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Sample records for spp biological activities

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

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    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  3. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

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    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  4. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  5. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

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    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  6. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

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    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilocarpus spp.: a survey of its chemical constituents and biological activities Pilocarpus spp.: revisão sobre sua constituição química e atividades biológicas

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    Ana Paula Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpus species have been exploited as the only source of the imidazole alkaloid pilocarpine (used in glaucoma treatment, since its isolation up to the present. Almost all Pilocarpusspecies are native from Brazil. Because of the medicinal importance of pilocarpine, several of them are in the path of extinction. Other secondary metabolites, such as coumarins, flavonoids and terpenes, were described for Pilocarpusspecies. In this review the secondary metabolites, other than pilocarpine, isolated from Pilocarpusspecies and their biological activities were compiled. Although the variety of structures and the importance of the biological activities described in literature for Pilocarpusspecies this is an unexploited field of research in Natural Products and Pharmacology.Espécies de Pilocarpus têm sido exploradas como única fonte do alcalóide imidazólico pilocarpina (utilizado no tratamento do glaucoma desde o isolamento dessa substância até os dias atuais. A maioria das espécies de Pilocarpus conhecida é nativa do Brasil e, devido à importância medicinal que a pilocarpina possui e ao desmatamento, várias se encontram em risco de extinção. Outros metabólitos secundários entre os quais cumarinas, flavonóides e terpenos foram descritos em espécies desse gênero. Nesta revisão foram relacionados os metabólitos secundários isolados em diversas espécies de Pilocarpus bem como suas atividades biológicas. Apesar da variedade de estruturas e as importantes atividades biológicas já descritas na literatura para as outras classes de metabólitos secundários, ainda há um vasto campo de estudo para as espécies de Pilocarpus.

  8. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  9. The isolated Leptospira Spp. Identification by molecular biological techniques

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    Duangjai Suwancharoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria of Leptospira spp. Identification of this bacterium relies on serotyping and genotyping. Data base for animal causative serovars in Thailand is limited. As the unknown serovars are found in the laboratory, they need to be sent overseas for referent identification. To reduce the cost, this research intended to develop a leptospiral identification method which is user–friendly and able to classify efficiently. Ten Leptospira isolations were cultured from urine samples. They were identified by three molecular biological techniques, including Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. These methods were developed and compared to find the most suitable one for leptospiral identification. VNTR was found to be inappropriate since it could not identify the agents and it did not show the PCR product. PFGE and MLST gave the same results of the unknown 1 and 2 which were L.weilii sv Samin st Samin. Unknown 4 showed different results by each technique. Unknown 5 to 10 were likely to be L.meyeri sv Ranarum st ICF and Leptonema illini sv Illini st 3055 by PFGE but MLST could not identify the serovar. However, molecular biological technique for Leptospira identification should be done by several methods in order to confirm the result of each other.

  10. Biological control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca using Fusarium spp.

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    I. Ghannam

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.

  11. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  12. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

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    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  13. [Screening strains for Trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, A-Na; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhu, Dian-Long

    2006-10-01

    To screen the Trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens. The biological characters of ten Trichoderma strains were compared by culturing on different media. And their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Rhizoctonia solani were measured on PDA. Tv04-2 and Th3080 showed a good growth on soil solution medium and PDA, and also showed high inhibitory efficacy to the three pathogens. The two Trichoderma strains showed different growth rate under light conditions and pH. Trichoderma strains were sensitive to most fungicides used in ginseng root disease controlling, however Tv04-2 was not sensitive to the fungicide Junchong Jueba.

  14. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Pathak, K.A.; Shukla, R.; Bharali, R.

    2010-01-01

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

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    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  16. Bacterial strains diversity in Musa spp. phyllosphere with antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

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    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternatives to agricultural pesticides used for the management of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet includes the selection of microorganisms strains with potential for the control of this pathogen. The objective of the work was to characterize bacterial strains isolated from the phylosphere of Musa spp. with antifungal effect against M. fijiensis. A morphological, cultural, physiological and molecular characterization of the strains was performed and the antifungal activity of these strains was quantified by dual culture. It was verified the diversity of bacteria with antifungal properties against M. fijiensis present in the phylosphere of Musa spp.  In addition, it was found that the phyllosphere of these crops can be used as a source of obtaining possible biological controls of M. fijiensis.   Keywords: bacteria, biocontrol, Black Sigatoka, epiphytes

  17. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions.

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    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  19. Biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand.

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    De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V

    2014-01-01

    Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (p<0.01) only at concentrations 15,000, 20,000 and 25,000 in relation to control group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (p<0.01) between groups on reducing the average number of Ancylostoma spp. L3 (percent reduction of 84%) was observed. The results of this study confirm earlier work on the efficiency of the Duddingtonia genus in the control of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

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    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  1. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  2. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

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    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  3. Nematicidal activity of furanocoumarins from parsley against Meloidogyne spp.

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    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Aissani, Nadhem; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Casu, Laura; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2015-08-01

    This report describes activity against Meloidogyne spp. and chemical characterisation of the essential oil and methanol extract of Petroselinum crispum aerial parts. The study was based on the hypothesis that P. crispum could be used as an intercrop and soil amendment in tomato culture for nematode control. The methanol extract and the essential oil exhibited significant nematicidal activity against M. incognita, M. hapla and M. arenaria, the first being the most sensitive species, with EC50 /72 h values of 140 ± 15 and 795 ± 125 mg L(-1) for the extract and oil respectively. The most abundant furanocoumarin compounds in the methanolic extract were xanthotoxin, psoralen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin; levels ranged from 1.77 to 46.04 mg kg(-1) wet weight. The EC50 /24 h values of xanthotoxol, psoralen and xanthotoxin against M. incognita were 68 ± 33, 147 ± 88 and 200 ± 21 mg L(-1) respectively. The addition of fresh parsley paste to soil reduced the number of M. incognita females and plant galls on tomato roots; EC50 values were 24.79 and 28.07 mg g(-1) respectively. Moreover, parsley paste enhanced tomato growth in a dose-response manner. Parsley exhibits promising nematicidal activity as an organic amendment and as a source of nematotoxic furanocoumarins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  5. Biological control reduces growth, and alters water relations of the saltcedar tree (Tamarix spp.) in western Nevada, USA

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    R.R. Pattison; C.M. D' Antonio; T.L. Dudley

    2011-01-01

    We monitored the impacts of a biological control agent, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on the saltcedar tree (Tamarix spp.) at two sites (Humboldt and Walker rivers) in Nevada, USA. At the Humboldt site trees that had experienced three to four defoliation events had more negative water potentials and lower...

  6. Molecular genetic and hybridization studies of Diorhabda spp. released for biological control of tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tamarisk beetle Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) native to Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, is an effective biocontrol agent for use against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) an invasive shrub in western North America. The genus Diorhabda was recently revised, using morphological characters, i...

  7. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBA Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by using 9 clinical strains for each species and 1 ATCC (American Type Culture Collection from C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans. In order to evaluate the effects of the essential oils on biofilms, strains of S. aureus (ATCC 6538, S. mutans (ATCC 35688 and C. albicans (ATCC 18804 were used. The biofilm was formed on acrylic resin discs with isolated micro-organisms or in associations. The number of colony-forming-units (CFU obtained in each biofilm (CFU/ml was submitted to Student's t statistical test. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus showed microbiostatic and microbicidal activity against all tested strains. The average CFU/ml for the biofilm of S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans, whether isolated or in association, was lower in the group treated with essential oil than in the control group.

  9. Aspects of the biology of Mya arenaria and Ensis spp. (Mollusca; Bivalvia) in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Maud E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the general biology, including the reproductive cycle and health status, of two clam taxa in Irish waters, with particular reference to the Irish Sea area. Monthly samples of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from Bannow Bay, Co. Wexford, Ireland, for sixteen months, and of the razor clam, Ensis spp. from the Skerries region (Irish Sea) between June 2010 and September 2011. In 2010, M. arenaria in Bannow Bay matured over the summer mont...

  10. TRANSCRIPTIONAL INHIBITION OF INTERLEUKIN-12 PROMOTER ACTIVITY IN LEISHMANIA SPP.-INFECTED MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Asha; Widenmaier, Robyn; Ma, Xiaojing; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    To establish and persist within a host, Leishmania spp. parasites delay the onset of cell-mediated immunity by suppressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) production from host macrophages. Although it is established that Leishmania spp.-infected macrophages have impaired IL-12 production, the mechanisms that account for this suppression remain to be completely elucidated. Using a luciferase reporter assay assessing IL-12 transcription, we report here that Leishmania major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania chagasi inhibit IL-12 transcription in response to interferon-gamma, lipopolysaccharide, and CD40 ligand and that Leishmania spp. lipophosphoglycan, phosphoglycans, and major surface protein are not necessary for inhibition. In addition, all the Leishmania spp. strains and life-cycle stages tested inhibited IL-12 promoter activity. Our data further reveal that autocrine-acting host factors play no role in the inhibitory response and that phagocytosis signaling is necessary for inhibition of IL-12. PMID:18372625

  11. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  12. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  13. Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Burnet Weed (Sanguisorba spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis KARKANIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L. and small burnet (Sansguisorba minor Scop. are edible, perennial weeds widely distributed in the world. These are the most widespread Sanguisorba species. The bioactive components of Sanguisorba plants include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids and neolignans and terpenoids. Large potential exists to use burnets as medicinal plants. Sanguisorba species are known to show anticancer properties, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Also, Sanguisorba extracts show anti-Alzheimer and anti-inflammatory properties. Small burnet extracts could also be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides for crop production. This review focuses on biological activities of Sanguisorba extracts and emphasizing their potential applications in pharmaceutical areas.

  14. Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Burnet Weed (Sanguisorba spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis KARKANIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L. and small burnet (Sansguisorba minor Scop. are edible, perennial weeds widely distributed in the world. These are the most widespread Sanguisorba species. The bioactive components of Sanguisorba plants include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids and neolignans and terpenoids. Large potential exists to use burnets as medicinal plants. Sanguisorba species are known to show anticancer properties, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Also, Sanguisorba extracts show anti-Alzheimer and anti-inflammatory properties. Small burnet extracts could also be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides for crop production. This review focuses on biological activities of Sanguisorba extracts and emphasizing their potential applications in pharmaceutical areas.

  15. Esterase and protease activities of Bacillus spp. from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrophoretic profiles of fermented African locust bean protein (ALBP), using strains presenting the highest protease activities in casein agar, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to select strains with good ability to be used as starter cultures. All the Bacillus spp. tested showed esterase activity against tributyrin with high ...

  16. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  17. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains against Growth and Urease Activity of Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Goudarzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Nowadays, the use of probiotic bacteria for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections is growing. Lactobacillus, as probiotic bacterial genus, is well known for its benefits for the human health.Methods:      The effects of partially purified antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins and biosurfactants of Lactobacillus strains was assessed and their capacity to in vitro inhibit growth and urease production of various strains of Proteus spp, was studied. Inhibition of the urease production of Proteus spp. at sub-MIC levels was screened using spectrophotometry method.  Results:   Results revealed that semi-purified bacteriocins of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum showed a greater inhibitory activity on the bacterial urease, compared to biosurfactants of L. rhamnosus, L. casei and L. fermentum (P < 0.05.Conclusion:    It can be concluded that bacteriocins may affect Proteus pathogenesis by inhibition of the bacterial urease activity and therefore eliminate the stone formation by these bacteria.

  18. Inhibitory activity of Paenibacillus polymyxa on the biofilm formation of Cronobacter spp. on stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soonwook; Kim, Seonhwa; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to control the survival or biofilm formation of Cronobacter spp. on stainless steel surfaces using Paenibacillus polymyxa. The antibacterial activity of a cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of P. polymyxa against Cronobacter spp. was found to vary with P. polymyxa incubation time. Maximum activity occurred when P. polymyxa was incubated at 25 or 30 °C for 96 h. When the CFCS was introduced to Cronobacter spp. adhered to stainless steel strips at 25 °C for up to 72 h, the CFCS successfully inhibited Cronobacter biofilm formation. Additionally, stainless steel surfaces with a preformed P. polymyxa biofilm were exposed to Cronobacter spp. suspensions in PBS or 0.1% peptone water at 3, 5, or 7 log CFU/mL to facilitate its attachment. The Cronobacter population significantly decreased on this surface, regardless of inoculum level or carrier, when the P. polymyxa biofilm was present. However, the microbial population decreased within 6 h and remained unchanged thereafter when the surface was immersed in an inoculum suspended in 0.1% peptone water at 5 or 7 log CFU/mL. These results indicate that P. polymyxa is able to use a promising candidate competitive-exclusion microorganism to control Cronobacter spp. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Use of maize wastewater for the cultivation of the Pleurotus spp. mushroom and optimization of its biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Edenes; Royer, Andrea Rafaela; Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Barana, Ana Claudia

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluated the Pleurotus spp. mushroom production process using an effluent from the maize agroindustrial process as a carbon and nitrogen source and as a wetting agent. A complete experimental design based on factorial planning was used to optimize the biological efficiency and evaluate the effect of the concentration of effluent, pH and species of Pleurotus. The results indicated that the effluent affects the biological efficiency for the production of both species of mushrooms at all pH values studied. The maximum biological efficiency predicted by the model (81.36%) corresponded to the point defined by the effluent contents (X(1)=1), pH (X(2)=-1) and fungus species (X(3)=1), specifically 50%, 5.0 and P. floridae, respectively. The results demonstrated that the effluent is a good alternative for the production of Pleurotus mushrooms.

  20. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Deer mouse predation on the biological control agent, Urophora spp., introduced to control spotted knapweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson

    1999-01-01

    Field observations made in 1993 suggested that rodents were preying on spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) seedheads, possibly targeting the gall fly larvae (Urophora spp.) which overwinter within them. I conducted a brief study to determine the cause of seedhead predation and quantify gall fly predation. Stomachs were examined...

  2. Specific biological properties of Listeria innocua spp. isolated in Primorye Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zaitseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Most cases of listeriosis are caused by the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. Some cases of isolation of L.  innocua with pathogenicity factors from foods have been published, as well as on the cases of the disease in humans caused by this species. Aim: To assess biological properties including potential pathogenicity of L.  innocua, isolated from food and environmental objects. Materials and methods: We performed microbiological study of L. innocua cultures isolated from foods (n = 35 and environmental objects (n = 15 on the territory of Primorye Territory (Russian Federation, as well as assessment of their sensitivity to antibiotics. Results: The studied L.  innocua cultures showed stable phenotypic features of their biological properties, such as morphology, typical colony growth on the medium with characteristic odor of fermented milk, blue or blue-green luminescence induced by inclined light, presence of catalase activity and absence of the oxidase activity. Only 38 ± 6.9% of L.  innocua demonstrated movements at T 22 °С. L.  innocua cultures did not ferment mannitol (100% of cultures; they degraded ramnose to its acid without gas (70 ± 6.5% and degraded xylose (42.8 ± 7%. Listeria isolated from vegetables and environmental objects could ferment ramnose (92.8 ± 7.2% of the studied cultures and xylose (28.5 ± 12.5% more frequently than L. innocua isolated from meat and fish foods. L.  innocua demonstrated variable biochemical activities towards mannose (92 ± 3.8%, saccharose (85.7 ± 7.8% and melesitose (76.2 ± 9.5%. L. innocua cultures with hemolytic activity (34 ± 6.7% (α or β  type were isolated, more commonly from fish products. All Listeria irrespective of their isolation source showed lipase activity. L.  innocua cultures from foods and environmental objects were highly sensitive to antimicrobials from the following classes: penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin, combined amoxicillin and clavulanic

  3. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  5. Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bílková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Zuzana Bílková, Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, thesis author: PharmDr. Jan Martin, PhD., Hradec Králové, 2013, 72 pages. The thesis called "Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil" is interested in biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, specifically antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, nematicidal and repellency activit...

  6. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones.

  7. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrates and Organic Extracts of Aspergillus spp. against Pythium ultimum

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah; Marwa Hassine; Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine; Rabiaa Haouala; Mejda Daami-Remadi

    2014-01-01

    Culture filtrates, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of nine isolates of Aspergillus spp. (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp.), isolated from soil and compost, were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum the causal agent of the potato Pythium leak. Culture filtrates showed a significant antifungal activity at the different tested concentrations. Total inhibition of the pathogen was induced by the filtrate of CH8 of Aspergillus sp., used at 10% ...

  9. Publishing activities improves undergraduate biology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K

    2018-06-01

    To improve undergraduate biology education, there is an urgent need for biology instructors to publish their innovative active-learning instructional materials in peer-reviewed journals. To do this, instructors can measure student knowledge about a variety of biology concepts, iteratively design activities, explore student learning outcomes and publish the results. Creating a set of well-vetted activities, searchable through a journal interface, saves other instructors time and encourages the use of active-learning instructional practices. For authors, these publications offer new opportunities to collaborate and can provide evidence of a commitment to using active-learning instructional techniques in the classroom.

  10. Distribution, diversity, and activity of antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases caused by various fungi and oomycetes. Antibiotic production is an important trait responsible for the activity of several Pseudomonas

  11. Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08 were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

  12. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  13. Potencial de pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes para biocontrole de alternaria ricini em mamoneira Potential of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. For biological control of alternaria ricini on castorbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to control Alternaria leaf spot on castorbean, caused by Alternaria ricini, was studied under greenhouse conditions. Two periods for antagonist applications were tested: 48h before and simultaneously to the pathogen inoculation. Among the antagonists tested JA4 and BJ22 were the most effectives showing disease severity reduction of 20.9% and 17.8% respectively, when applied simultaneously. The effect of Pseudomonas spp. on the micelial growth and sporulation was also studied throughout three different methods (funel, streak and celophane. Inhibition of micelial growth and sporulation was observed. There was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Antibiosis was showed as a mode of action for Pseudomonas spp. in relation to Alternaria ricini. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the inhibition of spore germination by the bacteria.

  14. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  15. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  16. Laboratory and open-field tests on Abia sericea (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) - a candidate for biological control of teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are widespread in the USA (43 states) and listed as noxious in five states. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (Linné, 1758) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. Abia sericea lays its eggs under the epidermis of the leaves of Di...

  17. Lactic acid bacteria from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaridis, I; Soultos, N; Dovas, C I; Papavergou, E; Ambrosiadis, I; Koidis, P

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to isolate psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against strains of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. A total of 100 broiler samples were examined for the presence of LAB. Ninety-two LAB isolates that showed antimicrobial effects against Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were further analysed to examine their LAB (Gram-positive, catalase negative, oxidase negative) and psychrotrophic characteristics (ability to grow at 7 °C). Fifty isolates were further selected and identified initially using standard biochemical tests in miniature (Micro-kits API CH 50) and then by sequencing of the 16s-23s rRNA gene boundary region (Intergenic Spacer Region). By molecular identification, these isolates were classified into 5 different LAB species: Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus paralimentarius. None of the isolates produced tyramine or histamine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  19. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  20. Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugabr, H. E.; Elhussein, S. A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza stimulates biological nitrogen fixation in two Medicago spp. through omproved phosphorus acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Voříšková, Alena; Gryndlerová, H.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Jansa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAR 27 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku no. 390. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05466S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * biological nitrogen fixation * phosphorus uptake Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  2. Enzymatic Activity of Candida spp. from Oral Cavity and Urine in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Dąbkowska, Maria; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Oral colonization with Candida spp. is not synonymous with a systemic active infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate enzymatic activity of Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and to compare it with the activity determined in urine. We studied 32 children with NS and 26 control healthy children. Children with NS were treated with glucocorticosteroids, cyclosporin A, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine. In all children, API-ZYM enzymatic tests were performed to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes of Candida isolated from the oral cavity and in urine. Candida spp. were isolated from the oral cavity in 11 patients with NS (34.4%), all receiving immunosuppressive treatment. All strains produced valine arylamidase, 9 alpha-glucosidase (E16), and 9 N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (E18). A positive correlation between the presence of Candida in the oral cavity and E16 and E18 enzymatic activity in both oral cavity and urine was found. A dose of cyclosporin A had an effect on the enzymatic activity (p Candida invasion. The results of this study suggest that oral candida infection should be monitored in children with nephrotic syndrome, particularly those treated with immunosuppressive agents.

  3. A Review - Biology, Aquaculture and Medical Use of Seahorse, Hippocampus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Yuan Zhang; Bo-Mi Ryu; Zhong-Ji Qian

    2017-01-01

    Seahorse has been used as medicine in Asian countries such as China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam for thousands of years. However, in western countries, the ecology of seahorse has been a focus of attention of many researchers for years. The seahorse aquaculture is popular with aqua farm worldwide for the sake of the increased demand of seahorse. This review described the biology, aquaculture and medical use of seahorse. To present the ecology and highlight the role of seahorse in traditional med...

  4. Genomic and in Situ Analyses Reveal the Micropruina spp. as Abundant Fermentative Glycogen Accumulating Organisms in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR involves the cycling of biomass through carbon-rich (feast and carbon-deficient (famine conditions, promoting the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs. However, several alternate metabolic strategies, without polyphosphate storage, are possessed by other organisms, which can compete with the PAO for carbon at the potential expense of EBPR efficiency. The most studied are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs, which utilize aerobically stored glycogen to energize anaerobic substrate uptake and storage. In full-scale systems the Micropruina spp. are among the most abundant of the proposed GAO, yet little is known about their ecophysiology. In the current study, genomic and metabolomic studies were performed on Micropruina glycogenica str. Lg2T and compared to the in situ physiology of members of the genus in EBPR plants using state-of-the-art single cell techniques. The Micropruina spp. were observed to take up carbon, including sugars and amino acids, under anaerobic conditions, which were partly fermented to lactic acid, acetate, propionate, and ethanol, and partly stored as glycogen for potential aerobic use. Fermentation was not directly demonstrated for the abundant members of the genus in situ, but was strongly supported by the confirmation of anaerobic uptake of carbon and glycogen storage in the absence of detectable polyhydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate reserves. This physiology is markedly different from the classical GAO model. The amount of carbon stored by fermentative organisms has potentially important implications for phosphorus removal – as they compete for substrates with the Tetrasphaera PAO and stored carbon is not made available to the “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAO under anaerobic conditions. This study shows that the current models of the competition between PAO and GAO are too simplistic and may need to be revised to take into account the impact of

  5. Comprehensive update of dalbavancin activity when tested against uncommonly isolated streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus spp. (1357 strains).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-06-01

    Dalbavancin is an investigational lipoglycopeptide having an extended serum elimination half-life allowing once-weekly dosing. Data from testing 1357 strains of uncommonly isolated species expand the dalbavancin spectrum details as follows (MIC50/90): β-haemolytic streptococcal serogroups C, F, and G (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL), 7 viridans group of streptococci (≤0.03/≤0.03-0.06 μg/mL), 5 Corynebacterium spp. (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), and Micrococcus spp. (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL). Among all reported isolates, 99.8% of tested strains were inhibited at dalbavancin MIC values at ≤0.12 μg/mL. Dalbavancin remains very potent against rarer Gram-positive pathogens, using in vitro test experience with organisms cultured through 2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ANALISIS PENGGUNAAN METODE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC DALAM MENENTUKAN SUMBANGAN PEMBINAAN PENDIDIKAN (SPP PADA POLITEKNIK HARAPAN BERSAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Farida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the calculation of education and tuition fee by using Activity Based Costing at the Polytechnic Harapan Bersama and compare the education and tuition fee by using Activity Based Costing before and after. Politeknik Harapan Bersama not have a special method to determine the cost of education. At the Polytechnic Joint expectations are two sources of income, namely Login or registration fees and donations Education Support (SPP to be paid each month. To determine the calculation of Education and tuition fee by using Activity Based Costing at the Polytechnic of Harapan Bersama. To determine the ratio of Education and tuition fee by using Activity Based Costing before and after. Data analysis method used is descriptive method. Descriptive analysis of the data is the processing of research data in order to make this data meaningful (meaningful. SPP of tariff calculation using Activity Based Costing known SPP tariff rate is Rp. 370 189; From the results of the SPP tariff calculation using the method of Activity Based Costing, when compared with the SPP tariff band is used by schools today are using the traditional method, for example Rp. 350,000; so that the difference in the amount Ro. 20 189 ;. Rate differences that occur due to charging of overhead on each product. Activity Based Costing has been able allocate cost to each activity.

  7. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  9. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  10. Assessing effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum on soil microbial communities in Agriotes spp. biological pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Johanna; Eckard, Sonja; Hartmann, Martin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Widmer, Franco; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Enkerli, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    The release of large quantities of microorganisms to soil for purposes such as pest control or plant growth promotion may affect the indigenous soil microbial communities. In our study, we investigated potential effects of Metarhizium brunneum ART2825 on soil fungi and prokaryota in bulk soil using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal markers. Different formulations of this strain, and combinations of the fungus with garlic as efficacy-enhancing agent, were tested over 4 months in a pot and a field experiment carried out for biological control of Agriotes spp. in potatoes. A biocontrol effect was observed only in the pot experiment, i.e. the application of FCBK resulted in 77% efficacy. Colony counts combined with genotyping and marker sequence abundance confirmed the successful establishment of the applied strain. Only the formulated applied strain caused small shifts in fungal communities in the pot experiment. Treatment effects were in the same range as the effects caused by barley kernels, the carrier of the FCBK formulation and temporal effects. Garlic treatments and time affected prokaryotic communities. In the field experiment, only spatial differences affected fungal and prokaryotic communities. Our findings suggest that M. brunneum may not adversely affect soil microbial communities. © FEMS 2017.

  11. BIOLOGY OF COLLETOTRICHUM SPP. AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ANTHRACNOSE IN TROPICAL FRUIT TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIANA DE FÁTIMA BRUCE DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthracnose is important disease in the pre an d postharvest phases. Several species of Colle- totrichum ( C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, C. musae e C. magn a are responsible for inciting this disease. The pathogen infects many fruit trees in tropical and t emperate regions, causing considerable damage and l oss in all phases of cultures. Characteristic symptoms are dar k necrotic lesions depressed, subcircular or angula r shaped, and there may be coalescing. Infections have a spec ial feature: the phenomenon of quiescence. This pro cess has important implications, particularly in post-harves t, because the damage from infections reflect only this phase. The intensity of the disease have been striking at temperatures from 24 to 28 °C and in the presence o f high relative humidity. The understanding of some aspect s of the biology of the pathogen (the process of qu ies- cence and the epidemiology of the disease is cruci al, since much has not yet been fully clarified, es pecially when the aim is to achieve sustainable management.

  12. Selection of Clostridium spp. in biological sand filters neutralizing synthetic acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Welz, Pamela J; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Tuffin, Marla I; Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three biological sand filter (BSF) were contaminated with a synthetic iron- [1500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(II), 500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(III)] and sulphate-rich (6000 mg L⁻¹ SO₄²⁻) acid mine drainage (AMD) (pH = 2), for 24 days, to assess the remediation capacity and the evolution of autochthonous bacterial communities (monitored by T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries). To stimulate BSF bioremediation involving sulphate-reducing bacteria, a readily degradable carbon source (glucose, 8000 mg L⁻¹) was incorporated into the influent AMD. Complete neutralization and average removal efficiencies of 81.5 (±5.6)%, 95.8 (±1.2)% and 32.8 (±14.0)% for Fe(II), Fe(III) and sulphate were observed, respectively. Our results suggest that microbial iron reduction and sulphate reduction associated with iron precipitation were the main processes contributing to AMD neutralization. The effect of AMD on BSF sediment bacterial communities was highly reproducible. There was a decrease in diversity, and notably a single dominant operational taxonomic unit (OTU), closely related to Clostridium beijerinckii, which represented up to 65% of the total community at the end of the study period. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  14. Biological activities of some Xylooligosaccharides from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylooligosaccharides (XOS's) exhibited considerable biological activities and be incorporated into many food products and in pharmaceutical and drug industry. XOS's were produced from xylose-containing polysaccharides (XPS's) obtained from natural, xylan-rich, agro-industrial wastes, i.e., corncobs and sugarcane ...

  15. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  16. Identification of lipid fraction constituents from grasshopper (Chorthippus spp.) abdominal secretion with potential activity in wound healing with the use of GC-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewska-Forajta, Magdalena; Siluk, Danuta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2014-02-01

    In recent years biologically active compounds isolated from insects call special interest of drug researchers. According to some Polish etnopharmacological observations, secretion from the grasshopper's abdomen (Orthoptera family) is believed to speed up the process of wound healing. In the present work we focused on determination of main components of the lipid fraction of material from grasshopper abdomen using GC-MS/MS. Samples were qualitatively analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction pretreatment methods were used to concentrate and fractionate the compounds from the insect. In the derivatized fractions ca. 350 compounds were identified, including substances of known biological activity. The potential agents affecting wound healing have been indicated. A set of compounds characteristic for all the studied Chorthippus spp., have been identified. Data analysis revealed different lipidomic profiles of grasshoppers depending on the insects origin and collection area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of critical day length for diapause induction enables range expansion of Diorhabda carinulata, a biological control agent against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Dan W; Dalin, Peter; Dudley, Tom L

    2012-07-01

    In classical weed biological control, small collections of arthropods are made from one or a few sites in the native range of the target plant and are introduced to suppress the plant where it has become invasive, often across a wide geographic range. Ecological mismatches in the new range are likely, and success using the biocontrol agent may depend on postrelease evolution of beneficial life history traits. In this study, we measure the evolution of critical day length for diapause induction (day length at which 50% of the population enters dormancy), in a beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) introduced into North America from China to control an exotic shrub, Tamarix spp. Beetle populations were sampled from four sites in North America 7 years after introduction, and critical day length was shown to have declined, forming a cline over a latitudinal gradient At one field site, decreased critical day length was correlated with 16 additional days of reproductive activity, resulting in a closer match between beetle life history and the phenology of Tamarix. These findings indicate an enhanced efficacy and an increasingly wider range for D. carinulata in Tamarix control.

  18. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  19. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by using indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Emre Demirer

    2016-04-01

    At this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma isolates that was isolated from the soil samples taken from the different regions on black scurf and stem canker disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn that has been one of the biggest problems of the potato cultivation. At the end of the soil isolations, totally 81 Trichoderma isolates were obtained and their species were identified. Of these isolates, T. harzianum (42%), T. virens (31%), T. asperellum (15%) and T. viride (12%). All of the isolates were tested in vitro for their antagonistic activity against the R. solani isolate. The isolates that show high inhibition rate was selected and tested against R. solani in vitro. Potato plants were grown in a greenhouse for about 10 weeks. Then the plants were evaluated according to the scale, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights were noted. The experiment was conducted two times in three replications. At the in vitro tests, generally, it was determined that Trichoderma isolates have inhibited to R. solani and in vivo, they were reduced the effects of the disease and they were raised the development of the plant. In particular, it was determined that some isolates of the T. harzianum and T. virens have reduced the severity of the disease. It was determined that both in vitro and in vivo isolates have shown different efficiency against R. solani.

  20. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-08-01

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  2. STRUCTURES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CUPROPHYLLINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls (a, b are the porphyrin compounds and most common chemical in the plant’s world. In fact, these compounds are an obligatory intermediate product both in energy metabolism and in plant catabolism. At the same time, currently there are few pharmaceutical preparations on the pharmaceutical market based on chlorophylls. Dyes based on hydrolyzed chlorophyll are successfully used in the food industry. Commercial chlorophylline is a copper complex of hydrolyzed chlorophylls. As shown earlier in TLC, the chlorophyllin mixture contains a large number of different compounds. It is like water-soluble saponified derivatives in the form of sodium-magnesium complexes, and similar structures in the form of a complex with copper. The latter are more brightly colored, soluble in water and widely used as coloring agents in cooking. In this case, if the initial chlorophyll was not found to have a pronounced biological activity, the substituted derivatives in the form of copper complexes possessed a number of new unique biological properties. Non-hydrolyzed hydrophobic cuprophylline obtained from eucalyptus leaves possessed high antimicrobial activity to most strains of staphylococci, inclusion resistant to antimicrobials and multiresistant strains. This drug is called Chlorophyllipt, it is allowed to be used as a medicinal product and is one of the oldest antibacterial drugs from plants on the market. It is marketed as ethanoic and oily solutions for topical use, and as an alcohol solution for intravenous injections. Its main purpose is the fight against staphylococcal infections. Recently, found that the oral administration of chlorophyllipt activates cellular immunity and indirectly exhibits antiviral activity. Another compound of cuprophyllin is water-soluble chlorophyllin. Some authors show the variability of the structure and biological activity of cuprophyllins. Different derivatives of chlorophyll have different biological activity

  3. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  4. Marine natural flavonoids: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Beatriz T; Correia da Silva, Marta; Pinto, Madalena; Cidade, Honorina; Kijjoa, Anake

    2018-05-04

    As more than 70% of the world's surface is covered by oceans, marine organisms offer a rich and unlimited resource of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. These organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that are, in majority of them, unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts due to the different surrounding ecological systems. Marine flavonoids have been extensively studied in the last decades due to a growing interest concerning their promising biological/pharmacological activities. The most common classes of marine flavonoids are flavones and flavonols, which are mostly isolated from marine plants. Although most of flavonoids are hydroxylated and methoxylated, some marine flavonoids possess an unusual substitution pattern, not commonly found in terrestrial organisms, namely the presence of sulphate, chlorine, and amino groups. This review presents, for the first time in a systematic way, the structure, natural occurrence, and biological activities of marine flavonoids.

  5. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  6. Radiometallating antibodies and biologically active peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer-Smith, J.A.; Roberts, J.C.; Lewis, D.; Newmyer, S.L.; Schulte, L.D.; Burns, T.P.; Mixon, P.L.; Jeffery, A.L.; Schreyer, S.A.; Cole, D.A.; Figard, S.D.; Lennon, V.A.; Hayashi, M.; Lavallee, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed methods to radiolabel large molecules, using porphyrins as bifunctional chelating agents for radiometals. The porphyrins are substituted with an N-benzyl group to activate them for radiometallation under mild reaction conditions. Porphyrins that have on functional group for covalent attachment to other molecules cannot cause crosslinking. We have examined the labeling chemistry for antibodies, and we have also developed methods to label smaller biologically active molecules, such as autoantigenic peptides. The autoantigenic peptides, fragments of the acetylcholine receptor, are under investigation for myasthenia gravis research. The methods of covalent attachment of these bifunctional chelating agents to large molecules and the radiometallation chemistry will be discussed

  7. Biologic activity of porphyromonas endodontalis complex lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirucki, Christopher S; Abedi, Mehran; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E; Clark, Robert B; Nichols, Frank C

    2014-09-01

    Periapical infections secondary to pulpal necrosis are associated with bacterial contamination of the pulp. Porphyromonas endodontalis, a gram-negative organism, is considered to be a pulpal pathogen. P. gingivalis is phylogenetically related to P. endodontalis and synthesizes several classes of novel complex lipids that possess biological activity, including the capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. The purpose of this study was to extract and characterize constituent lipids of P. endodontalis and evaluate their capacity to promote proinflammatory secretory responses in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, as well as their capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and inhibit osteoblast activity. Constituent lipids of both organisms were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and were structurally characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry or electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The virulence potential of P. endodontalis lipids was then compared with known biologically active lipids isolated from P. gingivalis. P. endodontalis total lipids were shown to promote tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion from RAW 264.7 cells, and the serine lipid fraction appeared to account for the majority of this effect. P. endodontalis lipid preparations also increased osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells, but osteoblast differentiation in culture was inhibited and appeared to be dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 expression. These effects underscore the importance of P. endodontalis lipids in promoting inflammatory and bone cell activation processes that could lead to periapical pathology. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. THE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS SPP. STRAINS UNDER AEROBIC AND MICROAEROPHILIC CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties (growth characteristics, adhesive activity and sensitivity to antimicrobial of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were studied under different gas composition of incubation atmosphere. It was found that the number of viable lactobacilli cells in the one dose of investigated probiotic preparations was lower than it was claimed by the manufacturer. Gas composition of incubation atmosphere affects cell viability of probiotic strains. The number of colony forming units of lactobacilli under microaerophilic conditions increased in 1,19-1,33 times as compared with aerobic conditions. It was proved that adhesive activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and sensitivity to 2th, 3th, 4th generations of cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime and tetracyclines (doxycycline also increased under microaerophilic conditions. The changes of the biological properties of lactobacilli under different cultivation conditions require further study for optimization of correction of dysbiotic disorders.

  9. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal.

  11. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  12. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials

  13. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo CAC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  14. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  15. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  16. Vernonanthura polyanthes leaves aqueous extract enhances doxorubicin genotoxicity in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster and presents no antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Guerra-Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng. A.J. Vega & Dematt. (Asteraceae, known as “assa-peixe”, has been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, persistent cough, internal abscesses, gastric and kidney stone pain. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that species of Genus Vernonia present antifungal activity. Due to the biological relevance of this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster or against Candida spp. The aqueous extract of the plant showed no toxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity in the experimental conditions tested using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART/wing. However, when the extract was associated with doxorubicin, used in this work as a positive control, the mutagenic potential of doxorubicin was enhanced, increasing the number of mutations in D. melanogaster somatic cells. In the other hand, no inhibitory activity against Candida spp. was observed for V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using agar-well diffusion assay. More studies are necessary to reveal the components present in the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract that could contribute to potentiate the doxorubicin genotoxicity.

  17. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

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    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  19. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  20. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  1. Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains

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    Mejdi Snoussi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Vibrio spp. activities of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint are investigated in the present study. The effect of the essential oil on Vibrio spp. biofilm inhibition and eradication was tested using the XTT assay. A total of 63 chemical constituents were identified in spearmint oil using GC/MS, constituting 99.9% of the total identified compounds. The main components were carvone (40.8% ± 1.23% and limonene (20.8% ± 1.12%. The antimicrobial activity against 30 Vibrio spp. strains (16 species was evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution assays. All microorganisms were strongly affected, indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of the oil. Moreover, the investigated oil exhibited high antioxidant potency, as assessed by four different tests in comparison with BHT. The ability of the oil, belonging to the carvone chemotype, to inhibit or reduce Vibrio spp. biofilm warrants further investigation to explore the use of natural products in antibiofilm adhesion and reinforce the possibility of its use in the pharmaceutical or food industry as a natural antibiotic and seafood preservative against Vibrio contamination.

  2. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

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    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  3. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  4. A rhizosphere-associated symbiont, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, and its targeted synergistic activity for phytoprotection against mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dony Chacko Mathew

    Full Text Available Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg x kg(-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis. While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg x kg(-1, 24 h and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury.

  5. A rhizosphere-associated symbiont, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, and its targeted synergistic activity for phytoprotection against mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg x kg(-1) mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg x kg(-1), 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury.

  6. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  7. A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg . kg-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg . kg-1, 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury. PMID:25816328

  8. High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL−1 of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in κ-casein was located at the Met106–Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. from compost material, compost and mushroom casing soil active against Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Olja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of bacteria was carried out from samples of straw and chicken manure, compost at various stages of the composting process and casing soil used for growing button mushrooms. A preliminary screening of 108 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum showed that 23 tested isolates inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus. Further screening with four indicator isolates of fungi revealed that all 23 bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. harzianum and T. koningii, while only 13 isolates inhibited the growth of T. atroviride. T. aggressivum f. europaeum proved to be the most sensitive, with many bacterial isolates generating a high percentage of growth inhibition. Only two bacterial isolates (B-129 and B-268 were successful in inhibiting the growth of all 4 tested pathogens. All 23 bacterial isolates were characterized as Gram-positive and catalase-positive and were subjected to molecular identification based on the partial sequence, the hypervariant region of the 16S rDNA. It was shown that the obtained bacterial strains belong to Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31043 i br. 173026

  10. Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of the interspecific fusants from Streptomyces spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, N.; Lazim, H.; Barkallah, Insaf; Abbassi, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Limam, F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycetes are gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit an unusual, developmentally complex life cycle and produce many economically important secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, insecticides, and antitumor agents. Streptomyces species have been the subject of genetic investigation for over 50 years, with many studies focusing on the production of bioactives compounds. The protoplast formation and regeneration are important processes, and they are a major step following genetic manipulations such as fusion and DNA-mediated transformation, which can improve antibiotic production. The protoplast fusion, transformation and improved fermentation features can be used to regenerate strains with increased antibiotic activity. Local Streptomyces spp. CN207 produce a broad range of secondary metabolites which is active against bacteria and fungi. This strain was used as a donor and S. coelicolor strain M145 was used as a recipient host for protoplast fusion. The protoplast fusion resulted in increased isolation of variants with higher antibiotic activity. Recombinant Streptomyces coelicolor PF04 was increased 10 times more than the wild strain. The antimicrobial activity from PF04 strain was studied using the disc method agar. TLC analysis confirmed that the Rf of cell extract for PF04 strain is identical to antimicrobial compound of Streptomyces CN207. Our results confirm the possibility of transferring antibiotics cluster genes by fusion. In fact, many of the selective markers such as Ticarcillin, Cefalotin, Oxacillin and Cefotaxim were transferred during the protoplast fusion. PFGE analysis and DNA-hybridization confirmed the presence of homologous fragments between a wild-type Streptomyces CN207 and a recombinant S. coelicolor PF04

  11. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  12. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  13. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  14. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  15. Biological activities of red propolis: a rewiew

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Sonia M; de Freitas, Marcia Christina Dornelas; de Oliveira, Daiana Teixeira; de Miranda, Marina Barcelos; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Caligiorne, Rachel Basques

    2018-02-23

    • Background: The red propolis (RdProp) is a resin produced by Apis mellifera bees, which collect the reddish exudate on the surface of its botanic source, the species Dalbergiae castophyllum, popularly known in Brazil as "rabo de bugio". Considered as the 13th type of Brazilian propolis, this resin has been gaining prominence due to its natural composition, rich in bioactive substances not found in other types of propolis. • Objective: This review aims to address the most important characteristics of PV, its botanical origin, the main constituents, its biological properties and the patents related to this natural product. • Method: By means of the SciFinder, Google Patents, Patus® and Spacenet, scientific articles and patents involving the term "red propolis" were searched until August 2017 • Results: A number of biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antitumor, antioxidant, metabolic and nutraceutical activities are attributed to RdProp, demonstrating the great potential of its use in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. • Conclusion: The available papers are associated to pharmacological potential of RdProp, but the molecular mechanisms or bioactive compounds responsible for each activity have not yet been fully elucidated. The RdProp patents currently found are directed to components for the pharmaceutical industry (EP2070543A1; WO2014186851A1; FR3006589A1; CN1775277A; CN105797149A; CN1879859A), cosmetic (JP6012138B2; JP2008247830A; JP6012138B2) and food (JP5478392B2; CN101380052A; WO2006038690A1). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Biosynthesis of components with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. using Streptomyces hygroscopicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of apple fruit during storage are mainly caused by fungal phytopathogens. Traditionally, postharvest fungal disease is controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the harmful impact on environment as well as human health largely limits their application. To reduce these problems in agrochemicals usage, new compounds for plant protection, which are eco-friendly, should be developed. The aim of this study is optimization of medium composition in terms of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates content, by applying response surface methodology, for the production of agents with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. For biosynthesis was used strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors on three levels and three repetitions in the central point. Antifungal activity of the obtained cultivation mediums against Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger was determined, in vitro, using the diffusion - disc method. For determination optimal medium components desirability function was used. Achieved model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (40.93 mm against test microorganisms is produced when the initial content of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates are 47.77 g/l, 24.54 g/l and 0.98 g/l, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional three sets of optimization were made. The chosen method for optimization of medium components was efficient, relatively simple and time and material saving. Obtained results can be used for the further techno-economic analysis of the process to select optimal medium composition for industrial application.

  17. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward ...

  18. Paca (Agouti paca and Agouti (Dasyprocta spp. - Minili-vestock Production in the Amazonas State of Venezuela : 1. Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govoni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing human population pressure in the Amazonas State of Venezuela greater attention is being given to the "minilivestock" production of the wild rodents paca (Agouti paca, and agouti (Dasyprocta spp as sources of food and income and to reduce the risk of their possible extinction. In preparation for the increased farming of these rodents, this paper reviews published material on their characteristics, distribution, habitat, conservation status, behaviour, reproductive parameters and nutrition. It is concluded that the two rodents paca and agouti, have characteristics that justify greater investment in their domestication and farmed production, although and behavioural issues and reproductive limits need further research.

  19. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  20. Habituation of Salmonella spp. at Reduced Water Activity and Its Effect on Heat Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of habituation at reduced water activity (aw) on heat tolerance of Salmonella spp. was investigated. Stationary-phase cells were exposed to aw 0.95 in broths containing glucose-fructose, sodium chloride, or glycerol at 21°C for up to a week prior to heat challenge at 54°C. In addition, the effects of different aws and heat challenge temperatures were investigated. Habituation at aw 0.95 resulted in increased heat tolerance at 54°C with all solutes tested. The extent of the increase and the optimal habituation time depended on the solute used. Exposure to broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) for 12 h resulted in maximal heat tolerance, with more than a fourfold increase in D54 values. Cells held for more than 72 h in these conditions, however, became as heat sensitive as nonhabituated populations. Habituation in the presence of sodium chloride or glycerol gave rise to less pronounced but still significant increases in heat tolerance at 54°C, and a shorter incubation time was required to maximize tolerance. The increase in heat tolerance following habituation in broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) was RpoS independent. The presence of chloramphenicol or rifampin during habituation and inactivation did not affect the extent of heat tolerance achieved, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was probably not necessary. These data highlight the importance of cell prehistory prior to heat inactivation and may have implications for food manufacturers using low-aw ingredients. PMID:11055944

  1. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  2. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  3. Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    discussion on this topic: see Chapter 3). In line with this are the observations that 14,15-alpha-epoxides do substantially decrease activity (cephalostatins 14 and 15) while a 14,15-beta-epoxide does not decrease activity (cephalostatin 4). Also in line with the "curvature theory" is the fact that ritterazine B (14-beta-hydrogen) is even more potent than ritterazine G (14,15-double bond). Therefore it is not clear if--at least one--14,15-double bond is essential for high activity. The synthesis and biological evaluation of completely 14-beta-saturated analogues (like 14'-beta-hydrogen ritterazine B) could answer this question. Synthesis of the partially saturated analogues 14' alpha-cephalostatin 1 1c and 7-deoxy-14' alpha-ritterazine B 2a showed that the stronger the divergence of conformation implied by the saturation is, the higher is the loss of activity, thus underlining the "curvature hypothesis". Synthesis showed, that analogues possessing the 14,15-double bond(s) are substantially better soluble, e.g. 26. Furthermore, the D-Ring area turned out to be sensitive for modifications, since substantially differing analogues, like 162, 163, and 164 were completely inactive. At least one 17-hydroxy group is part of all highly active cephalostatins/ritterazines. Loss of one out of two 17-hydroxy groups does not decrease activity (compare ritterazine K and L) but of the second 17-hydroxy groups (along with the 7-hydroxy group) as seen in the ritterazine series (compare ritterazines A/T and B/Y) leads to a significant decrease in activity. Increased activity of 17-ether analogues 178 and 179 points into the same direction All highly active cephalostatins and ritterazines are substantially asymmetric. Cephalostatins and ritterazines that are symmetric--either consisting of two polar units (cephalostatin 12 and ritterazine K) or two unpolar units (ritterazine N and ritterazine R)--or almost symmetric (cephalostatin 13 and ritterazine J, L, M, O, S) show substantially diminished

  4. Analysis of past recurrent methane seep activity using radiocarbon dating of Calyptogena spp. shells in the eastern Nankai subduction zone, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Ashi, Juichiro; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi

    2016-04-01

    Fault activity around subduction zones have been widely studied and monitored through drilling of oceanic plates, studying piston cores, use of monitoring equipment or through visual analysis using submersible vehicles. Yet the understanding of how small scale faults near shallow regions of the seabed behave in relation to cold seep vent activity is still vague, especially determining when they were active in the past. In tectonically active margins such as the Nankai and Tokai regions off Japan, dense methane hydrate reservoirs have been identified. Cold seeps releasing methane rich hydrocarbon fluids are common here, supporting a wide variety of biological species that hold a symbiotic relationship with the chemosynthetic bacteria. In 1998 a large dead Calyptogena spp. bivalve colony (over 400m2 in size) was discovered off Tokai, Japan. It is unusual for a bivalve colony this size to mostly be dead, raising questions as to what caused their death. In this study we document the radiocarbon 14C age of these bivalve shells to attempt analysing the possible methane seep bahaviour in the past. The measured 14C age ranged in three age groups of 1396±36-1448±34, 1912±31-1938±35 and 5975±34. The 14C age of shells that were alive upon collection and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater show little difference (˜100 14C age) indicating that shells are not heavily affected by the dead carbon effect from cold seeps that is of biogenic or thermogenic origin, which can make the age to become considerably older than the actual age. Thus the novel calibration model used was based on the seawater DIC collected above the Calyptogena spp. colony site (1133±31), which resulted in the dead shells to be clustered around 1900 Cal AD. This proves to be interesting as the predicted epicenter of the Ansei-Tokai earthquake (M 8.4) in 1854 is extremely close to the bibalve colony site. Using geological data obtained using visual analysis and sub-seafloor structural

  5. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially improved safety profile compared to other aminoglycosides. This study assessed plazomicin MICs and MBCs in four Brucella spp. reference strains. Like other aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols, plazomicin MBC values equaled MIC values ...

  6. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  7. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  8. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader; Ahmed Merzouk; Abbas Mohammed Ghawi; and Mohammed Alaama

    2011-01-01

    Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT). The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100) is 43.205µg/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S...

  9. Biological control of strawberry soil-borne pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani, using Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María PASTRANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In south-western Spain, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani were found to be associated in strawberry plants with, respectively, charcoal rot, and crown and root rot symptoms. For management of both fungal diseases, the antagonistic effects of two commercial formulations, one based on Trichoderma asperellum T18 strain (Prodigy® and the other on Bacillus megaterium and B. laterosporus (Fusbact®, were evaluated in vitro and under controlled environment and field conditions. Two inoculation methods (root-dipping and soil application and two application times (pre- and post-pathogen inoculation, as preventive and curative treatments, respectively were assessed. Dual plate confrontation experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effects of T. asperellum and Bacillus spp. by inhibiting radial growth of M. phaseolina and F. solani by more than 36%. Preventive application of T. asperellum by root-dipping reduced the incidence of charcoal rot (up to 44% in a growth chamber and up to 65% under field conditions and also reduced disease progression, the percentage of crown necrosis, as well as the level of infection measured as ng of pathogen DNA g-1 plant by quantitative real-time PCR. This treatment was also the most effective for reduction of crown and root rot caused by F. solani (up to 100% in a greenhouse and up to 81% under field conditions. These results were nearly comparable with the control achieved using chemical fungicides. The Bacillus spp.-based formulation was also effective for control of charcoal rot and showed variable results for control of F. solani, depending on the growth conditions.

  10. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  11. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  12. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  13. Exposing of Trichoderma spp. to gamma radiation for stimulating its pesticide biodegradation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, A.E.M.R.; Ibrahim, G.M.; Abo El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Kassem, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    This work has been conducted to study the possibility of making use of fungi for degrading insecticide-carbofuran. Trichoderma spp. were showed highly potentiality to metabolize carbofuran (200 mg/ kg) to 3-ketocarbofuran in soil as a sole carbon and energy source within 14 days. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Studies on biodegradation in the soil showed that 81.5 % and 86 % of carbofuran degraded within 14 days of incubation by T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. The lowest dose of gamma irradiation 0.25 KGy enhanced the mycelial dry weight by 22.8 % and 16.2 % for T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. This indicated that the isolates of Trichoderma spp. were potentially useful for carbofuran bioremediation.

  14. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  16. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological. Activities of Tinospora crispa ... triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the .... were found to exhibit higher antioxidative potency than the synthetic antioxidant.

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EUCALYPTUS SPP. AND PISTASCIA LENTISCUS LEAF EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qabaha, Khaled; Ras, Sari Abu; Abbadi, Jehad; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus extracts on Lipopolysacaride (LPS)-induced Interlukin-6 (Il-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) by polymorphonuclear Cells (PMNCs). Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from the whole blood using Histopaque (Ficol-1077) method and then cultured in an enriched Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RBMI) medium. Supernatants' Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) levels were determined 24 hour after LPS stimulation. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were compared using paired-samples t test. Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus leaves extracts have shown significant reduction in the levels of both Il-6 and TNF-α Gallic acid; a strong anti-inflammatory agent was found to be the major phenolic compound in both leaf extracts. However, other anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp . leaf extract. Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus extract is an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our results may also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory effect of the above extracts may be due to the presence of gallic acid and other phenolic compounds. List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature: LPS: Lipopolysacaride, Il-6: Interlukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, PMNCs: Polymorphonuclear Cells, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, EDTA

  18. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  19. Antagonistic Activity of Trichoderma ISolates against Sclerotium rolfsii : Screening of Efficient Isolates from Morocco Soils for Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khattabi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy Trichoderma spp. isolates collected from different regions of Morocco were tested for their capacity to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, and for their effect on the viability of S. rolfsii sclerotia in the soil. The Trichoderma spp. isolates inhibited mycelial growth of S. rolfsii to various degrees, with 52% of isolates expressing an average inhibition, varying between 45 and 55%. The effect on the viability of sclerotia in the soil also varied between isolates of Trichoderma, with the majority (84% having a slight effect. A group of twenty isolates identified as Trichoderma harzianum when tested in sterilized soil, significantly reduced sclerotial viability though not in natural soil. Four of these isolates (Nz, Kb2, Kb3 and Kf1 showed good antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii and were also highly competitive in natural soil. These isolates would therefore be candidates for development in biological control program.

  20. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications.

  1. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  2. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  3. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  4. Contamination delays the release of Laricobius osakensis for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid: cryptic diversity in Japanese Laricobius spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Nathan P. Havill; Carrie S. Jubb; Sean W. Prosser; Brent D. Opell; Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok

    2014-01-01

    Laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) was imported from Japan to the United States in 2006 for study in quarantine facilities as a potential biological control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Laricobius osakensis was released from quarantine in 2010, but it was soon discovered that the colony also contained a cryptic species...

  5. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W

    2007-06-01

    The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.

  6. [Vulvovaginitis caused by Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in sexually active women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam-W, Maha; Cermeño-Vivas, Julman R; Orellán-García, Yida; Penna, Salvador J

    2002-03-01

    Vulvovaginitis accounts for 20 to 30% of gynecological diseases and it is observed in women from 20 to 30 years of age. It has a higher frequency in women using oral contraceptives and during the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence of Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis in patients with the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis from the Gynecology Service in Hospital Universitario "Ruiz y Páez" in Ciudad Bolívar and Hospital "Raúl Leoni" in San Félix (Bolívar State, Venezuela). Two hundred women with symptoms of vulvovaginitis were examined, and samples were taken from the uterocervical cul-de-sac. Each patient was asked to fill a questionnaire. The following studies were made in each sample: a) fresh wet mount examination, b) orange acridine and Giemsa stains for Trichomonas and c) culture for the identification of yeasts. The latter were identified by means of the germinal tube assay, resistance to actidione and the presence of clamidospores in rice-cream agar and sugar utilization test, using the commercial kit ID32C (BioMérieux). Only in 57 women of 200 patients with vulvovaginitis the causative agent was demonstrated; Candida spp was present in 84.2% (n = 48) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 14% (n = 8). A single case of Zygosaccharomyces spp (1.8%) was detected. The age group mainly affected was that of 25-35 years old, the 38.6% of the studied population. Candida species detected were: C. albicans in 87% of cases (n = 42), C. glabrata, in 10.42% (n = 5), and C. guillermondii, in 2.08 (n = 1). Vaginal flux, vulvar pruritus and leucorrhoea were observed in significant number of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The use of antibiotics was considered predisposing factor for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. The relationship between age and the etiological agent was not statistically significant. Due to the low specificity of clinical manifestations of infections caused by Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis, we

  7. Influence of protoplast fusion between two Trichoderma spp. on extracellular enzymes production and antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed M

    2014-11-02

    Biological control plays a crucial role in grapevine pathogens disease management. The cell-wall degrading enzymes chitinase, cellulase and β-glucanase have been suggested to be essential for the mycoparasitism activity of Trichoderma species against grapevine fungal pathogens. In order to develop a useful strain as a single source of these vital enzymes, it was intended to incorporate the characteristics of two parental fungicides tolerant mutants of Trichoderma belonging to the high chitinase producing species T. harzianum and the high cellulase producing species T. viride , by fusing their protoplasts. The phylogeny of the parental strains was carried out using a sequence of the 5.8S-ITS region. The BLAST of the obtained sequence identified these isolates as T. harzianum and T. viride . Protoplasts were isolated using lysing enzymes and were fused using polyethylene glycol. The fused protoplasts have been regenerated on protoplast regeneration minimal medium supplemented with two selective fungicides. Among the 40 fast growing fusants, 17 fusants were selected based on their enhanced growth on selective media for further studies. The fusant strains were growing 60%-70% faster than the parents up to third generation. All the 17 selected fusants exhibited morphological variations. Some fusant strains displayed threefold increased chitinase enzyme activity and twofold increase in β-glucanase enzyme activity compared to the parent strains. Most fusants showed powerful antagonistic activity against Macrophomin aphaseolina , Pythium ultimum and Sclerotium rolfsii pathogens. Fusant number 15 showed the highest inhibition percentage (92.8%) against M. phaseolina and P. ultimum, while fusant number 9 showed the highest inhibition percentage (98.2%) against the growth of S. rolfsii. A hyphal intertwining and degradation phenomenon was observed by scanning electron microscope. The Trichoderma antagonistic effect against pathogenic fungal mycelia was due to the

  8. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  9. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  10. Constituents and biological activities of Schinus polygamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, Silvia; Delporte, Carla; Negrete, Rosa; García, Rubén; Zaldívar, Mercedes; Iturra, Gladys; Caballero, Esther; López, José Luis; Backhouse, Nadine

    2006-10-11

    The folk medicine employs Schinus polygamus to treat arthritic pain and cleansing of wounds. As no reports of pharmacological studies supporting its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, extracts of increasing polarity were assayed on the base of fever, pain and inflammation, together with its antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed pharmacological activities. From the most active extracts different metabolites were isolated that can in part explain the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity: beta-sitosterol, shikimic acid together with quercetin, previously reported. Also, the essential oil of leaves and fruits was obtained and compared with the oil obtained from Schinus polygamus collected in Argentine. Oils differed in composition and in antibacterial activity, where the Chilean species exhibited a wide spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the most abundant compound found in leaves and fruits was beta-pinene, meanwhile the Argentine species showed high activity against Bacillus cereus, and the main components resulted to be alpha-phellandrene and limonene.

  11. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  12. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  13. Biologically active substances from Zanthoxylum capense(thumb.) Harv.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, PS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation into the composition of Zanthoxylum capense yielded several biologically active compounds, including pellitorine. A convenient HPLC method was developed to determine the presence of pellitorine in crude extracts from plants...

  14. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, other biologically active compounds impair health by ... of essential elements through different mechanisms and giving astringent taste, odor, ... The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to ...

  15. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... of different the extracts of R. dentatus effectively inhibited tumor ... Plants contain thousands of biologically active mole- .... The vials were kept open over night with .... between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Stachel and.

  16. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  17. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  18. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  19. Activities of several benzimidazoles and tubulin inhibitors against Giardia spp. in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, U M; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that albendazole is effective against Giardia spp. in vitro and in vivo, prompting an investigation of the effects of several related benzimidazoles (BZs) on the viability of this protozoan parasite. A range of BZs was tested, and their effects were compared with those of a number of microtubule inhibitors. The effects produced by the two types of drugs were markedly similar, namely, trophozoite detachment and distortion of morphology and general structure, indicating a potential antimicrotubule mode of action for BZs. Mebendazole, albendazole, and fenbendazole proved to be among the most effective BZs tested, exhibiting apparent irreversibility. Nocodazole, oxfendazole, and albendazole sulfoxide, among others, produced transient inhibitions only. Further studies are required to evaluate all available BZs and other antigiardial agents to ensure the development of the most effective and safest antigiardial agent possible. PMID:8452365

  20. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    cyanobacteria, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibitors, immunological activity, natural products, nonribosomal peptides, plant growth regulators 2 INTRODUCTION Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative bacteria which are widely distributed in many water bodies..., immunological, 4 antimicrobial and plant growth tests. The overall aim of the experiments was to identify strains showing the most promising biological activity for potential biotechnological application. MATERIALS AND METHODS Isolation, culture...

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    3 H and 14 C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with 3 H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled [29- 3 H]-[24- 14 C] fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of 3 H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The [29- 3 H] phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation

  3. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  4. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  5. Metagenomics and in situ analyses reveal Propionivibrio spp. to be abundant GAO in biological wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely applied for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth. However, glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may...... reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excess polyphosphate. “Candidatus Accumulibacter” is widely considered to be the important PAO. In this study a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor was operated for EBPR for the enrichment of “Ca. Accumulibacter......”. Applying the PAOmix probe set, routinely applied to target the “Ca. Accumulibacter”, suggested a PAO enrichment of 70% of the biovolume by FISH. Known GAOs were detected in low abundance with FISH (PAO and GAO...

  6. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... Gibbs free energy of the complex compound are 3.1x1011 and -64.15 KJmol-1, respectively, suggesting ... Schiff base and its iron(II) complex showed good activity. Keywords: ... maximum solubility in DMF and DMSO at room.

  7. In vitro activity of solithromycin and its metabolites, CEM-214 and N-acetyl-CEM-101, against 100 clinical Ureaplasma spp. isolates compared with azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Lucy L; Spiller, O Brad; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S

    2015-09-01

    There is a strong association between vaginal and/or amniotic fluid Ureaplasma spp. colonisation and risk of preterm birth. The novel fluoroketolide antibiotic solithromycin (CEM-101) is active against Ureaplasma spp. in vitro. Evidence from ex vivo and in vivo models suggests that, unlike most macrolide antibiotics, solithromycin readily crosses the placenta. Solithromycin metabolism varies according to species; in pregnant sheep, the bioactive metabolites CEM-214 and N-acetyl-CEM-101 (NAc-CEM-101) have been shown to accumulate in the amniotic cavity following maternal solithromycin administration, potentially contributing to its antimicrobial effects. To determine the antimicrobial activity of these metabolites against Ureaplasma spp., the effects of solithromycin, CEM-214, NAc-CEM-101 and the comparator azithromycin were tested on a collection of 100 clinical Ureaplasma spp. isolates from the UK and Australia using a modified 96-well broth microdilution method. MIC90 values observed for the combined cohort were: solithromycin, 0.125 mg/L; CEM-214, 0.5mg/L; NAc-CEM-101, 0.5mg/L; and azithromycin, 2mg/L. Solithromycin showed 34-fold greater activity against Ureaplasma spp. isolates than azithromycin, whilst CEM-214 and NAc-CEM-101 possessed ca. 22% and 17% of the activity of solithromycin, respectively, significantly greater than that of azithromycin. One bacterial isolate showed resistance to azithromycin (MIC=16 mg/L) but had a much lower MIC for solithromycin (MIC=0.25mg/L). In conclusion, the metabolites of solithromycin had reduced, but still potent, activity against 100 clinical Ureaplasma spp. isolates in vitro. This may be important in some instances such as pregnancy, however studies to determine levels of the metabolites in these settings are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. New uracil derivatives and their biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudecova, D.; Striganova, J.; Chovanec, P.; Uher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Present study is concentrated to the research of antimicrobial activity of some derivatives of the uracil and 1,3-dimethyluracyl. The antimicrobial effects of these compounds have been tested on various strains of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The highest antimicrobial effects were found with dithiocarbamato-derivatives, which were effective against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria (IC 50 = 7-25 μg cm -3 ), yeasts (IC 50 = 9-60 μg cm -3 ) and filamentous fungi.The most sensitive fungus to dithiocarbamato-derivatives was Botritis cinerea. It seems to be apparent that the presence of the -NH-C(S)-S- group in molecules of derivatives of uracil and and 1,3-dimethyluracyl influencing the incorporation rate [ 14 ]-adenine and 14 ]-leucine into the biomolecules and also markedly inhibits oxygen consumption (IC 50 = 58 μg cm -3 ). The same derivative demonstrated no mutagenic activity. (authors)

  9. Isolation and biological activity of frankiamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haansuu, J P; Klika, K D; Söderholm, P P; Ovcharenko, V V; Pihlaja, K; Haahtela, K K; Vuorela, P M

    2001-07-01

    An antibiotic produced by the symbiotic actinomycete Frankia strain AiPs1 was isolated from culture broth using optimized thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The novel compound that was isolated, dubbed frankiamide, displayed antimicrobial activity against all 14 Gram-positive bacterial strains and six pathogenic fungal strains tested. The pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis and the oomycete Phytophthora were especially susceptible. In addition to displaying antimicrobial activity, frankiamide also strongly inhibited 45Ca(2+) fluxes in clonal rat pituitary GH4C1 tumor cells and was comparable to a frequently used calcium antagonist, verapamil hydrochloride. The results of HPLC analysis, supported by both nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy studies, showed that frankiamide has a high affinity for Na(+) ions.

  10. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  11. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MS X-NONE AR-SA Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT. The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100 is 43.205µg/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S.aureus  and fungi spp. (C.albicans and C.neoformans. It was found that saliva has an inhibition activity against Sal.typhi (minimal inhibitory concentration MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml and E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.ABSTRAK: Pacat-pacat diberi makan larutan phagostimulatory menerusi membran parafilem. Pacat-pacat yang kekenyangan itu dipaksa memuntahkan larutan tersebut dengan direndam di dalam bekas berisi ais. Aktiviti antigumpal ditentukan menggunakan cerakin masa trombin (TT. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan air liur pacat menyebabkan pertambahan TT sebanyak 100% (IC100 iaitu 43.205µg/ml plasma. Aktiviti antimikrob air liur telah diuji dengan pelbagai jenis bakteria (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi dan S.aureus dan pelbagai jenis kulat (C.albicans and C.neoformans. Didapati air liur menghasilkan aktiviti perencatan terhadap Sal.typhi (kepekatan perencat minima (Minimal inhibitory concentration - MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml dan E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of organothiophosphoryl polyoxotungstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengang; Liu, Jutao; Ma, Jianfang; Liu, Jingfu

    2002-01-01

    Organothiophosphoryl polyoxotungstates R(contains)XW(infinityinfinity)O(contains exists) (/-) , R(contains) P(contains)W(infinity),O(infinity) (/-), R(contains)PW( exists)O(contains) (Delta) (-)(X = P, Si, Ge, B or Ga; R = PhP(S), C(6)H(11)P(S)) have been prepared from lacunary polyoxoanions and PhP(S). The products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. According to spectroscopic observations, the hybrid anions consist of a lacunary anion framework on which are grafted two equivalent or groups through P-O-W bridges. Some of the title compounds showed the antigerm activity.

  13. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Fernandez, Helen T

    2004-06-01

    Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca(2+) to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium difficile (n = 14), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium ramosum (n = 16), 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium innocuum (n = 15), 4 and 16 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium clostridioforme (n = 15), 8 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Eubacterium group (n = 33), 0.25 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Lactobacillus spp. (n = 26), 0.5 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Propionibacterium spp. (n = 34), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Linezolid showed decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against C. ramosum, two strains of C. difficile, and 15 strains of Lactobacillus spp. Imipenem and piperacillin

  14. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  15. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  16. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  17. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  18. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  19. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  20. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  1. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  2. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  3. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  4. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Morrell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context.

  5. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2017-07-18

    Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR) cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure-activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  6. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  7. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  8. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  9. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity, mode of action and anti-biofilm effects of Laurus nobilis Linnaeus essential oil against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Larissa Rangel; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Freires, Irlan Almeida; de Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the antifungal potential of the chemically characterized essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis L. (bay laurel) against Candida spp. biofilm adhesion and formation, and further established its mode of action on C. albicans. L. nobilis EO was obtained and tested for its minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC) against Candida spp., as well as for interaction with cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability. Then we evaluated its effects on the adhesion, formation, and reduction of 48hC. albicans biofilms. The EO phytochemical profile was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The MIC and MFC values of the EO ranged from (250 to 500) μg/mL. The MIC values increased in the presence of sorbitol (osmotic protector) and ergosterol, which indicates that the EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability, respectively. At 2 MIC the EO disrupted initial adhesion of C. albicans biofilms (p0.05). When applied for 1min, every 8h, for 24h and 48h, the EO reduced the amount of C. albicans mature biofilm with no difference in relation to nystatin (p>0.05). The phytochemical analysis identified isoeugenol as the major compound (53.49%) in the sample. L. nobilis EO has antifungal activity probably due to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in its composition. This EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane permeability, and showed deleterious effects against C. albicans biofilms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  12. Biological activity of antitumoural MGBG: the structural variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M P M; Gil, F P S C; Calheiros, R; Battaglia, V; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Toninello, A

    2008-05-01

    The present study aims at determining the structure-activity relationships (SAR's) ruling the biological function of MGBG (methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase displaying anticancer activity, involved in the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine and spermine. In order to properly understand its biochemical activity, MGBG's structural preferences at physiological conditions were ascertained, by quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations.

  13. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  14. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbak, V; Macho, L; Sedlak, J; Hromadova, M

    1976-03-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma irradiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity being after the former dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in a decrease of biological activity already during first month. The structural changes in the molecule of TSH were apparently not very extensive, since a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while uv absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by the decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that TSH molecule may be affected in ..beta.. subunit or in its connection with ..cap alpha...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbak, V.; Macho, L.; Sedlak, J.; Hromadova, M.

    1976-01-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma radiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity after the 0.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in decreased biological activity already during the first month. The structural changes in the TSH molecule were apparently not very extensive, as a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1 M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while UV absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by a decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that a TSH molecule may be affected in a β subunit or in its connection with α. (author)

  17. Actividad "in vitro" de diferentes antibacterianos sobre bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores, excluidos Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter spp ‘In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Vay

    2005-03-01

    antibacterianos a fin de abordar la elección correcta del mismo. Debido a la marcada multirresistencia de algunas especies, surge la necesidad del desarrollo de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos que posean actividad sobre este grupo de bacterias, así como tambien la búsqueda de combinaciones sinérgicas.Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ‘in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2 , Sphingobacterium spiritivorum (1, Empedobacter brevis (1, Weeksella virosa (1, Bergeyella zoohelcum (1 and Oligella urethralis (1, were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the

  18. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC. peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and molds including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. sake and Aspergillus fumigatus TISTR 3180. It exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.28 and 0.56 mg/ml against Sac. cerevisiae var. sake and B. cereus, respectively while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values against both microbes were 0.56 mg/ml. The MIC values of the extract against L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 1.13 mg/ml while the MBC values against L. monocytogenes as well as A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 2.25 and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate extract from kaffir lime were limonene (31.64 %, citronellal (25.96 % and b-pinene (6.83 % whereas b-pinene (30.48 %, sabinene (22.75 % and citronellal (15.66 % appeared to be major compounds of the essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation.

  19. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with antifungal agents against Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Tarcieli Pozzebon; Chassot, Francieli; Loreto, Érico Silva; Keller, Jéssica Tairine; Azevedo, Maria Izabel; Zeni, Gilson; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we describe the in vitro activity of a combination of the organoselenium compounds diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. For this analysis, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range = 4-32 μg/ml) and ebselen (MIC range = 2-8 μg/ml) showed in vitro activity against the isolates tested. The most effective combinations were (synergism rates): ebselen + amphotericin B (88%), ebselen + voriconazole (80%), diphenyl diselenide + amphotericin B (72%), and diphenyl diselenide + voriconazole (64%). Combination with caspofungin resulted in low rates of synergism: ebselen + caspofungin, 36%, and diphenyl diselenide + caspofungin, 28%; combination with itraconazole demonstrated indifferent interactions. Antagonistic effects were not observed for any of the combinations tested. Our findings suggest that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation in in vivo experimental models, especially in combination with amphotericin B and voriconazole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  1. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  2. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  3. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  5. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  6. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Metal ions play a vital role in the design of more biologically active drugs. Aim: The paper reviewed the .... 2H2O by direct reaction of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate with ciprofloxacin in distilled water. ... membered ring and the chloride ion completes the seven coordination around the Ca2+ion.[37-39].

  7. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  8. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  9. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  10. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  11. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  12. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  13. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  14. Evaluación de la actividad desulfurizadora de aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. en presencia de hidrocarburo Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of Pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alméciga-Díaz Carlos Javier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El principal inconveniente en la combustión de los hidrocarburos es la conversión del azufre y el nitrógeno a sus respectivos óxidos, los cuales participan en la formación de lluvia acida y deterioran el medio ambiente e infraestructuras. La remoción de azufre a partir de compuestos órgano-azufrados mediante el uso de microorganismos ha surgido como una alternativa frente al proceso catalítico de hidrodesulfurización (HDS. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora de veintitrés aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. sobre dibenzotiofeno (DBT, usando un sistema de fermentación con igual proporción de fase acuosa y orgánica (n-hexano en presencia de oleato de etanolamina. Los aislados 02,05 y 06 conservaron su viabilidad en este medio y presentaron una remoción de azufre entre 6,0 y 9,4%, generando los metabolitos DBT-sulfona, DBT-sulfóxido, 2-hidroxibifenilo (2-HBP y sulfato presentes en la ruta metabólica 4S. Con estos aislados se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora sobre keroseno y se observó una remoción de azufre entre 19,9 y 62,6% y una disminución del poder calorífico entre 0,45 y 5,55%. Palabras clave: dibenzotiofeno, desulfurización, Pseudomonas spp., keroseno.The main difficulty with fossil fuel combustión lies in sulphur and nitrogen becoming converted to their respective oxides, forming part of the acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructure. Removing sulphur from organo-sulfur compounds by using micro-organisms has become an alternative to hydrodesulphurisation (HDS. Twenty-three Pseudomonas spp. native strains' desulphurisation activity on dibenzothiophene (DBT was evaluated by using a fermentation system having equal proportions of aqueous and organic (n-hexane phases in the presence of ethanolamine oléate. The 02, 05 and 06 strains maintained their viability in this médium, presenting 6,0% to 9,4% sulphur removal, producing DBT-sulphone, DBT-sulphoxide, 2

  15. A Review on Phytoconstituents and Biological activities of Cuscuta species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ateeque; Tandon, Sudeep; Xuan, Tran Dang; Nooreen, Zulfa

    2017-08-01

    The genus Cuscuta belonging to the Cuscutaceae family comprises of about 100-170 species spread around the world. Although several species have been studied for their phytochemical characterization and biological activities but still many species are yet unexplored till date. Cuscuta are parasitic plants generally of yellow, orange, red or rarely green color. The Cuscuta species were reported rich in flavonoid and glycosidic constituents along with alkaloids, fatty acids, fixed oil, minerals, essential oil and others phytomolecules also etc. Flavonoids and other molecules of Cuscuta species were reported for different types of biological activities such as antiproliferative activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and anxiolytic activity, while some other flavonoids have exhibited potential antiviral and anticancer especially in ovarian and breast cancer activities. This review is an attempt to compile all the available data for the 24 different of Cuscuta species on the basis of different types of phytochemical constituents and biological studies as above. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  17. Certification of biological reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanjewar, Mamata R.; Lanjewar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 21 minor and trace elements in two standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques ,Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's kale, cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of Reference Materials of Biological Matrices. (author)

  18. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  19. Extracellular enzyme activities during lignocellulose degradation by Streptomyces spp.: a comparative study of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.; Crawford, D.L.; Pometto, A.L. III

    1987-01-01

    The wild-type ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A and two genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produce a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate, an acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), were grown on lignocellulose in solid-state fermentation cultures. Culture filtrates were periodically collected, analyzed for APPL, and assayed for extracellular lignocellulose-catabolizing enzyme activities. Two APPL-overproducing strains, UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10, had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activities than did the wild-type strain T7A. Results implicated one or more of these enzymes in lignin solubilization. Only mutant T7A-81 had higher xylanase activity than the wild type. The peroxidase was induced by both lignocellulose and APPL. This extracellular enzyme has some similarities to previously described ligninases in fungi. This is the first report of such an enzyme in Streptomyces spp. Four peroxidase isozymes were present, and all catalyzed the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, while one also catalyzed hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of homoprotocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. Three constitutive esterase isozymes were produced which differed in substrate specificity toward α-naphthyl acetate and α-naphthyl butyrate. Three endoglucanase bands, which also exhibited a low level of xylanase activity, were identified on polyacrylamide gels as was one xylanase-specific band. There were no major differences in the isoenzymes produced by the different strains. The probable role of each enzyme in lignocellulose degradation is discussed

  20. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  1. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 0 C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  2. Biological activity of the non-microbial fraction of kefir: antagonism against intestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraporda, Carolina; Abatemarco Júnior, Mário; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Nicoli, Jacques R; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2017-08-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk obtained by the activity of kefir grains which are composed of lactic and acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Many beneficial health effects have been associated with kefir consumption such as stimulation of the immune system and inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The biological activity of kefir may be attributed to the presence of a complex microbiota as well as the microbial metabolites that are released during fermentation. The aim of this work was to characterise the non-microbial fraction of kefir and to study its antagonism against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus cereus. During milk fermentation there was a production of organic acids, mainly lactic and acetic acid, with a consequent decrease in pH and lactose content. The non-microbial fraction of kefir added to nutrient broth at concentrations above 75% v/v induced a complete inhibition of pathogenic growth that could be ascribed to the presence of un-dissociated lactic acid. In vitro assays using an intestinal epithelial cell model indicated that pre-incubation of cells with the non-microbial fraction of kefir did not modify the association/invasion of Salmonella whereas pre-incubation of Salmonella with this fraction under conditions that did not affect their viability significantly decreased the pathogen's ability to invade epithelial cells. Lactate exerted a protective effect against Salmonella in a mouse model, demonstrating the relevance of metabolites present in the non-microbial fraction of kefir produced during milk fermentation.

  3. Thermodependence of growth and enzymatic activities implicated in pathogenicity of two Erwinia carotovora subspecies (Pectobacterium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Trigui, Sameh; Burini, Jean François; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora can cause substantial damage to economically important plant crops and stored products. The occurrence of the disease and the scale of the damage are temperature dependent. Disease development consists first of active multiplication of the bacteria in the infection area and then production of numerous extracellular enzymes. We investigated the effects of various temperatures on these two steps. We assayed the specific growth rate and the pectate lyase and protease activities for eight strains belonging to E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in vitro. The temperature effect on growth rate and on pectate lyase activity is different for the two subspecies, but protease activity appears to be similarly thermoregulated. Our results are in agreement with ecological data implicating E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in disease when the temperature is below 20 degrees C. The optimal temperature for pathogenicity appears to be different from the optimal growth temperature but seems to be a compromise between this temperature and temperatures at which lytic activities are maximal.

  4. Determination of chromium in biological matrices by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClendon, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Chromium is recognized to be an essential trace element in several biological systems. It exists in many biological materials in a variety of chemical forms and very low concentration levels which cause problems for many analytical techniques. Both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis were used to determine the chromium concentration in Orchard Leaves, SRM 1571, Brewers Yeast, SRM 1569, and Bovine Liver, SRM 1577. Some of the problems inherent with determining chromium in certain biological matrices and the data obtained here at the National Bureau of Standards using this technique are discussed. The results obtained from dissolution of brewers yeast in a closed system as described in the DNAA procedure are in good agreement with the INAA results. The same phenomenon existed in the determination of chromium in bovine liver. The radiochemical procedure described for chromium (DNAA) provides the analyst with a simple, rapid and selective technique for chromium determination in a variety of matrices. (T.G.)

  5. Antimicrobial activity evaluation and comparison of methods of susceptibility for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenchoski, Daniele Zendrini; Dambrozio, Angélica Marim Lopes; Vivan, Ana Carolina Polano; Schuroff, Paulo Alfonso; Burgos, Tatiane das Neves; Pelisson, Marsileni; Perugini, Marcia Regina Eches; Vespero, Eliana Carolina

    The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest ® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2 ® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2 ® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  7. Biological activity of soils strongly polluted with sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, M; Maliszewska, W; Siuta, J

    1972-01-01

    Studies were carried out on soils strongly polluted with sulfur and acidified (to pH 1.4). The soils were subjected to an intensive liming. In field and pot experiments, the authors determined: the total quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, azotobacter, nitrifiers, proteolytic activity of microorganisms, activity of ammonifiers and the number of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. It was found that intensive liming of sulfur-affected soils restored their biological activity. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Seasonal timing of diapause induction limits the effective range of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C

    2007-02-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.

  9. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

  10. Antioxidant, antifungal and anticancer activities of se-enriched Pleurotus spp. mycelium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was the evaluation of antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer potentials of Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius mycelial extracts, and the influence of mycelium enrichment with selenium on these activities. Both Se-amended and non-amended extracts showed the same or similar minimal inhibitory concentration for 14 studied micromycetes, while a fungicidal effect was not noted, contrary to ketoconazole, which had inhibitory and fungicidal effects at very low concentrations. Se-non-amended extracts exhibited antioxidant activity, especially at higher concentrations. Selenium enrichment influenced activity, its effects decreasing in P. eryngii and P. pulmonarius, while in P. ostreatus no effect was noted. The DPPH• radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was in direct correlation with their phenol and flavonoid contents. Cytotoxic activity against both HeLa and LS174 cell lines was very low compared with cis-DDP. These features suggest that mycelium should be an object of intensive studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  11. Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa L. extract against Phytophthora spp. in tomato and pepper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Eva; Colla, G.; Crino, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-34 ISSN 0929-1873 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : antifungal activity * phytophora * plant extract Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2016

  12. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Alirahmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  13. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Lee, Shuliang; Ouvry, Gilles; Perrey, David; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2008-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Recently, we reported the synthesis and biological activity of potent imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we report the synthesis and anticoccidial activity of a second set of such compounds, focusing on derivatization of the amine side chain at the imidazopyridine 7-position. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  15. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp Actividad antifúngica de extractos de plantas medicinales contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 10 plant species used in traditional Uruguayan medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses. Aqueous, saline buffer and acid extracts of different plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Alternaria spp. For the antifungal evaluation we used a microspectrophotometric assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the extracts were determined. Three solvents were assayed on different tissues of the plants and among the 29 evaluated extracts, 31% of the extracts inhibited growth, similar to the effects of a chemical fungicide. Acid extracts of the plants were more effective than the aqueous or buffer extracts against Alternaria spp. The MIC values of the extracts were determined ranging between 1.25 and 25 µg mL-1. The MFC values of the extracts ranged between 1.25 µg mL-1 (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and 10 µg mL-1 (Cynara scolymus L.. MICs and MFCs values obtained from leaves (Salvia officinalis L. and R. officinalis and seeds extracts (Salvia sclarea L. were quite comparable to values obtained with the conventional fungicide captan (2.5 µg mL-1. The extracts of Salvia sclarea, S. officinalis and R. officinalis could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating diseases in plants. These extracts showed maximum activity, even at very low concentrations, and the same fungicide effects as chemical fungicide. We conclude from this that these extracts exhibit amazing fungicidal properties that support their traditional use as antiseptics.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica de extractos vegetales de 10 especies utilizadas en la medicina tradicional uruguaya contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp. Las plantas fueron seleccionadas en base a usos

  16. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  17. Biological Activity and Photostability of Biflorin Micellar Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. B. Santana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9% and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures’ photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  18. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiobolins (Ophs are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A–W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs. Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure–activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  19. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Activity of pradofloxacin against Porphyromonas and Prevotella spp. Implicated in periodontal disease in dogs: susceptibility test data from a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich A; Pridmore, Andrew; Silley, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Collaborating veterinarians from five European countries collected subgingival bacterial samples from dogs exhibiting clinical periodontal disease. Sterile endodontic paper points were used for collection of the samples, which were transported to a central laboratory for susceptibility testing. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated and Porphyromonas and Prevotella isolates identified to the species level; susceptibility to pradofloxacin and metronidazole was determined using the CLSI agar dilution methodology. A total of 630 isolates, 310 of Porphyromonas spp. and 320 of Prevotella spp., were isolated. Pradofloxacin MIC data for all isolates were in the range of periodontal disease and shows activity against metronidazole-resistant isolates. The broad-spectrum activity of pradofloxacin makes it a suitable candidate for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs.

  1. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

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    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  3. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

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    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  5. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  6. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  7. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  8. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  9. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 Displays In vitro Inhibitory Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Monique S.; Noronha, Francisca M. F.; Arruda, Mariana O.; Costa, Ênnio P. da Silva; Bomfim, Maria R. Q.; Monteiro, Andrea S.; Ferro, Thiago A. F.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Girón, Jorge A.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L. paracasei (ATCC 335), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595), against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826), and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813). The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: (i) adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, (ii) biofilm formation, (iii) co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, (iv) inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and (v) antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001), likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidiasis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidiasis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains. PMID:27833605

  10. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 displays in vitro inhibitory activities against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Santos Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356, L. brevis (ATCC 367, L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645, L. fermentum (ATCC 23271, L. paracasei (ATCC 335, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595, against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826, and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813. The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: i adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, ii biofilm formation, iii co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, iv inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and v antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001, likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidosis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidosis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains.

  11. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC 50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC 50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  12. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  13. Urtica spp.: Phenolic composition, safety, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Rita; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Liberal, Joana; Prior, João A V; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Urtica dioica and other less studied Urtica species (Urticaceae) are often used as a food ingredient. Fifteen hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sixteen flavonoids, flavone and flavonol-type glycosides were identified in hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L. and Urtica membranacea using HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS n . Among them, the 4-caffeoyl-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid and three statin-like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl flavone derivatives were identified for the first time in Urtica urens and U. membranacea respectively. Urtica membranacea showed the higher content of flavonoids, mainly luteolin and apigenin C-glycosides, which are almost absent in the other species studied. In vitro, Urtica dioica exhibited greater antioxidant activity but Urtica urens exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory potential. Interestingly, statin-like compounds detected in Urtica membranacea have been associated with hypocholesterolemic activity making this plant interesting for future investigations. None of the extracts were cytotoxic to macrophages and hepatocytes in bioactive concentrations (200 and 350μg/mL), suggesting their safety use in food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of six edible wild plants (Sonchus spp.) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dao-Zong; Yu, Xin-Fen; Zhu, Zhuo-Ying; Zou, Zhuang-Dan

    2011-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six Sonchus wild vegetables (Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus arvensis L., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Sonchus uliginosus M.B., Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Sonchus lingianus Shih) in China were investigated. The results revealed that S. arvensis extract and S. oleraceus extract contained the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid, respectively. Among the methanol extracts of six Sonchus species, S. arvensis extract exhibited the highest radical (DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory power. It also exhibited the highest reducing power at 500 µg mL⁻¹ by A (700) = 0.80. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the S. oleraceus extract showed higher activity than the other five Sonchus wild vegetables extracts, both in Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and in a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). These results indicate that Sonchus wild food plants might be applicable in natural medicine and healthy food.

  15. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases.

  16. Allobetulin and Its Derivatives: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat S. Seitembetov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the chemistry of allobetulin analogs, including their formation by rearrangement from betulin derivatives, their further derivatisation, their fusion with heterocyclic rings, and any further rearrangements of allobetulin compounds including ring opening, ring contraction and ring expansion reactions. In the last part, the most important biological activities of allobetulin derivatives are listed. One hundred and fifteen references are cited and the relevant literature is covered, starting in 1922 up to the end of 2010.

  17. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Hong, Jean; Lee, Shuliang; McIntyre, Donald; Perrey, David; Feng, Dennis; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2007-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we present the synthesis and biological activity of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  19. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  20. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL -1 and 0.6-0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Metabolic engineering to simultaneously activate anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways in Nicotiana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fresquet-Corrales

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs, or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production. Transient and stable transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum with the multigenic construct were respectively performed. Transient expression experiments in N. benthamiana showed the activation of the anthocyanin pathway producing a purple color in the agroinfiltrated leaves and also the effective production of 208.5 nmol (- catechin/g FW and 228.5 nmol (- epicatechin/g FW measured by the p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA method. The integration capacity of the four transgenes, their respective expression levels and their heritability in the second generation were analyzed in stably transformed N. tabacum plants. DMACA and phoroglucinolysis/HPLC-MS analyses corroborated the activation of both pathways and the effective production of PAs in T0 and T1 transgenic tobacco plants up to a maximum of 3.48 mg/g DW. The possible biotechnological applications of the GB2.0 multigenic approach in forage legumes to produce "bloat-safe" plants and to improve the efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein (ruminal protein bypass are discussed.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro activity against Candida spp. of fluconazole encapsulated on cationic and conventional nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Sequeda N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás Gómez-Sequeda,1 Rodrigo Torres,2 Claudia Ortiz3 1School of Biology, 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, 3School of Microbiology, Faculty of Health, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia Abstract: In this study, nanoparticles (NPs of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with fluconazole (FLZ and FLZ-NPs coated with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI were synthetized in order to improve antimycotic activity against four strains of Candida spp. of clinical relevance. FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI were synthesized by double emulsion solvent-diffusion (DES-D and characterized. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC were determined in vitro by culturing Candida strains in the presence of these nanocompounds. FLZ-NPs were spherical in shape with hydrodynamic sizes of ~222 nm and surface charge of -11.6 mV. The surface charges of these NPs were successfully modified using PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI with mean hydrodynamic sizes of 281 nm and surface charge of 23.5 mV. The efficiency of encapsulation (~53% and a quick release of FLZ (≥90% after 3 h were obtained. Cytotoxicity assay showed a good cell viability for FLZ-NPs (≥86%, and PEI-modified NPs presented a decrease in cell viability (~38%. FLZ-NPs showed an increasing antifungal activity of FLZ for sensitive (Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida albicans ATCC10231, MIC50 =0.5 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively and resistant strains (Candida glabrata EMLM14 and Candida krusei ATCC6258, MIC50 =0.1 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. FLZ-NP-PEI showed fungicidal activity even against C. glabrata and C. krusei (MFC =4 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. MIC50 values showed best results for FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI. Nevertheless, only FLZ-NP-PEI displayed fungicidal activity against the studied strains. Keywords: drug delivery systems, double emulsion diffusion, nanoparticles, minimal inhibitory concentration

  5. Spatial structure and activity of sedimentary microbial communities underlying a Beggiatoa spp. mat in a Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon seep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen G Lloyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. Hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. Microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a transect of biogeochemical measurements and gene expression related to methane- and sulfur-cycling at different sediment depths across a broad Beggiatoa spp. mat at Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118 in the Gulf of Mexico. High process rates within the mat ( approximately 400 cm and approximately 10 cm from the mat's edge contrasted with sharply diminished activity at approximately 50 cm outside the mat, as shown by sulfate and methane concentration profiles, radiotracer rates of sulfate reduction and methane oxidation, and stable carbon isotopes. Likewise, 16S ribosomal rRNA, dsrAB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase and mcrA (methyl coenzyme M reductase mRNA transcripts of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae and methane-cycling archaea (ANME-1 and ANME-2 were prevalent at the sediment surface under the mat and at its edge. Outside the mat at the surface, 16S rRNA sequences indicated mostly aerobes commonly found in seawater. The seep-related communities persisted at 12-20 cm depth inside and outside the mat. 16S rRNA transcripts and V6-tags reveal that bacterial and archaeal diversity underneath the mat are similar to each other, in contrast to oxic or microoxic habitats that have higher bacterial diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The visual patchiness of microbial mats reflects sharp discontinuities in microbial community structure and activity over sub-meter spatial scales; these discontinuities have to be taken into account in geochemical and

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  7. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  8. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Heracleum persicum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Zahra; Sadati Lamardi, S N

    2018-05-24

    Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch is used in Iranian traditional medicines, for the treatment of various diseases including neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, rheumatological and urinary tract diseases. In phytochemical analysis of H. persicum, several classes of natural chemicals including volatile (aliphatic esters, carbonyls, phenyl propenes and terpenes) and nonvolatile (flavonoids, furanocoumarins, tannins and alkaloids) constituents as well as different minerals have been identified. Scientific studies on H. persicum proved that it has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. This article has provided comprehensive information on Iranian traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of H. persicum. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  10. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  11. Multielemental determination in Citrus spp bee honey samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Pamplona, B.

    1990-07-01

    Recently interest has grown in the determination of the concentration of inorganic chemical elements in honey bee samples, due its utilization as indicator of environmental pollution in several countries of Europe. In the present work, a method was developed to determine some essential and potentially inorganic elements in honey bee samples by intrumental neutrons activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The honey samples were neutron irradiated during differents times at the nuclear research reactor IEA-Rl of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The elements Na, Cl, K, Mg and Mn were determined using irradiations of 30 minutes under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . With 16 hours of irradiation under a flux of 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 and different cooling times, the elements Br, Ca, Au, Sb, Cs, Rb, Zn, Sc, Fe, Co and La were determined. The concentration of the analyzed elements ranged from ng/g to mg/g. In the future, different kinds of bee honey will be analyzed and the characteristic chemical composition of each one will be established. Based on these elemental concentration data, the relationship between the mineral composition of bee honey and its geographical origin can be studied. (author) [pt

  12. Evidence of parasexual activity in "asexual amoebae" Cochliopodium spp. (Amoebozoa): extensive cellular and nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Yonas I; Anderson, O Roger; Lecky, Ariel F

    2014-09-01

    The majority of microbial eukaryotes have long been considered asexual, though new evidence indicates sex, or sexual-like (parasexual) behaviors that deviate from the usual union of two gametes, among other variant aspects. Over a dozen amoebozoans are implicated to have sexual stages. However, the exact mechanism by which sex occurs in these lineages remains elusive. This is mainly due to the diverse quality and cryptic nature of their life cycle. In this study we present evidence of some previously unreported aspects of the life cycle of an amoeba, Cochliopodium, that undergoes unusual intraspecific interactions using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Similar to other amoebozoans, Cochliopodium, is considered asexual with no published reports of sex or parasexuality. We also investigated environmental conditions that govern the observed intraspecific interactions. Both light microscopic and immunocytochemistry evidence demonstrates Cochliopodium undergoes cellular fusion (plasmogamy) and nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Large plasmodia eventually undergo karyogamy and contain large fused, polyploid, nuclei. These are observed to fragment, subsequently, by karyotomy (nuclear fission) and cytoplasmic fission to yield uninucleated amoebae. This process could lead to a non-meiotic, parasexual exchange of chromosomes in Cochliopodium. These findings strongly suggest that Cochliopodium is involved in parasexual activity and should no longer be considered strictly asexual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  14. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  15. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urediospores of Puccinia spp. and other rusts are warm-temperature ice nucleators and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2012-10-01

    In light of various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause that illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history, we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections from 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active having freezing onset temperatures as warm as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. We suggest that air sampling techniques have ignored the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric concentrations that occur under conditions propitious for precipitation that could increase their local abundance intermittently. Nevertheless, we propose that the relative low abundance of warm-temperature biological ice nucleators in the

  17. Comparison of Tetrazolium Salt Assays for Evaluation of Drug Activity against Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginouves, Marine; Carme, Bernard; Couppie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In French Guiana, leishmaniasis is an essentially cutaneous infection. It constitutes a major public health problem, with a real incidence of 0.2 to 0.3%. Leishmania guyanensis is the causal species most frequently encountered in French Guiana. The treatment of leishmaniasis is essentially drug based, but the therapeutic compounds available have major side effects (e.g., liver damage and diabetes) and must be administered parenterally or are costly. The efficacy of some of these agents has declined due to the emergence of resistance in certain strains of Leishmania. There is currently no vaccine against leishmaniasis, and it is therefore both necessary and urgent to identify new compounds effective against Leishmania. The search for new drugs requires effective tests for evaluations of the leishmanicidal activity of a particular molecule or extract. Microculture tetrazolium assays (MTAs) are colorimetric tests based on the use of tetrazolium salts. We compared the efficacies of three tetrazolium salts—3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), and 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-8)—for quantification of the promastigotes of various species of Leishmania. We found that the capacity of Leishmania to metabolize a tetrazolium salt depended on the salt used and the species of Leishmania. WST-8 was the tetrazolium salt best metabolized by L. guyanensis and gave the best sensitivity. PMID:24719447

  18. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  19. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  20. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod) 3 is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous 13 C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the 1 H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants

  1. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  2. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  3. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  4. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES FROM CHICKENS THROMBOCYTES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, M V; Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Pashkova, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L

    2016-01-01

    Isolation and study of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from chickens thrombocytes. Peptides from chickens thrombocytes, obtained by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with stepped and linear gradients of concentration increase of the organic solvent were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by microtitration method in broth; mechanism of biological effect--by using fluorescent spectroscopy method with DNA-tropic dyes. Individual fractions of peptides were isolated from chickens thrombocytes, that possess antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus P209 and Escherichia coli K12. A disruption of integrity of barrier structures of microorganisms under the effect of thrombocyte antimicrobial peptides and predominance of cells with damaged membrane in the population of E. coli was established. The data obtained on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal effect of the peptide fractions from chickens thrombocytes isolated for the first time expand the understanding of functional properties of chickens thrombocytes and open a perspective for their further study with the aim of use as antimicrobial means.

  5. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  6. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  7. Investigating Biological Activity Spectrum for Novel Styrylquinazoline Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, series of ring-substituted 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H-one and 4-chloro-2-styrylquinazoline derivatives were prepared. The syntheses of the discussed compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than that of the standard isoniazid. It was found that the electronic properties of the R substituent, and not the total lipophilicity of the compound, were decisive for the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of tested compounds.

  8. Biological Activity Predictions and Hydrogen Bonding Analysis in Quinolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Palvi; Kamni

    The paper has been designed to make a comprehensive review of a particular series of organic molecular assembly in the form of compendium. An overview of general description of fifteen quinoline derivatives has been given. The biological activity spectra of quinoline derivatives have been correlated on structure activity relationships base which provides the different Pa (possibility of activity) and Pi (possibility of inactivity) values. Expositions of the role of intermolecular interactions in the identified derivatives have been discussed with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria criteria as proposed by Desiraju and Steiner (1999) in an International monogram on crystallography. Distance-angle scatter plots for intermolecular interactions are presented for a better understanding of the packing interactions which exist in quinoline derivatives.

  9. Biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Donatella; Ardito, Fatima; Giannatempo, Giovanni; Dioguardi, Mario; Troiano, Giuseppe; Lo Russo, Lucio; DE Lillo, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is nontoxic and exhibits a variety of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. Recently, certain studies have indicated that curcumin may exert anticancer effects in a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. The present study reviewed previous studies in the literature, which support the therapeutic activity of curcumin in cancer. In addition, the present study elucidated a number of the challenges concerning the use of curcumin as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. All the studies reviewed herein suggest that curcumin is able to exert anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities, particularly against cancers of the liver, skin, pancreas, prostate, ovary, lung and head neck, as well as having a positive effect in the treatment of arthritis.

  10. Effects of temperature on biological activity of permafrost microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyonova, L F; Novikova, M A; Subbotin, A M; Bazhin, A S

    2015-04-01

    The number and viability of microorganism specimens Bacillus spp. isolated from permafrost soil remained unchanged after incubation at temperatures of -16-37°C. Experiments on F1 CBA/Black-6 mice showed that incubation of bacteria at -5°C for 72 h promotes a decrease in their toxicity and an increase in their immunostimulating effect.

  11. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  12. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  13. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  14. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  15. Eurotium (Aspergillus) repens metabolites and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podojil, M; Sedmera, P; Vokoun, J; Betina, V; Baráthová, H; Duracková, Z; Horáková, K; Nemec, P

    1978-01-01

    Eurotium repens mycelium cultivated under static conditions was used to isolate and identify metabolities--echinulin, physcion, erythroglaucin, flavoglaucin and asperentin; the filtrate of the culture yielded asperentin 8-methylether. The broadest biological activity spectrum was displayed by asperentin which had antibacterial and antifungal effects and, at a concentration of 86 microgram/ml, caused 50% mor7 tality in Artemia saline larvae. The highest cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was found in physcion which caused 50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml.

  16. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Kang, H.J.; Jo, C.O.; Jeong, I.Y.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  18. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  19. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  20. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  1. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  3. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  4. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Fatemeh

    2013-12-01

    To summarize comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of parsley. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched for studies focusing on the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemical compounds and biological and pharmacological activities of parsley. Data were collected from 1966 to 2013. The search terms were: "Parsley" or "Petroselinum crispum" or "Petroselinum hortence". Parsley has been used as carminative, gastro tonic, diuretic, antiseptic of urinary tract, anti-urolithiasis, anti-dote and anti-inflammatory and for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal disorder, hypertension, cardiac disease, urinary disease, otitis, sniffle, diabetes and also various dermal disease in traditional and folklore medicines. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids particularly apigenin, apiin and 6"-Acetylapiin; essential oil mainly myristicin and apiol; and also coumarins are the active compounds identified in Petroselinum crispum. Wide range of pharmacological activity including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, brain protective, anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, cytoprotective, laxative, estrogenic, diuretic, hypotensive, antibacterial and antifungal activities have been exhibited for this plant in modern medicine. It is expectant that this study resulted in improvement the tendencies toward Petroselinum crispum as a useful and important medicinal plant with wide range of proven medicinal activity.

  5. Exploring rhizosphere bacteria of Eichhornia crassipes for metal tolerance and biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Gomez, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Deshpande, S.A.; Singh, K.S.; DeSouza, L.

    Cl3, They were further screened for antibiotic sensitivity and biological activity according to Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method The MTB under metal stress condition showed significant biological activity against clinical pathogens, fouling...

  6. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  7. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  8. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  9. Borrelidin B: isolation, biological activity, and implications for nitrile biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christopher J; Bray, Walter M; Loganzo, Frank; Lam, My-Hanh; Szal, Teresa; Villalobos, Anabella; Koehn, Frank E; Linington, Roger G

    2014-11-26

    Borrelidin (1) is a nitrile-containing bacterially derived polyketide that is a potent inhibitor of bacterial and eukaryotic threonyl-tRNA synthetases. We now report the discovery of borrelidin B (2), a tetrahydro-borrelidin derivative containing an aminomethyl group in place of the nitrile functionality in borrelidin. The discovery of this new metabolite has implications for both the biosynthesis of the nitrile group and the bioactivity of the borrelidin compound class. Screening in the SToPS assay for tRNA synthetase inhibition revealed that the nitrile moiety is essential for activity, while profiling using our in-house image-based cytological profiling assay demonstrated that 2 retains biological activity by causing a mitotic stall, even in the absence of the nitrile motif.

  10. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

    2002-10-01

    Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts.

  11. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  12. Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Semwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound’s ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities.

  13. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  14. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  15. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  16. Biotransformation of Lactones with Methylcyclohexane Ring and Their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain biological active compounds during biotransformation. Three bicyclic halolactones with methylcyclohexane ring (2-chloro-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo-[4.3.0]nonan-8-one, 2-bromo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona- -8-one and 2-iodo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one obtained from the corresponding γ,δ-unsaturated acid were subjected to a screening biotransformation using 22 fungal strains. Two of these strains (Cunninghamella japonica AM472 and Fusarium culmorum AM10 were able to transform halolactones into 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one by hydrolytic dehalogenation with good yield. The biotransformation product was structurally different from its synthetically prepared analog. All halolactones and hydroxylactones were tested for their biological activity. The chlorolactone inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.3 and Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Bromolactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0 and Fusarium linii (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Iodolactone limited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.25, Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0.45 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.42 strains. Hydroxylactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0.36 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.39 strains only. The test performed on aphids Myzus persicae (Sulz. showed that chloro- and bromolactone exhibited deterrent activity after 24 h (ID = 0.5 and 0.4, respectively, while hydroxylactone was a weak attractant (ID = −0.3.

  17. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  18. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Study of Scutellaria platystegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine biological activity and phytochemical study of Scutellaria platystegia (family Labiatae). Methanolic (MeOH) extract of aerial parts of S. platystegia and SPE fractions of methanolic extract (specially 20% and 40% methanolic fractions), growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran were found to have radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- pycryl hydrazyl) assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of this plant exhibited animalarial activity by cell free method providing IC50 at 1.1876 mg/mL. Crude extracts did not exhibit any toxicity assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay. Phytochemical study of methanolic extract by using reverse phase HPLC method and NMR instrument for isolation and identification of pure compounds respectively, yielded 2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl-O-β-D- glucopyranoside from 10% and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and martynoside from 40% SPE fraction. Occurance of verbascoside and martynoside as biochemical markers appeared to be widespread in this genus. Antioxidant and antimalarial activity of MeOH and DCM extracts, respectively, as well as no general toxicity of them could provide a basis for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies and clinical trials to develop new therapeutical alternatives.

  19. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  20. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  1. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  2. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  3. Ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of Lignosus spp. (tiger׳s milk mushrooms) in Malaysia - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Tan, Pei Jean

    2015-07-01

    Several members of the genus Lignosus, which are collectively known as cendawan susu rimau (in Malay) or tiger׳s milk mushrooms (TMM), are regarded as important local medicine particularly by the indigenous communities in Malaysia. The mushroom sclerotia are purportedly effective in treating cancer, coughs, asthma, fever, and other ailments. The most commonly encountered Lignosus spp. in Malaysia was authenticated as Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (synonym: Polyporus rhinocerus), which is also known as hurulingzhi in China and has been used by Chinese physicians to treat liver cancer, gastric ulcers, and chronic hepatitis. In spite of growing interest in the therapeutic potential of TMM, there is no compilation of scientific evidence that supports the ethnomedicinal uses of these mushrooms. Therefore, the present review is intended (i) to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of TMM in general and L. rhinocerotis in particular, (ii) to demonstrate how recent scientific findings have validated some of their traditional uses, and (iii) to identify opportunities for future research and areas to prioritize for TMM bioprospecting. A detailed literature search was conducted via library search (books, theses, reports, newspapers, magazines, and conference proceedings) and electronic search (Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. These sources were scrutinized for information on TMM and specifically for L. rhinocerotis. Ethnomycological knowledge about TMM, with an emphasis on cultural associations and use as local medicine, has been comprehensively and systematically compiled for the first time. Some of the reported medicinal properties of TMM have been validated by scientific studies. The anti-tumor, immuno-modulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, neurite outgrowth stimulation, and other pharmacological

  4. Biological regeneration of para-nitrophenol loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.; Martin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). This study deals with in-situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration of a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in he total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was re-saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the during of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The bio regeneration efficiency of the totally exhausted (with PNP) GAC the empty bed contact time (EBCT) and the initial concentration of the substrate had a profound effect on the bio regeneration efficiency. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  5. Comparative biology of Uncinaria spp. in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Gulland, F M; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C; Spraker, T R

    2000-12-01

    Studies on several aspects of the life cycle of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were conducted on material collected on San Miguel Island (SMI), California and at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Examination of Z. californianus intestines for adult hookworms and feces for eggs revealed that longevity of these parasites in pups is about 6-8 mo, and infections are probably not present in older sea lions. Parasitic third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the ventral abdominal tissue of Z. californianus, suggesting transmammary transmission. Callorhinus ursinus pups had no hookworm eggs in their feces or adult worms (except for 1 probable contaminant) in their intestines in the fall and early winter, revealing that adult Uncinaria spp. are spontaneously lost at <3 mo of age of the pups. Sand samples from rookeries, used by both Z. californianus and C. ursinus, on SMI were negative for free-living, L3 in summer months but positive in fall and winter months, indicating seasonality occurred.

  6. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Forty-Seven Strains of Lactobacillus spp. by In Vitro Techniques and Evaluation of the Colonization Ability of Five Selected Strains in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, C. N.; Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V.; Hayford, A. E.; Møller, P. L.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Pærregaard, A.; Sandström, B.; Tvede, M.; Jakobsen, M.

    1999-01-01

    The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studi...

  7. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  8. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  9. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k{sub 0}-Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  10. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  11. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  12. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  13. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  14. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  15. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  16. Notes on the genus Paramignya: Phytochemistry and biological activity

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    Ninh The Son

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Paramignya belongs to Rutaceae family, with interesting secondary metabolites, comprising main classes of compounds coumarin and coumarin glycosides, acridone alkaloids, tirucallane and tirucallane glycosides, phenols, and flavonoids, as well as several compounds limonoid, lignin glycoside and sterol. Paramignya species has been employing as folk medicines against hepatitis, diabetes, cancer, nose infections. Many bioactive reported such as cytotoxic assay, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiumor cancer, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities indicated either Paramignya extracts, fractions, or isolated compounds to become valuable resources for natural new drug developments. However, no evidences are reported for general view about this genus. In current paper, we exhibit overview almost of isolated components and biological evaluations from this genus. These findings are important to improve the values of these medicinal plants for the health benefit, drug discovery and guideline for future researches.

  17. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  18. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  19. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  20. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  1. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  3. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  4. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 μg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

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    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical and Biological activities on Russelia juncea Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To probe the ethnomedicinal claims of Russelia juncea Zucc. (Plantaginaceae as prescribed traditionally in the folklore history of medicines. Methods: The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots were examined for antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, insecticidal, leishmanicidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Different phytochemical tests were also performed to confirm the presence of various groups of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was only shown by RJRD with 80% inhibition at the concentration of 150µg/ml against Shigella flexneri. Among the tested samples, RJAM and RJRM displayed significant radical scavenging activity up to 93% and 89% with IC50 values of 184.75 ± 4.05µM and 263.01 ± 9.36µM. The significant antiglycation potential was exhibited by RJAD, RJAM and RJRM with 55.35%, 62.25% and 59.22% inhibition and IC50 values of 0.84 ± 0.08mg/ml, 1.37 ± 0.15mg/ml and 1.52 ± 0.10mg/ml respectively. Moderate leishmanicidal activity was exposed by RJAD and RJRM with IC50 values of 73.04 ± 1.05µg/ml and 77.66 ± 0.23µg/ml while RJAM was found to be more potent and exposed significant leishmanicidal activity having IC50 of 48 ± 0.39µg/ml. However, prominent cytotoxic activity was displayed by RJRM with 66.08% inhibition and IC50 of 31.20 ± 3µg/ml. Non-significant antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities were demonstrated by all the tested samples. Conclusion: All the above contributions give serious attentiveness to scientists to isolate and purify the biologically active phytoconstituents by using advanced scientific methodologies that serve as lead compounds in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest in the world of drug discovery.

  7. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

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    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  9. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  10. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  11. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

  12. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR

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    Van Calenbergh Serge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs.

  13. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans; Coenye, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i) inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii) result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii) reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv) protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs. PMID:18793453

  14. Syntheses and biological activities of 13-substituted avermectin aglycons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, H; Linn, B O; Eskola, P; Lusi, A; Matzuk, A; Preiser, F A; Ostlind, D A; Schaeffer, J M; Fisher, M H

    1989-02-01

    The reactions of sulfonate esters of the allylic/homoallylic 13-alcohol of 5-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a aglycon (1a) were investigated. Nucleophilic substitution gave 13 beta-chloro and 13 beta-iodo derivatives, while solvolytic reaction conditions yielded 13 alpha-methoxy, 13 alpha-fluoro, and 13 alpha-chloro products. A mixture of 13 alpha- and 13 beta-fluorides was obtained upon reaction with DAST. The 13 beta-iodide gave, upon elimination with lutidine, the 8(9),10(11),12(13),14(15)-tetraene. The 13 beta-alcohol and the rearranged 15-ol 13(14)-ene and 15-amino 13(14)-ene derivatives were obtained by substitution via the allylic carbonium ion. MEM ethers 11 and 12 of the two epimeric 13-ols were prepared by alkylation with MEM chloride. In contrast, methylation of 1a with MeI and Ag2O in CH2Cl2 occurred exclusively at the tertiary 7-hydroxy group and not at the secondary 13 alpha-ol. Oxidation of the allylic alcohol 1a proceeded under Swern conditions but not with MnO2 to the 13-oxo aglycon, which was reduced by NaBH4 exclusively to the natural 13 alpha-ol, while reductive amination with NaCNBH3-NH4OAc gave the 13 alpha-amine. The methoxime derivative was obtained in the form of the two geometric isomers. Anthelmintic activities against the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, miticidal activities against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and insecticidal activities against the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) as well as the binding constants to a free living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) derived receptor assay were obtained and compared to avermectin B1a, 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a, and the 13-deoxy-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 aglycon related to the milbemycins. None of the newly prepared derivatives exceeded the potency of the three reference compounds. Lipophilic 13-substituents such as halogen, alkoxy, and methoxime retained high biological activities in all assays, while the more polar

  15. Atividade pectinolítica de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e a relação com a agressividade ao Stylosanthes spp Pectinolytic activity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its relationship with aggressiveness to Stylosanthes spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de pectinases de 40 isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, obtidos de Stylosanthes spp. em diferentes regiões produtoras, foi estimada por meio de difusão enzimática em meio específico e mensuração do halo de degradação de pectina. Em todos os isolados havia atividade pectinolítica, sendo divididos em cinco grupos distintos. Na maior parte dos isolados notou-se moderada atividade de pectinases. Em geral, isolados de Camapuã-MS tiveram menor diversidade genética para a produção de enzimas pécticas. Com base na atividade pectinolítica, isolados do patógeno foram selecionados e inoculados em genótipos de S. capitata (GC1081, GC1084, GC1086 e GC1094, S. scabra (GC1496 e S. macrocephala (GC1511, visando analisar a influência das pectinases na agressividade ao hospedeiro. Inicialmente, instalou-se ensaio de agressividade com os isolados CG656, CG657, CG687, CG706 e CG707, sendo constatada agressividade diferenciada apenas quando inoculados em S. scabra. Enquanto CG657, CG706 e CG707 foram os mais agressivos, CG656 foi o menos agressivo. Outro teste de agressividade avaliou os isolados CG768, CG769, CG772, CG775, CG779 e CG781. Estes se diferenciaram quanto à agressividade ao S. capitata (GC1081 e GC1094 e S. macrocephala (GC1511. Em geral, CG768 comportou-se como pouco agressivo, enquanto que CG772, CG775 e CG781 como os mais agressivos. Para ambos, nos ensaios de agressividade, não se evidenciou aumento da severidade da antracnose com o aumento da atividade pectinolítica. Nas condições analisadas, a agressividade de C. gloeosporioides ao estilosantes não foi influenciada pelas enzimas pécticas.Pectinolytic activity of 40 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtained from Stylosanthes spp.lesions, in distinct producing regions, was estimated through the enzymatic diffusion in pectin-medium free of glucose, and measured by pectin degradation. All isolates showed pectinolytic activity, and were divided in

  16. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  17. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  18. Important biological activities induced by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Farsky, Sandra H P; Takehara, Harumi Ando; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2005-02-01

    The accidents caused by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms are frequent and represent a public health problem in some regions of Venezuela. Most accidents occur in the fishing communities and tourists. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema, and necrosis. Due to the lack of efficient therapy it may take weeks, or even months for complete recovery of the victims. The investigations presented here were undertaken to assess the eletrophoretical profile and principal biological properties of the T. maculosa venom. Venom obtained from fresh captured specimens of this fish was tested in vitro or in animal models for a better characterization of its toxic activities. In contrast to other fish venoms, T. maculosa venom showed relative low LD50. The injection of venom in the footpad of mice reproduced a local inflammatory lesion similar to that described in humans. Significant increase of the nociceptive and edematogenic responses was observed followed within 48 h by necrosis. Pronounced alterations on microvascular hemodynamics were visualized after venom application. These alterations were represented by fibrin depots and thrombus formation followed by complete venular stasis and transient arteriolar contraction. T. maculosa venom is devoid of phospholipase A2 activity, but the venom showed proteolytic and myotoxic activities. SDS-Page analysis of the crude venom showed important bands: one band located above 97 M(w), one band between 68 and 97 M(w), one major band between 29 and 43 M(w) and the last one located below 18.4 M(w) Then, the results presented here support that T. maculosa venom present a mixture of bioactive toxins involved in a local inflammatory lesion.

  19. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  20. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  1. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  2. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival...... in the highest n-oxPTH tertile compared with the lowest n-oxPTH tertile (χ(2), 14.3; P = .0008). Median survival was 1702 days in the highest n-oxPTH tertile, whereas it was only 453 days in the lowest n-oxPTH tertile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression showed that higher age increased odds for death, whereas...

  4. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  5. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  6. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  7. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  9. Inhibitory activity of Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma spp. on the insect pests Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrisomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Mayo, Sara; González-López, Óscar; Reinoso, Bonifacio; Gutierrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively. T. atroviride and T. citrinoviride had a lower inhibitory activity, with inhibition values of 74.1 and 73.3% respectively. These fungi can be considered a highly effective tool for the control during the immature stages of these species.

  10. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  11. The significance of ecology in the development of Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological control agent against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, de F.A.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between nematode parasites and nematode pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on these interactions, is essential in the development of biological control agents for nematodes. The aim of this study was to develop a

  12. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  13. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  15. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (tillage systems.

  16. Advanced biological activated carbon filter for removing pharmaceutically active compounds from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Luca; Comas, Joaquim; Fenu, Alessio; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2018-04-28

    Through their release of effluents, conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a major pollution point sources for pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in water bodies. The combination of a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) unit was evaluated as an advanced treatment for PhACs removal at pilot scale. The BAC-UF pilot plant was monitored for one year. The biological activity of the biofilm that developed on the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles and the contribution of this biofilm to the overall removal of PhACs were evaluated. Two different phases were observed during the long-term monitoring of PhACs removal. During the first 9200 bed volumes (BV; i.e., before GAC saturation), 89, 78, 83 and 79% of beta-blockers, psychiatric drugs, antibiotics and a mix of other therapeutic groups were removed, respectively. The second phase was characterized by deterioration of the overall performances during the period between 9200 and 13,800 BV. To quantify the respective contribution of adsorption and biodegradation, a lab-scale setup was operated for four months and highlighted the essential role played by GAC in biofiltration units. Physical adsorption was indeed the main removal mechanism. Nevertheless, a significant contribution due to biological activity was detected for some PhACs. The biofilm contributed to the removal of 22, 25, 30, 32 and 35% of ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, ofloxacin, azithromycin and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Fruit Toxins on Intestinal and Microbial β-Glucosidase Activities of Seed-Predating and Seed-Dispersing Rodents (Acomys spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Lymberakis, Petros; Kurnath, Patrice; Izhaki, Ido; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Plant secondary compounds (PSCs) have profound influence on the ecological interaction between plants and their consumers. Glycosides, a class of PSC, are inert in their intact form and become toxic on activation by either plant β-glucosidase enzymes or endogenous β-glucosidases produced by the intestine of the plant-predator or its microbiota. Many insect herbivores decrease activities of endogenous β-glucosidases to limit toxin exposure. However, such an adaptation has never been investigated in nonmodel mammals. We studied three species of spiny mice (Acomys spp.) that vary in their feeding behavior of the glycoside-rich fruit of Ochradenus baccatus. Two species, the common (Acomys cahirinus) and Crete (Acomys minous) spiny mice, behaviorally avoid activating glycosides, while the golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) regularly consumes activated glycosides. We fed each species a nontoxic diet of inert glycosides or a toxic diet of activated fruit toxins and investigated the responses of intestinal and microbial β-glucosidase activities. We found that individuals feeding on activated toxins had lower intestinal β-glucosidase activity and that the species that behaviorally avoid activating glycosides also had lower intestinal β-glucosidase activity regardless of treatment. The microbiota represented a larger source of toxin liberation, and the toxin-adapted species (golden spiny mouse) exhibited almost a fivefold increase in microbial β-glucosidase when fed activated toxins, while other species showed slight decreases. These results are contrary to those in insects, where glycoside-adapted species have lower β-glucosidase activity. The glycoside-adapted golden spiny mouse may have evolved tolerance mechanisms such as enhanced detoxification rather than avoidance mechanisms.

  18. Characterization and Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Predominant Marine Bacillus spp. Isolated From Sea Water of Orissa Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species are ubiquitous and diverse both in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, predominant Bacillus species from sea water of three different sites of Orissa Coast were isolated and identified. In total, 16 Bacillus species were identified using morpho-physiological and biochemical characterisation. These identified bacterial strains include B. fastidiosus (CMB1, B. alvei (CMB2, B. coagulans (CMB3, B. marinus (CMB5, B. mycoides (CMB8, B. coagulans (PMB1, B. circulans (PMB2, B. cereus (PMB3, B. subtilis (PMB4, B. alcalophilus (GMB1, B. licheniformics (GMB2, B. polymyxa (GMB3 and B. pumilus (GMB4. The isolates CMB4, CMB6 and CMB7 were identified only up to genus level. These isolates were further screened for their salt tolerance and growth under varied temperature and pH conditions. Ability of these strains to produce extracellular enzymes such as protease, amylase, lipase, gelatinase, casein hydrolase, lecithinase, chitinase and pectinase were also screened and found that most of the Bacillus spp. possess extracellular enzymes.

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  20. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  1. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  2. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  3. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  5. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B.N.

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  6. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  7. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1105 Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Luiz H...fungal community and micropropagated clones of E. purpurea was re-established after acclimatization to soil and the endophytic fungi produced compounds...Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Gifted and Talented Students' Views about Biology Activities in a Science and Art Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Murat; Çetin, Gülcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine gifted and talented students' views about biology activities in a science and art center. The study was conducted with 26 gifted and talented students who studied at a science and art center in southwestern Turkey. Students studied animal and plant genus and species in biology activities. Data were collected…

  9. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  10. Comparative activity and mechanism of action of three types of bovine antimicrobial peptides against pathogenic Prototheca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasinsig, Linda; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Scarsini, Michele; Guida, Filomena; Piccinini, Renata; Tossi, Alessandro; Zanetti, Margherita

    2012-02-01

    The yeast-like algae of the genus Prototheca are ubiquitous saprophytes causing infections in immunocompromised patients and granulomatous mastitis in cattle. Few available therapies and the rapid spread of resistant strains worldwide support the need for novel drugs against protothecosis. Host defence antimicrobial peptides inactivate a wide array of pathogens and are a rich source of leads, with the advantage of being largely unaffected by microbial resistance mechanisms. Three structurally diverse bovine peptides [BMAP-28, Bac5 and lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP)] have thus been tested for their capacity to inactivate Prototheca spp. In minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, they were all effective in the micromolar range against clinical mastitis isolates as well as a Prototheca wickerhamii reference strain. BMAP-28 sterilized Prototheca cultures within 30-60 min at its MIC, induced cell permeabilization with near 100% release of cellular adenosine triphosphate and resulted in extensive surface blebbing and release of intracellular material as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bac5 and LAP inactivated Prototheca following 3-6 h incubation at fourfold their MIC and did not result in detectable surface damage despite 70-90% killing, suggesting they act via non-lytic mechanisms. In circular dichroism studies, the conformation of BMAP-28, but not that of Bac5 or LAP, was affected by interaction with liposomes mimicking algal membranes. Our results indicate that BMAP-28, Bac5 and LAP kill Prototheca with distinct potencies, killing kinetics, and modes of action and may be appropriate for protothecal mastitis treatment. In addition, the ability of Bac5 and LAP to act via non-lytic mechanisms may be exploited for the development of target-selective drugs. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  12. Profiling the biological activity of oxide nanomaterials with mechanistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present three mechanistic models for profiling the potential biological and toxicological effects of oxide nanomaterials. The models attempt to describe the reactivity, protein adsorption and membrane adhesion processes of a large range of oxide materials and are based on properties

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of new homolupanes and homolupane saponins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidoryk, K.; Korda, A.; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Cmoch, P.; Pakulski, Z.; Gwardiak, K.; Karczewski, R.; Luboradzki, R.

    Roč. 71, č. 13 ( 2015 ), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Homobetulin * Homobetulinic acid * Glycosylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  14. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Satureja montana L. Essential Oil and Its Antibacterial Potential against Salmonella Spp. Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene Miladi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes chemical composition as well as cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of winter savory Satureja montana L. essential oil (EO. The plant was collected from south France mountain, and its EO was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Thirty-two compounds were identified accounting for 99.85% of the total oil, where oxygenated monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (59.11%. The oil was dominated by carvacrol (53.35%, γ-terpinene (13.54%, and the monoterpenic hydrocarbons p-cymene (13.03%. Moreover, S. montana L. EO exhibited high antibacterial activities with strong effectiveness against several pathogenic food isolated Salmonella spp. including S. enteritidis with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 21 to 51 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.39–1.56 mg/mL to 0.39–3.12 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the S. montana L. EO was investigated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The results revealed a significant cytotoxic effect of S. montana L. EO against A549 cell line and an important antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that S. montana L. EO may be considered as an interesting source of components used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries.

  15. [The analysis of climatic and biological parameters for the pest spread risk modelling of the wood nematode species Bursaphelenchus spp. and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis (Rhabditida: Aphelenchoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Y; Mokrousov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the forest woody species wilt areassurvey in Nizhniy Novgorod region in August 2014, the possible factors of the pest spread risk modelling were analysed on six species of the genus Bursaphelenchus and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis using six parameters: plant host species, beetle vector species, average temperatures in July and January, annual precipitation. It was concluded that these parameters in the evaluated wilt spots correspond to climatic and biological data of the already published woody plants wilt records in Europe and Asia caused by the same nematode pest species. It was speculated that the annual precipitation of 600 mm and average July temperature of 25 degrees C or higher, are the critical combination that may be used to develop the predicative risk modelling in the forests' and parks' wilt monitoring.

  16. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  17. Evaluation of some biological activities of Abelia triflora R Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic and cardiovascular activities were determined by screening for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARɣ agonistic activities. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined against a set of four human cancer cell lines (SK-MEL, KB, BT-549, SK-OV-3) and two non-cancerous kidney cell ...

  18. Biological activity of sedaxane---a novel broad-spectrum fungicide for seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeun, Ronald; Scalliet, Gabriel; Oostendorp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sedaxane is a new broad-spectrum seed treatment fungicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection for control of seed- and soil-borne diseases in a broad range of crops. Its physicochemical properties and activity spectrum have been optimised for use as a seed treatment providing both local and systemic protection of the seed and roots of target crops. Sedaxane inhibits respiration by binding to the succinate dehydrogenase complex in the fungal mitochondrium. Its activity spectrum covers seed-borne fungi such as Ustilago nuda, Tilletia caries, Monographella nivalis and Pyrenophora graminea, as well as the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis and Typhula incarnata. Under greenhouse conditions, sedaxane showed high levels and consistent protection against U. nuda, P. graminea and Rhizoctonia spp. Under field conditions, efficacy against Rhizoctonia spp. resulted in increased yield compared with the untreated check. Efficacy against snow mould has been shown under very high disease pressure conditions. The combination of sedaxane plus fludioxonil against snow mould can provide resistance management for sustainable use. The broad spectrum and high level of activity in combination with excellent crop tolerance allow the use of sedaxane as a seed treatment in a wide variety of crops. It is a potential tool for precautionary resistance management when combined with other fungicides, especially against pathogens showing a potential for resistance development, such as M. nivalis. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  20. Novel and rare prenyllipids - Occurrence and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Renata; Kruk, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The data presented indicate that there is a variety of unique prenyllipids, often of very limited taxonomic distribution, whose origin, biosynthesis, metabolism and biological function deserves to be elucidated. These compounds include tocoenols, tocochromanol esters, tocochromanol acids, plastoquinones and ubiquinones. Additionally, based on the available data, it can be assumed that there are still unrecognized prenyllipids, like prenylquinols fatty acid esters of the hydroquinone ring, including prenylquinol phosphates, and others, whose biological function might be of great importance. Our knowledge of these compounds is not only important from the scientific point of view, but may also be of practical significance to medicine, pharmacy or cosmetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  2. Correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human ex vivo hepatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hang; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Dong, Xiuzhen; Shi, Xuetao; He, Yong; Yang, Min; Yan, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric properties are vital biophysical features of biological tissues, and biological activity is an index to ascertain the active state of tissues. This study investigated the potential correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue with prolonged ex vivo time through correlation and regression analyses. The dielectric properties of 26 cases of normal human hepatic tissue at 10 Hz to 100 MHz were measured from 15 min after isolation to 24 h at 37 °C with 90% humidity. Cell morphologies, including nucleus area (NA) and alteration rate of intercellular area (ICAR), were analyzed as indicators of biological activities. Conductivity, complex resistivity, and NA exhibited opposing changes 1 h after isolation. Relative permittivity and ex vivo time were not closely correlated (p > 0.05). The dielectric properties measured at low frequencies (i.e. <1 MHz) were more sensitive than those measured at high frequencies in reflecting the biological activity of ex vivo tissue. Highly significant correlations were found between conductivity, resistivity and the ex vivo time (p < 0.05) as well as conductivity and the cell morphology (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that establishing the correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue is of great significance for promoting the role of dielectric properties in biological science, particularly in human biology. (paper)

  3. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D. [Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N. [Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-10-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  7. Biologically active compounds to develop bioelectronics and bio photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Tiwari, Satya Prakash

    2018-05-01

    Recent reports on biomaterials and biological systems at nano scale provide researchers with a fertile ground with regard to materials, enabling bioelectronics, bio sensing and new nanotechnologies that cover a wide range of applications. The signal transductions have been reported for many biological phenomenons and new field of biophysics namely Biosensors and Bioelectronics have been emerged out. The advances in the study of various aspects of bio molecules like electrical, optical, thermal etc has established the interesting area of research like biophotonics, nanobiotechnology, molecular solid, molecular liquids, bio instrumentation etc. The present study discusses the some aspects and applications of the bioprocess yields nanostructures that are nearly flawless in composition, stereo specific in structure, and flexible. Furthermore, these biomaterials are environment friendly because they are biodegradable in nature. Biological compounds are self assembled into complex nanostructures and behave like a system possessing long range hierarchical nanoscale order. In addition, chemical modification and genetic engineering can be used to modify bio materials to enhance a specific property. Various biomaterials have been reported which allow nanostructure control for nano photonic applications. The dielectric and conduction properties of the bio molecules have been the subject of many investigations. As a result, there exist a wealth of valuable information on the charge transport and rotational properties of many bio molecules. Amino acids and proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, cell and tissues have been characterized over a wide frequency spectrum ranging from a few hertz to Giga hertz. In certain cases, dielectric measurements have been exploited to probe the physical changes taking place in biologically important structures, for example, in lipid phase transition process in membrane. The phase transition in membrane may be analyzed by applying the theory for

  8. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  9. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  10. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Herrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U13C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U13C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal 13C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that “cross-feeding” occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of 13C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of 7-Epiclusianone and Its Novel Copper Metal Complex on Streptococcus spp. Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Their Cytotoxicity in MAC-T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Mariana; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Costa, Éderson D'Martin; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2017-05-17

    Mastitis is an inflammation of mammary gland parenchyma that adversely affects bovine health and dairy production worldwide despite significant efforts to eradicate it. The aim of this work was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of 7-epiclusianone (7-epi), a compound extracted from the Rheedia brasiliensis fruit, its complex with copper against Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis, and to assess their cytotoxicity to bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). The complex 7-epiclusianone-Cu (7-epi-Cu) was an amorphous green solid with optical activity. Its vibrational spectrum in the infrared region showed absorption bands in the high-frequency region, as well as bands that can be attributed to the unconjugated and conjugated stretching of the free ligand. The complex was anhydrous. One of the tested bacterial strains was not sensitive to the compounds, while the other three had MIC values of 7.8 µg mL -1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values between 15.6 and 31.3 µg mL -1 . These two compounds are bacteriostatic, did not cause damage to the cell wall and, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, did not induce bacterial adhesion. The compounds were not cytotoxic. Based on these results, 7-epi and 7-epi-Cu exhibited desirable antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used in bovine mastitis treatment.

  12. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach.) frey acetone extract

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanović Ivana; Stanković Miroslava; Stankov-Jovanović Vesna; Mitić Violeta; Zrnzević Ivana; Đorđević Aleksandra; Stojanović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteri...

  13. A comprehensive review of plants and their active constituents with wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Farzaei, Mohammad; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Reza Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2014-07-01

    Wound healing is a complex cascade of events with various cellular and biochemical processes that result in reconstruction and regeneration of damaged tissue. The objective of the current study was to scientifically evaluate the medicinal plants said to produce wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Electronic databases were searched for the names of medicinal plants claimed in TIM literature for having wound healing activity. Articles were evaluated to obtain any in vitro, animal, or clinical evidence of their efficacy and possible mechanisms involved in would healing. Mechanisms of action for some of these plants, including Tamarix spp., Rosa spp., Piper betle, Plantago major, Oxalis spp., Olea europaea, Malva spp., Linum usitatissimum, and Tamarindus indica, have not been yet clarified. In contrast, some herbs such as Vitis vinifera, Quercus spp., Punica granatum, Pinus spp., Polygonum spp., Lilium spp., Gentiana lutea, Arnebia euchroma, Aloe spp., and Caesalpinia spp. have various biological and pharmacological mechanisms that have been verified for wound healing activity. Overall, TIM resources have introduced various medicinal plants for wounds with confirmed effectiveness according to current pharmacological studies. These herbal remedies could be considered as future drugs for healing of wounds. Further pharmacological and clinical investigations are recommended for exploring safety, exact mechanisms, and efficacy of these herbal remedies. .

  14. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan de Almeida Freires

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis, as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  15. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions exhibited significant cytotoxic effects towards HeLa cells with IC50 values of 24.25 and 24.43 μg/ml respectively. In the DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity while the butanol fraction showed the highest activity in the metal chelating and the lipid ...

  16. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  17. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  18. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  19. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

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    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  20. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  1. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  2. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  3. THE EFFECT OF GROWTH PARAMETERS ON THE ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY AND SPORULATION IN BACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Usta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-two Bacillus strains, which were isolated from different soil samples, were screened for antibiotic properties. The Bacillus strains were checked for antibacterial properties by the cross-streak method against 5 test pathogens, and 25 Bacillus strains had an effect on the test microorganisms. One strain of Bacillus, which exhibited the largest inhibition zone (25 mm against Shigella sonnei, was named Bacillus sp. EA62. The antibacterial activity from Bacillus sp. EA62 was tested in six different culture media against Shigella sonnei using the agar well diffusion method. The best activity medium was selected and used for further studies. The influence of the incubation period, pH, and different glucose and nitrogen concentrations on the antibacterial activity was studied. The optimal conditions for the strongest antibiotic activity were found to be 72 hours (18 mm, pH 7.5 (23 mm, 3% glucose (25 mm, and 0.3% nitrogen concentration (23 mm. Additionally, the relationship between the antibiotic activity and sporulation was investigated. Accordingly, it was determined that the increase of the activity paralleled sporulation.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared ... The antimicrobial activities of the nanoparticles against different bacterial strains were determined using agar diffusion ...... Importance of Clerodendrum Genus: A Current Review.

  6. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  7. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  8. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  9. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  10. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  11. Insecticidal Activity of Extracts of Aglaia spp. (Meliaceae Against Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Prijono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal potential of eleven species of Aglaia (Meliaceae was evaluated in the laboratory against the cabbage cluster caterpillar, Crocidolomia binotalis. The feeding treatment of second-instar larvae C. binotalis for 48 hours with ethanol twig extract of A. odorata at 0.5% caused 98.7% larval mortality; leaf and twig extracts of A. elaeagnoidea caused 17.3% and 6.7% mortality, respectively; twig extracts of A. argentea, A. formosana, and A. latifolia caused only 1.3% mortality each; whereas extracts of the other six Aglaia species were inactive (0% mortality. Further tests with A. odorata showed that twigs gave the most active extract compared to other plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots, and air-drying of plant materials for 2 weeks markedly decreased the activity of the derived extracts. The active extracts also delayed the development of surviving larvae in similar degree to the level of their lethal effect. LC50 of ethyl acetate fraction of A. odorata twig extract and its main active compound, rocaglamide, against C. binotalis larvae were 310.2 and 31.4 ppm, respectively. This active compound was about 8.7 times less potent than azadirachtin (LC50 3.6 ppm. Key words: Aglaia, botanical insecticides, Crocidolomia binotalis

  12. The novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 shows in vitro activity against sessile and planktonic Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Gómez-Perosanz, Marta; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    We studied the antifungal activity of SCY-078 (an orally bioavailable 1,3-β -d- glucan synthesis inhibitor), micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic and sessile forms of 178 Candida and non- Candida isolates causing fungaemia in patients recently admitted to a large European hospital. The in vitro activity of SCY-078, micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic form of the isolates was assessed using EUCAST EDef 7.3 and CLSI M27-A3. Antibiofilm activity was assessed using the XTT reduction assay. SCY-078 and micafungin showed potent in vitro activity against Candida and non- Candida isolates. The in vitro activity of both drugs was similar, but SYC-078 displayed significantly lower MIC values than micafungin against Candida parapsilosis and non- Candida isolates, whereas micafungin displayed significantly lower MIC values for the remaining species ( P  Candida glabrata , in which the micafungin sessile MIC values were significantly lower ( P  Candida isolates in both sessile and planktonic forms is comparable to that of micafungin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

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    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  15. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Novel Heterocyclic Pleuromutilin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of pleuromutilin derivatives were synthesized by two synthetic procedures under mild reaction conditions and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, and High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS. Most of the derivatives with heterocyclic groups at the C-14 side of pleuromutilin exhibited excellent in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE in vitro antibacterial activity. The synthesized derivatives which contained pyrimidine rings, 3a, 3b, and 3f, displayed modest antibacterial activities. Compound 3a, the most active antibacterial agent, displayed rapid bactericidal activity and affected bacterial growth in the same manner as that of tiamulin fumarate. Moreover, molecular docking studies of 3a and lefamulin provided similar information about the interactions between the compounds and 50S ribosomal subunit. The results of the study show that pyrimidine rings should be considered in the drug design of pleuromutilin derivatives.

  17. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  19. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  20. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  1. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach. frey acetone extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were determined. Acetone extract of U. crustulosa at concentration of 1 and 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN by 10.8 and 16.8 %, respectively, acting more or slightly less than the synthetic protector amifostine (AMF, WR-2721, 11.4 %, at concentration of 1 μg mL-1. The tested extract did not inhibit cholinesterase activity nor did it exhibit activity toward the examined bacteria. The extract reduced the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals by 88.7 and 96.2 %, respectively. Values for total reducing power (TRP and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC were 0.6197±0.0166 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE per mg of dry extract, and 19.7641±1.6546 μg trolox equivalents (TE per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 350.4188 ±14.587 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE per mg of dry extract. The results of the present study showed that U. crustulosa acetone extract is a promising candidate for in vivo experiments considering its antioxidant activity and protective effect on human lymphocytes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  2. Fluorine determinations in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Guinn, V.P.; Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Exploratory studies were carried out at the University of California, Irvine on several freeze-dried human diet materials and on two freeze-dried vegetation materials - all prospective reference materials. The University of California, Irvine equipment includes a 250-kW TRIGA Mark 1 reactor, 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 ·s thermal flux, 3-s sample transfer time, and a typical 18% Ge(Li)/4,096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer with a detector resolution of 3.3 keV at 1,332 keV. In these exploratory studies, it was found that it was not feasible to measure fluorine with adequate precision or accuracy at fluorine concentrations much less than ∼100 ppm. These initial studies, however, defined the magnitudes of the various difficulties. One good outcome of these studies was the demonstration that the otherwise excellent Teflon-mill brittle-fracture method for homogenizing freeze-dried biological samples was not suitable if fluorine was to be determined. Abrasion of the Teflon increased the fluorine content of a human diet sample about sevenfold (compared with similar treatment of the same material in an all-titanium mill)

  3. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Valyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Isolate bacteriocins from Enterococcus faecium metabolites and characterize their effect on cells of Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Methods of solid-phase extraction, ion-exchange and reversed phase chromatography were applied for isolation of bacteriocins from cultural medium of bacteria MALDI time-of-flight mass-spectrometry was used for characterization of the obtained preparations. The mechanism of biological effect of peptides was evaluated using DNA-tropic dyes (SYTO 9 and PI) with subsequent registration of fluorescence spectra: Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) was used for characterization of morpho-functional reaction of target cells. Peptide fractions with mass of 1.0 - 3.0 kDa were isolated from enterococci metabolites, that inhibit the growth of indicator microorganisms. E. faecium strain exoproducts were shown to increase membrane permeability during interaction with L. monocytogenes, that results in subsequent detectable disturbance of normal cell morphology of listeria. Alterations of E. coli surface during the effect of purified peptide fraction was detected using AFM. The studies carried out have revealed the effect of bacteriocins of enterococci on microorganisms with various types of cell wall composition and have confirmed the importance of bacterial barrier structure permeability disturbance in the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of enterocins.

  4. The biological activity of a novel pyrethroid: metofluthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Masayo; Ishiwatari, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Metofluthrin (commercial name: SumiOne(®), Eminence(®)) is a novel pyrethroid insecticide developed by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. Metofluthrin has extremely high insecticidal activity to various pest insects, especially to mosquitoes. In addition, Metofluthrin has relatively high volatility and low mammalian toxicity. Metofluthrin is therefore suitable for use not only in conventional mosquito control formulations such as coils and liquid vaporizers, but also in a variety of novel devices that do not require heating, such as fan vaporizers and paper and resin emanators. Here we describe the insecticidal activity of Metofluthrin mainly against mosquitoes in various formulations in both laboratory and field trials.

  5. Biological activity and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L. extracts obtained by different extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašković, Pavle Z; Veličković, Vesna; Đurović, Saša; Zeković, Zoran; Radojković, Marija; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Mitić, Milan; Vujić, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Lavatera thuringiaca L. is herbaceous perennial plant from Malvaceae family, which is known for its biological activity and richness in polyphenolic compounds. Despite this, the information regarding the biological activity and chemical profile is still insufficient. Aim of this study was to investigate biological potential and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L., as well as influence of applied extraction technique on them. Two conventional and four non-conventional extraction techniques were applied in order to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compound. Extracts were further tested for total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, gallotannins and anthocyanins contents using spectrophotometric assays. Polyphenolic profile was established using HPLC-DAD analysis. Biological activity was investigated regarding antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Four antioxidant assays were applied as well as three different cell lines for cytotoxic and fifteen bacterial strain for antibacterial activity. Results showed that subcritical water extraction (SCW) dominated over the other extraction techniques, where SCW extract exhibited the highest biological activity. Study indicates that plant Lavatera thuringiaca L. may be used as a potential source of biologically compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  7. In vitro antiplasmodial activity, macronutrients and trace metals in the medicinal plants: Phyllanthus spp. and Alpinia conchigera Griff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, M S; Aiyub, Z; Bakar, N K A; Tohar, N; Musa, Y; Abdullah, N R; Ibrahim, H; Awang, K

    2015-03-01

    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices.

  8. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  9. Comparative assay of glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) activity of excretory-secretory materials and somatic extract of Fasciola spp parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirahmi, Heshmatollah; Farahnak, Ali; Golmohamadi, Taghi; Esharghian, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates) were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  10. Nodulation of legumes, nitrogenase activity of roots and occurrence of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. In representative soils of central Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester-Bradley, R; De Oliverira, L A; De Podesta Filho, J A; John, T V

    1980-12-01

    Leguminosae do not predominate in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, although they are among the five best represented families. Plant roots from various soils were examined for the presence of nodules, acetylene-reducing activity and N/sub 2/-fixing Azospirillum spp. Abundant nodulation was found in black earth (''terra preta dos indios'') and in one case on sandy soil under campinarana vegetation along a tributary of the upper Rio Negro. In sandy latosol some nodules occurred in secondary forest and fewer in primary forest. Legumes in disturbed clayey or sandy latosol showed more frequent nodulation. Primary forest on alluvial (''varzea'') soil, and in Bahia coastal rain forest on sandy latosol and Erythrina glauca used for shading cacao plantations were abundantly nodulated. Acetylene reduction assays showed no, or very little, nitrogenase activity of roots from primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol near Manaus. Nodulated roots from secondary forest on sandy latosol showed acetylene-reducing activity. High rates of acetylene reduction were observed in nodulated roots of primary forest on alluvial ''varzea'' soil. Root samples showed ethylene absorption in controls without acetylene which might interfere with the results of acetylene reduction tests. The incidence of Azospirillum was also higher in black earth than the other soils examined, and in soils with higher pH. The hypothesis that Azospirillum is associated with Trema micantha roots was refuted. Roots and soils collected under cultivated grasses showed a higher incidence of Azospirillum when fertilized with phosphorus and lime. Results indicate that nitrogen fixation did occur in association with roots in some soils, but not with roots of primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol in the vicinity of Manaus, which is the most common soil in Central Amazonia. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  11. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  12. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    lactam) moiety. 23 such as penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem (figure 2). It is also associated with a variety of therapeutic activities. 24–28. In continuation of our work to develop potential antimicrobial molecules,. 29,30 we report here the ...

  14. Determination of cephalosporin acylase activity by biological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... microorganisms with cephalosporin acylase activity was developed. The core part of cephalosporin was replaced by 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) to generate new substrates glutaryl-6-APA and adipoyl-6-APA for screen- ing. Serratia marcescens that is sensitive to 6-APA and resistant to penicillin G, ...

  15. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  16. Some biological activities of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate a correlation in the activities of the leaves and as such serve as panacea for infectious diseases and therefore scientific justification to some of the folkloric uses of the plant. Keywords: Antimicrobial; Larvicidal; Brine shrimp lethality; Pycnanthus angolensis. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  17. Research on prokaryocyte expression and biological activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the ATPase activity of the protein was also assayed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry based on PiColorLock Gold reagent. An effective expression method was established for BLM protein in E. coli. The obvious bioactivities of the protein were observed in binding to ssDNA or dsDNA, unwinding the dsDNA in ...

  18. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  19. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...

  20. chemical constituents and biological activity of three tanzanian wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    antimicrobial activities infer that the three mushroom species are potential functional food substrates. INTRODUCTION. Termitomyces is a tropical edible ... extract (32 g) on cooling in the fridge at -. 4°C formed white crystals of mannitol and ... against the bacteria Vibrio cholerae and. Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida.

  1. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  2. Chemical constituents from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra and evaluation of their antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Francisco de Araujo

    Full Text Available From the hexanic extract of the stem from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra were isolated one stilbene (1, one flavanone (2, one pterocarpan (3, one triterpene (4 and a mixture of three steroids (5 to 7. The crude extract and the compounds isolated were submitted to evaluation of the antifungal activity against nine yeast standard ATCC of the Candida genus. Among the compounds only the triterpene (4 and the mixture of steroids (5 to 7 showed no activity. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectral data analysis of GC/MS and ¹H and 13C NMR (1D and 2D experiments, as well as comparison with literature values.

  3. Influence of mineral salts upon activity of Trichoderma harzianum non-volatile metabolites on Armillaria spp. rhizomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-volatile metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum together with certain salts containing Mg++, Fe+++, Mn++, Cu++, Al+++, Ca++, K++, Na+, PO4--- and SO3--- on the production and length of rhizomorphs of Armillaria borealis, A. gallica and A. ostoyae was studied. In pure medium, T. harzianum exhibited stimulating effect on rhizomorphs of A. borealis (both number and length and A. ostoyae (only initiation. Cu++ salt totaly inhibited the initiation of rhizomorphs of Armillaria borealis, A. gallica and A. ostoyae. Effect of other compounds on the activity of T. harzianum depended on Armillaria species. The majority of chemical compounds tested supressed the activity of non-volatile metabolites of T. harzianum. Evident stimulating effect was observed under influence of sulphate salts consisting Al++ and Fe+++ on the rhizomorph number of A. borealis and A. gallica, respectively.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  5. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  6. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  7. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by methyl-thiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The results revealed abundant polyphenols and flavonoids (221.39 ± 5.70 μg GAEq/1 g and 66.86 ± 3.36 μg CAEq/1 g, respectively) in the leaf extract. UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling showed the presence of ...

  8. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  9. Precision of neutron activation analysis for environmental biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwata, Shiro; Koyama, Mutsuo; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Numata, Yuichi.

    1977-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1974 a special committee ''Research on the application of neutron activation analysis to the environmental samples'' had been organized at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. Eleven research groups composed mainly of the committee members cooperated in the intercomparison programme of the reactor neutron activation analysis of NBS standard reference material, 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Five different type of reactors were used for the neutron irradiation; i.e. KUR reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, TRIGA MARK II reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University, and JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Analyses were performed mainly by instrumental method. Precision of the analysis of 23 elements in Orchard Leaves and 13 elements in Bovine Liver presented by the different research groups was shown in table 4 and 5, respectively. The coefficient of variation for these elements was from several to -- 30 percent. Averages given to these elements agreed well with the NBS certified or reference values. Thus, from the practical point of view for the routine multielement analysis of environmental samples, the validity of the instrumental neutron activation technique for this purpose has been proved. (auth.)

  10. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  11. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  12. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  13. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the USGS LEBS successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and LTLA (see FTG, CWTG, and FTG reports, respectively). Results from the surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Task Group data needs and analyses of trends in Lake Erie’s fish communities. The cruise survey schedule in 2014 was greatly increased by LEBS’s participation in the Lake Erie CSMI, which consisted of up-to two weeks of additional sampling per month from April to October. CSMI is a bi-national effort that occurs at Lake Erie every five years with the purpose of addressing data and knowledge gaps necessary to management agencies and the Lake Erie LaMP. LEBS deepwater science capabilities also provided a platform for data collection by Lake Erie investigators from multiple agencies and universities including: the USGS GLSC, ODW, KSU, OSU, UM, PU, UT, and the USNRL. Samples from this survey are being processed and a separate report of the findings will be made available in a separate document. Our 2014 vessel operations were initiated in mid-April, as soon after ice-out as possible, and continued into early December. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 196 bottom trawls covering 48.5 km of lake-bottom, nearly 6 km of gillnet, collected data from 60 hydroacoustics transects, 285 lower trophic (i.e., zooplankton and benthos) samples, and 330 water quality measures (e.g., temperature profiles, water samples). Thus, 2014 was an intensive year of field activity. Our June and September bottom trawl surveys in the Western Basin were numerically dominated by Emerald Shiner, White Perch, and Yellow Perch; however, Freshwater Drum were

  14. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  16. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  18. Biological and environmental reference materials in neutron activation analysis work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The great usefulness of reference materials, especially ones of certified elemental composition, is discussed with particular attention devoted to their use in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work. Their use, including both certified and uncertified values, in calculations made by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is discussed. The main features of the APCP are described, and mention is made of the large number of reference materials run on the APCP (including the new personal computer version of the program), with NBS Oyster Tissue SRM-1566 used as the principal examle. (orig.)

  19. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  20. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  1. Sublethal effects of clothianidin and Nosema spp. on the longevity and foraging activity of free flying honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemer, Richard; Nilles, Lisa; Linder, Nadine; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2018-03-19

    Neonicotinoids alone or in combination with pathogens are considered to be involved in the worldwide weakening of honey bees. We here present a new approach for testing sublethal and/or synergistic effects in free flying colonies. In our experiment individually marked honey bees were kept in free flying mini-hives and chronically exposed to sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin. Additional groups of bees were challenged with Nosema infections or with combinations of the pesticide and pathogens. Longevity and flight activity of the differentially treated bees were monitored for a period of 18 days. In contrast to previous laboratory studies, no effect of the neonicotinoid treatment on mortality or flight activity could be observed. Although the lifespan of Nosema infected bees were significantly reduced compared to non-infected bees a combination of pesticide and pathogen did not reveal any synergistic effect. Our results indicate that individual bees are less impaired by neonicotinoids if kept within the social environment of the colony. The effect of such a "social buffering" should be considered in future risk assessments.

  2. Implications of the use of experimental activities in biology education in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso da Silva Morais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of a didactic sequence with experimental activities on student motivation in relation to the subject matter Biology and check the possibility of applying such a result having as input the cultural-historical perspective and the dynamic of the three pedagogical moments. The work is part of a Master Degree research developed with 70 students from a high school in Patos de Minas city. The analysis of the data collected through observation, questionnaires, reports, testimonies of students, filming and photography of biology classes, points out that the use of experimental activities in Biology classes contributed to the increase of student motivation relating to Biology classes favoring the teaching-learning process and also to promote a converge between the scientific knowledge and reality of the students besides encourage their self-esteem and investigative sense. The results also indicate that it is possible to develop at school a didactic sequence based on the complementarity of two different theoretical lines like the dynamics of the three moments and in the historical and cultural perspective. Based on above considerations, we believe that the use of experimental activities following didactics positively influences student motivation in relation to Biology, favoring the teaching and learning of Biology. However, it is the whole of this, as the theory and the posture of motivating teachers, allowed approximation between scientific knowledge and reality of the students, enabling greater learning of biological concepts.

  3. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  4. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia, Alabama (USA, Western Cape (South Africa, Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%, 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%, (+-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%, (−-borneol (2.1%–6.9%, (−-camphor (0.7%–7.0%, and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%. Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  5. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  6. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE LIONFISH (PTEROIS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G Gardner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 and Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828, native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, respectively, were first observed in the western Atlantic off Florida in 1985. They have since spread and are established throughout the broader Caribbean region. Despite potentially devastating ecological and economic effects, information on key life history characteristics for lionfish in the invaded range is sparse. Objectives of this study were to quantify 1 periodicity in gonad development and spawning, 2 spawning frequency, 3 batch fecundity and 4 female size at maturity for fish from Little Cayman. Calculation of gonadosomatic indices, histological and macroscopic staging of gonads, and counts of hydrated oocytes were applied to determine reproductive characteristics. Higher gonadosomatic indices were recorded for females during periods of stable warm or cool water temperatures indicating that extreme temperatures did not constrain reproduction. Histological and macroscopic staging suggested that male and female lionfish were capable of reproducing year-round. However, higher gonadosomatic indices in females, as expected before spawning, were most pronounced in March/April and August. Based on the proportion of females containing hydrated oocytes, mature lionfish had the potential to spawn every 2–3 d. Ovaries of mature females contained 1800–41945 oocytes that were hydrated in preparation for spawning, with greater numbers of oocytes in larger females. Female lionfish matured at 189–190 mm total length. Parameters estimated in this study can improve outputs from population dynamic models, which will help resource managers design removals and other efforts to control invasive lionfish.

  9. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  10. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K

    1974-01-01

    Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.

  11. Isotopic techniques for measuring the biological activity in plant rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of 14 C made it possible to separate root respired CO 2 and microbial CO 2 resulting from exudates utilisation by the rhizosphere microflora. Measurements were done after wheat plants grown under axenic and non axenic conditions were placed during short period of time in an atmosphere contaning 14 CO 2 . Under axenic conditions evolution of 14 CO 2 follows a bell shaped curve due to the brief appearance of labelled compounds translocated from the aerial part of the plants to the roots. In the presence of microorganisms, the maximum of activity due to root respiration is identical but immediately followed by a second peak of 14 CO 2 evolution that was attributed to the decomposition of labelled exudates by the microflora. The same observations resulted from the labelling of a grassland vegetation sampled with its soil and placed in the laboratory. Preliminary results obtained using this method of short term labelling of plants are presented here [fr

  12. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: CULTIVATION OF CREATIVITY

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    Cristina SÎRBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative achievement is obvious in the arts but it is essential in all other fields including the sciences and business. Creativity allows for the making of connections across different domains of knowledge. It is possible in all areas of human activity and all young people and adults have creative abilities. It is cultivated through rigorous training and by practicing of dynamic capabilities over an extended period of time. Creativity needs time, flow, interaction, suspension of judgement. It is influenced by much more than the shape and content of the formal school curriculum. The roles of teachers are to recognise young people's creative capacities; and to provide the creative climate in which they can be realised. Educational actors have the power to unlock the creative and innovative potential of the young. Creative learning requires innovative and flexible teaching. Creative education involves a balance between teaching knowledge and skills, and encouraging innovation.

  13. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sana; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Jahangir, Sajid; Jawaid, Khurshid; Shafique, Maryam; Khan, Huma; Faizi, Shaheen

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA), and MeOH (PELM) extracts of young leaves of Pseudocalymma elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1,2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulfide (35), 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), and diallyl trisulfide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC 50 values of 0.168 ± 0.001, 0.128 ± 0.002, 0.221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) and nystatin, respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all 55 chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the MeOH extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds, UV, IR, EI-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy were used. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  16. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Deverra tortuosa (Desf.)DC.: a desert aromatic shrub widespread in Northern Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetat, Arbi; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2018-04-16

    The present study describes the chemical composition of the essential oil of different plant parts of Devrra tortuosa; in vivo and in vitro biological activities of plant extract and essential oils. Apiol was found to be the major component of the oil (between 65.73% and 74.41%). The best antioxidant activities were observed for the oil of flowers (IC50 = 175 μg/ml). The samples of stems and roots exhibit lower antioxidant activity (IC50 = 201 μg/ml and 182 μg/ml, respectively). The values of IC50 showed that the extracts of methanol exhibit the highest antioxidants activities (IC50 = 64.8 102 μg/ml). EOs showed excellent antifungal activity against yeasts with low azole susceptibilities (i.e. Malassezia spp. and Candida krusei). The MIC values of oils varied between 2.85 mg/mL and 27 mg/mL. The obtained results also showed that the plant extracts inhibited the germination and the shoot and root growth of Triticum æstivum seedlings.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE ENSILAJE BIOLÓGICO DE RESIDUOS DE PESCADO EN ALIMENTACIÓN DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp AVALIAÇÃO DA SILAGEM BIOLÓGICA DE RESÍDUOS DE PEIXE NA DIETA DE TILÁPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis spp EVALUATION OF FISH WASTE BIOLOGICAL SILAGE IN RED TILAPIA FEEDING (Oreochromis spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRÍSPULO PEREA R

    2011-06-01

    ólicas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os parâmetros de digestibilidade não foram significativamente diferentes (p>0,05, indicando que a silagem biológica de resíduos de peixe ao ser incluído nas dietas para a tilápia, não afetou o consumo dos componentes dos alimentos. Os parâmetros zootécnicos foram significativamente diferentes (pThe piscicultural production at "La Salvajina" dam has increased in recent years, accentuating the accumulation of waste resulting from this process. The present research seeks to generate an alternative for waste management, applying the biological silage technique for its inclusion in the red tilapia feeding at the fattening stage. Three inclusion stages were evaluated, 10% (T1, 20% (T2, 30% (T3, plus a witness diet 0% (TO which does not present silage inclusion. For this, it was determined apparent digestibility (total, dry matter, raw protein, ether extract and ashes through the addition of chromic oxide as an inert marker and the zootechnical parameters (weight gain, size increment and food conversion. The evaluations were carried out in metabolic cages under a completely randomized design in three replicas. The digestibility parameters did not present meaningful differences (p>0,05, indicating that the biological silage of fish waste when included in rations for tilapia do not affect the ingestion of the feeding components. The zootechnical parameters presented meaningful differences (p<0,05, observing that at a higer silage inclusion a better size, weight and food conversion behavior is presented.

  19. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

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    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.