(-)), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brullé. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system.

  3. Significance of colour polymorphism in mountain populations of abundant leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov, Y. E.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles, especially common and abundant species, play significant role in the flow of biomass and energy in alpine ecosystems. They feed openly in the leafage of shrubs and herbs and their various metallic colourations or highly melanistic forms absorb solar radiation, promoting warming and decreasing penetration of UV. Therefore colour polymorphism is important for monitoring of status of exact populations. Polymorphism as ecologically selected variability serves for the most complete and effective use of environmental heterogeneity. That is why composition of morphs and its changes in space and time are especially sensitive. Eco-geographical reguliarities of colour polymorphism is shown for various mountain populations of Chrysomela lapponica, Gonioctena árctica and Oreina sulcata throughout their distribution area. These species together with related ones enable to make a sensitive network of biosensors for climate change monitoring in Holarctic region. [fr]
    Les Scarabées des feuilles deviennent spécialement communs, présentent de nombreuses espèces et sans doute peuvent jouer un rôle important sur le cycle de biomasse et le flux d'énergie des écosystèmes alpiens. Ces insectes mangent les feuilles des arbrisseaux ou des herbes et leurs colorations métalliques très variées ou leurs formes fortement mélaniques absorbent les radiations solaires; c'est comme cela qu'ils provoquent un réchauffement et arrivent à filtrer les rayons UV. En conséquence, le polymorphisme de couleurs se montre très important pour le monitoring de plusieurs populations concernées. Si nous considérons ce polymorphisme comme un type de variabilité sélectionnée écologiquement, il peut bien contribuer à une utilisation plus effective et complète de l'hétérogénéité environnementale. C'est pourquoi la composition des morphotypes et ses changements aussi bien dans l'espace que dans le temps deviennent très sensibles. Chez les populations montagnardes de Chrysomela lapponica, Gonioctena arcaica et Oreina sulcata et au long de leur aire de répartition ont été observées certaines régularités ecogéographiques du poly- morphisme couleur. Sans doute ces espèces et d'autres semblables pourraient aider à établir un réseau de bioindicateurs permettant un monitoring du changement climatique sur la région Holartique.

    [fr]
    Les Scarabées des feuilles deviennent spécialement communs, présentent de nombreuses espèces et sans doute peuvent jouer un rôle important sur le cycle de biomasse et le flux d'énergie des écosystèmes alpiens. Ces insectes mangent les feuilles des arbrisseaux ou des herbes et leurs colorations métalliques très variées ou leurs formes fortement mélaniques absorbent les radiations solaires; c'est comme cela qu'ils provoquent un réchauffement et arrivent à filtrer les rayons UV. En conséquence, le polymorphisme de couleurs se montre très important pour le monitoring de plusieurs populations concernées. Si nous considérons ce polymorphisme comme un type de variabilité sélectionnée écologiquement, il peut bien contribuer à une utilisation plus effective et complète de l'hétérogénéité environnementale. C'est pourquoi la composition des morphotypes et ses changements aussi bien dans l'espace que dans le temps deviennent très sensibles. Chez les populations montagnardes de Chrysomela lapponica, Gonioctena arcaica et Oreina sulcata et au long de leur aire de répartition ont été observées certaines régularités ecogéographiques du poly- morphisme couleur. Sans doute ces espèces et d'autres semblables pourraient aider à établir un réseau de bioindicateurs permettant un monitoring du changement climatique sur la région Holartique.
    [es]
    Los escarabajos de las hojas resultan especialmente comunes, presentan numerosas especies y sin duda juegan un papel destacado en el ciclo de biomasa o en el flujo de energía de los ecosistemas alpinos. Estos insectos se alimentan del follaje de arbustos o hierbas y sus variadas coloraciones metálicas o sus formas altamente melánicas absorben la radiación solar; por ese procedimiento provocan un calentamiento y filtran los rayos ultravioleta. Así, el polimorfismo de colores resulta importante para el seguimiento de unas poblaciones determinadas. Considerado dicho polimorfismo como variabilidad seleccionada ecológicamente, puede contribuir a una utilización más completa y efectiva de la heterogeneidad ambiental. Esa es la razón por la cual una composición de morfotipos y sus cambios en el espacio y en el tiempo residían especialmente sensibles. Ciertas regularidades ecogeográficas del polimorfismo de colores pueden apreciarse en varias poblaciones montanas de Chrysomela lapponica, Gonioctena arcaica y Oreina sulcata a lo largo de su área de distribución. Tales especies y otras relacionadas permitirían el establecimiento de una red de biosensores para el seguimiento del cambio climático en la región Holártica.

  4. Triple bag hermetic technology for controlling a bruchid (Spermophagus sp.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in stored Hibiscus sabdariffa grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.

  5. Sterilization of males Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with gamma irradiation for control in cultures of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Marcio Martins

    2017-01-01

    Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824), causes direct and indirect damage on crops by feeding and acting as virus vector for diverse groups of plants. The main control form is the use of agrochemicals so, aiming to manage the population without environment impact, the present work had as objective to determine the dose of gamma radiation that provides male sterility, its foliar consumption and gonads histological changes. Adult males were submitted to gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on the third day after emergence at doses of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy at 0,808 KGy/ hour rate, totaling 20 replicates/ dose. The sterilizing dose was based on the fertility of sexually mature non-irradiated females mated by irradiated males. The couples were individualized in 'arenas' and fed with leaflets Phaseolus vulgaris L. with black gauze moistened for oviposition. Eggs were treated and arranged in plastic containers lined with filter paper. After hatching, larvae were transferred to a larger container with a cover cap containing fine vermiculite and maize seedlings (Zea mays L.), which were replaced every 10 days, until adult emergence. After the 4 th day of irradiation, a leaf disc with 3.2 cm in diameter was available for 24 hours for each couple. The discs were scanned and analyzed in ImageJ software. To evaluate the gonads, 3 males with 8 days of age were used per dose. They were dissected in PBS, through the Hematoxylin-Eosin technique the laminas were evaluated under an optical microscope. We observed that male sterility occurred from 75 Gy and the average longevity of this group was of 12.5 days. Consumption of the leaf area by couples composed by a sterile male was 42.9% and the testicular histological analysis demonstrated tissue disorganisation and gaps between germ cells at the highest doses of 75 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  6. High-throughput biodiversity analysis: Rapid assessment of species richness and ecological interactions of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Cardoso, Anabela; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Jurado-Rivera, José A.; Maes, Jean-Michel; Montelongo, Tinguaro; Nguyen, Dinh Thi; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biodiversity assessment has been the focus of intense debate and conceptual and methodological advances in recent years. The cultural, academic and aesthetic impulses to recognise and catalogue the diversity in our surroundings, in this case of living objects, is furthermore propelled by the urgency of understanding that we may be responsible for a dramatic reduction of biodiversity, comparable in magnitude to geological mass extinctions. One of the most important advances in this attempt to characterise biodiversity has been incorporating DNA-based characters and molecular taxonomy tools to achieve faster and more efficient species delimitation and identification, even in hyperdiverse tropical biomes. In this assay we advocate for a broad understanding of Biodiversity as the inventory of species in a given environment, but also the diversity of their interactions, with both aspects being attainable using molecular markers and phylogenetic approaches. We exemplify the suitability and utility of this framework for large-scale biodiversity assessment with the results of our ongoing projects trying to characterise the communities of leaf beetles and their host plants in several tropical setups. Moreover, we propose that approaches similar to ours, establishing the inventories of two ecologically inter-related and species-rich groups of organisms, such as insect herbivores and their angiosperm host-plants, can serve as the foundational stone to anchor a comprehensive assessment of diversity, also in tropical environments, by subsequent addition of trophic levels. PMID:27408583

  7. High-throughput biodiversity analysis: Rapid assessment of species richness and ecological interactions of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Cardoso, Anabela; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Jurado-Rivera, José A; Maes, Jean-Michel; Montelongo, Tinguaro; Nguyen, Dinh Thi; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity assessment has been the focus of intense debate and conceptual and methodological advances in recent years. The cultural, academic and aesthetic impulses to recognise and catalogue the diversity in our surroundings, in this case of living objects, is furthermore propelled by the urgency of understanding that we may be responsible for a dramatic reduction of biodiversity, comparable in magnitude to geological mass extinctions. One of the most important advances in this attempt to characterise biodiversity has been incorporating DNA-based characters and molecular taxonomy tools to achieve faster and more efficient species delimitation and identification, even in hyperdiverse tropical biomes. In this assay we advocate for a broad understanding of Biodiversity as the inventory of species in a given environment, but also the diversity of their interactions, with both aspects being attainable using molecular markers and phylogenetic approaches. We exemplify the suitability and utility of this framework for large-scale biodiversity assessment with the results of our ongoing projects trying to characterise the communities of leaf beetles and their host plants in several tropical setups. Moreover, we propose that approaches similar to ours, establishing the inventories of two ecologically inter-related and species-rich groups of organisms, such as insect herbivores and their angiosperm host-plants, can serve as the foundational stone to anchor a comprehensive assessment of diversity, also in tropical environments, by subsequent addition of trophic levels.

  8. Energy and nitrogen budgets for larval and aduit Paropsis charybdis Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Penelope B; Wightman, John A

    1984-03-01

    | (1) Paropsis charybdis, the Eucalyptus tortoise beetle, is a serious defoliator of several Eucalyptus species in New Zealand. A series of laboratory experiments demonstrated the growth characteristics of larvae and adults when feeding on E. viminalis at 20°C. These were used as the data bases for quantifying its trophic relationships in terms of dry matter, energy and nitrogen. (2) The four larval stages lasted 4.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 9.5 days. Growth was exponential until the second day of the fourth instar, when the superficially inactive prepupal stage began. The pupal stage lasted 9.5 days. Female beetles started to lay eggs 15 days (av.) after eclosion. (3) Larvae attained a mean maximum dry weight (dwt) of 53.29 mg. Reproductive females weighed 63.40 mg, and males 46.71 mg. (4) The guts and their contents contributed up to 50% of total larval dry weight and 15% of adult dry weight. (5) Studies of the trophic relationships of P. charybdis larvae were based upon budgets whereby consumption (C) equals the sum of production (P), respiretion (R) and egesta (FU). Production was divided into gut-free larval production (P L * ) and exuvia (P EX )+R+FUin J: 3,561.5 = (491.3+43.4) + 284.5 +2,574.9 in mgN: 4.001 = (2.078 + 0.200) +1.657 (no R term) . P = P L * + P EX The derived R term (R c ), calculated as: R c = C - FU - (P = P L * + P EX ) = 34.84 (6) Daily budgets of an average adult, where ΔP AD reflects the change in body weight and P R =reproductive production, were: C =(ΔP AD + P R ) + R +FU in mg dwt: 27.36 = (ΔP +2.25) +R + 14.53 in J: 591.1 = ΔP + 65.4) + 82.0 +362.6 in mgN: 0368 = (ΔP AD + 0.252) + 0.285. The budget assumes that male P R is zero and includes a corrected R term whereby R C =1.43 R M . ΔP AD can be assumed to equal zero over a long term, although fluctuations were apparent during the experimental period. (7) The amount of leaf material removed but not eaten by larvae (NU) was 22.6 mg, 462.4 J or 0.526 mgN. Thus, the total material removed (MR = C +NU) was 194.3 mg, 3978.9 J or 4.527 mgN. NU per day for an average adult was 4.86 mg, 99.5 J or 0.113 mgN. Therefore adults removed 32.33 mg, 659.9 J or 0.751 mgN per day. (8) Ecological efficiencies (energy) of P. charybdis larvae (using P = P L * + P EX and A = assimilation + C - FU ) were: net ecological efficiency (P.A. -1 )=56.8%, gross ecological efficiency (P.C -1 )=15.2%, assimilation efficiency (A.C. -1 )=26.8%, P.R. -1 =121.5%. Adult efficiencies were: P. A. -1 =28.6%, P.C. -1 =11.1%, A.C. -1 =38.7% and P.R. -1 =55.7%. Efficiencies in terms of nitrogen were (larval data followed by adult data in parentheses): P.A. -1 =97.2 (71.4)%, P.C. -1 =56.9 (39.5)% and A.C. -1 =58.6 (55.3)%. (9) Regressions were calculated to link larval length (1) or larval live weight (lwt) and the dry weight of leaf material removed from a tree by that individual so that these results can be readily applied to field studies: logMR = -2.042 + 3.418 log1 logMR = -0.728 + 1.023 log 1wt.

  9. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  10. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Hyptis marrubioides no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barboza de Mello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que uma grande porcentagem da produção e do armazenamento dos grãos de feijão é perdida pelo consumo de insetos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Hyptis marrubioides no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada pelo método de hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger, por uma hora e meia e o ensaio biológico foi conduzido no Laboratório de Microscopia/IFSULDEMINAS, Campus Muzambinho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, constituído de cinco concentrações de óleo essencial (0,0; 6,25%; 12,5%; 25% e 50%, com quatro repetições contendo um casal de Z. subfasciatus por repetição. Realizou-se o teste de mortalidade e inibição de oviposição. Utilizou-se três grãos de feijão tratados com 5 microlitros (μL de solução e três não tratados, caracterizando assim um teste com chance de escolha. Como controle, utilizou-se 100 μL de álcool 70%. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, observou-se a reação dos indivíduos de Z. subfasciatus, evidenciando que os Tempos Letais (TL diminuem conforme há um aumento e contato direto dos insetos com as concentrações do óleo essencial de H. marrubioides. A aplicação do óleo essencial foi bastante efetiva, pois ocorreu mortalidade total dos insetos adultos e nenhuma oviposição. O intervalo de tempo de 28 minutos foi suficiente para provocar mortalidade de todos os indivíduos. Foi possível observar que o óleo essencial de H. marrubioides possui efeito inseticida sobre Z. subfasciatus, podendo auxiliar no manejo integrado de Z. subfasciatus em feijão armazenado.

  11. Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global...

  12. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Mary A.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO 4 - ), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata

  13. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  14. The Susceptibility of Some Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq Progenies to Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S.O.N. Dimkpa

    2010-01-01

    Damage by the oil palm leaf miner C. lam eensis has been observed in all oil palm growing countriesin Africa causing wide spread defoliation and result to considerable reduction in the yield of fresh fruit bunches(ffb). The understanding of the susceptibility levels of different oil palm progenies to the oil palm leaf minerC. lameensis become highly imperative in the development and incorporation of host plant resistance in theintegrated pest management strategy for the management of the oil ...

  15. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  16. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, and Potential for Alternative Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J. Verheggen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle (CPB has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications.

  17. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  18. Some factors relating to the larval growth of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on artificial diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardojo, S.

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the history of the development of artificial diets for phytophagous insects is given. Some conceptions with regard to terminology are discussed (chapter 3).

    Artificial diets for the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, were developed

  19. Altitudinal and temporal distribution of Plagiometriona Spaeth, 1899 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) in a tropical forest in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinte, Vivian; de Freitas, Sama; de Macedo, Margarete Valverde; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Species richness and abundance of seven Plagiometriona species on their host plants were studied along a single trail in the mountainous Serra dos Órgãos National Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six sites were chosen along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1300 m to 2050 m, where all Solanaceae host plants were inspected in search of adults every two months from June 2006 to June 2007. Species richness did not vary clearly with altitude, but abundance increased up to 1800 m, where the highest mean host plant density was found, and abruptly decreased at the last elevational site. Most species showed a restricted distribution and just one occurred across the entire gradient. For at least four species, altitudinal distribution seems to be strongly related to host plant availability, while for the others it is difficult to access which factors are decisive, due to their low numbers. Only in October all species were found in the field, although February was the month with the highest total abundance. Over the course of the study, the greatest abundances were recorded from October to February, comprehending the hottest and rainiest months, and the lowest abundances were found from June to August, which include the coldest and driest months. Thus, species seasonal distribution, supported by other studies in the same area, seems to be related to the local climate.

  20. Altitudinal and temporal distribution of Plagiometriona Spaeth, 1899 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae in a tropical forest in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Flinte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and abundance of seven Plagiometriona species on their host plants were studied along a single trail in the mountainous Serra dos Órgãos National Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six sites were chosen along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1300 m to 2050 m, where all Solanaceae host plants were inspected in search of adults every two months from June 2006 to June 2007. Species richness did not vary clearly with altitude, but abundance increased up to 1800 m, where the highest mean host plant density was found, and abruptly decreased at the last elevational site. Most species showed a restricted distribution and just one occurred across the entire gradient. For at least four species, altitudinal distribution seems to be strongly related to host plant availability, while for the others it is difficult to access which factors are decisive, due to their low numbers. Only in October all species were found in the field, although February was the month with the highest total abundance. Over the course of the study, the greatest abundances were recorded from October to February, comprehending the hottest and rainiest months, and the lowest abundances were found from June to August, which include the coldest and driest months. Thus, species seasonal distribution, supported by other studies in the same area, seems to be related to the local climate.

  1. 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in the southern states of Brazil. The pure stands of this culture was responsible for the increase of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies may increase the agroecossystem balance and thus a reduction of the insect-pest to an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  2. Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyridae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced as a biological control agent of this pest in Michiga...

  3. Effects of cutting time, stump height, and herbicide application on ash (Fraxinus spp.) stump sprouting and colonization by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to eradicate or slow the spread of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire [Coleoptera: Buprestidae]) include cutting infested and nearby uninfested ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. However, ash trees readily sprout after they have been cut, providing potential host material for EAB. In 2004-2005, we conducted...

  4. Sampling methods for Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koese, B.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Onderzoek naar vangmethodes voor Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Als onderdeel van een integrale studie naar de waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus in Nederland (in opdracht van het ministerie van lnv), werd een vergelijkend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar verschillende

  5. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  6. The response of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Temnochila chlorodia (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae) to Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components and verbenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Robert R. Borys

    2007-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a common bark beetle species found throughout much of North America and China. In 2004, we observed that California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, 1970 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), attack densities in logging debris were inversely related to D...

  7. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  8. Tanyproctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) of Socotra Island

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, D.; Sehnal, R.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, suppl. 2 (2012), s. 153-182 ISSN 0374-1036 Grant - others:Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (CZ) LA10036/MSMT Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeidae * Melolonthinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2012 http://www.aemnp.eu/PDF/52_s2/52_S2_153.pdf

  9. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  10. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  11. Quantitative trait loci mapping of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) host plant resistance in two populations of doubled haploid lines in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last 70 years, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Sele...

  12. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (I); Gansuapteris new genus and Primulavorus new genus (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new genera and species of flea beetles (Gansuapteris gen. nov., Primulavorus gen. nov., Gansuapteris fulvus sp. nov. and Primulavorus maculata sp. nov.) from South-west China are described and illustrated. The morphological differences of new genera and their allies are discussed....

  13. Contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (II): Baoshanaltica new genus and Sinosphaera new genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new genera: Baoshanaltica gen. nov. and Sinosphaera gen. nov., and two new species: Baoshanaltica minuta sp. nov and Sinosphaera aptrica sp. nov. from South-west China are described and illustrated. Baoshanaltica is compared to allied moss inhibiting genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. and ...

  14. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (III): Revision of Meishania Chen & Wang with description of five new species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flea beetle genus Meishania Chen & Wang is revised and five new species - M. cangshanensis sp. nov., M. flavipennis sp. nov., M. fulvotigera sp. nov., and M. sichuanica sp. nov. from China and M. bhutanensis sp. nov. from Bhutan - are described. All species of Meishania are illustrated and a key...

  15. Impact of Cry3Bb1-expressing Bt maize on adults of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Genetically engineered maize producing insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is protected from root damage by corn rootworm larvae. An examination was made to establish whether western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) adults are affected by Cry3Bb1-expressing maize (MON88017) when feeding on above-ground tissue. In laboratory bioassays, adult D. v. virgifera were fed for 7 weeks with silk, leaves or pollen from Bt maize or the corresponding near-isoline. Male, but not female, survival was reduced in the Bt-leaf treatment compared with the control. Female weight was lower when fed Bt maize, and egg production was reduced in the Bt-silk treatment. ELISA measurements demonstrated that beetles feeding on silk were exposed to higher Cry3Bb1 concentrations than beetles collected from Bt-maize fields in the United States. In contrast to silk and pollen, feeding on leaves resulted in high mortality and low fecundity. Females feeding on pollen produced more eggs than on silk. C:N ratios indicated that silk does not provide enough nitrogen for optimal egg production. Direct effects of Cry3Bb1 on adult beetles could explain the observed effects, but varietal differences between Bt and control maize are also possible. The impact of Bt maize on adult populations, however, is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. On the influence of different host plants and of insecticide treatments on the population development of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora, Ciprian George

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available D. virgifera virgifera is classified as a quarantine pest in Germany, therefore the trials, presented in this paper, were performed in the western part of Romania, where the pest is well established since more than ten years. The field tests were carried out in close collaboration with Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timişoara. On sites highly infested by D. virgifera virgifera, 1 m² plots in four replications per variable were planted with maize for the chemical treatments and alternative crops (cereals and weeds. Gauze covered hatch cages were used for weekly counts of the emerged adult Diabrotica during the hatch period from mid of June to mid of August. It could be asserted that matured cereals are no host-plants for the western corn rootworm. In four years of trials not even one adult beetle hatched in the related cages. Setaria viridis and Digitaria sanguinalis reduced the number of hatched imagines significantly, nevertheless some individuals survived. Therefore an effective herbicide management against grass weeds in maize is recommended to limit the chance of survival of the pest. Clothianidin and Tefluthrin are effective against D. virgifera virgifera. 20% to 100% efficiency was assessed in the trials, strongly depending on precipitation and soil moisture in time of application. The insecticides decreased the maize root injury caused by larvae of the western corn rootworm significantly.

  17. Biochemical studies of amylase, lipase and protease in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations fed with Vigna unguiculata grain cultivated with diazotrophic bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Torres, É B; Nóbrega, R A S; Lopes, G N; Vogado, R F; Pavan, B E; Fernandes-Junior, P I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen). The parameters evaluated were enzymatic activities of insect protease, amylase and lipase and the starch content of the grains. There were differences in the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and protease of insect homogenate according to the food source. A lower activity of the enzyme amylase from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when insects were fed grain of the cultivar BRS Carijó. A lower activity of lipase enzyme from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when the insects fed on grain from the interaction of the cultivar Tapaihum inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. The lowest proteolytic activity was observed in homogenate of insects fed on interaction of 'BRS Carijó' inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. Starch content correlated positively with the amylase activity of C. maculatus homogenate. The cultivar BRS Carijó had a different behavior from the other cultivars, according to the cluster analysis.

  18. An analysis of the fate of eggs of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae in relation to the position in the ootheca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Becker

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Randomly sampled oothecae of a natural population of Gratiana spadicea from the outskirts of Porto Alegre, RS, were dissected. The overlapping of the egg membranes makes possible to enumerate the eggs in a batch and therefore to relate mortality to position in the ootheca. The ootheca of this cassid provides a spatial refuge for some of its eggs. Successful eggs of G. spadicea amounted to less than one fifth of the total in each batch. Parasitoids and predators were responsible for a high mortality of eggs whatever the size of the ootheca. The main cause of mortality was the eulophid wasp Emersonella ooecia De Santis, 1983. A large proportion of eggs were sucked dry by the mirid Tupiocoris cincticornis (Stal, 1860. The sucked eggs could have contained either the embryo of G. spadicea or the parasitoid in the pre-emergence stages.

  19. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  20. Inherited influence of low dose gamma radiation on the reproductive potential and spermiogenesis of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F is a severe agriculture pest worldwide. In the current work, newly emerged adult males of C. maculatus have been irradiated with a low dose of 20Gy gamma radiation. The inherited deleterious effects on the fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, and the sterility percent were recorded for the progenies F1 and F2 of the irradiated parental males. The fecundity, hatched larvae, the number of males and females were reduced in both F1 and F2. The sterility percent was high in F1 (70.8% and increased in the F2 (88.3% generation. Histopathological effects were also documented in the testes of F1 and F2 progenies. The spermatids and sperms have exhibited a variety of abnormalities. In the early spermatids, the nebenkern outer cell membrane was ruptured. The spermatid nucleus loses its homogeneous texture and has multiple foci of dense chromatin, as well as, profiles range has little dense material. In some groups, the nucleus had a peculiar ring of chromatin. The sperms had shown a variety of aberrations. The sperms irregularity distributed in lysed cysts by unusual manner. Also, some sperms had remarkably enlarged axoneme and small rounded nucleus. Many of the sperm cells were observed with two axonemes, abnormal mitochondria derivatives, and more than two accessory bodies. These results indicate that the low dose of 20 Gy induces semi-sterility in C. maculatus through generations. The same technique would help to improve using of sterile insect technique for other agriculture pests.

  1. Activity of the Antioxidant Defense System in a Typical Bioinsecticide-and Synthetic Insecticide-treated Cowpea Storage Beetle F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems play a major role in detoxification of pro-oxidant endobiotics and xenobiotics. The possible involvement of beetle non-enzymatic [α-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH, and ascorbic acid] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO] antioxidant defense system on the insecticidal activity of synthetic insecticides (cypermethrin, 2,2-dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, and λ-cyhalothrin and ethanolic plant extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus, Hyptis suaveolens leaves , and Jatropha Curcas seeds was investigated. 2,2-Dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP; 200 ppm, LC 50 = 13.24 ppm and T. diversifolia (20,000 ppm resulted in 100% beetle mortality at 96-hour post-treatment. The post-treatments significantly increased the beetle α-tocopherol and GSH contents. Activities of CAT, SOD, POX, and PPO were modulated by the synthetic insecticides and bioinsecticides to diminish the adverse effect of the chemical stresses. Quantitative and qualitative allelochemical compositions of bioinsecticides and chemical structure of synthetic insecticides possibly account and for modulation of their respective enzyme activities. Altogether, oxidative stress was enormous enough to cause maladaptation in insects. This study established that oxidative imbalance created could be the molecular basis of the efficacy of both insecticides and bio-insecticides. Two, there was development of functional but inadequate antioxidant defense mechanism in the beetle.

  2. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  3. The New World Gibbobruchus Pic (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae): description of a new species and phylogenetic insights into the evolution of host associations and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfio, Daiara; Jorge, Isaac R; Morse, Geoffrey E; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2016-04-18

    The seed beetle Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. is described from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Acre) and Ecuador (Napo), and is included in an updated key to the species of Gibbobruchus Pic. This new species and the recently described G. bergamini Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa are incorporated into a phylogenetic reanalysis of the genus and into a comparative analysis of host plant use and biogeography. Species groups previously proposed were supported and the evolutionary history in host plant-use shows Gibbobruchus conserved at tribe level, Cercideae (Caesalpinioideae), with coordination between biogeographic expansion and host genus shifts. Both species, Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. and G. bergamini, were placed within the group scurra (G. tridentatus (G. scurra (G. cavillator+G. bolivianus+G. bergamini))) and supported by one synapomorphy. Additionally, we update geographic distributions and host plant records. Two hosts, Bauhinia argentinensis Burkart and B. tarapotensis Benth. are recorded for the first time as hosts for the genus and for the subfamily.

  4. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

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    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  5. Effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae in agar gel formulations against larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Adel, M. M.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 77-82 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : anti-desiccant * foliar application * drought Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.818, year: 2012

  6. Insights on the genus Acronymolpus Samuelson with new synonymies and exclusion of Stethotes Baly from the fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae

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    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several taxonomic problems affecting the recently erected genus Acronymolpus Samuelson, 2015, endemic to New Caledonia, are addressed. Two of the three New Caledonian species described in Stethotes Baly are transferred to Acronymolpus and their priority is recognized over the names proposed in the revision of this genus. Moreover, different forms of Acronymolpus always found in sympatry, one reddish and larger, and the other black and smaller, were each given species status in that revision, but they are recognized here as the females and males, respectively, of the same species. The taxonomic summary of these discoveries is: (i A. bertiae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2007, comb. n. = A. meteorus Samuelson, 2015, syn. n., and A. turbo Samuelson, 2015, syn. n.; and (ii A. jourdani (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2013, comb. n. = A. gressitti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n., and A. joliveti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. New distribution data and the male genitalia and the spermatheca of the two valid species of Acronymolpus are described for the first time with reference to taxonomically important characters. Finally, the last New Caledonian species described in Stethotes is recognized here as a member of the endemic genus Taophila Heller: T. mandjeliae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2010, comb. n.

  7. Insights on the genus Acronymolpus Samuelson with new synonymies and exclusion of Stethotes Baly from the fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    In this work, several taxonomic problems affecting the recently erected genus Acronymolpus Samuelson, 2015, endemic to New Caledonia, are addressed. Two of the three New Caledonian species described in Stethotes Baly are transferred to Acronymolpus and their priority is recognized over the names proposed in the revision of this genus. Moreover, different forms of Acronymolpus always found in sympatry, one reddish and larger, and the other black and smaller, were each given species status in that revision, but they are recognized here as the females and males, respectively, of the same species. The taxonomic summary of these discoveries is: (i) A. bertiae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2007), comb. n. = A. meteorus Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. , and A. turbo Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. ; and (ii) A. jourdani (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2013), comb. n. = A. gressitti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. , and A. joliveti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. New distribution data and the male genitalia and the spermatheca of the two valid species of Acronymolpus are described for the first time with reference to taxonomically important characters. Finally, the last New Caledonian species described in Stethotes is recognized here as a member of the endemic genus Taophila Heller: T. mandjeliae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2010), comb. n.

  8. Descrição da larva de 3º ínstar e redescrição do adulto de Phaedon confinis Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    2015-08-01

    Abstract. In view of the potential of Phaedon confinis Klug as an biological control agent of the Senecio brasiliensis Less and the lack of taxonomic knowledge of the species Phaedon recorded for Brazil, this paper aimed to describe the 3rd larval instar, redescribe the adult, as well as add new characters and illustrations to acknowledgment of the specie. The P. confinis larvae are eruciform, subcylindrical, elongated and slightly convex; dorsal surface dark brown and ventral surface with yellowish lighter regions; four setae in the front; six stemmata arranged in three groups; brown labrum, with four pairs of setae, pronotal plate with ten setae; pleural region of prothorax with tubercle T; meso- and metathorax with tubercles Dai and Dae close, but not fused, and tubercles Es-Ss fused between themselves by midline; simple tarsal claws; abdomen with tubercle Dae absent and Dai present, little pronounced; abdominal tubercles with two setae in Dpi and Dpe. Adult has oval body and dorsally convex; pronotum and elytral glabrous; predominant colour blue metallic violet; lateral margins of pronotum rounded, yellowish brown with central macula metallic blue, elytral striae with deep punctuation and arranged in eight longitudinal rows; yellowish brown regions on the head, prothorax and legs; head with two small oval black maculae, posterior to the eyes in vertex region.

  9. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] ao Ataque do Caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Westerllanya Medeiros

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. The Cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the main Prague during storage of grains of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.]. Due to the economic losses caused by this insect, is of paramount importance to develop studies to select varieties resistant to this pest. In this study assessed the effect of genotypes of V. unguiculata about the behavior and the development of C. maculatus in two consecutive generations. The study was conducted in laboratory with conditions of temperature and relative humidity monitored, in completely randomized design using BRS Epace 10, Capela, BRS Urubuquara, BRS Pajeu, Itaim, BRS Rouxinol, Pingo de ouro, BRS Corujinha, IT85 F-2687 and BR 17 Gurguéia genotypes with eight repetitions. In each genotype were confined 10 adults of c. maculatus for it was held the oviposition. After a period of five days, the adults were removed from the pots containing the genotypes. Waited-if the emergence of adults (first generation and new infestation was held in the same access to obtain the second generation. The parameters evaluated were number of eggs, egg viability, total number of adults emergency, viability of immature phase, average period of development and dry weight of adults. IT85 F2687 genotype presented resistance of non-preference for oviposition and the genotypes BR 17 Gurguéia and BRS Urubuquara presented antibiose type resistance in relation to C. maculatus. BR 17 Gurguéia genotype was the strongest among the genotypes studied in relation to c. maculatus. The genotypes Capela and Itaim were characterized as susceptible to C. maculatus.

  10. Plagiometriona emarcida (Boheman, 1855) and Plagiometriona forcipata (Boheman, 1855) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae), a single species differing in larval performace and adult phenotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flinte, V.; Windsor, D.; Sekerka, Lukáš; de Macedo, M. V.; Monteiro, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 44, 15-16 (2010), s. 891-904 ISSN 0022-2933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Cassidinae * Plagiometriona * synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2010

  11. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  12. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  13. Flowering mechanisms, pollination strategies and floral scent analyses of syntopically co-flowering Homalomena spp. (Araceae) on Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Y C; Gibernau, M; Maia, A C D; Wong, S Y

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the flowering mechanisms and pollination strategies of seven species of the highly diverse genus Homalomena (Araceae) were investigated in native populations of West Sarawak, Borneo. The floral scent compositions were also recorded for six of these species. The selected taxa belong to three out of four complexes of the section Cyrtocladon (Hanneae, Giamensis and Borneensis). The species belonging to the Hanneae complex exhibited longer anthesis (53-62 h) than those of the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes (ca. 30 h). Species belonging to the Hanneae complex underwent two floral scent emission events in consecutive days, during the pistillate and staminate phases of anthesis. In species belonging to the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes, floral scent emission was only evident to the human nose during the pistillate phase. A total of 33 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in floral scent analyses of species belonging to the Hanneae complex, whereas 26 VOCs were found in samples of those belonging to the Giamensis complex. The floral scent blends contained uncommon compounds in high concentration, which could ensure pollinator discrimination. Our observations indicate that scarab beetles (Parastasia gestroi and P. nigripennis; Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) are the pollinators of the investigated species of Homalomena, with Chaloenus schawalleri (Chrysomelidae, Galeuricinae) acting as a secondary pollinator. The pollinators utilise the inflorescence for food, mating opportunities and safe mating arena as rewards. Flower-breeding flies (Colocasiomyia nigricauda and C. aff. heterodonta; Diptera, Drosophilidae) and terrestrial hydrophilid beetles (Cycreon sp.; Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) were also frequently recovered from inflorescences belonging to all studied species (except H. velutipedunculata), but they probably do not act as efficient pollinators. Future studies should investigate the post-mating isolating barriers among syntopically co

  14. Parasitism and olfactory responses of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) to different Cerambycid hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Rong Wei; Zhong-Qi Yang; Therese M. Poland; Jia-Wei. Du

    2009-01-01

    Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). It is distributed throughout most Provinces in China. We investigated whether there were differences among D. helophoroides populations collected from different hosts in different...

  15. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  16. Coleoptera species of forensic importance from Brazil: an updated list

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    Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A list of the Coleoptera of importance from Brazil, based on published records was compiled. The checklist contains 345 species of 16 families allocated to 16 states of the country. In addition, three species of two families are registered for the first time. The fauna of Coleoptera of forensic importance is still not entirely known and future collection efforts and taxonomic reviews could increase the number of known species considerably in the near future.

  17. Interaction of Insecticide and Media Moisture on Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attacks on Selected Ornamental Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D; Anderson, Amanda L; Ranger, Christopher M

    2017-12-08

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are among the most damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but recent research has shown that attacks may be reduced by maintaining media moisture below a 50% threshold thereby reducing flood stress. We compared the efficacy of managing media moisture and insecticide applications for reducing ambrosia beetle attacks on three ornamental tree species in North Carolina. During trials in spring 2013 and 2015, flooded Cornus florida and Cornus kousa were heavily attacked despite sprays with permethrin, but nonflooded C. kousa or C. florida were not attacked. In spring 2015 trials, both nonflooded and flooded Styrax japonicus were heavily attacked regardless of permethrin applications. Although ethanol emissions were not measured, the apparently healthy nonflooded S. japonicus trees may have been exposed to an unknown physiological stress, such as low temperature injury, the previous winter, which predisposed them to beetle attack. However, ethanol levels within host tissues were not measured as part of the current study. X. crassiusculus (75%), Xyloborinus saxesenii Ratzburg (13%), and X. germanus (9%) were the most abundant species collected in ethanol baited traps deployed in 2015, while X. crassiusculus (63%) and X. germanus (36%) were the predominant species reared from attacked trees. Results indicate that managing media moisture levels at or below 50%, and maximizing tree health overall, may provide significant protection against Xylosandrus spp. attacks in flood intolerant tree species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  19. The evolution of asymmetric genitalia in Coleoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer Zu

    2016-12-19

    The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  1. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf consumption analysis were performed in newly adults in tropical soda apple and eggplant leaves kept turgid by immersing the petioles in water. The leaf area was measured before and after four days of insect exposure. M. elatior showed higher feeding preference, survival and consumption of the weed species, especially in comparison with the hybrid Ryoma. The highest feeding preference among the eggplant hybrids was observed in ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’.

  2. Dimorfismo sexual em Metaxyonycha angusta (Perty, 1832 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1321 Sex determination in Metaxyonycha angusta (Perty, 1832 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1321

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norivaldo dos Anjos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O besouro Metaxyonycha angusta é um dos principais desfolhadores de eucalipto, resultando seu ataque em consideráveis perdas na produção de madeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar caracteres morfológicos que permitam realizar a sexagem em M. angusta. Insetos adultos foram coletados no município de Andrêlandia, Estado de Minas Gerais. A avaliação das características morfológicas externas foi realizada em 50 insetos de cada sexo. Procuraram-se características morfológicas externas para diferir os sexos dos indivíduos dessa espécie, tais como a forma dos uroesternitos e as dimensões corporais. A sexagem de em>M. angusta deve ser realizada examinando-se o formato do 5º uroesternito. Nos machos, a margem posterior apresenta um leve recorte e, nas fêmeas, a margem posterior desse mesmo segmento apresenta um entalhe mais profundoAmong eucalypt leaf beetles, Metaxyonycha angusta is a very important pest because it causes losses to the wood production in the Brazilian eucalypt plantations. This work deals to the morphologic character which allow sex determination in that insect specie. External morphologic characteristics, such as urosternite shapes and body measurements, were examined from 50 insects of each sex. Sex determination may be found out through examining the fifth urosternite. In males, there is a small clipping at the posterior edge of the fifth urosternite. Females have the posterior edge of that segment presenting a deeper notch

  3. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

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    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  4. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico; Datos bionomicos y descripcion de los inmaduros de Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), plaga de la Palma Aceitera (Elaeis guineensis J.) y de la Palma Camedor (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) en Tabasco, Mexico

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    Cordova-Ballona, Leonides [Universidad Popular de la Chontalpa, Tabasco (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, Saul [Colegio de Postgraduados, Tabasco (Mexico). Campus Tabasco

    2008-11-15

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  5. Infestação por larvas de Cerotoma arcuata (Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em nódulos de feijoeiro em cultivo com cobertura morta ou em consórcio com milho ou com caupi Infestation by Cerotoma arcuata (Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae on Phaseolus bean with mulching or intercropped with maize or cowpea

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    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A vaquinha Cerotoma arcuata ataca folhas de leguminosas e suas larvas alimentam-se de raízes e também de nódulos, onde a fixação de nitrogênio (FBN ocorre. O ataque das larvas aos nódulos pode causar mais danos à cultura do feijoeiro do que o consumo das folhas pelas formas adultas. Este estudo foi conduzido em condições de campo para avaliar os efeitos da infestação de C. arcuata no cultivo do feijoeiro com ou sem cobertura morta ou consorciado com caupi ou com milho. A nodulação, o crescimento e a produção de grãos de feijoeiro quando consorciado com caupi não diferiram do controle. A barreira aos insetos formada pelo milho adensado falhou, provavelmente devido à infestação precoce de C. arcuata e ao sombreamento causado pelo milho, com redução na produtividade de feijoeiro. O consumo dos nódulos pelas larvas na cultura de feijão solteiro e nos consórcios foi superior ao do tratamento com cobertura morta. A barreira física imposta pela cobertura morta agiu provavelmente através da redução da oviposição diretamente no solo e do ressecamento dos ovos sobre a palha e resultou em menor porcentagem de nódulos furados, com conseqüente aumento no número e peso de nódulos, no peso de raiz e na produção de grãos. Os consórcios com milho ou com caupi não reduziram a infestação de feijoeiro por C. arcuata, mas a aplicação da cobertura morta antes da infestação reduziu os danos causados pelas larvas aos nódulos e favoreceu a FBN e a produtividade.The bean leaf beetle Cerotoma arcuata is a legume leaf eater and its larvae feed on roots and also nodules where nitrogen fixation occurs. The attack of larvae to nodule may result in more damage to the bean crop than the consumption of leaves by adults. This study was conducted under field conditions to test the effects of C. arcuata infestation on Phaseolus bean with or without straw mulching or intercropped with maize or cowpea. Nodulation, growth and grain production when intercropping with cowpea did not differ from the control. The insect barrier formed by the maize’s high density failed, probably due to the early infestation by C. arcuata, as well as shading by the rows of maize, thereby reducing grain yield. Consumption of nodules was higher on the Phaseolus bean with or without intercropping than on the treatment with straw mulching. The physical barrier imposed by straw mulch probably acted by reducing oviposition directly on soil and drying the eggs laid above the straw, resulting in a smaller percentage of punctured nodules and consequently increasing nodule number and dry weight, root dry weight and grain yields. Intercropping with maize and cowpea did not reduce Phaseolus bean infestation by C. arcuata but straw mulching applied before infestation reduced damage caused by larvae to the nodules, increasing N2 fixation and grain yields.

  6. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  7. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

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    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados discos, e colocados em gaiolas em testes de múltipla escolha. Os insetos preferiram folhas do sistema convencional. A alimentação nas folhas do sistemas Natural 1, Natural 2 e Orgânico foi 68, 67 e 57% daquela registrada nas folhas do sistema convencional de cultivo.

  8. Morfologia dos imaturos e ciclo evolutivo de Anacassis dubia (Boheman, A. fuscata (Klug, A. languida (Boheman, A. phaeopoda Buzzi e A. punctulata (Klug (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae Morphology of the imatures and life cycle of Anacassis dubia (Boheman, A. fuscata (Klug, A. languida (Boheman, A. phaeopoda Buzzi and A. punctulata (Klug (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae

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    Zundir José Buzzi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, fifth instar larvae and pupae of A. dubia (Boheman, 1854, A. fuscata (Klug, 1829, A. languida (Boheman, 1854, A. phaeopoda Buzzi, 1976 and A. punctulata (Klug, 1829 are described. Imatures stages were reared in a stove Biometron under temperature of 25±2ºC, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 80±5%. The larvae of A. dubia and A. languida were fed with leaves of Baccharis relusa DC; A. fuscata with leaves of Baccharidastrum argutum (Less Cabrera; A. phaeopoda with leaves of Baccharis gaudichaudiana DC. and larvae of A. punctulata with leaves of Baccharis trimera (Less A. DC.. All plants belonging to the Asteraceae. Two forms of A. fuscata were studied: A. fuscata (Klug, 1829 and A. fuscata form=unicolor (Burmeister, 1870 n.syn. and no significant differences were found.

  9. Sterilization of males Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with gamma irradiation for control in cultures of economic importance; Esterilização de machos de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) com irradiação gama visando o controle em culturas de importância econômica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcio Martins

    2017-07-01

    Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824), causes direct and indirect damage on crops by feeding and acting as virus vector for diverse groups of plants. The main control form is the use of agrochemicals so, aiming to manage the population without environment impact, the present work had as objective to determine the dose of gamma radiation that provides male sterility, its foliar consumption and gonads histological changes. Adult males were submitted to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the third day after emergence at doses of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy at 0,808 KGy/ hour rate, totaling 20 replicates/ dose. The sterilizing dose was based on the fertility of sexually mature non-irradiated females mated by irradiated males. The couples were individualized in 'arenas' and fed with leaflets Phaseolus vulgaris L. with black gauze moistened for oviposition. Eggs were treated and arranged in plastic containers lined with filter paper. After hatching, larvae were transferred to a larger container with a cover cap containing fine vermiculite and maize seedlings (Zea mays L.), which were replaced every 10 days, until adult emergence. After the 4{sup th} day of irradiation, a leaf disc with 3.2 cm in diameter was available for 24 hours for each couple. The discs were scanned and analyzed in ImageJ software. To evaluate the gonads, 3 males with 8 days of age were used per dose. They were dissected in PBS, through the Hematoxylin-Eosin technique the laminas were evaluated under an optical microscope. We observed that male sterility occurred from 75 Gy and the average longevity of this group was of 12.5 days. Consumption of the leaf area by couples composed by a sterile male was 42.9% and the testicular histological analysis demonstrated tissue disorganisation and gaps between germ cells at the highest doses of 75 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  10. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

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    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. e citronela (Cymbopogon nardus L., em diversas concentrações, sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman. Nos testes de toxicidade, grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho foram impregnados com os óleos e infestados com adultos de Z. subfasciatus com até 24 horas de idade. Todos os óleos foram eficientes na redução da postura de ovos viáveis e na emergência de adultos desta praga, em função das concentrações utilizadas, destacando-se E. citriodora e E. globulus, que a partir da concentração de 0,5 mL Kg-1 já causaram 100% de eficácia. Nos testes de repelência utilizaram-se arenas compostas por dois recipientes plásticos, interligados simetricamente a uma caixa central por dois tubos plásticos. Numa das caixas colocaram-se grãos de feijão não tratados e, na outra, feijões tratados com cada uma das concentrações de óleo testadas. Na caixa central foram liberados cinco casais de Z. subfasciatus. Os grãos de P. vulgaris tratados com os óleos de E. citriodora, C. citratus e C. oleifera reduziram a porcentagem de adultos de Z. subfasciatus atraídos, enquanto o óleo de E. globulus aumentou essa porcentagem. As percentagens de redução de ovos viáveis variaram de 17,9% (C. medica limonum a 93,3% (C. nardus, enquanto que a redução do número de insetos emergidos foi de 23,9% e 95,9%, respectivamente, para esses mesmos óleos.

  11. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

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    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  12. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  13. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  14. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  15. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  16. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae

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    Joseph Tourtois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, S. feltiae (Filipjev, and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora.

  17. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  18. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  19. Azadirachtin-induced hormesis mediating shift in fecundity-longevity trade-off in the Mexican bean weevil (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallqui, K S Vilca; Vieira, J L; Guedes, R N C; Gontijo, L M

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides can have lethal or sublethal effects upon targeted pest species, and sublethal effects may even favor pest outbreaks if insecticide-induced hormesis occurs. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response of a given chemical compound that is stimulatory at low doses and toxic at high doses. The former response may result from the disruption of animal homeostasis leading to trade-off shifts between basic ecophysiological processes. A growing interest in the use of biorational insecticides, such as azadirachtin to control stored-product pests, raises concerns about potential sublethal effects. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that azadirachtin can negatively impact the reproductive capacity of the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a key pest of stored beans. In addition, we investigated whether adults of this species could compensate for any sublethal effect that might have affected any of their reproductive parameters by adjusting the allocation of its reproductive efforts. The results showed that females of Z. subfasciatus increased fecundity daily to compensate for azadirachtin-induced decreased longevity. In addition, a stage-structured matrix study revealed that populations of Z. subfasciatus engendered from females exposed to azadirachtin exhibited a higher rate of population increase (r) and a higher net reproductive rate (R(o)). Finally, a projection matrix analysis showed notably higher densities along the generations for azadirachtin-exposed Z. subfasciatus populations. Thus, our study provides empirical evidence for the capacity of Z. subfasciatus to adapt to sublethal effects caused by biorational insecticides; consequently, this study highlights the importance of understanding this phenomenon when devising pest management strategies.

  20. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  1. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; Smith S.L.; Brownie C.

    2013-01-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dedroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey...

  2. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  3. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range

  4. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  5. The Peritelini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Entiminae of the Vitale collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Baviera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of Peritelini (Coleoptera Curculionidae Entiminae currently stored in the Vitale collection of Messina University is an element of great importance for studies of taxonomy and biogeography of these rarely collected weevils. All species are commented in relation to the contributions to this taxonomic group, published on several occasions by the authors.

  6. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  7. Evolutionary history of Calosomina ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae) of the world as deduced from sequence comparisons of the mitochondrial ND 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Hui; Imura, Yûki; Osawa, Syozo

    2005-11-07

    We deduced the phylogenetic relationships of 54 individuals representing 27 species of the Calosomina (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from various regions of the world from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND 5) gene sequences. The results suggest that these Calosomina radiated into 17 lineages within a short time about 30 million years ago (Mya). Most of the lineages are composed of a single genus containing only one or a few species. In some cases, several species classified into the same genus (e.g., Calosoma maximowiczi, Calos. inquisitor and Calos. frigidum) appear separately in independent lineages, while in others a series of species classified into different genera fall into one lineage (e.g., Chrysostigma calidum, Blaptosoma chihuahua, Microcallisthenes wilkesi and Callisthenes spp.). Based on this molecular phylogeny and morphological data, the probable evolutionary history and mode of morphological differentiation of the Calosomina are discussed.

  8. COPROPHANAEUS MORENOI ARNAUD, 1982 (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE: SCARABAEINAE) IN THE GORGONA NATIONAL NATURAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Cultid Medina, Carlos A; Giraldo López, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A new record of the dung beetle Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), for the Gorgona Natural National Park (Gorgona NNP, Colombia) in the Colombian Pacific Ocean is presented. Se presenta un nuevo registro del escarabajo estercolero Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), para el Parque Natural Nacional Gorgona, en el océano Pacifico colombiano.

  9. Het voorkomen van de glanskevers van het genus Caprophilus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Some species of the genus Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) may act as pests of stored products like cocoabeans, peanuts, dried fruits like figs and dates, imported from tropical or

  10. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  11. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  12. influence of 2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl benzofuran rates and okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013-07-12

    Jul 12, 2013 ... (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the most serious in the recent times. The most efficacious rate of 2 ... important in the case of insect pests of economic importance, with ..... Pakistan Journal Agricultural Science. 45(4):448 - 451.

  13. Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Research, monitoring and development of preservation strategies for threatened species are often limited by national borders even though a global perspective would be more appropriate. In this study, we collected data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, associated with tree hollows in 2,142 localities from 33 countries in Europe where it is or has been present. The larvae develop in tree hollows and very few observations of larvae have been observed in dead logs on the ground. As long as there is a suitable tree hollow, it appears that O. eremita may use any tree species. Oaks (Quercus spp. are the trees mainly used by O. eremita, followed by lime (Tilia spp., willow (Salix spp., beech (Fagus sylvatica and fruit trees (Prunus spp., Pyrus spp., Malus domestica. O. eremita is still found in some remnants of natural forest, but is mainly observed on land that has long been used by man, such as pasture woodlands, hunting parks, avenues, city parks and trees around agricultural fields and along streams. The occurrence of O. eremita seems to have decreased in all European countries. Relatively high densities of O. eremita localities occur in Central Europe (northern Italy, Austria, Czechia, southern Poland and eastern Germany, some parts of Northern Europe (south-eastern Sweden, Latvia and France. In some regions in north-western Europe, the species is extinct or may occur at some single sites (Norway, Danish mainland, The Netherlands, Belgium, north-eastern France. There are few data from south-eastern Europe. Many local extinctions of O. eremita are to be expected in the near future, especially in regions with recent habitat loss and fragmentation. O. eremita is useful as an indicator and umbrella species for the preservation of the entire invertebrate community associated with hollow trees in Europe. A preservation plan for O. eremita should include three aspects that are of general importance in nature conservation in

  14. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  15. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  16. Azadirachtin: an effective systemic insecticide for control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Nicole; Helson, Blair; Thompson, Dean; Otis, Gard; McFarlane, John; Buscarini, Teresa; Meating, Joe

    2010-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive pest discovered in North America in 2002, is now well established and threatens ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees throughout the continent. Experiments were conducted to 1) examine the efficacy of an alternative natural pesticide, azadirachtin, to control emerald ash borer, and 2) determine foliar uptake and dissipation patterns after systemic injections of azadirachtin into trunks of small (2.2 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), uninfested green ash trees. We found no evidence of mortality of adult beetles. In contrast, fewer larvae completed their development at dose levels > or = 1.7 mg (AI)/cm dbh and development ceased beyond the second instar at dose levels > or = 13.6 mg (AI)/cm dbh. Substantial concentrations (11.2 microg/g dry mass [SD = 7.55]) of azadirachtin were present in leaves within 7 d of treatment. After rapid initial uptake, concentrations in leaves declined logarithmically during the 55 d after injection. A similar pattern was observed in a separate experiment that examined the uptake and translocation of azadirachtin in larger green ash trees (22 cm dbh) treated with 250 mg (AI) /cm dbh with the EcoJect injection system. In another experiment, recently infested plantation green ash trees treated with doses > or = 40 mg (AI)/cm dbh had significant reductions in adult emergence approximately 1 yr postinjection. Given the inhibition of larval development, reduction of adult emergence, and the occurrence of foliar residues at biologically active concentrations, we conclude that azadirachtin is effective in protecting ash trees from emerald ash borer.

  17. Sulfuryl fluoride as a quarantine treatment for Chlorophorus annularis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Chinese bamboo poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daojian; Barak, Alan V; Jiao, Yi; Chen, Zhinan; Zhang, Guiming; Chen, Zhilin; Kang, Lin; Yang, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Bamboo (genera Bambusa and Phyllstachys) is one of the fastest growing and economically important plants in the world, and it is cultivated widely throughout southern China. China annually exports to the United States significant quantities of bamboo garden stakes (Bambusa spp.). In recent years, Plant Protection and Quarantine officers of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have made numerous interceptions of the bamboo borer, Chlorophorus annularis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in bamboo products from China. This species is considered to have high pest risk potential in the trade of bamboo products. As a fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (SF) would be a practical alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Here, we report the results of SF fumigation tests for C. annularis in bamboo poles at three doses--96 g/m3 at 15.9 degrees C, 80 g/m3 at 21.5 degrees C, and 64 g/m3 at 26.0 degrees C--in glass test chambers. Commercial standard fumigations were also conducted in a standard 6.1-m-long, 33.2-m3 (standard height, 20-feet) marine general cargo container loaded to 80% (vol:vol) with similar bamboo poles, and sufficient levels of SF were obtained during the 24-h fumigations. During the course of these tests, 2424 larvae, 90 pupae, and 23 adults in total were killed, with no survivors. A treatment schedule using SF is proposed for bamboo as an alternative to MeBr at several temperatures tested.

  18. Sex- and Size-Related Patterns of Carrion Visitation in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Estados inmaduros de Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini Immature stages of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon César Neita-Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y se ilustran por primera vez la larva de tercer estadio y la pupa de Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini. Se aportan datos sobre la biología de la especie y su distribución en Colombia. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las larvas de tercer estadio conocidas de las especies del género Ancognatha Erichson.The third instar larva and pupa of Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are described and illustrated for the first time. New data on larval biology and distribution of the species in Colombia are included. A key to the known third stage larvae of Ancognatha Erichson is provided.

  20. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  1. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  2. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Lewis, Phillip; Cappaert, David

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods are needed to protect ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) from emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive buprestid that has killed millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. We randomly assigned 175 ash trees (11.5-48.1 cm in diameter) in 25 blocks located in three study sites in Michigan to one of seven insecticide treatments in May 2007. Treatments included 1) trunk-injected emamectin benzoate; 2) trunk-injected imidacloprid; 3) basal trunk spray of dinotefuran with or 4) without Pentra-Bark, an agricultural surfactant; 5) basal trunk spray of imidacloprid with or 6) without Pentra-Bark; or (7) control. Foliar insecticide residues (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and toxicity of leaves to adult A. planipennis (4-d bioassays) were quantified at 3-4-wk intervals posttreatment. Seven blocks of trees were felled and sampled in fall 2007 to quantify A. planipennis larval density. Half of the remaining blocks were retreated in spring 2008. Bioassays and residue analyses were repeated in summer 2008, and then all trees were sampled to assess larval density in winter. Foliage from emamectin benzoate-treated trees was highly toxic to adult A. planipennis, and larval density was emamectin benzoate for > or = 2 yr may reduce costs or logistical issues associated with treatment.

  3. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  4. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  5. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  6. Aggregation pheromone compounds of the black larder beetle Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korada, R.R.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionisation and electroantennographic detection (GCEAD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis (GCMS) of abdominal extracts of adult male Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) revealed the presence of

  7. A predictive distribution model for Graphoderus bilineatus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierdsema, H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Een voorspellend verspreidingsmodel voor de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Op verzoek van de Provincie Zuid-Holland en het Ministerie van lnv is het huidige voorkomen en de biotoopvoorkeur van de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus

  8. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  9. Primer registro de Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante-Navarrete, Abdhiel; Marquina-Montesinos, Edgar Luis; Elme-Tumpay, Araseli

    2017-01-01

    First report of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru. The first record of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru is reported, which also constitutes the highest record of the species. This introduced species is already established in the rest of the continent, but its presence in Peru is confirmed in this contribution. A distribution map and a key to distinguish the two species of this genus present in Peru are presented.

  10. Biologi Hama Kumbang Penggerek Pucuk Kelapa Sawit (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Di Rumah Kassa

    OpenAIRE

    Sejahtra, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ahmad Sejahtra, "BIOLOGY SHOOT BORERS BEETLE PEST OF COCONUT PALM (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) AT KASSA HOUSE", Under supervised by Ms Marheni and Ms Fatima Zahara. This study aims to determine biological pest of oil palm bud weevil (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at home kassa. The experiment was conducted on people's plantations in PERUMNAS Simalingkar starting from September 2010 until April 2011. Research using observational methods for this resear...

  11. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  12. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  13. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  14. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera na Entomologia Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM, estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  15. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive.

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  17. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The members of the endemic African genus EndochilusWeise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalissp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for iden- tification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  18. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  19. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-06-17

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.

  20. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard (Sinapis alba) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Mueller, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable plant chemistry on this herbivore. The performance of P. cochleariae was influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but it responded with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation. Body mass increase and developmental times of larvae were exclusively affected by plant species and leaf-age. However, developmental differences were fully compensated in the pupal stage. We suggest that the plasticity of herbivores may depend on the degree of specialisation, and insect performance may not necessarily be altered by stress-induced host plants. - The larval performance of an oligophagous leaf beetle is influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but responds with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Wade French

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis’in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) larvalarının ortabarsağina etik sürecinin histolojik yöntemlerle belirlenmesi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turanli, F.; Cabuk, M.; Kismali, S.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2006), s. 137-150 ISSN 1010-6960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis * Leptinotarsa decemlineata * mode of action Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  3. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova-Ballona, Leonides; Sanchez-Soto, Saul

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  4. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  5. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  6. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874 Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de um organismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida em laboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliações da sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatior apresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido Minikuro Kowishiki de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as a biological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf consumption analysis were performed in newly adults in tropical soda apple and eggplant leaves kept turgid by immersing the petioles in water. The leaf area was measured before and after four days of insect exposure. M. elatior showed higher feeding preference, survival and consumption of the weed species, especially in comparison with the hybrid Ryoma. The highest feeding preference among the eggplant hybrids was observed in ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’.

  7. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  8. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites

  9. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  10. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  11. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This catalogue includes all valid family-group (8 subfamilies, 52 tribes, 14 subtribes, genus-group (349 genera, 86 subgenera, and species-group names (2825 species, 215 subspecies of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae known to occur in North America1 and their available synonyms. Data on extant, subfossil and fossil taxa are given. For each name the author and year and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa depending on the taxon rank. Several new nomenclatural acts are included. One new genus, Lepidocnemeplatia Bousquet and Bouchard, is described. Spelaebiosis Bousquet and Bouchard [for Ardoinia Özdikmen, 2004], Blapstinus marcuzzii Aalbu [for Blapstinus kulzeri Marcuzzi, 1977], and Hymenorus campbelli Bouchard [for Hymenorus oculatus Doyen and Poinar, 1994] are proposed as new replacement names. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Tarpela micans (Fabricius, 1798 nomen protectum over Tarpela vittata (Olivier, 1793 nomen oblitum. The generic names Psilomera Motschulsky, 1870 [= Stenomorpha Solier, 1836], Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [= Xysta Eschscholtz, 1829], Ooconibius Casey, 1895 and Euconibius Casey, 1895 [= Conibius LeConte, 1851] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets. The following 127 new synonymies of species-group names, listed in their original combination, are proposed (valid names, in their current combination, placed in square brackets: Bothrasida mucorea Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus guanajuatensis (Champion, 1884]; Parasida zacualpanicola Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus asidoides Solier, 1836]; Stenosides kulzeri Pallister, 1954, Stenosides bisinuatus Pallister, 1954, and Parasida trisinuata Pallister, 1954 [= Pelecyphorus dispar (Champion, 1892]; Asida favosa Champion, 1884 and Asida similata Champion, 1884 [= Pelecyphorus fallax (Champion, 1884]; Ologlyptus bicarinatus

  12. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Abdul R. War

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L. and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be minimized. We further highlight the importance of supporting conventional breeding techniques by molecular techniques such as molecular markers linked to bruchid resistance.

  13. Efeito de extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida no controle de Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col.: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p41 Extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida foram testados no controle de  Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, uma importante praga de brassicáceas nas fases larval e adulta. Duas larvas com três dias de idade, mantidas sob condições de laboratório (T:25ºC, U.R:70% e 14 horas de fotofase, foram colocadas em tubos de vidro contendo folha de  couve-chinesa (Brassica chinensis previamente tratada com extratos aquosos (10% p/v de folha de cinamomo (Melia azedarach, de ramo de  cinamomo e de pó-de-fumo (Nicotiana tabacum. O mesmo procedimento foi repetido em dois ensaios com insetos adultos. No primeiro, foram utilizados todos os extratos anteriormente citados mais o extrato de Dal- Neem (produto comercial à base de Azadirachta indica. No segundo, os insetos foram expostos a extratos de frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens e de folhas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora, de jambolão (Syzygium cuminii e de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Todos os testes constaram de 10 insetos por tratamento, com cinco repetições no primeiro ensaio com insetos adultos e com seis repetições nos demais. As  observações foram realizadas diariamente até o quinto dia, objetivando avaliar a mortalidade dos insetos. Todos os extratos testados  resultaram num controle efetivo de larvas de M.ochroloma.Em  relação aos insetos adultos, apenas os extratos de pó-de-fumo e de Dal- Neem apresentaram efi ciência de controle.

  14. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

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    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  15. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

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    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  16. Effects of cutting date, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting on survival of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in firewood logs.

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    Petrice, Toby R; Haack, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. We conducted studies in Michigan to evaluate how different tree cutting dates, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting affected A. planipennis survival in firewood logs. In 2002-2003, we cut logs from A. planipennis-infested ash trees each month, from July to October, and stored half of the logs in shade and half in full sun. In 2003-2004, we tested logs cut July-December; stored in sun versus shade; tarped versus untarped; and whole logs versus split logs. For both years, A. planipennis successfully emerged the summer after cutting from logs that represented all treatments and all cutting dates tested. Adult emergence density was significantly lower in logs cut in July and August. In 2003-2004, A. planipennis adult length was significantly shorter, and percentage of mortality was significantly higher for logs cut in August compared with later months. Emergence density was significantly lower for split logs compared with whole logs for all cutting months except for December. There was no significant difference in adult emergence density between logs stored in full sun versus shade in 2002-2003. In 2003-2004, untarped logs in full sun or shade had significantly lower adult emergence densities than tarped logs in the sun or shade. In conclusion, emergence, survival, and size of A. planipennis was significantly reduced if logs were cut early during larval development (July or August); splitting logs and storing them untarped in full sun or shade further reduced adult emergence. No treatment was 100% effective in preventing adult emergence.

  17. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

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    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

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    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  19. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

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    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ≍68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed.

  20. Density of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Adults and Larvae at Three Stages of the Invasion Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Stephen J; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M

    2018-02-08

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees were recorded in fixed radius plots and linear transects in each site. Ash mortality was highest in Core sites in the southeast, moderate in Crest sites in central southern Michigan, and low in Cusp sites in the southwest. Traps and trap trees in Crest sites accounted for 75 and 60% of all EAB beetles captured in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Populations of EAB were present in all Core sites and traps in these sites captured 13% of all beetles each year. Beetle captures and larval densities at Cusp sites roughly doubled between 2010 and 2011, reflecting the increasing EAB populations. Sticky bands on girdled trees captured the highest density of EAB beetles per m2 of area, while baited double-decker traps had the highest detection rates and captured the most beetles. Larval densities were higher on girdled ash than on similar ungirdled trees and small planted trees. Woodpecker predation and a native larval parasitoid were present in all three invasion regions but had minor effects on ash survival and EAB densities. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  2. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  3. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

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    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  4. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

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    E. M. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL, width (BOW and height (BOH of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width. These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  5. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil

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    M. C. Paula-Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  6. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  7. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. [Infestation of the human digestive system with beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Cantharidae): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ekici, Pınar

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to report the digestive system infestation caused by the larvae of Coleoptera in a female pediatric patient. She was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of emergence of insect larvae from her vomit and feces, abdominal pain, inguinal pain, lack of appetite, hair loss, excessive cleaning behavior, extreme irritability, and distractibility. The larvae observed typically had the morphology of the larvae of insects related to the Cantharidae family in the Coleoptera order. For treatment, a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) was used. Consequently, in the present case, it was seen that the larvae of Coleoptera incidentally taken orally could continue to live for a period in the digestive tract of people, without losing vitality, and the larvae caused a variety of symptoms due to both their toxic agents and the possible irritation they caused.

  9. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  10. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  11. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  12. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  13. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  14. Ciclo biológico e predação de três espécies de coccinelídeos (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre o pulgão-gigante-do-pinus Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae Biological cycle and predation of three coccinellid species (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on giant conifer aphid Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Afídeos do gênero Cinara Curtis são importantes pragas de coníferas em vários países. No Brasil Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 tem causado danos em plantações comerciais de Pinus spp. e o controle biológico com predadores pode ser uma opção melhor que o controle químico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a biologia e a capacidade de predação dos coccinelídeos Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 e Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre ninfas de C. atlantica. O estudo foi conduzido sob condições controladas (temperatura: 23 ± 1ºC, UR: 70 ± 10% e fotofase: 14 h.. Foi verificado que ninfas de C. atlantica são adequadas como alimento para as três espécies de coccinelídeos, assegurando seu desenvolvimento e reprodução. H. convergens e C. sanguinea apresentaram maior longevidade e capacidade de reprodução e também maior capacidade de predação (3832 e 3633 ninfas de C. atlantica em comparação a 2735 ninfas consumidas por E. connexa durante o ciclo completo, respectivamente para as espécies. Estas espécies de predadores podem contribuir para a redução da população de Cinara no campo.The aphids of the genus Cinara Curtis are important pests of conifers in several countries. In Brazil, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 has damaged commercial plantations of Pinus spp. and biological control with predators can be a better option than chemical control. The objective of this work was to study biology and predation potential of coccinellids Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on nymphs of C. atlantica. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (temperature: 23 ± 1ºC, RH: 70 ± 10% and fotophase: 14 h. It was verified that C. atlantica nymphs are adequate as food for the three coccinellid species, assuring their development and

  15. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.

  17. Bio-edafology of the Coleoptera order, in three Colombia Natural Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar; Chamorro B, Clara

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of Coleoptera families is showed to three different Colombian Natural Regions. This is given in relation with biological and environmental factors, different vegetation covers and soil uses. In addition to it, susceptible Coleoptera taxa are determined when natural conditions are disturbed. Methodically, a literature subject research was made, and Barber and Berlesse traps were used to organism extractions from superficial and under superficial soil. Horizons diversity, riches and constancy index were determined to each family. Results show different diversity, riches and constancy values to each family, as much in each natural region, such as to each soil use

  18. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  19. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  1. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Ssemiochemical lures in Chiapas, Mexico: possible roles of pheromones during joint host attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Nino-Dominguez; Brian T. Sullivan; Jose H. Lopez-Urbina; Jorge E. Macias-Samano

    2016-01-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armend

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  6. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  7. Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Jäch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.

  8. Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäch, Manfred A; Delgado, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.

  9. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  10. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805

  11. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  12. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  13. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  14. Tanyproctus (Tanyproctus) arher (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Tanyproctini), a new species from the Socotra Island, Yemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sehnal, R.; Král, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3737, č. 2 (2013), s. 191-196 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeoidea * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/zt03737p196.pdf

  15. Stomanomala subcostata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), the first record of ruteline chafer from Socotra Archipelago, Yemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Král, D.; Limbourg, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 87-91 ISSN 0374-1036 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeidae * Rutelinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35053

  16. Microbial control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004-2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash...

  17. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Je Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  18. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  19. Flight propensty of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Francese; B. Wang; D. R. Lance; Z. Xu; S. Zong; Y. Luo; A. J. Sawyer; V. C. Mastro

    2003-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Motschulsky), is a recently introduced pest of hardwoods. Research to study its flight behavior was conducted in the field in Ningxia Autonomous Region, Peoples' Republic of China. To study the flight propensity of A. glabripennis, adult beetles were observed in population...

  20. Characterization of an Aggregation Pheromone in Hylesinus pruinosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Shepherd; Brian Sullivan; Bradley Hoosier; JoAnne Barrett; Tessa Bauman

    2010-01-01

    We conducted laboratory and field bioassays to characterize the pheromone system of an ash bark beetle, Hylesinus pruinosus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Solitary females in newly initiated galleries in ash logs produced (+)-exo-brevicomin, whereas male beetles paired with females produced (+)-endo-brevicomin, lesser quantities of...

  1. First contact pheromone identified for a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Spikes; Matthew A. Paschen; Jocelyn G. Miller; Jardel A. Moreira; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the reproductive behavior of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae. Mallodon dasystomus (Say), the hardwood stump borer, is a widely distributed prionine that is native to the southern U.S. Here, we explored the chemically-mediated mating behavior of M dasystomus, and tested the hypothesis that males recognize...

  2. Variation in enantiospecific attraction of Ips avulsus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to the pheromone ipsdienol in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jeremy Allison

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, we tested the responses of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to multiple-funnel traps baited with (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)- ipsdienol. Three experiments were conducted in Georgia with all traps co-baited with one of the following lure combinations, respectively: experiment 1, ipsenol; experiment 2, lanierone and...

  3. Description of a new species of Bothynus Hope from Argentina and Bolivia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Martin

    2017-12-04

    A new species of Bothynus Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) is described from the eastern Andes in South America. The new species is unique in the genus for having the elytra and part of the pronotum covered with small setae.

  4. Dispersal of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from discrete epicenters in two outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.W. Siegert; D.G. McCullough; D.W. Williams; I. Fraser; T.M. Poland; S.J. Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem- feeding beetle native to Asia, has become one of the most destructive forest pests in North America. Since it was Þrst identified in 2002 in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, dozens of isolated A. planipennis populations have been...

  5. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth E. Graham; Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Jocelyn G. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid...

  6. De brede geelgerande waterroofkever Dytiscus latissimus na 38 jaar weer in Nederland opgedoken (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van G.

    2006-01-01

    Dytiscus latissimus after 38 years rediscovered in the Netherlands in 2005 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) In 2005 two males of the water beetle Dytiscus latissimus were caught near Uffelte (province of Drenthe). The species is endangered throughout its range and was thought to be extinct in the

  7. Distribution and habitat of Graphoderus bilineatus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.G.M.; Koese, B.; Sierdsema, H.

    2006-01-01

    Verspreiding en biotopen van Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) De verspreiding en biotopen van de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus zijn in 2004 en 2005 onderzocht in opdracht van de provincie Zuid-Holland en het Ministerie van lnv. Deze waterroofkever is wettelijk

  8. Canuschiza of Socotra Island (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Part 2. Canuschiza minuta species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, R.; Král, D.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 77-86 ISSN 0374-1036 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeoidea * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35052

  9. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  10. Upper lethal temperature limits of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, larval and adult stages of Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to heat (46-54°C, 25-30% RH) was investigated. The larval stage was found to be most tolerant to heat. Very short exposure (5 min) of the larvae to temperatures of 52°C and above led to 100...

  11. A contribution to the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, 19 species of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, belonging to the subfamily Paederinae Fleming 1821, were collected from Mazandaran province, north of Iran, during 2015-2016. Two species, Rugilus angustatus Geoffroy 1758 and Astenus lyonessius (joy 1908 are reported for the first time from Iran.

  12. Repeated losses of TTAGG telomere repeats in evolution of beetles (Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frydrychová, Radmila; Marec, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2002), s. 179-187 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0750; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : chromosomes * Coleoptera * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2002

  13. Patterns of tree species usage by long-horned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waqa-Sakiti, H.; Stewart, A.; Čížek, Lukáš; Hodge, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-64 ISSN 0030-8870 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2014 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2984/68.1.5

  14. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Annery; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-07

    Four new species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris 1827, subgenus Cnemarachis Saylor 1942 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Cuba are described: Phyllophaga barroi new species, Phyllophaga guanahacabibensis new species, Phyllophaga pauli new species, and Phyllophaga sabanalamarensis new species. Each species is illustrated using photographs of the habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing the geographical distributions of the new species.

  15. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were...

  16. Entomopathogens in conjunction with imidacloprid could be used to manage wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles (wireworms) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious pests of several agricultural crops worldwide. Hypnoidus bicolor and Limonius californicus are two major wireworm species damaging to spring wheat, particularly in the Golden Triangle, an important cereal-grow...

  17. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  18. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  19. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  20. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  1. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  2. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  4. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  8. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  9. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  10. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  12. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  13. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  14. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  15. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; br, picanco@ufv; br, guedes@ufv; br, mateusc3@yahoo com; br, agronomiasilva@yahoo com

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  16. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio; julioufv@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD 50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g -1 a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  17. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  18. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  19. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  20. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuevo hospedador de Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María VILLACIDE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de adultos de Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898 (Cerambycidae fue detectada en una plantación de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf. Engelm. en la localidad de Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. Este es el primer registro del desarrollo de H. livida en una especie hospedadora distinta de Araucaria spp. Esta contribución agrega una nueva especie y una nueva familia al listado de plantas hospedadoras descriptas para este Cerambycidae en Chile.

  2. Nuevo hospedador de Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    José María VILLACIDE; Paula SACKMANN; Mario ELGUETA

    2006-01-01

    La presencia de adultos de Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898) (Cerambycidae) fue detectada en una plantación de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf.) Engelm. en la localidad de Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina). Este es el primer registro del desarrollo de H. livida en una especie hospedadora distinta de Araucaria spp. Esta contribución agrega una nueva especie y una nueva familia al listado de plantas hospedadoras descriptas para este Cerambycidae en Chile.

  3. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  4. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  5. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  6. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  7. Nuevo hospedador de Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae en Argentina New host record for Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Villacide

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de adultos de Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898 (Cerambycidae fue detectada en una plantación de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf. Engelm. en la localidad de Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. Este es el primer registro del desarrollo de H. livida en una especie hospedadora distinta de Araucaria spp. Esta contribución agrega una nueva especie y una nueva familia al listado de plantas hospedadoras descriptas para este Cerambycidae en Chile.Adult of Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898 (Cerambycidae were captured in a Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf. Engelm. plantation located in Lago Puelo ( Chubut , Argentina . This is the first mention of the development of H. livida on a host species different than Araucaria spp. This contribution also adds a new host species and family to the list of host plants described for this Cerambycidae in Chile .

  8. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  9. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  10. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuevo hospedador de Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) en Argentina New host record for Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    José María Villacide; Paula Sackmann; Mario Elgueta

    2006-01-01

    La presencia de adultos de Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898) (Cerambycidae) fue detectada en una plantación de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf.) Engelm. en la localidad de Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina). Este es el primer registro del desarrollo de H. livida en una especie hospedadora distinta de Araucaria spp. Esta contribución agrega una nueva especie y una nueva familia al listado de plantas hospedadoras descriptas para este Cerambycidae en Chile.Adult of Huequenia liv...

  12. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  13. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  14. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  15. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Soares Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae. Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.

  16. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  17. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  18. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  20. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECTS OF WEEVILS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) CONTROL PRODUCTS, OVER THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Muñoz, Liliana; Cañas, Guillermo L.; Urrea, Aura I.; Guarín, Juan H.

    2013-01-01

    In a farm in the municipality of Andes (Antioquia, Colombia), parcels were planted with Dominico Hartón plantain associated with Caturra-type coffee, where weevil damage (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurred in 100% of the plantain plants, corms of approximately 2 kg were planted under the same association system. From the sowing until harvest, six types of products were applied every two months on these plantations: chemical of the region (Clorpirifos and Carboxin + Thiram), Carbofur...

  3. Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp.) in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SEPÚLVEDA-CANO, PAULA A; RUBIO-GÓMEZ, JOSÉ D

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824), Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758) y Polytus mell...

  4. A new Icimauna Martins & Galileo, 1991, from the Bolivian orocline (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Hemilophini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Perger, Robert

    2017-04-07

    The Neotropical longhorned beetle tribe Hemilophini has been reviewed by Martins & Galileo (2014a, b) and currently contains 542 species (Monné 2017). Some of the most conspicuous longhorned beetle taxa are found in this tribe, for example species with a pair of cephalic horns (Phoebe Audinet-Serville, 1835), or others that strongly resemble to noxious Lycidae (Coleoptera) (e.g. Apeba Martins & Galileo, 1991, Calocosmus Chevrolat, 1862, or Lycidola Thomson, 1864) (see Lingafelter 2013; Martins & Galileo 2014a, b).

  5. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  6. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  7. Fine fluorescent powder marking study of dispersal in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan; Davídková, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, JAN 07 (2016), s. 1-8 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Grant - others:Forests of the Czech Republic(CZ) 08/2009; MŠMT(CZ) LH12098 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scolytidae * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/01.pdf

  8. A checklist of the genus Blosyrus Schoenherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mahendiran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of Blosyrus Schoenherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae comprising 101 species with their updated nomenclature, synonyms and distribution is given. The distribution pattern indicates that the genus is diversified mostly in the Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia regions. Out of 101 species, 92 occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. From India, eight species were recorded. In India, the distribution is mainly in West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

  9. Aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in protected wetlands of North-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are diverse and productive ecosystems endangered by human pressure, which degradation implies a biodiversity loss worldwide. Among the biological assemblages of these habitats, aquatic Coleoptera is one of the most diverse and useful groups when assessing the ecological conditions of the ecosystems they inhabit. The aims of the present study were to analyze the diversity and composition of aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in 24 wetlands protected by the Natura 2000 network of North-western Spain and the influence of environmental variables on the distribution of species, in order to detect differences between the different types of standing water habitats. A total of 11,136 individuals of 105 species belonging to 12 families of aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Paelobiidae, Dytiscidae, Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Scirtidae, Elmidae and Dryopidae were collected. In general, wetlands presented high richness and diversity values, Dytiscidae and Hydrophilidae having the highest species richness. Most of recorded species have a wide biogeographical distribution and only 12 endemic ones were captured. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the studied ponds and lagoons in four groups based on biological data. In general, the wetlands of each group seem to have distinct aquatic Coleoptera faunas, as showed by the most representative species. A combination of altitude, SST and hydroperiod was the best explaining factor of the distribution of the species throughout the study area. This study shows the high biodiversity of standing water habitats in North-western Spain and the usefulness of water beetles in establishing habitat typologies.

  10. Distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon relictus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dae-Am; Kuprin, Alexander V; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2018-01-02

    The distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon (Eoxenus) relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia was summarized for the first time, based on the examination of comprehensive material. Callipogon relictus is the only representative of the genus Callipogon in the Palearctic region. Its distribution ranges from Shanxi province (China) in the south, northward through the Korean Peninsula to Amur Oblast (Russia), and from Inner Mongolia (China) in the west to the coastal area of the Russian Far East.

  11. New faunistic records of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadbakhsh Saeed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a faunal study of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Hormozgan province in southern Iran, which was carried out from winter 2015 to winter 2016. A total of 30 species belonging to 18 genera were collected and identified. Two species – Calodromius mayeti and Elaphropus (Tachyura biblis – are reported from Iran for the first time; in addition, the occurrence of several species in Iran was confirmed.

  12. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  13. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  14. An annotated synopsis of the powder post beetles of Iran (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Yu Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An annotated synopsis of Iranian Bostrichidae (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea is provided as a basis for future studies, with notes on distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In total, 31 species from 18 genera and 4 subfamilies (Bostrichinae, Dinoderinae, Lyctinae and Psoinae are listed from Iran. Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897, Sinoxylon perforans (Schrank, 1789, Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792 and Xylopertha retusa (Olivier, 1790 are new records for Iran.

  15. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  17. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  18. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  19. Nuevas citas de Coleoptera acuáticos y Megaloptera para la provincia de Chubut (Argentina New records of aquatic Coleoptera and Megaloptera from Chubut province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Archangelsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca de nuevos hallazgos de coleópteros acuáticos, de Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae y Elmidae para la provincia de Chubut (Argentina. También se cita por primera vez a las Sialidae (Megaloptera, género Protosialis Weele, para la República Argentina.New records of aquatic Coleoptera, in the families Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae, are reported for the Chubut province (Argentina. The Sialidae (Megaloptera, genus Protosialis Weele, is reported for the first time in Argentina.

  20. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  2. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  3. Deteksi Keberadaan Phytophthora Spp. Di Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2014-01-01

    The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...

  4. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  5. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  6. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  7. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  8. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  10. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  11. Ocorrência de Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae em plantios de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Occurrence of Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Pinus caribaea hondurensis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Wilcken

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae foram encontradas danificando raízes de mudas de P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. no Estado de São Paulo. Isso aumenta a importância dessa espécie, cujos danos, em espécies florestais, têm aumentado, principalmente, em plantios de eucalipto. Esse é o primeiro registro de M. fryanus em plantios de Pinus, e o referido inseto pode ser considerado uma nova praga dessa espécie florestal. Detalhes das características morfológicas e biológicas, danos e possíveis métodos de controle de M. fryanus são discutidos.Larvae of Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae were found damaging roots of young plants of P. caribaea hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This fact increases the importance of this species because the damages have been increasing in forest species specially in eucalyptus plantations. This is the first record of M. fryanus in pine plantations and this insect can be considered a pest of pine plants. Details on the morphology and biological characteristics, damage and possible control methods to M. fryanus are discussed.

  12. Occurrence, Biology and Harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Rhynchitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, was studied the occurrence, biology and harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Rhynchitidae on forest woody plants in the Brno region. Leaf rolls were found on 13 species (and 10 genera of woody plants. Most frequently, they occurred on Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp. (namely on T. cordata, Salix caprea and Populus tremula. The beetles hibernate in ground pupal chambers and appear on woody plants in the last decade of April. After hibernation, females live on average seven (males five weeks, and damage on average 40 (males 25 cm2 of leaves. The females create leaf rolls on annual shoots they have gnawed, exceptionally (in 2% on leaves with damaged petioles. In the rolls on F. sylvatica, they roll on average 5.6 leaves whose total average area is 49.5 cm2 and lay on average 5.1 eggs. In the rolls on Tilia spp., they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 63.2 cm2 and lay on average 4.9 eggs. In the rolls on S. caprea, they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 38.3 cm2 and lay on average 3.5 eggs. The maximum number of laid eggs (on average 8.0 was observed in the leaf rolls on Vitis vinifera. The average number of eggs in the leaf rolls was decreasing from May to July. The number of eggs was increasing with the increasing total leaf area rolled. The females lay on average 50 eggs. On P. tremula, S. caprea and Pyrus pyraster they create about 15 leaf rolls, on F. sylvatica and Tilia spp. about 10 leaf rolls and on V. vinifera ca. 8 leaf rolls. Embryogenesis lasts from 8 to 9 days. Larvae develop over 3 instars and damage ca. 300 mm2 of leaves. Coming of age within 4−7 weeks, they leave the leaf rolls from mid-June to the beginning of September.

  13. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  14. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

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    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  15. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  16. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunakov, Nikolai; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Filimonov, Rostislav; Volovnik, Semyon

    2018-04-05

    The fauna of weevils Curculionoidea of Ukraine numbers 1453 species equivalent to 25.3% of European fauna. They belong to 10 families and 364 genera. A total of 51 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Assessment of inventory completeness indicates that 62% of the area of Ukraine are covered by samples. Spatial join analysis has reveals strong collecting biases and shows maximal richness in cells which fall into well-sampled provinces. A total of 22 out of 33 studied model sites are well-sampled (C>0.5). In total, we estimate ca.1470 species of Curculionoidea living in Ukraine. Curculionidae comprise the majority (82%) of the fauna, with 1202 species and 266 genera, and with remarkably high proportion of the three largest subfamilies: Entiminae (26%), Curculioninae (19%), and Ceutorhynchinae (18%). Consolidated data analysis shows highest richness (678-822 spp.) in provinces which fall into the mountain areas. Aggregated species richness for each of five ecoregions uncovers highest values in Pontic steppe (665 species) and East European forest-steppe (593 species). Habitat distribution of weevils is strongly uneven. Most of the richness (565 spp.) is harboured in lowland broadleaf forests. Salt marshes, salt steppes and sands are extreme habitats with low richness but high proportion of habitat specialists. Only 141 dominant species representing 18% of the total fauna but make up to 63% of the total population of weevils in Ukraine. Endemic species comprise a small proportion of the fauna but are remarkably concentrated in the mountains of Crimea (24 species) and the Carpathians (25 species). Along with 'true' endemics, 210 species are narrowly-ranged non-endemics and also have higher concentration in Crimea and the Carpathians (105 and 38 spp.). A total of 82 species are qualified as widely-ranged with high concentration in Central European Mixed Forests and East European Forest Steppe (71 spp. on average per province).        The high

  17. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  18. [Amblyomma spp. case related to overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.

  19. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  20. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  1. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  2. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  3. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...

  4. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  5. Responses of Ips pini (Say), Pityogenes knechteli Swaine and Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) to Host Monoterpenes in Stands of Lodgepole Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2003-01-01

    We conducted seven experiments in stands of mature lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia to elucidate the role of host volatiles in the semiochemical ecology of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with particular reference to the behavioral responses of predators and competing species of bark beetles. Our results demonstrated that the...

  6. Comparison of trap types, placement, and colors for monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults in highbush blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast USA. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012-2014, studies were conducted in commercial blueberry farms in New Jers...

  7. Attraction of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and other buprestids to sticky traps of various colors and shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; Therese M. Poland

    2013-01-01

    The family Buprestidae (Coleoptera) contains numerous economically significant species, including the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, first discovered in North America in 2002. Effective traps for monitoring spread and population densities of EAB and other buprestids are needed. Studies were conducted in 2008 to test different...

  8. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  9. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  10. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  11. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  12. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  13. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  14. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

    2008-01-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation...

  15. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  16. Effects of pheromone and plant volatile release rates and ratios on trapping Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.S. Meng; R.T. Trotter; M.A. Keena; T.C. Baker; S. Yan; E.G. Schwartzberg; K. Hoover

    2014-01-01

    Native to China and Korea, the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a polyphagous wood-boring pest for which a trapping system would greatly benefit eradication and management programs in both the introduced and native ranges. Over two field seasons, a total of 160 flight intercept panel traps...

  17. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  18. Survival and phenology of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) reared on a newly developed artificial diet free of host material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Hannah Nadel; Juli. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The final phase in the development of an artificial diet that contains no ash host material and the phenology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupresidae) on that diet are documented. A diet containing powdered ash phloem exists, but host material introduces potential variability and contamination, and the cost and...

  19. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  20. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  1. Limited predation potential by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs and nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) co-occur in many habitats with many arthropods that are of suitable size as prey. The Pentatomidae (Hemiptera) are one such group of insects with eggs and early instars that could be susceptible to predation by Coccinellidae. The objective of this laboratory study wa...

  2. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, with or without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent ...

  3. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Circulionidae: Scolytinae) Invasion in Eastern U.S. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.H. Koch; W.D. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a signiÞcant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. SpeciÞcally, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia...

  5. The historical role of Ips hauseri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spruce forest of Ile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Mukhamadiev; A. Lynch; C. O' Connor; A. Sagitov; N. Ashikbaev; I. Panyushkina

    2014-01-01

    On 17 May and 27 June 2011 severe cyclonic storms damaged several hundred hectares of spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana) in the Tian Shan Mountains. Bark beetle populations increased rapidly in dead and damaged trees, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographus, I. sexdentatus, and Piiyogenesperfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and there is concern about the...

  6. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  7. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  8. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-04-17

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned.

  9. Nesaeoduvalius (gen. n. vailatii sp. n., from Euboia island (Eastern Greece (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille Casale

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesaeoduvalius (new genus vailatii Casale & Giachino, new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechini is described and illustrated from the Euboia (Evvia island (eastern Greece. The new taxon belongs to the Duvalius “isotopic” trechine lineage, but is markedly characterized by the peculiar combination of several morphological features in the general shape, chaetotaxy of head, serrate lateral margins of elytra, and features of male genitalia (both in median lobe of aedeagus and endophallus. Its putative position amongst the trechines of the Duvalius phyletic lineage is discussed. Data on the distribution and habitat of this new, insular and unexpected taxon are also provided.

  10. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  11. Espécies de Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini ocorrentes na Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.

  12. An annotated checklist of the aquatic Polyphaga (Coleoptera) of Egypt I. Family Hydraenidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Mohamed; Cueto, Juan Antonio Régil; Valladares, Luis F

    2014-10-16

    Data from previous literature were used to compile a checklist of the Egyptian fauna of Hydraenidae (Coleoptera). The checklist includes data on the type localities, type specimens, descriptors, distributions and previous literature for 15 valid species belonging to 3 genera (Hydraena, Limnebius and Ochthebius). Ochthebius was represented by 13 species, while Hydraena and Limnebius were represented only by a single species for each of them. The present study provides a summary that can serve as the basis for future progress in the knowledge of the Egyptian Hydraenidae. 

  13. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  14. Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae) in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sidney Alberto do Nascimento; Gentil, Daniel Felipe de Oliveira; Silva, Neliton Marques da

    2003-01-01

    No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto ...

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  16. AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Victoir, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Meijden, van der E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2005-01-01

    A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an

  17. Oviposition Behaviors in Relation to Rotation Resistance in the Western Corn Rootworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knolhoff, L.M.; Glas, J.J.; Spencer, J.L.; Berenbaum, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Across a large area of the midwestern United States Corn Belt, the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) exhibits behavioral resistance to annual crop rotation. Resistant females exhibit increased locomotor activity and frequently lay eggs

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin increases the susceptibility of Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata to Beauveria bassiana infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...

  19. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics, ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoclanclounon, YA. Vol 86 (2015) - Articles Toxicity of two plant powders as biopesticides in the management of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) on two stored grain legumes. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  1. Temporal and host-related variation in frequencies of genes that enable Phyllotreta nemorum to utilize a novel host plant, Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Jong, de P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.,

  2. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the Northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nițu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  3. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  4. Functional Response of the Predators Alloeocranum biannulipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and Teretrius nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) Feeding on Dinoderus porcellus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Yam Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loko, Y L; Djagoun, A D; Dannon, E A; Datinon, B; Dansi, A; Thomas-Odjo, A A; Tamo, M

    2017-02-01

    The functional response and some predation parameters of the predators Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret (Hemiptera: Reduviidea) and Teretrius nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae) were evaluated at five different densities of larvae and pupae of Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) with the aim to understand their roles in the biological control of this major pest of stored yam chips. Experiments were performed in petri dishes at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h in a controlled temperature room. Both predators showed Type II of functional response with respect to larvae, determined by a logistic regression model. However, T. nigrescens significantly killed more larvae of D. porcellus compared with A. biannulipes. This behavior, however, changed to a linear functional response (Type I), when pupae of D. porcellus were offered to both predators, possibly because of their immobility. In addition, there was no significant difference between T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes in terms of the killed pupae. Parameters of the Holling disc equation for both predators were estimated. Estimated handling time on larvae of D. porcellus for T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes was 0.254 and 0.677 h and the rate of searching efficiency was 0.289 and 0.348 h-1, respectively. Results indicated that T. nigrescens was a more suitable candidate for augmentative release for D. porcellus control than A. biannulipes. However, semifield studies are required to draw firm conclusions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  6. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  7. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  9. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  12. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  13. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  14. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  15. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  16. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  17. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  18. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  19. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  20. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  1. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  2. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  3. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  4. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  5. Radiosensitization of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine). The only technology available commercially is ionizing radiation; however, the actual radiation dose required to inactivate pathogens is too high to be tolerated by the product without unwanted changes. This study shows a new approach in using MAP with 100% O(2), which is converted to ozone to radiosensitize

  6. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  7. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  8. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  10. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  11. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  12. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  13. Biology of Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Lodgepole Pine in Northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Malcolm M; Kegley, Sandra J

    2018-04-19

    The twig beetle, Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus Eichhoff, infests dead branches of pines in western United States and Canada, including lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas, in northern Idaho. Adult broods overwintered in their host and emerged and colonized new hosts in late April. Males initiated galleries and were joined by up to seven females, each of which constructed an egg gallery radiating from a central chamber. Galleries had an average of 4.7 egg niches each with an egg that was large relative to the mother beetle. Two larval instars were recognized. Dentition of larval mandibles differed in shape from that in literature. Mature larvae pupated either in a cell excavated on the wood surface or in a cell below the wood surface. First-generation adults mined extensively in the inner bark and wood before emerging to infest new trees in late June. Their progeny became adults beginning in early August and likewise mined and fed on the inner bark and wood before overwintering. Predacious beetles present as larvae in the galleries included Enoclerus lecontei (Wolcott) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Lasconotus sp. (Coleoptera: Zopheridae). Parasitoid Hymenoptera reared from infested trees were Cosmophorus pityophthori Rohwer (Braconidae), Phasmidiasta n. sp. (Braconidae), Spathius sp. (Braconidae), Acerocephala n. sp. (Pteromalidae), Metacolus fasciatus Girault (Pteromalidae), Rhaphitelus maculatus Walker (Pteromalidae), Rhopalicus sp. (Pteromalidae), and an unidentified pteromalid.

  14. Adaptation of the Egg of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to Arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis , while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis . The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor , and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor . The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  15. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  16. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  17. Detection and quantification of Leptographium wageneri, the cause of black-stain root disease, from bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North California using regular and real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Schweigkofler; William J. Otrosina; Sheri L. Smith; Daniel R. Cluck; Kevin Maeda; Kabir G. Peay; Matteo Garbelotto

    2005-01-01

    Black-stain root disease is a threat to conifer forests in western North America. The disease is caused by the ophiostomatoid fungus Leptographium wageneri (W.B. Kendr.) M.J. Wingf., which is associated with a number of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We developed a polymerase chain reaction test...

  18. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  19. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C S; Ragama, P E; Coe, R; Rukazambuga, N D T M

    2005-04-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is an important pest on bananas and plantains. Population build-up is slow and damage becomes increasingly important in successive crop cycles (ratoons). Yield loss results from plant loss, mat disappearance and reduced bunch size. Damage assessment requires destructive sampling and is most often done on corms of recently harvested plants. A wide range of damage assessment methods exist and there are no agreed protocols. It is critical to know what types of damage best reflect C. sordidus pest status through their relationships with yield loss. Multiple damage assessment parameters (i.e. for the corm periphery, cortex and central cylinder) were employed in two yield loss trials and a cultivar-screening trial in Uganda. Damage to the central cylinder had a greater effect on plant size and yield loss than damage to the cortex or corm periphery. In some cases, a combined assessment of damage to the central cylinder and cortex showed a better relationship with yield loss than an assessment of the central cylinder alone. Correlation, logistic and linear regression analyses showed weak to modest correlations between damage to the corm periphery and damage to the central cylinder. Thus, damage to the corm periphery is not a strong predictor of the more important damage to the central cylinder. Therefore, C. sordidus damage assessment should target the central cylinder and cortex.

  1. Effect of buprofezin on survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis, Stethorus punctum picipes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Orius tristicolor (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G

    2004-06-01

    The effect of buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Stethortus punctum picipes Casey, Orius tristicolor (White), Geocoris pallens Stål, and Geocoris punctipes (Say), was examined in a series of laboratory bioassays. Very few H. axyridis larvae (3.1%) treated with buprofezin reached adulthood, although 65% of treated pupae emerged successfully. Buprofezin caused no mortality to eggs of S. punctum picipes but 71.1% of treated early instar larvae failed to complete development. Eighty percent of treated late instars and 92.3% of pupae produced viable adults. Early instar nymphs of O. tristicolor were unaffected by buprofezin, whereas 47.7 and 85% of G. punctipes and G. pallens nymphs, respectively, failed to complete development. Treated eggs of G. pallens hatched successfully. The use of buprofezin in integrated pest management in Washington state wine grapes is discussed.

  2. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  3. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

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    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  6. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

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    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  7. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  8. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  9. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  11. New associations between the Asian pests Anoplophora spp. and local parasitoids, in Italy (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck Herard; Mariangela Ciampitti; Matteo Maspero; Christian Cocquempot; Gerard Delvare; Jamie Lopez; Mario Colombo

    2007-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and the citrus longhorned beetle (CLB) Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) have been accidentally introduced in a few urban sites in North America and Europe where they are considered as serious threats to urban and natural forests, and...

  12. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Tahiti, Society Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, James K

    2013-01-01

    Leay). Much of the species-level diversity on this small Pacific island is partitioned allopatrically over very small distributional ranges. No species is shared between Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, and nearly all species in Tahiti Nui are geographically restricted to one ridgelike massif of that volcano. Cladistically similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes.

  13. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini of Tahiti, Society Islands

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    James Liebherr

    2013-08-01

    similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes.

  14. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  15. ESCARABAJOS TIGRE (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE DEL MUSEO ENTOMOLÓGICO FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA TIGER BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE AT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL MUSEUM FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NEW RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ramírez Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez las especies de escarabajos tigre (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae presentes en el Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG. Se identificaron 167 especimenes distribuidos en ocho géneros y 27 especies, se reportan 24 nuevos registros para diferentes departamentos de Colombia. Se señalan aspectos importantes de la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Además, se presentan comentarios biológicos y de distribución de las especies.Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae species at the Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG are registered by first time. 167 specimens in 8 genus and 27 species were identified, 24 new records for different Colombian states are reported. Some important aspects of the group’s taxonomy and systematic are pointed. Additionally, species’ biological and distributional comments are presented.

  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks infesting cats: a large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.

  17. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  18. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  19. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  20. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.