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Sample records for spouses posttraumatic stress

  1. Measuring secondary traumatic stress symptoms in military spouses with the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist military version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornestad, Andrea G; Schweinle, Amy; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-12-01

    Little research to date has examined secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses of military veterans. This study investigated the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 227 Army National Guard veterans and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among their spouses. The veterans completed the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Military Version (PCL-M) (Weathers et al., 1993) to determine the probable prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A modified version of the PCL-M was used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in the spouses. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the modified version of the PCL-M used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses fits using the same four-factor PTSD structure as the PCL-M for veterans. This study provides initial evidence on the underlying symptom structure of secondary traumatic stress symptoms among spouses of traumatic event victims.

  2. Couple Functioning and Posttraumatic Stress in OIF/OEF Veterans and Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    through these organizations. Statistics are not available for the numbers of cohabitating couples in either heterosexual or homosexual relationships...civilian spouses, (d) analyze whether the relationships between PTSS and couple functioning differ for male versus female soldiers and their spouses...between PTSS and couple functioning (age, gender, rank, resilience, coercion and trauma history) were statistically significant. No differences in

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the spouse of a patient with sleep terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Alp Sinan; Richert, Allen C; Goldberg, Rochelle; Fry, June M

    2003-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of her husband's severe sleep terror episode is reported. A 29-year-old man suddenly aroused from sleep and jumped through the closed second-story window of the room he shared with his wife, sustaining major lacerations to his arms. He hung onto the roof as his wife screamed at him from the window, and eventually climbed back inside. He was evaluated with polysomnography and was given the diagnosis of sleep terrors, which was effectively treated with behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. During a routine follow-up visit with the patient, his wife's PTSD symptoms came to clinical attention and she was referred for treatment. She demonstrated marked improvement in her condition after an 8 week course of cognitive-behavioral therapy. We conclude that family members of patients with sleep disorders manifesting as violent behaviors during sleep can suffer psychological trauma even if they are not physically injured.

  4. Indirect Exposure to Captivity Details Is Not Related to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among the Spouses and Offspring of Former Prisoners of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-12-01

    Indirect exposure to the aversive details of the primary victim's traumatic event(s) has been introduced in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) as a new event criterion (Criterion A4). However, this new criterion has been criticized for its significant emphasis on the exposure to trauma "details" or trauma narrative. This study assessed the associations between reported exposure to details about captivity and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among 2 groups of family members of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs): spouses (n = 115) and adult offspring (n = 78). Results show that in both groups exposure to details regarding captivity was not significantly related to the severity of total PTSS and specifically, high levels of exposure to captivity details were related to lower avoidance symptoms among ex-POWs' spouses. Among offspring, exposure to paternal behaviors stemming from the fathers' posttraumatic stress disorder was related to PTSS, above and beyond negative life events, quality of relationship with the father, and exposure to captivity details (R 2 = .34). These results suggest that behavioral displays of the fathers' posttraumatic symptoms, rather than the recounting of trauma-related details, is related to PTSS among ex-POWs' offspring. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  6. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  7. Internet-based cognitive–behavioural writing therapy for reducing post-traumatic stress after intensive care for sepsis in patients and their spouses (REPAIR): study protocol for a randomised-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlytta, Romina; Niemeyer, Helen; Böttche, Maria; Scherag, André; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction As a consequence of sepsis and intensive care, considerable proportions of patients but also of their spouses develop a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a very small number receive psychotherapeutic treatment. Internet-based cognitive–behavioural writing therapy (IB-CBWT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for PTSD. It seems to fit the specific needs of this cohort and to overcome treatment barriers. Aim of the REPAIR trial is to examine the efficacy, safety and applicability of IB-CBWT for PTSD in patients and their spouses after intensive care for sepsis. Methods and analysis Participants will be assigned randomly either to a treatment or a wait-list (WL) control group. The treatment group receives IB-CBWT for PTSD, actively involving the partners of the participants. IB-CBWT will be guided by a therapist and comprises two written assignments per week over a 5 week period. After completing the assignments, the participants obtain individual responses from the therapist. Participants of the WL control group will receive treatment after a waiting period of 5 weeks. The primary outcome is PTSD symptom severity in self-rated PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fifth Edition at the end of treatment and waiting time, respectively. Secondary outcomes are remission of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and somatisation measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, marital satisfaction measured by the Relationship Assessment Scale, health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D-5L, and the feasibility of IB-CBWT for this cohort (ie, dropout rate). Statistical analysis will be performed according to the intent-to-treat principle. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice and has been approved by the ethics committee of the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany. Results will be disseminated at scientific conferences, published in peer

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Post-traumatic stress disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  9. Secondary traumatic stress, dissociative and somatization symptoms in spouses of veterans with PTSD in Zahedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianpoor, Mohsen; Rahmanian, Parisa; Mojahed, Azizollah; Amouchie, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Secondary traumatic stress is a disorder which occurs in spouses and people with close relation to someone with posttraumatic stress disorder. Like PTSD, it seems that STS also occurs with other psychiatric problems like somatization and dissociation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between STS and somatization and dissociation symptoms. This cross-sectional study was done in 2015 and lasted for one year. Self-report questionnaires assessing secondary traumatic stress symptoms, dissociation symptoms and somatization symptoms were distributed among spouses of veterans with PTSD in Zahedan, Iran. The relationship between STS symptoms and somatization symptoms and also between STS symptoms and dissociation symptoms were determined by Pearson correlation test. SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis. Occurrence of secondary traumatic stress symptoms were correlated with dissociation symptoms and also with somatization symptoms. As the rate of secondary traumatic stress rose, the rate of somatization and dissociation symptoms in spouses of veterans increased.

  10. Spouses' involvement in their partners' diabetes management: associations with spouse stress and perceived marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... traumatic stress (PTS), which is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a specific group of symptoms ...

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choose a Therapist for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociative Conditions (Sidran Institute) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health) Posttraumatic ...

  13. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Overview Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, ...

  14. Recognizing Posttraumatic Stress in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Terri; Bates, Cory

    1997-01-01

    Children who are exposed to violence may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To effectively work with children's responses to trauma, school personnel must be familiar with symptoms of PTSD and prepare possible coping strategies. The paper presents examples of affective, cognitive, and behavioral coping strategies that are effective for…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But when someone has PTSD, his or her stress response system doesn't switch off as it should. Traumatic events that can cause PTSD include: violent assaults, including rape fire physical or sexual abuse acts of violence (such ...

  16. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  17. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer, potentially a traumatic stressor, may be accompanied by negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder or positive changes, such as posttraumatic growth. The authors reviewed 24 studies published from 1990 to 2010 that measured posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer, in terms of frequency rates, factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth, and their interrelationships. A relatively small percentage of women experienced posttraumatic stress disorder, while the majority of them reported posttraumatic growth. Age, education, economic status, subjective appraisal of the threat of the disease, treatment, support from significant others, and positive coping strategies were among the most frequently reported factors associated with these phenomena. Moreover, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth were not related. Future research should shed more light on posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with breast cancer, the parameters that influence them, and their possible relationship.

  19. Some Haematological Parameters in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional disorder which occurs as a result of a life threatening experience. Individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop medical conditions related to stress and research has shown that they may have altered neuro endocrine and immune system abnormalities.2 Diagnosis of ...

  20. Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, E.; Hart, O. van der; Kleber, R.J.; Son, M.J.M. van

    To assess the empirical basis of prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and PTSD in mothers, the relevant literature was critically reviewed. A MEDLINE and PSYCHLIT search using the key words bposttraumatic stressQ, bPTSDQ, bchildbirthQ and btraumatic

  1. Multimodal Approach to Identifying Malingered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumati...

  2. Multimodal approach to identifying malingered posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness.

  3. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  4. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, H; Yadollahie, M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack), being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events.PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed "acute PTSD," otherwise, it is called "chronic PTSD." 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%-40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%-20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%-32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%), firefighters (21%), and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults.Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for work-related PTSD. Working with

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  6. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the higher risk of this disorder in women. Explanations reviewed within a psychobiological model of PTSD suggest that women's higher PTSD risk may be due to the type of trauma they experience, their

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria and suicidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a constellation of symptoms, which may be distressing and impairing, after experiencing or being confronted with a traumatic event that includes an actual or perceived threat to self or others.1. Symptoms involve repeated and intrusive memories related ...

  8. Brief Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders. Compared trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, psychodynamic therapy and control condition for 112 persons suffering from serious disorders resulting from traumatic events in the past 5 years. Results indicated that treated cases were…

  9. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  10. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  11. The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Johan; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2006-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1-11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, 'pre'-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1-11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1-11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  12. The relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2015-02-01

    Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet, investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. 165 AYA patients aged 14-39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationships between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New Possibilities, Personal Strengths) were observed. Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experience cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Psychological Distress, Sharing of Traumatic Reminisces, and Marital Quality among Spouses of Holocaust Child Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during World War II. Results showed that about one third of spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. STS among spouses was related to hostility, anger and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but not to reminiscences with…

  14. Posttraumatic growth and perceived health: The role of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yael; Solomon, Zahava; Levin, Yafit

    2016-01-01

    The contested discourse regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth (PTG) includes 2 main competitive claims. The first argues that PTG reflects authentic positive transformation while the second posits that PTG reflects illusory defenses that could be maladaptive in the long run. The present study assesses these competing claims by investigating secondary PTG in relation to the somatic domain. Specifically, this study investigates: (a) the association between PTG, and perceived health (PH), as measured by 3 indices of somatic complaints, self-rated health (SRH) and a number of health problems; (b) the association between PTG, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and PH over time; and (c) the mediating role of PTSS between PTG and PH, among wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and wives of control veterans. Assessments were conducted 30 (T1) and 38 (T2) years after the Yom Kippur War. Results showed that wives of ex-POWs endorsed higher PTSS, higher PTG and poorer PH, compared to control wives. Higher PTG was associated with higher PTSS and poorer PH. PTG at T1 predicted an increase in PTSS between T1 and T2, which in turn was correlated with poorer PH. PTSS at T2 as well as changes in PTSS from T1 to T2 mediated the association between T1 PTG and T2 PH measures. The present findings imply that PTG might have negative implications on PH through the amplification of PTSS, among secondary trauma victims. It seems that although spouses of trauma victims describe benefits resulting from vicarious trauma exposures, their body indicates differently. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Quality of life and stress response symptoms in long-term and recent spouses of testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, Marrit A; Fleer, Joke; Hoekstra, Harald J; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses completed the Dutch version of the MOS Short Form (SF)-36 and the Impact of Event Scale. QoL data from a reference group of women were used for comparison. Spouses who had relationship with the testicular cancer survivor before the diagnosis (spouses during testicular cancer) had better functioning scores than the reference group, especially with respect to the physical QoL domains. Spouses who had started a relationship after treatment (spouses after testicular cancer) experienced more problems with psychological QoL domains than spouses during testicular cancer and than the reference group. The stress response of spouses during testicular cancer was related to that of the testicular cancer survivors and to the extent of treatment they had received. Although stress response levels were low, spouses during testicular cancer reported more stress response than the testicular cancer survivors. Time since completion of treatment did not affect QoL or stress response. This study showed that spouses during testicular cancer had a good QoL and little stress response. Functioning of spouses after testicular cancer was poorer with respect to various QoL domains, particularly the psychological measures.

  16. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  18. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours in elucidating the proteome, transcriptome and epigenetic profiles. Epigenetics is attractive in particular because there is accumulating evidence that the lasting impact of adverse life events is reflected in certain covalent modifications of the chromatin.

  19. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  20. Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, B K; Marmar, C R; Fairbank, J A; Schlenger, W E; Kulka, R A; Hough, R L; Weiss, D S

    1992-12-01

    Interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 1,200 male Vietnam veterans and the spouses or co-resident partners of 376 of these veterans. The veteran interview contained questions to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and items tapping family and marital adjustment, parenting problems, and violence. The spouse or partner (S/P) interview assessed the S/P's view of these items, as well as her view of her own mental health, drug, and alcohol problems and behavioral problems of school-aged children living at home. Compared with families of male veterans without current PTSD, families of male veterans with current PTSD showed markedly elevated levels of severe and diffuse problems in marital and family adjustment, in parenting skills, and in violent behavior. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  2. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  3. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 26. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * benefit finding * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  4. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 26. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * benefit finding * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Trait Resilience Moderates the Longitudinal Linkage between Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…

  6. Executive function in cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guo, Juncheng; Jiang, Xiangling

    2017-03-01

    Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were administered to all participants. Results Significant differences in the score of Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were observed between the posttraumatic stress disorder group and the healthy control group ( p posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and executive function. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit more severe impairment in executive function than healthy controls do.

  7. Processing threatening information in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Harvey, A G

    1995-08-01

    The authors used a modified Stroop task to study how people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) process threatening information. Participants were motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with either PTSD (n = 15), simple phobia of driving (n = 15), or low anxiety (n = 15). Participants named colors of 4 types of words: strong threat words (MVA related), mild threat words (MVA related), positive words, and neutral words. Participants with PTSD demonstrated greater interference on strong threat words than those with simple phobia or low anxiety. Contrary to expectation, participants with simple phobia did not display an interference effect. Findings suggest that individuals with PTSD and simple phobia may process threatening information differently. The nature of attentional bias in different anxiety conditions following trauma is discussed.

  8. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Lohmann, Jessica Mariana Carlsson

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence...... on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were...... reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment....

  9. Biological Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shin, Lisa M.; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Preface Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known, viz., an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular, and molecular levels. The present review attempts to present the current state of this understanding, based upon psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, endocrinological, genetic, and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  10. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ann M; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Raparla, Sandeep; Schneck, Kyle W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Needham, Dale M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients. Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles. The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17-24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18-34%) and 44% (36-52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9-24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10-26%) and 34% (22-50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce

  12. Looking beyond posttraumatic stress disorder in children: posttraumatic stress reactions, posttraumatic growth, and quality of life in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; van der Schoot, Tom A W; van Ginkel, Joost R; Kleber, Rolf J

    2008-09-01

    In order to broaden the view beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children, we examined to what extent posttraumatic stress reactions, posttraumatic growth, and quality of life were related to each other and to traumatic exposure in the general population. 1770 children of 36 randomly selected primary schools (mean age = 10.24 years, 50% boys) reported in October/November 2006 on their worst experience (traumatic exposure was considered present when the described event fulfilled the A1 criterion for PTSD of the DSM-IV-TR) and filled out the Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children, and the KIDSCREEN-27. Correlational and hierarchical linear regression analyses were carried out in a multiple imputation format. Posttraumatic stress reactions were strongly related to posttraumatic growth (r = 0.41, p < .01) and quality of life (r = -0.47, p < .01). The latter 2 variables were weakly related; positively when controlling for posttraumatic stress reactions (r = 0.09, p < .01), negatively when not (r = -0.12, p < .01). Children who were exposed to trauma reported more posttraumatic stress reactions (β = .12, p < .01), more posttraumatic growth (β = .09, p < .01), and less quality of life (β = -.08, p < .01) than nonexposed children (effect sizes were small). Negative and positive psychological sequelae of trauma can coexist in children, and extend to broader areas of life than specific symptoms only. Clinicians should look further than PTSD alone and pay attention to the broad range of posttraumatic stress reactions that children show, their experience of posttraumatic growth, and their quality of life. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  14. Writing therapy for posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Reijntjes, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Face-to-face psychological treatments have difficulty meeting today’s growing mental health needs. For the highly prevalent posttraumatic stress (PTS) conditions, accumulating evidence suggests that writing therapy may constitute an efficient treatment modality, especially when

  15. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  16. Measuring posttraumatic stress following childbirth : a critical evaluation of instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramrood, C.A.; Huis In 't Veld, E.M.; van Pampus, M.G.; Berger, L.W.; Vingerhoets, A.J.; Weijmar Schultz, W.C.; van den Berg, P.P.; van Sonderen, E.L.; Paarlberg, K.M.

    Objectives. To evaluate instruments used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD) following childbirth with both quantitative ( reliability analysis and factor analysis) and qualitative ( comparison of operationalization) techniques. Methods. An unselected population of 428 women completed

  17. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  18. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single

  19. Neuroimaging genetic approaches to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebois, Lauren A. M.; Wolff, Jonathan D.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging genetic studies that associate genetic and epigenetic variation with neural activity or structure provide an opportunity to link genes to psychiatric disorders, often before psychopathology is discernable in behavior. Here we review neuroimaging genetics studies with participants who have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Results show that genes related to the physiological stress response (e.g., glucocorticoid receptor and activity, neuroendocrine release), learning and memory (e.g., plasticity), mood, and pain perception are tied to neural intermediate phenotypes associated with PTSD. These genes are associated with and sometimes predict neural structure and function in areas involved in attention, executive function, memory, decision-making, emotion regulation, salience of potential threats, and pain perception. Evidence suggests these risk polymorphisms and neural intermediate phenotypes are vulnerabilities toward developing PTSD in the aftermath of trauma, or vulnerabilities toward particular symptoms once PTSD has developed. Work distinguishing between the re-experiencing and dissociative subtypes of PTSD, and examining other PTSD symptom clusters in addition to the re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, will further clarify neurobiological mechanisms and inconsistent findings. Furthermore, an exciting possibility is that genetic associations with PTSD may eventually be understood through differential intermediate phenotypes of neural circuit structure and function, possibly underlying the different symptom clusters seen within PTSD. PMID:27109180

  20. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  1. Personality variables in coping with the stress of a spouse's chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneman, S Z; Reznikoff, M; Bacon, S J

    1983-05-01

    Identified systematically those spouses of male VA hemodialysis patients who are at risk for experiencing difficulties in adapting to their husband's chronic kidney failure and hemodialysis treatment. To this end, an exploration was made of personality variables that might enhance a spouse's ability to cope with the unique stress of living with chronic illness. Fifty-six wives of VA dialysis patients were administered the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E), the Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale (MLC), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Significant relationships were found between I-E scores and all measures of emotional adjustment (state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression) for the entire sample of spouses in general, and also for a subgroup of home dialysis spouses who were analyzed separately. Results were discussed in terms of the role that locus of control orientation plays in mediating the stress of living with chronic illness, as well as the failure to find relationships between adjustment and the MLC or the area-specific MHLC.

  2. Quality of life and stress response symptoms in long-term and recent spouses of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses

  3. Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikinkumar S; Elmaadawi, Ahmed; Nasr, Suhayl; Haskin, John

    2017-09-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions. Since opioid withdrawal symptoms mimic hyper vigilance, this results in an exaggeration of the response of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. This comorbidity is associated with worse health outcomes, as its pathophysiology involves a common neurobiological circuit. Opioid substitution therapy and psychotherapeutic medications in combination with evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy devised for individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence may improve treatment outcomes in this population. Therefore, we conclude that the screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the opioid-abusing population is crucial. To understand the underlying mechanisms for this comorbidity and to improve the treatment response, further research should be encouraged.

  4. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder and anesthesia emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestrand, Donnamarie; Phipps, Steven; Lovestrand, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Emergence agitation or delirium is a known phenomenon in the postanesthesia period. The underlying cause is not definitively understood. In a U.S. Army hospital's postanesthesia care unit, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can complicate interventions. Scant evidence-based research exists on the issue. By presenting case studies of 2 patients who underwent different surgical procedures, the authors argue that traditional modalities to reorient and calm patients experiencing emergence agitation who have PTSD are not shown to be effective. The first procedure demonstrates outcomes in a situation handled through traditional interventions. The second procedure demonstrates outcomes after incorporation of evidence-driven interventions. The authors conclude that best practice includes a proper identification of patients at risk of emergence agitation, a minimally stimulating environment, intraoperative sympatholytic therapy, and patient and staff education. Although the case studies presented support these principles, research is needed to provide stronger evidence. Military medical and research personnel can take the lead on this issue and be a source for improved outcomes and high-quality patient care.

  6. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  7. Examination of the Content Specificity of Posttraumatic Cognitions in Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Phillip A; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Gros, Daniel F; Morland, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories have proposed the idea of content specificity, which holds that emotional disorders are associated with unique sets of negative cognitions. The existent research exploring the content specificity related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression is sparse, and research is especially needed in veteran samples. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of PTSD symptom clusters and comorbid depressive symptoms with posttraumatic cognitions. This study was cross-sectional in design, and the sample consisted of data from 150 male combat veterans with PTSD drawn from the baseline assessments of a large clinical trial. Analyses involved a series of separate and simultaneous linear regressions to examine the unique associations of comorbid depressive symptoms and PTSD symptom clusters with posttraumatic cognitions, as well as post hoc analyses to examine the mediational role of comorbid depressive symptoms. Findings demonstrated that posttraumatic negative cognitions about the self and self-blame were most strongly associated with comorbid depressive symptoms and the depression-related PTSD numbing cluster. Comorbid depressive symptoms also partially mediated nearly all the relationships between posttraumatic cognitions and PTSD symptom clusters. The findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic cognitions about the self and self-blame are not specific to PTSD but rather are more strongly related to symptoms of depression and negative affect. The results also suggest a potential pathway from posttraumatic cognitions to PTSD through the partially mediating influence of comorbid depression, and highlight the need to assess and treat comorbid depression in veterans with PTSD.

  8. The Many Presentations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Hickling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been a controversial diagnosis, with concerns including the sheer number of possible minimal diagnostic combinations (1,750, increasing to >10,000 theoretical possibilities in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. proposals. This study examined whether the theoretical combinations postulated actually occur in a large sample of military personnel. The design of the study was a retrospective examination of PTSD checklists from 3,810 participants who, based on scores, endorsed symptoms consistent with probable PTSD. Combinations of PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C symptom clusters were identified using data from active-duty military personnel who completed the 2005 and the 2008 Department of Defense (DoD Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel Survey. The study examined (a occurrence of combinations, (b unique minimum combinations, (c most frequent combinations, and (d replication of symptom combinations and clusters. The PCL-C scores showed 1,837 unique scoring combinations, 83.5% (1,533/1,837 of the observed unique scoring combinations occurred just once. The most frequently occurring combination (17/17 endorsed accounted for 955 participants (25.1%, the second most frequent (16/17 endorsed accounted for 75 participants (2.0%. PTSD most often presented as a unique constellation of symptom clusters, either capturing symptoms while allowing for considerable variability in its presentation, reflecting different severities of the disorder, or raising concerns about the classification itself, and any future classification that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V might develop.

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A; Kato, Kaori; Wyka, Katarzyna; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle; Barie, Philip S; Lachs, Mark S; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur; Bruce, Martha L; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Although unintentional falls may pose a threat of death or injury, few studies have investigated their psychological impact on older adults. This study sought to gather data on early posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults in the hospital setting after a fall. Participants in this study were 100 adults age 65 years or older admitted to a large urban hospital in New York City because of a fall. Men and women were represented approximately equally in the sample; most were interviewed within days of the fall event. The study's bedside interview included the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale, which inquires about the presence and severity of 17 trauma-related symptoms. Twenty-seven participants reported substantial posttraumatic stress symptoms (moderate or higher severity). Exploratory bivariate analyses suggested an association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and female gender, lower level of education, unemployment, number of medical conditions, and back/chest injury. A significant percentage of older patients hospitalized after a fall suffer substantial posttraumatic stress. Future investigations are needed to assess the association between the psychiatric impact of a fall and short-term inpatient outcomes as well as longer-term functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder as risk factors for in-hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tam K; Chu, Danny; Springer, Justin; Gopaldas, Raja R; Menefee, Deleene S; Anderson, Thomas; Hiatt, Emily; Nguyen, Quang

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of clinical depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder on in-hospital mortality after a coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. It is hypothesized that depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder will independently contribute to an increased risk for in-hospital mortality rates after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We performed a retrospective analysis of the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database provides information on approximately 8 million US inpatient stays from about 1000 hospitals. We performed chi(2) and unpaired t tests to evaluate potential confounding group demographic and medical variables. Hierarchic logistic regression was used with forced order entry of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Deceased patients were more likely to have had depression (alive, 24.8%; deceased, 60.3%; P posttraumatic stress disorder (alive, 13.4%; deceased, 56.1%; P posttraumatic stress disorder (alive, 7.8%; deceased, 48.5%; P posttraumatic stress disorder (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.64), and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (odds ratio, 4.66; 95% confidence interval, 3.46-6.26) had an increased likelihood of in-hospital mortality compared with that seen in patients who were alive. Two findings were noteworthy. First, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are prevalent in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures. Second, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder increase the risk of death by magnitudes comparable with well-established physical health risk factors after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

  12. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report | Nyamai | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic ...

  14. Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder- a systematic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and disabling condition. Evidence that PTSD ... j (n:J:J Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, Department of. Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, .... Secondary outcomes included reduction of the severity of PTSD symptom clusters (assessed ...

  15. The effects of extraversion, social support on the posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth of adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = -.037, p posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals.

  16. Experiential Acceptance and Trait-Mindfulness as Predictors of Analogue Posttraumatic Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/174011954; Lenferink, L.I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295896

    Objectives. Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. The current study was a preliminary attempt to examine (i) associations of experiential acceptance and traitmindfulness with posttraumatic stress (PTS)

  17. Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness as predictors of analogue post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Lenferink, Lonneke I.M.

    Objectives. Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. The current study was a preliminary attempt to examine (i) associations of experiential acceptance and traitmindfulness with posttraumatic stress (PTS)

  18. Distress in spouses of service members with symptoms of combat-related PTSD: secondary traumatic stress or general psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena K; Blais, Rebecca K; Markman, Howard J; Stanley, Scott M

    2011-08-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members'/veterans' spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members'/veterans' symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands' military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands' military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed.

  19. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  20. Posttraumatic stress and depression in Yazidi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasıroğlu S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Nasıroğlu,1 Veysi Çeri2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey; 2Pendik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical School of Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of mental pathologies in children and adolescents of the Yazidi minority group who immigrated to Turkey from Iraq. The refugees were asked about preventive and risk factors that occurred before and after their immigration. Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (30 males and 25 females who were Yazidi refugees and had settled in the Uçkuyular, Oğuz, Onbaşi, and Uğurca villages of Batman, Turkey. The study was conducted 9 months after the refugees had immigrated. The participants were evaluated in their native language through a semistructured interview titled “Reliability and Validity of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version – Turkish Version”. A sociodemographic form was prepared so that investigators could understand their traumatic experiences before and after the migration and their current social conditions. All the interviews were conducted in the participants’ native language without the help of translators. The investigators filled out the sociodemographic forms. Results: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD was detected in 20 children (36.4%, depression in 18 (32.7%, nocturnal enuresis in six (10.9%, and anxiety in four (7.3%. The following factors were found to be associated with depression: witnessing violence and/or death, being a girl, having older parents, being the elder child, and having multiple siblings (P<0.05. Risk factors for PTSD, depression, and comorbid conditions included witnessing violence and/or death (P<0.05. Four participants were observed to have both PTSD and

  1. Responding to students with posttraumatic stress disorder in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Sheryl; Langley, Audra K; Wong, Marleen; Baweja, Shilpa; Stein, Bradley D

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of trauma exposure among youth is a major public health concern. Students who have experienced a traumatic event are at increased risk for academic, social, and emotional problems. School can be an ideal setting for mental health professionals to intervene with traumatized students, school staff, and parents both immediately following a traumatic event and when symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related mental health problems develop. This article describes evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder and outlines practical approaches to use in schools.

  2. DBS in Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Lavano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical concepts which are behind the use of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope for patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies.

  3. High prevalence of posttraumatic stress in patients with primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Elisabeth Maria; Boseva, Preslava; Schury, Katharina; Guendel, Harald; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Waller, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a higher rate of arterial hypertension. However, data about prevalence rates of PTSD in patients suffering from arterial hypertension as well as the relation to blood pressure (BP) control are lacking. We recruited 145 patients with primary hypertension from March to November 2012 at the cardiologic outpatient clinic at Ulm University Medical Center. Symptoms of PTSD (assessed with the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale; Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were assessed by self-report. Office BP was measured and medical data were collected. Criteria for a full PTSD syndrome were met by 13 patients (9%). Posttraumatic stress was higher in the group of patients with controlled (M=10.9, S.D.=9.8) than in those with uncontrolled hypertension (M=3.9, S.D.=5.4; P<.001). In linear regression, only status of hypertension control (beta=.39, P<.001) predicted posttraumatic stress significantly, even after controlling for important cofactors. PTSD is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients, especially in those with controlled hypertension. An explaining mechanism could be the higher use of health care by patients suffering from PTSD. The mental needs of these patients should be focused in addition to the well-established somatic care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children: What Elementary Teachers Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not limited to the men and women who have been exposed to the horrors of war through military service. Children who are exposed to traumatic and life-threatening events, such as school shootings, physical and sexual abuse, and community violence, also can suffer from PTSD. This article explores the causes,…

  5. school survey of exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological data specifically documenting PTSD prevalence following violence exposure in children and adolescents in South Africa is lacking. In this preliminary survey, a positive association was found between exposure to violent and multiple traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  6. Sexual violence, post-traumatic stress disorder and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J R; Severson, K

    1997-01-01

    Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.

  7. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2017-01-01

    Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence in ......-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal can elicit a DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis....

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Time for Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions....

  11. Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder amongst Sudanese nationals, refugees and Ugandans in the West Nile. ... The high prevalence of violence and symptoms of PTSD in refugee populations highlight the need for better protection and security in refugee settlements. Humanitarian agencies ...

  12. Connection and Recovery: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and School Reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    This paper provides an introduction to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a manner that facilitates the interested learner's further exploration. It presents theoretical references and reviews the social factors and epidemiology of PTSD in children and adolescents. The psychobiology of PTSD is described in relation to the types of memory it…

  13. Critical perspectives on research on post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Psychology in Africa on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Africa and particularly in South Africa and ... These concern the historical evolution of the concept, concerns about the universality of PTSD cross-culturally, and problems arising from understanding human ...

  14. Neuropsychological Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…

  15. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, J.E.; van der Velden, P.G.; Grievink, Linda; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physicianrecorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  16. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  17. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychological responses to traumatic events vary widely across different cultures but studies in the developing countries are scant. The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among patients involved in road traffic accident (RTA) compared with ...

  18. Treating Comorbid Panic Disorder in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ellen J.; Bailey, Sara D.; Chaison, Angelic D.; Petersen, Nancy J.; Hamilton, Joseph D.; Dunn, Nancy Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of panic control treatment (PCT) with that of a psychoeducational supportive treatment (PE-SUP) in treating panic disorder among a veteran sample with a primary diagnosis of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thirty-five patients randomized to receive 10 individual sessions of either PCT or PE-SUP…

  19. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... Background: Psychological responses to traumatic events vary widely across different cultures but studies in the developing countries are scant. The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among patients involved in road traffic accident ...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was

  1. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma...

  2. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...... event (delayed-onset PTSD)....

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Post-traumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-17

    Jan 17, 2006 ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to a terrifying event/ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that can trigger PTSD include personal assaults such as rape or mugging, natural or human-caused disasters ...

  4. The Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been increasing recognition that children who have been exposed to traumatic events like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder just like adults. Objective: To determine prevalence of PTSD in sexually abused children seen at the Gender Based Violence Recovery Centre at Kenyatta ...

  5. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  6. Behavioral Interventions for Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassija, Christina M.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) follows logically from an understanding of etiological models describing the development and maintenance of the disorder. Accordingly, the present article provides a brief overview of PTSD with particular attention paid to etiology. Exposure-based interventions have consistently been shown…

  7. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be the most common psychiatric complication of traumatic experiences.[1] High prevalence rates were reported among students with 12% in the United States,. 11% in Yugoslavia, and 11.6% in Haiti.[2,3]. History of trauma, severity of trauma, female ...

  8. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  9. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make the...

  10. The management of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and also carry a higher burden of early childhood trauma, other life traumas (e.g. rape and partner violence) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1,2 Yet PTSD and other common psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, alcohol abuse) are commonly ...

  11. Correlation between Kind of Delivery and Posttraumatic Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a very common mental condition and a unique anxiety disorder. Aim: The present study tried to examine the correlation between kind of delivery and PTSD. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study evaluated 240 Iranian female residents of Tehran, Iran, during the ...

  12. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Gender and Veteran Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Katon, Jodie G; Chen, Jessica A; Fortney, John C; Simpson, Tracy L

    2018-01-01

    Population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment utilization of post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status are limited. With changes in post-traumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria in 2013, current information from a uniform data source is needed. This was a secondary analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which consisted of in-person interviews that were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. adults. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version was used to assess past-year and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans (n=3,119) and civilians (n=32,982). Data were analyzed from January to March 2017. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, women veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past-year post-traumatic stress disorder (13.4%, 95% CI=8.8%, 17.9%, and 11.7%, 95% CI=7.1%, 16.4%) compared with women civilians (8.0%, 95% CI=7.4%, 8.6%, and 6.0%, 95% CI=5.5%, 6.6%); men veterans (7.7%, 95% CI=6.5%, 8.8%, and 6.7%, 95% CI=5.7%, 7.8%); and men civilians (3.4%, 95% CI=3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.6%, 95% CI=2.2%, 2.9%). Traumatic event exposure, correlates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment seeking varied across subgroups. Men and women veterans were more likely than civilians to use a variety of treatment sources, with men civilians being least likely to seek treatment and men veterans exhibiting the longest delay in seeking treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common mental health disorder that varies by gender and veteran status. Women veterans' high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder highlight a critical target for prevention and intervention, whereas understanding treatment barriers for men veterans and civilians is necessary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Acute and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in the Emergence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2017-02-01

    Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006. Participants underwent assessment during hospital admission (n = 1388) and at 12 months after injury (n = 852). Networks of symptom associations were analyzed in the acute and chronic phases using partial correlations, relative importance estimates, and centrality measures of each symptom in terms of its association strengths, closeness to other symptoms, and importance in connecting other symptoms to each other. Data were analyzed from March 3 to September 5, 2016. Severity of PTSD was assessed at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Of the 1138 patients undergoing assessment at admission (837 men [73.6%] and 301 women [26.4%]; mean [SD] age, 37.90 [13.62] years), strong connections were found in the acute phase. Reexperiencing symptoms were central to other symptoms in the acute phase, with intrusions and physiological reactivity among the most central symptoms in the networks in terms of the extent to which they occur between other symptoms (mean [SD], 1.2 [0.7] and 1.0 [0.9], respectively), closeness to other symptoms (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.3] and 1.1 [0.9], respectively), and strength of the associations (mean [SD], 1.6 [0.3] and 1.5 [0.3] respectively) among flashbacks, intrusions, and avoidance of thoughts, with moderately strong connections between intrusions and nightmares, being upset by reminders, and physiological reactivity. Intrusions and physiological reactivity were central in the acute phase. Among the 852 patients (73.6%) who completed the 12-month

  14. Gender-specific predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Gender is an important risk factor for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents; however, little is known about the influence of gender when considering their common co-occurrence. This study examined whether problematic substance use, attachment...... that drug abuse and avoidant attachment to best friends were significant predictors of PTSD severity in male adolescents, whereas alcohol abuse and the absence of posttraumatic social support from parents remained significant predictors for female adolescents. The results support the influence of gender......-specific substance abuse patterns and dysfunctional interpersonal relationships on the PTSD severity of traumatized adolescents....

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A; Suriya, Sajid S; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD. A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Farooqui

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD Method A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. Conclusion The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Stillbirth: Trauma Characteristics, Locus of Control, Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Reed, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post-traumatic

  19. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Post-traumatic growth among the UK veterans following treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, E; Lock, R; Busuttil, W

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of the UK veterans who had received treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed-up 149 UK veterans after they had completed standardised treatment for PTSD provided by Combat Stress. Data had previously been collected on a range of mental health outcomes before treatment, and then repeated 6 months after the end of treatment. For the current study, participants completed the post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI) measure. Analysis was conducted to explore levels of PTG and whether there were any relationships between pretreatment and post-treatment ratings of mental health and PTG. The mean score on the PTGI was 32.6. Evidence of a treatment effect on levels of PTG was observed. There appeared to be a relationship between improvements in symptoms of PTSD and depression and higher levels of PTG. This study observed the presence of PTG following exposure to traumatic events within a sample of the UK veterans following their treatment for PTSD. PTG scores were moderately low in comparison to similar studies in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder as a consequence of the POW experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, N; Engdahl, B; Schwartz, J; Eberly, R

    1989-03-01

    To estimate the relative contributions of trauma and premorbid disposition in the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, we conducted structured psychiatric interviews of 62 former World War II POWs. Half these men satisfied DSM-III criteria for PTSD in the year following repatriation. Eighteen (29%) continued to meet the criteria for PTSD 40 years later. Family history of mental illness and preexisting psychopathology were at best only weakly correlated with persistent PTSD symptoms. The strongest predictors of PTSD were proportion of body weight lost and the experience of torture during captivity. This study demonstrates that former POWs frequently develop posttraumatic stress disorder and that for one half of those who develop the symptoms, they persist for over 40 years. Familial risk factors and preexisting psychopathology are superseded by the overwhelming nature of the trauma. The persistence of the symptoms for many years is a reflection of the severity of the trauma.

  3. Posttraumatic stress in intensive care unit survivors - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Mette; Brink, Ole; Knudsen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to identify factors associated with PTSD in survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment following traumatic injury. Methods: Fifty-two patients who were admitted to an ICU through th...... may help to predict who will develop PTSD.......Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to identify factors associated with PTSD in survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment following traumatic injury. Methods: Fifty-two patients who were admitted to an ICU through...... of control were assessed within one-month post-accident (T1). At the six months follow-up (T2), PTSD was assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Results: In the six months follow-up, 10 respondents (19.2%) had HTQ total scores reaching a level suggestive of PTSD (N = 52), and 11 respondents (21...

  4. Autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms across adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20–70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall...... autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Higher reflective and ruminative functions, as well as lower social function, predicted higher levels of PTSS. There were no moderating effects of age. The results suggest that although......Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age...

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A.; Suriya, Sajid S.; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide reader...

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients......, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD....

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P.; Campbell, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that many college students report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are provided regarding the assessment of this population, an overview of treatment issues, and three areas of clinical importance when working with this popu...

  8. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed th...

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Milosavljevic; Dusica Lecic Tosevski; Ivan Soldatovic; Olivera Vukovic; Cedo Miljevic; Amir Peljto; Milutin Kostic; Miranda Olff

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women we...

  10. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music th...

  11. Longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Guangzhe; Zhang, Na; Xu, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-20

    Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms and facilitation of posttraumatic growth are two encouraging areas of research, yet little is understood about the relationships between trait mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth. Previous work suggests the linkages among these variables, but most studies have been conducted in adult samples. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the 2016 Jiangsu tornado in China. Data was collected at two secondary schools located in Yancheng city, where the severe catastrophic damage occurred during the tornado. The sample included 247 adolescent survivors (59.5% girls) aged 12-14 years who were directly affected by the tornado. Participants self-reported their trait mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth at two time points: 6-month (T1) and 9-month post-tornado (T2; attrition rate 17.4%). Cross-lagged structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. Results showed that posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 significantly predicted reduced trait mindfulness at T2 but not posttraumatic growth; trait mindfulness at T1 did not significantly predict posttraumatic stress symptoms nor posttraumatic growth at T2; and posttraumatic growth at T1 did not predict trait mindfulness nor posttraumatic stress symptoms at T2. These findings suggested that posttraumatic stress symptoms may negatively influence the development of trait mindfulness in disaster-affected adolescents in China, and that posttraumatic growth may have unique implications for this young population which was not associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms or trait mindfulness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şişmanlar Şahika G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies consistently found remarkable rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS in children with chronic diseases. But, only one study had searched PTSS in children with diabetes, until now. So, the present study aimed to examine incidence rate and predictors of PTSS in children with type 1 diabetes. Method PTSS were evaluated by Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index in fifty four children with diabetes (aged between 8–18 years. This assessment was based on hypoglycaemia as the potential traumatic event. Children were also introduced a brief questionnaire about demographic and disease related information. Some other information was obtained from families, medical stuff and records. Among 54 children, forty two had complete information. Hence, to evaluate possible predictive factors related with PTSS, multiple regression analysis was conducted for 42 children. Results 18.5% of children were reported PTSS at severe or very severe level, and 51.9% were reported PTSS at moderate level or above. Multiple regression analyses were shown that child PTSS were not significantly related with possible predictive factors other than number of hypoglycaemic attacks for the last month. Conclusion The study results support that posttraumatic stress symptoms are not rarely seen in paediatric patients with diabetes, and even if not severe, hypoglycaemic attacks may be perceived as traumatic by the children with diabetes. But, because of some limitations, the results should be carefully interpreted.

  13. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Frans, Orjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Moby, Lena; Nyberg, Sigrid; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Östlund, Ingrid; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

  14. The Impact of Early Recovery from Alcoholism on Spouses of Alcoholics: A Study of Stress, Coping and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary Ann; Bodine, George E.

    Alcohol abuse results in a variety of problems including employment difficulties and family problems. This study integrates a family systems model of alcoholism with a family crisis model for recovery to study spouses of alcoholics and their perceptions of family stress, coping styles, and quality of marriage. Participants (N=60) were husbands or…

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section Iraqi Health Outreach Project: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - Sudanese Arabic (Sudanese (Arabic dialect)) Bilingual PDF Heartland Alliance Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  17. Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify long-term trajectories of combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 in veterans with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) and (2) identify social predictors of these trajectories. METHOD: A latent growth...... mixture modeling analysis on PTSD symptoms was conducted to identify PTSD trajectories and predictors. PTSD was defined according to DSM-III and assessed through the PTSD Inventory. Israeli male veterans with (n = 369) and without (n = 306) CSR were queried at 1, 2, and 20 years after war about combat...

  18. Traumatic birth and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Esta revisão da literatura tem como objetivo verificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco do parto traumático e do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) relacionado com o parto. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nos bancos de dados PubMed e BIREME, com as expressões "traumatic birth", "traumatic delivery", "postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder", "childbirth", "stress disorder" e avaliados estudos de 1994 a 2009. RESULTADOS: Três estudos qualitativos e quatro quantitati...

  19. Examining Links between Post-Traumatic Stress and Gambling Motives: The Role of Positive Gambling Expectancies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Ian; Grubbs, Joshua; Bradley, David; Chapman, Heather; Milner, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both cross-sectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs ...

  20. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  1. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  2. Attentional Avoidance is Associated with Increased Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Pain and Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvold, Mathea; MacLeod, Colin; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in chronic posttraumatic pain. Theoretical models suggest that attentional biases (AB) contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain and PTSD, however, the influence of AB on clinical and heat pain sensitivity in chronic...... posttraumatic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated AB for linguistic pain- and trauma-related stimuli, and clinical and thermal sensitivity in patients with chronic posttraumatic pain with and without PTSD. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic posttraumatic cervical pain performed the visual......-painful hand. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and disability), and PTSD symptomatology were assessed with questionnaires. RESULTS: The Pain/PTSD group (N=14) demonstrated increased clinical and heat pain sensitivity as well as psychological distress compared with the Pain/No-PTSD...

  3. Pain Medication Use Among Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann C.; Bradley, Rebekah; Penza, Kristin M.; Sexton, Melissa; Jay, Daniel; Haggard, Patrick J.; Garlow, Steven J.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of analgesic medication use with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was investigated among a sample of 173 African Americans presenting for routine outpatient visits at an urban mental health center. Seventy-eight (43.5%) of the sample met DSM-IV PTSD criteria. Those with PTSD had significantly higher use of analgesic medication (both opiate and non-opiate), as compared with non-PTSD patients. PTSD symptoms, as measured by the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, were significantly higher in subjects who were prescribed analgesics. The authors conclude that there may be a relationship between PTSD and use of pain medications warranting further examination of the endogenous opiate system in the pathophysiology of PTSD. PMID:16508025

  4. No role for benzodiazepines in posttraumatic stress disorder? A surplus of certainty despite scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses some of the controversies about the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Benzodiazepines have been admonished in treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder, but this is based on very little solid evidence. Although benzodiazepines do not seem to be effective in the treatment of the core posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, their careful use as adjunctive agents for the symptoms such as anxiety and sleep disturbance may be useful. Future research needs to identify predictors of improved treatment outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder with use of benzodiazepines.

  5. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  6. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  7. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  8. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  9. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an "ideal" natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 ( International Classification of Diseases , ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p  ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p  ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p  ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p  ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p  ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p  ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p  ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p  ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p  ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no

  10. Association between posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction and liver enzyme levels: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Abbas, Chiara C; Begré, Stefan; Gander, Marie-Louise; Saner, Hugo; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2010-09-01

    Research in rodents demonstrated that psychological stress increases circulating levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase reflecting liver injury. Moreover, chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and transaminases predicted coronary heart disease. To investigate the hypothesis that severity of posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction would prospectively relate to liver enzymes. Study participants were 24 patients (mean 59+/-7 years, 79% men) with an interviewer-rated diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder caused by an index myocardial infarction 3+/-3 months before. After a mean follow-up of 26+/-6 months, patients had a clinical interview to reassess posttraumatic stress disorder severity, a medical history, and blood collected to determine liver enzymes. Total posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms assessed at study entry prospectively predicted plasma levels of alanine transaminase (r=.47, p=.031) and alkaline phosphatase (r=.57, p=.004), but not of aspartate transaminase (p=.15), controlling for follow-up duration and antidepressant use. Total posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms assessed at follow-up were associated with alanine transaminase (r=.72, p=.004), aspartate transaminase (r=.60, p=.018), and alkaline phosphatase (r=.64, p=.001) in the 16 patients who had maintained diagnostic posttraumatic stress disorder, but not in all 24 patients. The severity of posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction was associated with mild increase in liver enzyme levels, suggesting that chronic psychological stress relates to hepatic damage in humans. This might help to explain the previously observed increased cardiovascular risk in chronically traumatized individuals.

  11. Postanesthesia emergence in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umholtz, Matthew; Cilnyk, John; Wang, Christopher K; Porhomayon, Jahan; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D

    2016-11-01

    Recovery from anesthesia may be complicated with development of severe panic symptoms and anxiety. Preexisting anxiety disorder has been reported as a risk factor for development of these symptoms. We aimed to examine the frequency of emergence delirium (EDL) among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Retrospective cohort. Postoperative recovery area. Perioperative information of 1763 consecutive patients who underwent a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were collected. The patients were grouped on the basis of previous diagnosis of PTSD. A total of 317 patients were identified with a positive history of PTSD and were compared to 1446 patients without such a history for the occurrence of EDL in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) as the primary endpoint. Duration of stay in PACU in minutes and the frequency of hospital admission were the secondary endpoints. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of EDL among the veteran population. Emergence delirium was reported in 37 cases (2.1%) after general anesthesia. Fifteen (4.7%) of 317 patients with PTSD and 22 (1.5%) of 1446 patients without history of PTSD demonstrated symptoms related to EDL in the PACU (P=.002). After propensity matching, there were 8 patients with EDL in the PTSD group whereas there were only 2 patients with EDL among controls. Posttraumatic stress disorder was also an independent predictor of EDL in multivariate analysis with an odds ratio of 6.66 and a 95% confidence interval of 2.04 to 21.72 (P=.002). Posttraumatic stress disorder independently predicted the frequency of EDL even after correcting for preexisting depression and anxiety disorders. A relatively longer duration of PACU stay in PTSD patients may reflect raised awareness of the health care workers about this debilitating mental disorder. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder among flood victims: Testing a multiple mediating model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lijuan; Zhen, Rui; Yao, Benxian; Zhou, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    A total of 187 flood victims from Wuhu, a Chinese city affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete self-report measures of traumatic exposure, feelings of safety, fear, posttraumatic negative cognition, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The results found that traumatic exposure could directly predict posttraumatic stress disorder. Besides, traumatic exposure had indirect prediction on posttraumatic stress disorder through three ways, including a one-step path of negative self-cognition, a two-step path from feelings of safety to fear, and a three-step path from feelings of safety to negative self-cognition via fear. Implications and future directions are correspondingly discussed.

  13. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals’ recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. ...

  14. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD.

  15. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...... was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms...

  16. Selective processing of threat cues in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, R J; Kaspi, S P; Riemann, B C; Zeitlin, S B

    1990-11-01

    Vietnam combat veterans with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) performed a modified Stroop task in which they named the colors of neutral words (e.g., INPUT), positive words (e.g., LOVE), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) words (e.g., GERMS), and PTSD words (e.g., BODYBAGS). In contrast to normal controls, PTSD patients took significantly longer to color-name PTSD words than to color-name neutral, OCD, and positive words. Because Stroop interference reflects involuntary semantic activation, it may provide a quantitative measure of intrusive cognitive activity--the hallmark symptom of PTSD.

  17. Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, E M; Silverman, W K; La Greca, A M; Prinstein, M J

    1996-05-01

    The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane Andrew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self-reported PTSD symptoms was accounted for by the 4 primary factors, and each factor improved overall prediction of symptoms when entered in the analyses in the order specified by the conceptual model. The findings suggest that the conceptual model may be helpful to organize research and intervention efforts in the wake of natural disasters.

  18. ANIMAL MODELS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FACE VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAL eGOSWAMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P; Campbell, James F

    2008-05-01

    Research indicates that many college students report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are provided regarding the assessment of this population, an overview of treatment issues, and three areas of clinical importance when working with this population: risk behaviors, interpersonal violence, and social isolation. Future directions for research are also suggested.

  20. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder: face validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sonal; Rodríguez-Sierra, Olga; Cascardi, Michele; Paré, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma. PMID:23754973

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder and dementia in Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian Konstantin; Biermann, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in the group of people damaged by the Holocaust. Within the context of internal research, 93 Holocaust survivors suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been examined. Patients suffered on average from 4.5 (standard deviation ± 1.8) somatic diagnoses as well as 1.8 (standard deviation ± 0.5) psychiatric diagnoses. A diagnosis of dementia was ascertained according to ICD-10 criteria in 14%. Vascular dementia (66%) dominated over Alzheimer's dementia (23%) and other subtypes (11%).

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, C Z; Bryant, E S; Addy, C L; Spurrier, P G; Freedy, J R; Kilpatrick, D G

    1995-09-01

    To examine rates and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents after Hurricane Andrew. A random-digit dialing sample of 158 Hispanic, 116 black, and 104 white adolescent-parent pairs were surveyed in high- and low-impact areas within Dade County, Florida, 6 months after Hurricane Andrew. Subjects completed a structured telephone interview focused on within-disaster experiences and emotional reaction, disaster-related losses, lifetime exposure to violent or traumatic events, recent stressful experiences, and psychiatric symptomatology. Approximately 3% of males (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 5.3) and 9% of females (95% confidence interval 4.6 to 13.7) met the criteria for PTSD. Rates were highest among blacks (8.3%, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 14.2) and Hispanics (6.1%, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 9.9) and increased with age (odds ratio of 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.72) and the number of undesirable events reported (odds ratio of 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.57). While only a relatively small percentage of adolescents reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of PTSD, most reported some posttraumatic symptoms. Postdisaster planning should recognize that common stressful events occurring after disasters may be more strongly associated with PTSD than magnitude of contact with the actual disaster.

  3. The vestibulocochlear bases for wartime posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigno, T A; Armonda, R A; Bell, R S; Severson, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured. The subsequent historical review of PTSD pathophysiology studies, the evidence for an expanded vestibular system and of a dominant vestibular system, the vascular vulnerability of the vestibular nerves in stress states as well as the period of cortical imprinting has led to the formation of a coherent hypotheses utilizing the vestibulocochlear pathway in understanding the development of PTSD manifestations. Neuroimaging and neurophysiologic tests to further validate the vestibulocochlear concept on the development of PTSD manifestations are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2)  = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2)  = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  7. The role of social support, family identification, and family constraints in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J

    2017-09-01

    We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer-related post-traumatic stress can occur any time from diagnosis to after treatment ends. Shock, fear, helplessness, or horror can be felt by cancer patients and lead to cancer-related post-traumatic stress. Learn about the causes and ways doctors can help manage these symptoms of distress in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. The Mutual Prospective Influence of Child and Parental Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Ystrom, Eivind; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies found notable rates of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric patients and their parents and suggest a significant association between child and parent PTSS. However, little is known about mutual influences between child and parental PTSS over time. This study…

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and People with Learning Disabilities: A Literature Based Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colin; Mitchell, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes literature (1997-2001) from the MEDLINE data base concerning post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities. It finds that these individuals may manifest emotional trauma primarily through challenging behavior. The article suggests that post-traumatic stress syndrome in this population frequently…

  11. Parent-child discrepancy in reporting children's post-traumatic stress reactions after a traffic accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Holen, Are; Braenne, Kjersti; Indredavik, Marit S; Aarseth, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This study examines possible parent-child discrepancies in the reporting of post-traumatic stress reactions in children after a traffic accident. Sixteen children exposed to the same traffic accident were interviewed about post-traumatic stress reactions at 5 weeks and at 6 months after the event, utilizing the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI). Independently, the parents' reported their child's degree of post-traumatic stress reactions on the CPTS-RI: Parent questionnaire, at the same two times. Clinicians also assessed the children's level of general functioning on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The children reported significantly more post-traumatic stress reactions than observed by their parents 4 weeks after the accident. The parent-child discrepancy was more pronounced among younger children. The level of children's self-reported post-traumatic stress reactions decreased significantly from the first to the second assessment. At the second assessment, 6 months after the accident, there was no significant parent-child discrepancy observed. The children showed a normal level of functioning despite their post-traumatic stress reactions. The reported parent-child discrepancy indicates that information about children's post-traumatic stress reactions after an accident is best obtained directly from the children.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in a women's headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.

  13. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…

  14. Risk for Incident Hypertension Associated With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans and the Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Brandt, Cynthia; Buta, Eugenia; Schwartz, Joseph; Bathulapalli, Harini; Dziura, James; Edmondson, Donald E; Haskell, Sally

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality risk. Neither the prospective relationship of PTSD to incident hypertension risk nor the effect of PTSD treatment on hypertension risk has been established. Data from a nationally representative sample of 194,319 veterans were drawn from the Veterans Administration (VA) roster of United States service men and women. This included veterans whose end of last deployment was from September 2001 to July 2010 and whose first VA medical visit was from October 1, 2001 to January 1, 2009. Incident hypertension was modeled as 3 events: (1) a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or (2) a new prescription for antihypertensive medication, and/or (3) a clinic blood pressure reading in the hypertensive range (≥140/90 mm Hg, systolic/diastolic). Posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis was the main predictor. Posttraumatic stress disorder treatment was defined as (1) at least 8 individual psychotherapy sessions of 50 minutes or longer during any consecutive 6 months and/or (2) a prescription for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication. Over a median 2.4-year follow-up, the incident hypertension risk independently associated with PTSD ranged from hazard ratio (HR), 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.17; p < .0001) to HR, 1.30 (95% CI, 1.26-1.34; p < .0001). The interaction of PTSD and treatment revealed that treatment reduced the PTSD-associated hypertension risk (e.g., from HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.38-1.50; p < .0001] for those untreated, to HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.15-1.25; p < .0001] for those treated). These results indicate that reducing the long-term health impact of PTSD and the associated costs may require very early surveillance and treatment.

  15. Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Whiplash-Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Sterling, Michele

    -catastrophizing, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months post-injury (n=227, whiplash-grade I-III), we identified trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling. Predictors were tested using multinomial logistic regression, and group mean difference......-injured is needed. The current study aimed to identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms following whiplash-injury and test predictors and functional outcomes of such trajectories. Methods:In a prospective cohort design assessing pain, pain-related disability, fear-avoidance-beliefs, pain...... in pain-related disability (psychosocial and physical) at 6 months was tested as outcome. Results: Three trajectories were identified: -“Low-stable” (73.4%) with little or no posttraumatic stress symptoms over time, - “High-decreasing” (9.5%) with high initial levls of posttraumatic stress symptoms...

  16. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, M HbA1c  = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R 2  ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  17. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Telepsychology for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, A J; Dorstyn, D S

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of psychological services provided remotely, telepsychology, for the management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was evaluated. Eleven studies (n = 472 participants) were identified from electronic database searches. Study quality was assessed, with studies characterised by small and underpowered samples. Effect sizes and associated confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine the direction and magnitude of treatment change. Short-term treatment gains were reported for internet and video-based interventions. This included significant medium to large improvements (d range = 0.66-3.22) in cognitive and behavioural symptoms of depression, generalised anxiety and posttraumatic stress. However, the equivalence of telepsychology and face-to-face psychotherapy could not be determined, with few comparative studies available. Both treatment gains and deterioration were noted 1 to 6 months following treatment cessation, although this was based on limited follow-up data. Further larger scale and longitudinal research will help to ascertain the minimum requirements for the management and treatment of PTSD in a technology-supported environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music therapy and presents a theoretically-informed assessment and model of music therapy as a tool for addressing symptoms of PTSD. The review also presents key empirical studies that support the theoretical assessment. Social, cognitive, and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., community building, emotion regulation, increased pleasure, anxiety reduction) that promote music therapy’s efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for individuals with posttraumatic stress are discussed. It is concluded that music therapy may be a useful therapeutic tool to reduce symptoms and improve functioning among individuals with trauma exposure and PTSD, though more rigorous empirical study is required. In addition, music therapy may help foster resilience and engage individuals who struggle with stigma associated with seeking professional help. Practical recommendations for incorporating music therapy into clinical practice are offered along with several suggestions for future research. PMID:29290641

  20. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music therapy and presents a theoretically-informed assessment and model of music therapy as a tool for addressing symptoms of PTSD. The review also presents key empirical studies that support the theoretical assessment. Social, cognitive, and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., community building, emotion regulation, increased pleasure, anxiety reduction) that promote music therapy's efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for individuals with posttraumatic stress are discussed. It is concluded that music therapy may be a useful therapeutic tool to reduce symptoms and improve functioning among individuals with trauma exposure and PTSD, though more rigorous empirical study is required. In addition, music therapy may help foster resilience and engage individuals who struggle with stigma associated with seeking professional help. Practical recommendations for incorporating music therapy into clinical practice are offered along with several suggestions for future research.

  1. Metacognition, memory disorganization and rumination in posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hazel; Wells, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the relative contribution of memory disorganization and beliefs about trauma memory in the prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A sample of 95 student nurses and midwives narrated their memory of the most distressing placement related event they had experienced. Several questionnaires were administered, including the Beliefs about Memory Questionnaire (BAMQ), which was devised for the study. Pearson's correlations, hierarchical analyses and mediation analyses were performed on the data. The reliability and validity of the BAMQ gained preliminary support. Beliefs about the trauma memory, but not memory disorganization within the trauma narrative, predicted a significant proportion of the variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms after control variables were accounted for. Consistent with the metacognitive model of PTSD, the use of rumination mediated the relationship between beliefs about the trauma memory and PTSD symptoms. The findings provide preliminary support for the role of meta-memory in the maintenance of PTSD symptoms and question the importance of memory disorganization. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Liana Furtado; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhães; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the prevalence of symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 500 schoolchildren (6-13 years old) in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. It also investigates the association between PTSD, violence and other adverse events in the lives of these children. The multi-stage cluster sampling strategy involved three selection stages. Parents were interviewed about their children's behavior. The instrument used to screen symptoms of PTSD was the Child Behavior Checklist-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (CBCL-PTSD). Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) were applied to evaluate family violence and other scales to investigate the socioeconomic profile, familiar relationship, characteristics and adverse events in the lives of the children. Multivariate analysis was performed using a hierarchical model with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of clinical symptoms of PTSD was of 6.5%. The multivariate analysis suggested an explanation model of PTSD characterized by 18 variables, such as the child's characteristics; specific life events; family violence; and other family factors. The results reveal that it is necessary to work with the child in particularly difficult moments of his/her life in order to prevent or minimize the impact of adverse events on their mental and social functioning.

  3. Lifelong posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence from aging Holocaust survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Szor, Henry

    2000-01-01

    Despite the fact that 50 years have passed since the Nazi regime and the Holocaust the psychic sequelae are far from being overcome. The majority of Holocaust survivors and World War II veterans still list their experiences as the “most significant stressors” of their lives. The literature provides ample evidence that posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors persists into old age. However, there is still a need to define the differences in frequency, clinical presentation, severity, and comorbid conditions among aging Holocaust survivors. Age at the time of trauma, cumulative lifetime stress, and physical illness are reported to have a positive association with more severe posttraumatic symptomatology. The presence of comorbid Axis i psychiatric disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSIVI]), has been the focus of research by our group, demonstrating that their interaction with earlier trauma leads to a course of chronic, debilitating disease. Despite reactivation of traumatic symptoms during aging and continuous mental suffering, the majority of Holocaust survivors show good instrumental coping and preserved functioning. PMID:22033740

  4. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kuzhel, Olga P; Belyaeva, Lyudmila E; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Fred Downey, H; Tseilikman, Olga B; Komelkova, Maria V; Tseilikman, Vadim E

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K + channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts. Predator stress induced significant decreases in coronary tone of isolated hearts and in blood pressure of intact rats. L-NAME, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, but not S-MT, a selective iNOS inhibitor, and increased coronary tone of control rats. In PTSD rats, both L-NAME and S-MT increased coronary tone. Therefore, the stress-induced coronary vasodilation resulted from NO overproduction by both iNOS and eNOS. NOS induction was apparently due to systemic inflammation as evidenced by increased serum interleukin-1β and C-reactive protein in PTSD rats. Decreased corticosterone in PTSD rats may have contributed to inflammation and its effect on coronary tone. PTSD was also associated with voltage-gated K + channel dysfunction, which would have also reduced coronary tone.

  6. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHRISTODOULOU-SMITH, JOAN; GOLD, JEFFREY I.; ROMERO, ROBERTO; GOODWIN, THOMAS M.; MACGIBBON, KIMBER W.; MULLIN, PATRICK M.; FEJZO, MARLENA S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) can be accompanied by severe physical and emotional distress. Most studies have focused on the physical and psychological stress associated with this condition during the affected pregnancy. This study explores posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and negative life outcomes following HG pregnancies. Methods A total of 610 women (HG = 377 and control = 233) were recruited and completed an online survey. χ-square analyses were used to compare the HG and control groups on various life outcome variables. Results Eighteen percent of women with HG reported full criteria PTSS (n = 68). Negative life outcomes regarding financial and marital status, career, as well as psychological and physical well-being differed significantly for the HG groups compared to the control group (0.001 < p < 0.05). Conclusions PTSS is common following HG pregnancies and is associated with negative life outcomes including inability to breastfeed, marital problems, financial problems, and inability of self care. PMID:21635201

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, S; Stein, M B

    2001-08-01

    This article provides an update on recent findings in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with reference to pertinent epidemiologic, etiologic, diagnostic, and treatment advances in the past year. New studies serve to confirm high prevalence rates in the general population (7% to 12%), and high rates of secondary mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Recent substantive evidence has highlighted 1) the unique pattern of biological alteration in PTSD that distinguishes it from the normative stress response, and 2) the role of constitutional risk factors and trauma-related factors in determining disease expression after trauma exposure. The emergence of consistent data suggesting that medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and psychotherapies (cognitive-behavior therapy) are effective in reducing core symptoms and improving quality of life, has reinforced optimism and more widespread use of these interventions in patients with PTSD.

  8. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  9. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics). Cross-sectional. Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18-64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited. The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants. The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder. The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of

  10. Risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, J; Wijma, B; Thorbert, G; Wijma, K

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression 1 month after childbirth. Furthermore, the relation between post-traumatic stress and depression was explored. A prospective longitudinal study. Pregnant women in Linköping and Kalmar, Sweden. A total of 1224 women were assessed in pregnancy, week 12-20 and 32, as well as 1 month postpartum. Post-traumatic stress and depression after delivery were assessed 1 month postpartum. Potential risk factors were assessed in early and late pregnancy. Variables measured during pregnancy were trait anxiety, depression, fear of childbirth, childbirth-related traumatic stress, stress coping capacity, social support, parity, educational level, age, gestation week, parity, educational level, civil status, previous psychological/psychiatric counselling, and previous experience of any traumatic events. Delivery mode was assessed from the medical records. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress (criteria A, B, C, D, E, and F according to DSM-IV) and depression (Beck's depression inventory). One month postpartum, 12 (1.3%) women had post-traumatic stress (met symptom criteria B, C, and D for post-traumatic stress disorder according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]). The most important risk factors in pregnancy were depression in early pregnancy (OR=16.3), severe fear of childbirth (OR=6.2), and 'pre'-traumatic stress (in view of the forthcoming delivery) in late pregnancy (OR=12.5). The prevalence of depression was 5.6%. Post-traumatic stress and depression were positively related 1 month postpartum and were predicted by mainly the same factors. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth can be assessed in early pregnancy. Post-traumatic stress and depression also seem to share the same underlying vulnerability factors.

  11. Factors Affecting Resilience and Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones, Jacqueline; Meek, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Job stress and cumulative exposure to traumatic events experienced by critical care nurses can lead to psychological distress and the development of burnout syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder. Resilience can mitigate symptoms associated with these conditions. To identify factors that affect resilience and to determine if the factors have direct or indirect effects on resilience in development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Data from 744 respondents to a survey mailed to 3500 critical care nurses who were members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses were analyzed. Mplus was used to analyze a mediation model. Nurses who worked in any type of intensive care unit other than the medical unit and had high scores for resilience were 18% to 50% less likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder than were nurses with low scores. Nurses with a graduate degree in nursing were 18% more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were nurses with a bachelor's degree. Because of their effects on resilience, working in a medical intensive care unit and having a graduate degree may influence the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Future research is needed to better understand the impact of resilience on health care organizations, development of preventive therapies and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for critical care nurses, and the most appropriate mechanism to disseminate and implement strategies to address posttraumatic stress disorder. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  13. The contribution of posttraumatic stress symptoms to chronic pain adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether there are differences between non-trauma-exposed, trauma-exposed without posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS), and trauma-exposed with PSS chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in vulnerability, protective, and pain-adjustment variables; to test the interactive relationship between PSS and the vulnerability and protective psychological variables across pain adjustment in the group of trauma-exposed-patients. Seven hundred and fourteen patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were assessed. Of these, 346 patients (244 women and 102 men) completed the study (117 non-trauma-exposed, 119 trauma-exposed without PSS, and 110 trauma-exposed with PSS). The instruments used were the Stressful Life Event Screening Questionnaire Revised, Davidson Trauma Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, Resilience Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Pain Numerical Rating Scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Eight ANCOVAs showed that there were statistically significant differences in vulnerability, protection, and pain adjustment variables between the trauma-exposed with PSS patients and the other 2 groups. The moderated multiple regression analyses showed that PSS added a significantly incremental variance to pain intensity, emotional distress, and disability when interacting with vulnerability and protection variables. The current study supports the models of posttraumatic stress and chronic pain, such as the mutual maintenance and the shared vulnerability theories, providing an initial comprehensive framework for understanding the comorbidity of both disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Life satisfaction in people with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoë; Power, Kevin; Brown, Keith; Begum, Millia; McGoldrick, Therese; MacLean, Rory

    2013-12-01

    There is limited research on the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and life satisfaction in community samples. We set out to investigate levels of life satisfaction and its demographic, trauma related and clinical predictors in a sample of people with PTSD (n = 46). Participants completed a battery of standardised self-report measures including Satisfaction with Life Scale, the PTSD Checklist and The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Our results indicated that people with moderately severe PTSD in the community are likely to experience lower levels of life satisfaction compared with those with other psychiatric conditions or those without any diagnoses. Multivariate analysis revealed that marital status and trauma symptoms were the only significant predictors of life satisfaction. In specific, being married and presenting with less severe posttraumatic symptomatology were both significantly associated with higher levels of life satisfaction in people with PTSD. The strong association between traumatic symptomatology and life satisfaction may indicate that routine assessment for life satisfaction or similar positive constructs in people with PTSD, referred for psychological therapies might be useful. Information on positive psychology constructs may facilitate capitalising on clients' strengths and not just on pathology.

  15. Disability from posttraumatic headache is compounded by coexisting posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roper LS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Louise S Roper,1–3 Peter Nightingale,4 Zhangjie Su,5,6 James L Mitchell,1–3 Antonio Belli,5,6 Alexandra J Sinclair1–3 1Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 2Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, 3Department of Neurology, 4Wolfson Computer Laboratory, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, 5Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 6Health Research Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Birmingham, UK Background: Posttraumatic headache (PTH occurs in up to 82% of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurs in 39% of those with PTH. This study evaluates whether PTSD affects PTH disability. Methods: Eighty-six patients with TBI were prospectively evaluated in a secondary care trauma center. Headache disability was assessed using the Headache Impact Test version 6 and signs indicative of PTSD using the PTSD Check List Civilian version. Results: Increased PTSD-type symptoms were significantly associated with increased headache disability (p<0.001, as were employment status and loss of consciousness (p=0.049 and 0.016, respectively. Age was negatively correlated with headache disability (Spearman’s correlation rho=0.361, p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased severity of PTSD-type symptoms is significantly associated with increased headache disability in patients with chronic PTH. Managing PTSD symptoms in patients with chronic PTH may facilitate headache management. Keywords: chronic headache, traumatic brain injury, neurotrauma

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth coexistence and the risk factors in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Xu, Jiuping; Sui, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Various studies have assessed the negative and/or positive changes in the aftermath of traumatic events. Yet few of these have addressed the factors associated with the coexistence of both negative and positive changes after a devastating earthquake. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the negative and positive changes and elucidate the risk factors of such changes one year after Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties participated in a self-report questionnaire survey which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check list-Civilian, the posttraumatic growth PTG Inventory (PTGI). The prevalence of PTSD and moderate PTG was found to be 40.1% (95% CI [37.9% 42.3%]) and 51.1% (95% CI [48.9% 53.3%]). The PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence was 19.6% (95% CI [17.8% 21.4%]). PTSD symptom severity was significantly positively associated with the PTG score. Middle aged groups (31-40 and 41-50 years old, OR=2.323, 95% CI [1.059, 5.095] and OR=2.410, 95% CI [1.090, 5.329] respectively), those with lower income levels (OR=8.019, 95% CI [2.421, 26.558]), those living in temporary house (OR=1.946, 95% CI [1.280, 2.956]), and those who had had less social support (OR=1.109, 95% CI [1.076, 1.143]) had a significantly higher possibility for the presence of PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence. The results indicated the widespread positive changes in earthquake survivors. Better income levels and living conditions and higher social support were suggested to promote PTG in those with PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ø; Birkeland, M S; Blix, I; Hansen, M B; Heir, T

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and its link to functional impairment over time is limited. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology (Post-traumatic Checklist, PCL) was assessed three times in 1-year increments (T1, T2, T3) following the Oslo bombing of 22 July, 2011, in directly (n = 257) and indirectly exposed (n = 2223) government employees, together with demographics, measures of exposure and work and social adjustment. The dynamics of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom cluster interplay were examined within a structural equation modelling framework using a cross-lagged autoregressive panel model. Intrusions at T1 played a prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2 for the directly exposed group, exhibiting especially strong cross-lagged relationships with avoidance and anxious arousal. For the indirectly exposed group, dysphoric arousal at T1 played the most prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2, exhibiting a strong relationship with emotional numbing. Emotional numbing seemed to be the main driver behind prolonged stress at T3 for both groups. Functional impairment was predominately associated with dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing in both groups. For directly exposed individuals, memories of the traumatic incident and the following intrusions seem to drive their post-traumatic stress symptomatology. However, as these memories lose their potency over time, a sequela of dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing similar to the one reported by the indirectly exposed individuals seems to be the main driver for prolonged post-traumatic stress and functional impairment. Findings are discussed using contemporary models within an exposure-dependent perspective of post-traumatic stress.

  18. Genetic approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30–40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions. PMID:24103155

  19. Genetic approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Lynn M; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30-40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a history and a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Nancy C

    2010-10-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sometimes considered to be a relatively new diagnosis, as the name first appeared in 1980, the concept of the disorder has a very long history. That history has often been linked to the history of war, but the disorder has also been frequently described in civilian settings involving natural disasters, mass catastrophes, and serious accidental injuries. The diagnosis first appeared in the official nomenclature when Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I was published in 1952 under the name gross stress reaction. It was omitted, however, in the next edition in 1968, after a long period of relative peace. When DSM-III was developed in the mid-1980s the recent occurrence of the Vietnam War provoked a more thorough examination of the disorder. PTSD was defined as a stress disorder that is a final common pathway occurring as a consequence of many different types of stressors, including both combat and civilian stress. The definition of PTSD has filled an important niche in clinical psychiatry. Its definition continues to raise important questions about the relationship between a stressor, the individual experiencing it, and the characteristic symptoms. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  1. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmedina Dautovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18 with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results: Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (subclinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session. Conclusions: In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy.

  2. Mind-body practices for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hwan; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine; Burge, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Mind-body practices are increasingly used to provide stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mind-body practice encompasses activities with the intent to use the mind to impact physical functioning and improve health. This is a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress to identify the effects of mind-body intervention modalities, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, mindfulness-based stress reduction, meditation, and deep breathing, as interventions for PTSD. The literature search identified 92 articles, only 16 of which were suitable for inclusion in this review. We reviewed only original, full text articles that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies have small sample size, but findings from the 16 publications reviewed here suggest that mind-body practices are associated with positive impacts on PTSD symptoms. Mind-body practices incorporate numerous therapeutic effects on stress responses, including reductions in anxiety, depression, and anger, and increases in pain tolerance, self-esteem, energy levels, ability to relax, and ability to cope with stressful situations. In general, mind-body practices were found to be a viable intervention to improve the constellation of PTSD symptoms such as intrusive memories, avoidance, and increased emotional arousal. Mind-body practices are increasingly used in the treatment of PTSD and are associated with positive impacts on stress-induced illnesses such as depression and PTSD in most existing studies. Knowledge about the diverse modalities of mind-body practices may provide clinicians and patients with the opportunity to explore an individualized and effective treatment plan enhanced by mind-body interventions as part of ongoing self-care.

  3. Tempol prevents post-traumatic stress disorder induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Al Yacoub, Omar N

    2018-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (provided distilled water), tempol (provided tempol; 80mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 4weeks), SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered distilled water) and tempol/SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered tempol for 4weeks). We used radial arm water maze to test spatial learning and memory functions and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to measure levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus. Results showed that SPS model of PTSD impaired both short and long-term memories (Ptempol administration prevented such effect. Tempol also prevented decreases in hippocampal catalase, and SOD activities, GSH/GSSG ratio and increases TBARS levels, which were all impaired by SPS model of PTSD (Ptempol administration against SPS model of PTSD-induced short- and long- term memory impairment, and we believe that this protective effect of tempol is accomplished, at least partly, through prevention of alternation in oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder in bosnian war veterans: Analysis of stress events and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, the characteristics of stress-related events, and the risk factors for the development of PTSD. The total patient sample consisted of 100 Bosnian war veterans. Watson’s PTSD module was used in establishing PTSD diagnosis. Patients fulfilled the following questionnaires: personal data form, Posttraumatic Symptom Scale PTSS-10 (Holen, Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Life Event Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory. PTSD was diagnosed in 30% of the examined patients. Larger number of stress-related events, particularly of those regarded as life-threatening, wounding/death of a close person, and material losses were more frequent in persons with PTSD. The risk factors for the development of PTSD in this study were: age (30-40, marital status (married, lower level of education, the front-line combat exposure, neurotic manifestations, family problems in childhood, and neuroticism.

  5. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...

  6. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Autobiographical Memories in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2017-03-01

    Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD ( N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD.

  8. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  9. Memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder are related to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Grethe E; Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on verbal learning and memory alterations in refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder, and whether the alterations are related to attention, acquisition, storage, or retrieval. Twenty-one refugees exposed to war and political violence with chronic PTSD, were compared to an exposed control sample of 21 refugees without PTSD. No differences were found in attention span, but tests of verbal memory showed less efficient learning in the PTSD sample. Group differences in delayed recall could be explained by learning efficiency. No differences were seen in recognition memory. These results indicate that memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired acquisition and less effective encoding of the memory material and not to impaired attention span and/or impaired retrieval. Controlling for specific PTSD symptom clusters and self-reported depression showed that the intrusion subscale and depressive reactions are the most important symptoms in understanding the memory alterations in PTSD.

  10. Reduced Specificity in Episodic Future Thinking in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Graham, Belinda; Fihosy, Sonia; Stott, Richard; Ehlers, Anke

    2014-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most common disorders following trauma, has been associated with a tendency to remember past personal memories in a nonspecific, overgeneral way. The present study investigated whether such a bias also applies to projections of future personal events. Trauma survivors ( N = 50) generated brief descriptions of imagined future experiences in response to positive and negative cues in a future-based Autobiographical Memory Test. Survivors with PTSD imagined fewer specific future events in response to positive, but not to negative, cues, compared to those without PTSD. This effect was independent of comorbid major depression. Reduced memory specificity in response to positive cues was related to appraisals of foreshortened future and permanent change. Training to enhance specificity of future projections may be helpful in PTSD and protect against potentially toxic effects of autobiographical memory overgenerality.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Motor Vehicle Accident Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuabova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accidents (MVA have been a leading contributor to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Given the high rate of MVA incidents, it is of crucial importance to detect and diagnose PTSD in primary care. Assessing PTSD requires detecting and treating physiologic responses associated with MVA incidents. Responses such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure following an incident as well as psychological processes have been found to predict the likelihood of developing PTSD months or years after the occurrence. Screening for PTSD requires the implementation of multiple assessment tools to accurately detect the presence of PTSD. Clinicians chose assessment tools based on scales used to screen for anxiety, social dysfunction, somatic complaints and depression. Indeed, it cannot be overstated that clinicians must conduct early assessment and diagnosis of PTSD while evaluating the multiple factors that impact upon whether or not an individual will develop PTSD after a MVA.

  12. Post-modernity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, P J

    2001-09-01

    The after effects of trauma have assumed a central role in the discourses of psychiatry and psychology in recent years. Most commentators have looked for an explanation of this explosion of interest in trauma, to developments within psychiatry and psychology. However, it is argued here that important cultural changes in the Western world have produced the conditions in which this interest has come about. The advent of post-modernity has witnessed an undermining of social stability and coherence and a systematic weakening of those cultural institutions which provide meaning and order for individuals. Following trauma, the development of the characteristic symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is currently understood to arise from a breakdown of meaning within the victim's world. I seek to establish an association between PTSD and the culture of post-modernity. I argue that this connection has important implications with regard to our understanding of the relationship between trauma and culture more generally.

  13. Be vigilant for post-traumatic stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Alastair M; Curran, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Most people experience at least one potentially traumatic event (PTE) during their life. Many will develop only transient distress and not a psychological illness. Even the most inherently horrific event does not invariably lead to the development of a psychological disorder while an individual with sufficient vulnerabilit may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after what appears be an event of low magnitude. The diagnosis of PTSD differs fro most psychiatric disorders as it includes an aetiological factor, the traumatic event, as a core criterion. The DSM 5 core symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four key symptom clusters: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal. Symptoms must be present for at least one month and cause functional impairment. PTSD patients can avoid engaging in treatment and assertive follow-up may be necessary.

  14. Who Develops Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Bank Robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. Furthermore, the few existing studies are characterized by several limitations such as the use of small convenience...... by a statistical artifact (negative suppression). The strongest predictors of PTSD severity were ASD severity followed by negative cognitions about self. This indicates that victims with high levels of ASD are at increased risk of developing PTSD following bank robbery. Thus, screening for PTSD following bank...

  15. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  16. A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Johansen, Marlene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...... objective information about the trauma and peritraumatic emotions but uses retrospective memory reports that can have substantial biases. Negative events and emotions that do not satisfy the current diagnostic criteria for a trauma can be followed by symptoms that would otherwise qualify for PTSD....... Predisposing factors that affect the current memory have large effects on symptoms. The inability-to-recall-an-important-aspect-of-the-trauma symptom does not correlate with other symptoms. Loss or enhancement of the trauma memory affects PTSD symptoms in predictable ways. Special mechanisms that apply only...

  17. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine's (MDMA's) Impact on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2014-07-01

    Review the current literature assessing the role of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OVID MEDLINE search (1960-February 2014) using the terms MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Molly, and Ecstasy crossed with posttraumatic stress disorder with backwards citation tracking using references from procured articles. English language studies assessing MDMA in patients with PTSD. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted along with follow-up open-label and extension evaluations. In the 3 RCTs, therapy with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is promising, with reductions in PTSD rating scale scores (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Severity of Symptoms Scale for PTSD Scale), although 2 of 3 trials did not show significant results, and all three had methodological limitations. The direction of effect for all trials was toward benefit in patients who were refractory to other PTSD therapies; the percentage reductions on rating scores ranged from 23% to 68%; and in 1 trial, the effect was sustained over a long period of time. MDMA ingestion without sustained psychotherapy over a 6- to 8-hour period is unlikely to be beneficial; trying to prolong the duration of effect with supplemental dosing is unlikely to provide additional benefits; and there are adverse effects on blood pressure and heart rate that should be appreciated. These studies used unadulterated MDMA with known and reproducible potency, which may not happen with street purchase of the product. MDMA-assisted psychotherapy may be an effective therapy in refractory PTSD but needs further evaluation to determine its place in contemporary therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Undiagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M M; McFarlane, A C; Hunter, C E; Griggs, W M

    1993-10-18

    To determine the pattern of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among motor vehicle accident victims and to examine the influence of PTSD on subsequent levels of disability. A longitudinal study of motor vehicle accident victims one month and 18 months after the accident. Twenty-four motor vehicle accident victims admitted by the trauma team at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. A 52% response rate was achieved. Post-traumatic stress disorder as diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and disability as measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. Eighteen months after their accidents, six of the 24 subjects had clinically significant PTSD and one was considered borderline. None had been previously diagnosed or treated. The group with PTSD had higher scores on all measures of psychological distress one month after the accident and were more likely to use immature psychological defences. There was no association between physical outcome (measured with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months and subsequent diagnosis of PTSD. However, the group with PTSD had higher levels of disability on assessment with the Sickness Impact Profile, particularly in the domain of social functioning. The results suggest PTSD was associated with work-related dysfunction equal to that associated with severe physical handicap. The data from this pilot study suggest that PTSD after motor vehicle accidents is an important cause of disability, which may also become the focus for damages in litigation. Thus, there is a need for further investigation of the early patterns of distress and to design preventive programs for victims of road accidents.

  20. Disturbed Dreaming, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Affect Distress: A Review and Neurocognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ross; Nielsen, Tore A.

    2007-01-01

    Nightmares are common, occurring weekly in 4%-10% of the population, and are associated with female gender, younger age, increased stress, psychopathology, and dispositional traits. Nightmare pathogenesis remains unexplained, as do differences between nontraumatic and posttraumatic nightmares (for those with or without posttraumatic stress…

  1. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  2. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Simonelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  4. MicroRNAs in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Clara; de Nijs, Laurence; Baker, Dewleen G; Hauger, Richard L; van den Hove, Daniel; Kenis, Gunter; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Boks, Marco P; Vermetten, Eric; Gage, Fred H; Rutten, Bart P F

    2017-10-21

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure. The potential roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) in moderating or mediating the impact of severe stress and trauma are increasingly gaining attention. To date, most studies focusing on the roles of miRNAs in PTSD have, however, been completed in animals, using cross-sectional study designs and focusing almost exclusively on subjects with susceptible phenotypes. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research comprising translational and cross-species approaches that use longitudinal designs for studying trajectories of change contrasting susceptible and resilient subjects. The present review offers a comprehensive overview of available studies of miRNAs in PTSD and discusses the current challenges, pitfalls, and future perspectives of this field.

  5. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Cognitive Change, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese Adolescents After the Yancheng Tornado: The Mediating Effect of Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the different cognitive processes involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs and posttraumatic growth (PTG. One year after the Yancheng tornado, 455 middle school students were assessed to study how posttraumatic cognitive change (PCC influenced PTSD and PTG among traumatized Chinese adolescents through the role of rumination. The results indicated that intrusive rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD, and deliberate rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD and completely mediated the relationship between PCC and PTG. These results suggest that the cognitive processes of PTSD and PTG are different. Furthermore, the study also suggests that PTSD and PTG can coexist in individuals. This study may offer some suggestions for clinical practice after traumatic events.

  6. Stress, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in migrants: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineth H.U. Bustamante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is growing evidence supporting the association between migration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Considering the growing population of migrants and the particularities of providing culturally sensitive mental health care for these persons, clinicians should be kept up to date with the latest information regarding this topic. The objective of this study was to critically review the literature regarding migration, trauma and PTSD, and mental health services. Methods: The PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and indexed from inception to 2017. The following keywords were used: migration, mental health, mental health services, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma. Results: Migration is associated with specific stressors, mainly related to the migratory experience and to the necessary process of acculturation occurring in adaptation to the host country. These major stressors have potential consequences in many areas, including mental health. The prevalence of PTSD among migrants is very high (47%, especially among refugees, who experience it at nearly twice the rate of migrant workers. Conclusions: Mental health professionals must be trained to recognize and provide appropriate care for posttraumatic and/or stress-related disorders among migrants.

  7. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Optimal Choice of Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment.

  8. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder from a network analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II. The psychopathological network was analyzed using the network approach. PTSD and Complex PTSD symptoms were strongly connected within disorders and to a lesser degree between disorders. Symptoms of BPD were weakly connected to others. Re-experiencing and dissociation were the most central symptoms. Mental disorders are no discrete entities, clear boundaries are unlikely to be found. The psychopathological network revealed central symptoms that might be important targets for specific first interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies...... on the Acute Stress Disorder scale. ASD severity accounted for 40% and the inclusion of other risk factors accounted for 50% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, results indicated that ASD appears to predict PTSD differently following nonsexual assault than other trauma types. ASD severity...

  10. [Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms amongst Asylum Seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Frantz, Inga; Friel, Pauline; Heinrichs, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a large number of refugees that are coming to Germany from (civil) war zones. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms amongst asylum seekers in Germany. Methods: In the summer of 2015, 280 adult refugees (88,2% men) were interviewed with the support of translators in the Lower Saxony State Refugee Reception Center, Brunswick. Data was categorized due to country of origin (Balkan States, Middle East, Northern Africa, Rest of Africa). The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale-8 (PDS-8) and the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were employed as screening measures. If the threshold values of 12 in the PDS-8 or 15 in the PHQ are exceeded, respectively, the diagnosis of PTSD or depression is highly likely. Results: Participants reported an overall high number of potentially traumatic experiences (72,5% war experiences; 67,9% violent attacks; 51,4% another very burdensome experience; 50,0% torture; 47,9% imprisonment; 11,1% sexual assault), whereby multiple answers were possible. The prevalence rates for possible PTSD were 16,1% (Balkan States), 20,5% (Middle East), 23,4% (Rest of Africa) and 28,1% (Northern Africa); rates for a possible depression varied between the countries of origin from 17,9, 35,9, 28,1 to 24,0%, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to the German population, the rates of traumatic experiences and the prevalence of a possible PTSD were significantly higher amongst asylum seekers of the present sample; this was not the case for depression. The integration of affected asylum seekers may be considerably complicated due to health impairments, e. g. with regard to learning the German language and admission to educational or occupational services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Diagnostic potential of multimodal neuroimaging in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyeon Jamie Im

    Full Text Available Despite accumulating evidence of physiological abnormalities related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the current diagnostic criteria for PTSD still rely on clinical interviews. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic potential of multimodal neuroimaging for identifying posttraumatic symptom trajectory after trauma exposure. Thirty trauma-exposed individuals and 29 trauma-unexposed healthy individuals were followed up over a 5-year period. Three waves of assessments using multimodal neuroimaging, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI, were performed. Based on previous findings that the structural features of the fear circuitry-related brain regions may dynamically change during recovery from the trauma, we employed a machine learning approach to determine whether local, connectivity, and network features of brain regions of the fear circuitry including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC, hippocampus, insula, and thalamus could distinguish trauma-exposed individuals from trauma-unexposed individuals at each recovery stage. Significant improvement in PTSD symptoms was observed in 23%, 52%, and 88% of trauma-exposed individuals at 1.43, 2.68, and 3.91 years after the trauma, respectively. The structural features of the amygdala were found as major classifiers for discriminating trauma-exposed individuals from trauma-unexposed individuals at 1.43 years after the trauma, but these features were nearly normalized at later phases when most of the trauma-exposed individuals showed clinical improvement in PTSD symptoms. Additionally, the structural features of the OMPFC showed consistent predictive values throughout the recovery period. In conclusion, the current study provides a promising step forward in the development of a clinically applicable predictive model for diagnosing PTSD and predicting recovery from PTSD.

  12. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), ppost-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  14. Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress and related symptoms in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of these symptoms are discussed.

  15. Posttraumatic stress and sleep: differential relations across types of symptoms and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly; Feldner, Matthew; Badour, Christal; Trainor, Casey; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman

    2011-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms and self-reported sleep problems reliably covary. The current study investigated how posttraumatic stress symptom clusters (i.e., hyperarousal, avoidance, and reexperiencing) relate to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Participants included traumatic event-exposed respondents from the NCS-R. Results suggested that posttraumatic stress symptom severity is related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Investigation of symptom clusters indicated that reexperiencing symptoms were related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares, while hyperarousal symptoms were related to trouble maintaining sleep and nightmares. Findings partially support both reexperiencing and hyperarousal-based models of the relation between sleep and posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep disturbances and post-traumatic stress disorder; a perpetual circle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of PTSD, possibly interfering with fear

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Preeclampsia and PPROM : A Prospective Study With 15 Months Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramrood, C.A.; Wessel, I.; Doornbos, B.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, Paul; Weijmar Schultz, W.C.; van Pampus, M.G.

    Objective: A prospective longitudinal evaluation of the prevalence of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with preeclampsia (PE) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods: Participating women completed PTSD and

  18. Mental health treatment after major surgery among Vietnam-era Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1 month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Clinical challenges in the treatment of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingo; Najavits, Lisa M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current literature on co-occuring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder, with an emphasis on clinical aspects and emerging treatments. In clinical populations (focusing on either disorder), about 25-50% have a lifetime dual diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder. Patients with both disorders have a more severe clinical profile than those with either disorder alone, lower functioning, poorer well being, and worse outcomes across a variety of measures. In recent years, several promising treatment programs have been developed specifically for co-occuring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder, with one model having been established as effective thus far. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder/substance-use disorder is a frequent diagnosis in clinical populations that severely affects course and outcome. Treatment approaches appropriate for this vulnerable population need to be evaluated further and implemented in routine practice.

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder as a public health concern in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , affecting individuals in all sectors of society and as much a concern with respect to children as to adults. Keywords: Africa, epidemiology, post-traumatic stress disorder, public health, South Africa, trauma. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2005, ...

  2. Pre-existing high glucocorticoid receptor number predicting development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Vermetten, Eric; Maas, Mirjam; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is influenced by preexisting vulnerability factors. The authors aimed at identifying a preexisting biomarker representing a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. To that end, they determined whether the dexamethasone binding

  3. Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in cross-cultural mission assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Frauke C; Blazer, Dan G; Carr, Karen F; Connor, Kathryn M; Burchett, Bruce; Schaefer, Charles A; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2007-08-01

    In addition to cross-cultural and environmental stressors, aid workers and missionaries are frequently exposed to trauma. We explored the frequency of traumatic events, their mental health impact, and factors associated with posttraumatic stress in two groups of missionaries, one representing a predominantly stable setting (Europe) and the other an unstable setting (West Africa). The 256 participants completed self-report measures assessing lifetime traumatic events, current posttraumatic stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience, and functioning. The rate of traumatic events was significantly higher in the unstable setting. More-frequent traumatic events were associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Factors associated with the severity of posttraumatic stress were depression, functional impairment, subjective severity and number of traumatic events, and the level of resilience.

  4. Intensive EMDR to treat patients with complex posttraumatic stress disorder: A case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, H.; Minnen, A. van; Jongh, A. de

    2017-01-01

    There is mounting evidence suggesting that by increasing the frequency of treatment sessions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcomes significantly improve. As part of an ongoing research project, this study examined the safety and effectiveness of intensive eye movement

  5. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Senders, Angela; Neuendorf, Rachel; Cayton, Julien

    2014-07-01

    To (1) characterize complementary and alternative medicine studies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, (2) evaluate the quality of these studies, and (3) systematically grade the scientific evidence for individual CAM modalities for posttraumatic stress disorder. Systematic review. Eight data sources were searched. Selection criteria included any study design assessing posttraumatic stress disorder outcomes and any complementary and alternative medicine intervention. The body of evidence for each modality was assessed with the Natural Standard evidence-based, validated grading rationale. Thirty-three studies (n = 1329) were reviewed. Scientific evidence of benefit for posttraumatic stress disorder was strong for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and good for acupuncture, hypnotherapy, meditation, and visualization. Evidence was unclear or conflicting for biofeedback, relaxation, Emotional Freedom and Thought Field therapies, yoga, and natural products. Considerations for clinical applications and future research recommendations are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition.

  8. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Elana E; Patel, Payal A; Amegatcher, Alison; Halnon, Nancy

    2014-04-26

    Traumatic experiences are not unusual in pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients before and after transplantation. Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) present at the time of transplant evaluation and developing afterward occur with an unknown frequency. We sought to determine the burden of these symptoms in heart transplant patients. We reviewed 51 consecutive HTs between 2003-2007, including 40 primary transplants and 11 re-transplants. Symptoms were present in 17 of the 51 patients (34%) at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation evaluation. None met the criteria for full post traumatic stress disorder. Transplant complications were examined. Nineteen subjects of the total sample had rejection in the first year following transplant. Rejection rates in the first year was 41% for those with PTSS (7 of 17 patients) and 36% for those without (12 of 33 patients) (P=n.s). Of those patients presenting for a second heart transplant, 55% had PTSS at the time of transplant evaluation and/or the peritransplant period; whereas, (28%) undergoing a primary transplant had PTSS. In addition to symptoms resulting from the disease process leading to HT and other prior experiences, the HT itself seems to present a large psychiatric burden on patients. All patients need to be followed before and after HT for signs and symptoms related to PTSS. Future studies should be undertaken to determine if preventative detection and treatment of patients with these PTSS symptoms early can lead to better outcomes.

  10. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramikie, Teniel Sonya; Ressler, Kerry James

    2017-11-21

    Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Help Seeking in the U.S. Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel; Williams, Jason; Bray, Robert M; Wilk, Joshua E; Hoge, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent findings between studies of gender differences in mental health outcomes in military samples have left open questions of differential prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among all United States Army soldiers and in differential psychosocial and comorbid risk and protective factor profiles and their association with receipt of treatment. This study assesses the prevalence and risk factors of screening positive for PTSD for men and women based on two large, population-based Army samples obtained as part of the 2005 and 2008 U.S. Department of Defense Surveys of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel. The study showed that overall rates of PTSD, as measured by several cutoffs of the PTSD Checklist, are similar between active duty men and women, with rates increasing in both men and women between the two study time points. Depression and problem alcohol use were strongly associated with a positive PTSD screen in both genders, and combat exposure was significantly associated with a positive PTSD screen in men. Overall, active duty men and women who met criteria for PTSD were equally likely to receive mental health counseling or treatment, though gender differences in treatment receipt varied by age, race, social support (presence of spouse at duty station), history of sexual abuse, illness, depression, alcohol use, and combat exposure. The study demonstrates that the prevalence of PTSD as well as the overall utilization of mental health services is similar for active duty men compared with women. However, there are significant gender differences in predictors of positive PTSD screens and receipt of PTSD treatment.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; McKibben, Jodi B A; Reissman, Dori B; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Sampson, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research investigating the relationship of community-level characteristics such as collective efficacy and posttraumatic stress following disasters. We examine the association of collective efficacy with probable posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health personnel nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. The collected data were used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder and collective efficacy measured at both the individual and zip code levels. The majority of participants were female (80.42%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years); 73.91% were European American, 13.25% were African American, and 8.65% were Hispanic. Using multi-level analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with a lower likelihood of having posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88-0.98; and OR = 0.94, CI = 0.92-0.97, respectively), even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristic variables, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Higher levels of community-level collective efficacy and individual-level collective efficacy were also associated with significantly lower posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity (b = -0.22, p<0.01; and b = -0.17, p<0.01, respectively), after adjusting for the same covariates. Lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with communities with higher collective efficacy. Programs enhancing community collective efficacy may be an important part of prevention practices and possibly lead to a reduction in the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster.

  14. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovic, Elmedina; de Roos, Carlijn; van Rood, Yanda; Dommerholt, Agnes; Rodenburg, Roos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (sub)clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session). Conclusions In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy. Highlights of the article The first study to examine the potential effects of EMDR to reduce clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms in children with epilepsy. After 1–3 EMDR (45 min) sessions, positive treatment effects were found on a range of seizure-related PTSD symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. During treatment, no seizures, absences, or any other adverse events were observed; the seizure diaries showed that none of the children experienced more seizures (or an unusual pattern) after treatment. At the reevaluation of EMDR, all children and parents

  15. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.......Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies....

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Julie; Georges, Jane M; Bush, Ruth A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-12-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Prevalence of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder is rising in the USA, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Academic Search Premier and PsychINFO were searched for articles, written in English, published between 2006-2015, containing the terms perinatal and post-traumatic stress disorder. Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month, leading to specific negative maternal symptoms and poor maternal-infant outcomes. Attributes include a diagnostic time frame (conception to 6 months postpartum), harmful prior or current trauma and specific diagnostic symptomatology defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Antecedents were identified as trauma (perinatal complications and abuse), postpartum depression and previous psychiatric history. Consequences comprised adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Further research on perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder antecedents, attributes and outcomes in ethnically diverse populations may provide clinicians a more comprehensive framework for identifying and treating perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses are encouraged to increase their awareness of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder for early assessment and intervention, and prevention of adverse maternal-infant outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley

  17. Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Bryce; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance coping (AVC) is common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given that PTSD and AUD commonly co-occur, AVC may represent a risk factor for the development of comorbid post-traumatic stress and alcohol use. In this study, the relationship between AVC and PTSD symptoms (PTSS) was examined in individuals with versus without AUDs. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims were assessed 6-weeks post accident for AUD histo...

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in first-time myocardial infarction patients: roles of attachment and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yang; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-11-01

    To explore the roles of attachment and alexithymia in the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and to specify the relationship between sub-dimensions of attachment, alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients with first-time myocardial infarction in mainland China. Patients experiencing myocardial infarction have a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. However, there have been few studies on the roles of attachment and alexithymia. A cross-sectional survey design. Ninety-seven patients participated in the assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, attachment and alexithymia from June-December in 2012. To assess post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and their correlates, we administered the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale 5-17 days after the remission of first myocardial infarction attack. Twenty-five (25·77%) patients met the criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Greater attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Except for externally oriented thinking, all dimensions of alexithymia were significantly correlated with post-traumatic stress symptoms. In the regression model, attachment anxiety and difficulties identifying feelings were found to be predictive and the total regression equation explained 24·2% variance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among myocardial infarction patients. First-time myocardial infarction patients were at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Attachment anxiety and difficulties identifying feelings were positively associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the early stage of myocardial infarction rehabilitation. It is essential to evaluate the causal relationship between attachment, alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder

  19. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  20. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  1. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after a Terrorist Attack: A Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne S; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are more prevalent in women than in men. To improve our understanding of gender differences in PTSD, detailed knowledge about the underlying symptom networks and gender specific symptom profiles is needed. Objective: We aimed to describe the gender differences in levels of individual posttraumatic stress symptoms after a terrorist attack, as well as identify possible gender differences in associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Method: This study used survey data from ministerial employees directly ( n = 190) and indirectly ( n = 1,615) exposed to the 2011 Oslo bombing. Data was collected approximately 10 months after the event. In order to investigate gender differences in levels of symptoms, we used bootstrapped means and standard deviations. Network analyses were conducted to identify gender differences in the associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results: Women reported higher levels of all symptoms, and the strongest effect sizes were found for symptoms of re-experiencing, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. Among individuals with considerable levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, women reported higher levels of physiological cue activity and exaggerated startle response. No significant gender differences in the networks of posttraumatic stress were found. Conclusions: The present results find no indication that the gender difference in prevalence of PTSD can be explained by differences in associations between symptoms. In order to determine if this finding can be applied to other participants and circumstances, future studies should seek to replicate this study in both community and clinical samples.

  2. Prevalence and gender differences in symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Tekin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions: PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat.

  3. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

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    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  4. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  5. Early Risk and Resiliency Factors Predict Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Caregivers of Patients Admitted to a Neuroscience ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Shaffer, Kelly M; Zale, Emily L; Funes, Christopher J; Koenen, Karestan C; Tehan, Tara; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-01-30

    Informal caregivers-that is, close family and friends providing unpaid emotional or instrumental care-of patients admitted to ICUs are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. As a first step toward developing interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in ICU caregivers, we examined the predictive validity of psychosocial risk screening during admission for caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months post hospitalization. An observational, prospective study. Ninety-nine caregivers were recruited as part of a longitudinal research program of patient-caregiver dyads in a neuroscience ICU. None. Caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were assessed during admission (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months post hospitalization. We 1) characterized prevalence of clinically significant symptoms at each time point 2); calculated sensitivity and specificity of baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening in predicting posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months; and 3) used recursive partitioning to select potential baseline factors and examine the extent to which they helped predict clinically significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at each time point. Rates of caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder remained relatively stable over time (16-22%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline predicted posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months with moderate sensitivity (75-80%) and high specificity (92-95%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline was associated with caregiver anxiety, mindfulness (i.e., ability to be aware of one's thoughts and feelings in the moment), and bond with patient. Furthermore, baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening was the single most relevant predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months, such that other baseline factors did not significantly improve predictive ability. Screening neuroscience ICU caregivers for clinically significant

  6. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, J.L.; van Zuiden, M.; Nawijn, L.; Koch, S.B.J.; Neumann, I.D.; Veltman, D.J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress

  7. Posttraumatic Growth and Dyadic Adjustment among War Veterans and their Wives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Lahav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth includes two main competing claims: one which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects illusory defenses. While the former might suggest that posttraumatic growth enhances intimacy and close relationships, the latter might imply that posttraumatic growth hinders interpersonal relations. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment over time at both the individual and dyadic levels, and the potential role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Former prisoners of war and comparable war veterans and their wives (n = 229 were assessed twice, 30–31 (T1 and 35–38 (T2 years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, with regard to posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms and dyadic adjustment. Results indicated that posttraumatic growth was associated with both elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms and low dyadic adjustment among both husbands and wives. Posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 and T2 mediated the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment. Wives' posttraumatic growth at T1 predicted posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment of the husbands at T2. The higher the wives' posttraumatic growth, the higher the posttraumatic growth and the lower the dyadic adjustment of the husbands in the subsequent measure. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth reflects defensive beliefs which undermine marital relationships and that posttraumatic growth might be transmitted between spouses and implicated in the deterioration of the marital relationship over time.

  8. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

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    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  9. The feeling of discomfort during vaginal examination, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

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    Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2017-08-01

    To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering

  10. Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample

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    Ayse Nuray Karanci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG is conceptualized as a positive transformation resulting from coping with and processing traumatic life events. This study examined the contributory roles of personality traits, posttraumatic stress (PTS severity and their interactions on PTG and its domains, as assessed with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Turkish form (PTGI-T. The study also examined the differences in PTG domains between survivors of accidents, natural disasters and unexpected loss of a loved one. Methods: The Basic Personality Traits Inventory, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and PTGI-T were administered to a large stratified cluster community sample of 969 Turkish adults in their home settings. Results: The results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience significantly related to the total PTG and most of the domains. The effects of extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were moderated by the PTS severity for some domains. PTG in relating to others and appreciation of life domains was lower for the bereaved group. Conclusion: Further research should examine the mediating role of coping between personality and PTG using a longitudinal design.

  11. Writing therapy for posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis.

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    van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face psychological treatments have difficulty meeting today's growing mental health needs. For the highly prevalent posttraumatic stress (PTS) conditions, accumulating evidence suggests that writing therapy may constitute an efficient treatment modality, especially when administered through the Internet. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of writing therapies for PTS and comorbid depressive symptoms. The literature was searched using several structured and unstructured strategies, including key word searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PILOTS databases. Six studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the analyses. These studies included a total of 633 participants, of which 304 were assigned to writing therapy. Across 5 direct comparisons of writing therapy to waiting-list control, writing therapy resulted in significant and substantial short-term reductions in PTS and comorbid depressive symptoms. There was no difference in efficacy between writing therapy and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, but we caution that this finding was based on only 2 direct comparisons. Writing therapy is an evidence-based treatment for PTS, and constitutes a useful treatment alternative for patients who do not respond to other evidence-based treatments. Internet adaptations of writing therapy for PTS may be especially useful for reaching trauma survivors in need of evidence-based mental health care who live in remote areas or who prefer to retain their anonymity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Improvement in posttraumatic stress disorder in postconflict Rwandan women.

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    Cohen, Mardge H; Shi, Qiuhu; Fabri, Mary; Mukanyonga, Henriette; Cai, Xiaotao; Hoover, Donald R; Binagwaho, Agnes; Anastos, Kathryn

    2011-09-01

    Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in developing and postconflict countries. The purpose of this study is to examine longitudinal changes in PTSD in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women who experienced the 1994 genocide. Five hundred thirty-five HIV-positive and 163 HIV-negative Rwandan women in an observational cohort study were followed for 18 months. Data on PTSD symptoms were collected longitudinally by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and analyzed in relationship to demographics, HIV status, antiretroviral treatment (ART), and depression. PTSD was defined as a score on the HTQ of ≥2. There was a continuing reduction in HTQ scores at each follow-up visit. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms changed significantly, with 61% of the cohort having PTSD at baseline vs. 24% after 18 months. Women with higher HTQ score were most likely to have improvement in PTSD symptoms (pART were not found to be consistently related to PTSD improvement. HIV care settings can become an important venue for the identification and treatment of psychiatric problems affecting women with HIV in postconflict and developing countries. Providing opportunities for women with PTSD symptoms to share their history of trauma to trained counselors and addressing depression, poverty, and ongoing violence may contribute to reducing symptoms.

  13. Birth order and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.

  14. Structural and functional involvement of amygdale in posttraumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Pathophysiological imaging studies of brain neuro-network concerned with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have given several models, where the interaction in the amygdala-ventral/medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus (Am-vmPFC-Hp) system is widely noticed. This paper describes the review of the structure, function and functional connectivity of Am in PTSD in relation to the Am-vmPFC-Hp system. For the structure of Am in PTSD, many studies by MRI have shown that its volume is unchanged but, exceptionally, authors have found the significant 6% volume reduction. Increased functional activity of Am has been demonstrated in PTSD by positron emission tomography (PET), but refuting findings are still presented. Studies in a larger scale are awaited for conclusion. The functional connectivity of Am in PTSD seems still controversial in an aspect of its direction in the Am-vmPFC-Hp system and participation of other systems, not studied hitherto, is thought possible. Authors expect further progress of PTSD imaging study not only from its pathophysiologic aspect but also from its therapeutic (mental and medical) view, which can compensate our knowledge of PTSD from both standpoints. (R.T.)

  15. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on cannabis quit success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Moos, Rudolf H; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Long, W Robert; Kimerling, Rachel; Trafton, Jodie A

    2015-01-01

    Though a growing number of US Veterans are being diagnosed with cannabis use disorders, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed as the most frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorder among this population, no research has investigated the impact of PTSD diagnosis on cannabis quit success. The present study sought to determine the impact of PTSD on cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt. Participants included 104, primarily male, cannabis-dependent US Veterans (Mage = 50.90 years, SDage = 9.90). The study design was prospective and included an assessment immediately prior to the quit attempt, and assessments weekly for the first 4 weeks post-quit, and then monthly through 6 months post-quit. Results indicated that PTSD diagnosis was not associated with time to first lapse or relapse. However, individuals with PTSD used more cannabis at baseline and evidenced a slower initial decline in cannabis use immediately following the quit attempt. All findings were significant after accounting for alcohol and tobacco use across the cessation period, as well as co-occurring mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses. Findings highlight the potential utility of interventions for individuals with cannabis use disorder and co-occurring PTSD, particularly early in a cessation attempt.

  17. Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily; Dennis, Paul A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Kirby, Angela C.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor “dysphoria” model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Results indicated that the Elhai 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best fit to the data, although substantial support was demonstrated for the DSM-5 4-factor model. Low factor loadings were noted for two of the symptoms in the DSM-5 model (psychogenic amnesia and reckless/self-destructive behavior), which raises questions regarding the adequacy of fit of these symptoms with other core features of the disorder. Overall, the findings from the present research suggest the DSM-5 model of PTSD is a significant improvement over the previous DSM-IV model of PTSD. PMID:26366290

  18. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. posttraumatic stress disorder: a theoretical model of the hyperarousal subtype

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    Charles Stewart Weston

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework

  20. Social context and the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth; Resnick, Heidi; Tracy, Melissa; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2006-07-01

    A growing body of research is identifying the molecular and genetic correlates of psychopathology and holds tremendous promise in suggesting the biologic mechanisms that may explain emergent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) phenotypes. Another body of research has begun to consider how elements of the social context may influence the risk of PTSD. It is likely that the social context and molecular/genetic factors jointly determine the risk of PTSD and as such scientific inquiry that considers the interrelationship of these factors stands to advance the field. However, there are particular conceptual and methodologic challenges to conducting and designing studies that adequately assess both the social context and the biologic determinants of PTSD. Much of the current research exploring the biology of PTSD is conducted with highly selective samples that were recruited on the basis of strict phenotypic or medical history criteria. In contrast, population-based sampling represents an opportunity to obtain heterogeneous samples that better represent the population distribution of relevant molecular, genotypic, and phenotypic parameters of interest. These sampling strategies also allow researchers to consider the role of the social context and in turn, how the social context influences the molecular determinants of PTSD. An example of our own work illustrates the feasibility of the population-based sampling approach.

  1. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium

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    Helle Svenningsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study assessing the incidence of delirium in the ICU. Psychometrics were screened by validated tools in structured telephone interviews after 2 months (n=297 and 6 months (n=248 after ICU-discharge. Results. Delirium was detected in 54% of patients in the ICU and symptoms of PTSD in 8% (2 months and 6% (6 months after ICU-discharge. Recall of ICU stay was present in 93%. Associations between ICU-delirium and post-discharge PTSD-symptoms were weak and insignificant. Memories of delusions were significantly associated with anxiety after two months. Remaining associations between types of ICU-memories and prevalence of post-discharge symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were insignificant after adjusting for age. Incidence of ICU-delirium was unaffected by preadmission use of psychotropic drugs. Prevalence of PTSD-symptoms was unaffected by use of antipsychotics and sedation in the ICU. Conclusion. ICU-delirium did not increase the risk of PTSD-symptoms at 2 and 6 months after ICU discharge.

  2. Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder following asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following asthma attack (post-asthma attack PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among college students. It also investigated the association between these variables and alexithymia. One hundred and six college students participated in the study and completed an on-line survey comprising the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, General Health Questionnaire-28 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Ninety-one students without asthma and major illness formed the control group. 2 % met the diagnostic criteria for full-PTSD, while 42 and 56 % met the partial and no-PTSD criteria respectively. Compared with the control, the asthma group reported significantly more somatic problems, social dysfunction and depression and was five times more likely to have an elevated risk of developing a general psychiatric disorder. After adjusting age, marital status, asthma experience and symptoms, alexithymia did not predict PTSD, while difficulty identifying feelings predicted psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediational analyses showed that asthma symptoms partially mediated the link between difficulty identifying feelings and psychiatric co-morbidity. People can develop PTSD symptoms and other psychological difficulties following asthma attack. Alexithymia influenced general psychological difficulties independently of PTSD symptoms.

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a right temporal lobe syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, B.; Leuthold, A. C.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Winskowski, A. M.; Dikel, T. N.; Georgopoulos, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    In a recent paper (Georgopoulos et al 2010 J. Neural Eng. 7 016011) we reported on the power of the magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test to differentiate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects from healthy control subjects and to classify them with a high degree of accuracy. Here we show that the main differences in cortical communication circuitry between these two groups lie in the miscommunication of temporal and parietal and/or parieto-occipital right hemispheric areas with other brain areas. This lateralized temporal-posterior pattern of miscommunication was very similar but was attenuated in patients with PTSD in remission. These findings are consistent with observations (Penfield 1958 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 51-66, Penfield and Perot 1963 Brain 86 595-696, Gloor 1990 Brain 113 1673-94, Banceaud et al 1994 Brain 117 71-90, Fried 1997 J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 9 420-8) that electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in awake human subjects, mostly in the right hemisphere, can elicit the re-enactment and re-living of past experiences. Based on these facts, we attribute our findings to the re-experiencing component of PTSD and hypothesize that it reflects an involuntarily persistent activation of interacting neural networks involved in experiential consolidation.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1994-01-01

    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder in women with war missing family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraković, Devla; Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman

    2014-12-01

    Research in crisis areas indicate that survivors' responses to the forced disappearance of family members are similar to reactions to other traumatic events. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with war missing family members in Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 years after the war in this region (1992-1995). The study included 160 women aged 47.1±14.0 from three regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was carried out in the period from April 2010 to May 2011. Of the 160 participants, 120 women had a war missing family member and 40 women had no war missing family members. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were used for data collection. Basic socio-demographic data and data concerning the missing family members were also collected. Women with war missing family members experienced significantly more traumatic war experiences (18.43±5.27 vs 6.57±4.34, pforced disappearance of a family member is an ambiguous situation that can be characterized as a traumatic experience.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-06-08

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Risk factors were assessed including sociodemographic variables, personal medical history and clinical variables. After the first month, 2.4% women had acute full PTSD and another 9.5% had clinically significant level of PTSD symptoms. Following the second and the third month, partial PTSD was found in 5.9% and 1.3% of the women, respectively, and none of participants had full PTSD. Obstetrical interventions were the only significant risk factor for the development of PTSD. Symptoms of postpartum PTSD are not rare after a traumatic delivery, and associated with specific obstetrical risk factors. Awareness of these risk factors may stimulate interventions to prevent this important and neglected postpartum disorder.

  8. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among flood affected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, N.; Kamal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of exposure to a traumatic event and the subsequent onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the population exposed to floods in Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: Individuals exposed to the 2010 flood in district Shadadkot, Sindh from April 2012 to September 2012. Methodology: Sample of the study comprised of 101 individuals from the flood affected areas in Pakistan. Age range of the participants was 15 to 50 years (M=27.73, SD = 7.19), with participation of both males and females. PTSD was assessed by using the self report measure, impact of Event Scale (IES) and the subjective and objective experience to flood was assessed through Flood Related Exposure Scale (FRES) devised by the authors. Results: The prevalence rate of PTSD among the flood affected population was 35.5%. Trauma had significant positive relation with objective flood exposure and subjective flood exposure (r=.27 and r =.38) respectively. Inverse relation appeared between age and PTSD (r=-.20). PTSD was higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: Understanding the prevalence of PTSD helps the mental health professionals in devising intervention strategies. A longitudinal study design is recommended that may be developed for better understanding of trajectories of trauma response across time span. Our findings may help identify populations at risk for treatment research. (author)

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  10. Panicogens in patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Symptom provocation has proved its worth for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and in general for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the medical field. In the research of anxiety disorders, investigations using experimentally induced panic attacks by various agents, such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, cholezystokinine-tetrapetid etc., have a long tradition and allow the exploration of usually naturally occuring spontaneous psychopathological phenomena under controlled conditions. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that can develop following exposure to an extreme traumatic event. In DSM-IV it is currently classified as an anxiety disorder and shares phenomenological similarities with panic disorder. The use of panicogenic challenge tests is also an interesting neurobiological approach to learn more about the nature of PTSD and may be a possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Not only panic anxiety, but also flashbacks and other dissociative symptoms can be provoked by several panicogens in PTSD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies using panicogens in PTSD. Methodological short-comings of current studies and needed directions of further research are discussed.

  11. Gender differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused primarily on Vietnam War veterans. A handful of recent studies have been conducted on samples of the general population. We sought to examine gender differences in exposure to traumatic events and in the emergence of PTSD following exposure in the general population. A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit metropolitan area, ages 18-45 years. Subjects were interviewed to assess history of traumatic events and PTSD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of PTSD was assessed in relation to a representative sample of traumas experienced in the population. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events was slightly higher in men than in women. The risk for PTSD following traumatic experiences was twofold higher in women than in men. This gender difference was primarily due to women's greater risk of PTSD following events that involved assaultive violence. The probability of PTSD in women versus men exposed to assaultive violence was 36% versus 6%. Prior exposure to assaultive violence was associated with an increased risk of PTSD from a subsequent trauma; the gender difference in the vulnerability for PTSD is not explained by prior exposure. Duration of PTSD was longer in women than in men. The burden of PTSD in U.S. communities is greater in women than in men, chiefly due to the greater effect of assaultive violence on women.

  12. Adolescents' posttraumatic stress reactions and behavior problems following Marmara earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Aysun

    2011-01-01

    Although most children and adolescents exhibit some kindof postdisaster reactions, their symptoms vary depending on the age, gender, parental social support, disaster and postdisaster contextual factors. This study examined adolescents' postdisaster experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and behavior problems 13 months after the 1999 Marmara earthquake in Turkey. Participants included 695 adolescents aged 12-17 years, who resided in three districts of Izmit at varying distances from the epicenter (e.g., high (HI), medium (MI), and low impact (LI) areas). Measures included demographics, earthquake exposure experiences, ChildPTSD Reaction Index, and Behavior Problems Index. Findings revealed that 76% of the adolescents reported moderate to very severe levels of PTSD symptoms (82% HI, 70% MI, and 70% LI) after the devastating earthquake. As expected, the HI group reported more symptoms than did members of MI and LI groups. Overall, 39% of the variance in adolescents' PTSD symptoms was accounted for by the degree of exposure and gender. Analyses also indicated an increase in the frequency of adolescents' behavior problems following the earthquake. The findings of this study have clinical implications for designing and implementing effective, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive intervention programs for the victims of major disasters.

  13. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single intranasal OT administration (40 IU) in PTSD patients. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over resting-state fMRI study in male and female police officers with (n=37, 21 males) and without PTSD (n=40, 20 males). We investigated OT administration effects on subjective anxiety and functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CeM) amygdala subregions with prefrontal and salience processing areas. In PTSD patients, OT administration resulted in decreased subjective anxiety and nervousness. Under placebo, male PTSD patients showed diminished right CeM to left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) connectivity compared with male trauma-exposed controls, which was reinstated after OT administration. Additionally, female PTSD patients showed enhanced right BLA to bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) connectivity compared with female trauma-exposed controls, which was dampened after OT administration. Although caution is warranted, our findings tentatively suggest that OT has the potential to diminish anxiety and fear expression of the amygdala in PTSD, either via increased control of the vmPFC over the CeM (males) or via decreased salience processing of the dACC and BLA (females). Our findings add to accumulating evidence that OT administration could potentially enhance treatment response in PTSD.

  14. Decreased Prolidase Activity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Süleyman; Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bez, Yasin; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Sır, Aytekin

    2016-07-01

    Many neurochemical systems have been implicated in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The prolidase enzyme is a cytosolic exopeptidase that detaches proline or hydroxyproline from the carboxyl terminal position of dipeptides. Prolidase has important biological effects, and to date, its role in the etiology of PTSD has not been studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate prolidase activity in patients with PTSD. The study group consisted of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD after the earthquake that occurred in the province of Van in Turkey in 2011 (n=25); the first control group consisted of patients who experienced the earthquake but did not show PTSD symptoms (n=26) and the second control group consisted of patients who have never been exposed to a traumatic event (n=25). Prolidase activities in the patients and the control groups were determined by the ELISA method using commercial kits. Prolidase activity in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control groups. Prolidase activity was also significantly lower in the traumatized healthy subjects compared to the other healthy group (pactivity may have neuroprotective effects in patients with PTSD.

  15. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Feddern, Dagmar; Christoffersen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Background The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs) from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23626869

  16. Review of somatic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A

    2013-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  18. Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Malizia, Andrea L

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling condition that is associated with intrusive recollections of a traumatic event, hyperarousal, avoidance of clues associated with the trauma, and psychological numbing. The field of neuroimaging has made tremendous advances in the past decade and has contributed greatly to our understanding of the physiology of fear and the pathophysiology of PTSD. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated significant neurobiologic changes in PTSD. There appear to be 3 areas of the brain that are different in patients with PTSD compared with those in control subjects: the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. The amygdala appears to be hyperreactive to trauma-related stimuli. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD, including exaggerated startle response and flashbacks, may be related to a failure of higher brain regions (i.e., the hippocampus and the medial frontal cortex) to dampen the exaggerated symptoms of arousal and distress that are mediated through the amygdala in response to reminders of the traumatic event. The findings of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD are reviewed as they relate to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  19. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Frydenberg, Morten; Videbech, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort. A prospective observational cohort study assessing the incidence of delirium in the ICU. Psychometrics were screened by validated tools in structured telephone interviews after 2 months (n = 297) and 6 months (n = 248) after ICU-discharge. Delirium was detected in 54% of patients in the ICU and symptoms of PTSD in 8% (2 months) and 6% (6 months) after ICU-discharge. Recall of ICU stay was present in 93%. Associations between ICU-delirium and post-discharge PTSD-symptoms were weak and insignificant. Memories of delusions were significantly associated with anxiety after two months. Remaining associations between types of ICU-memories and prevalence of post-discharge symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were insignificant after adjusting for age. Incidence of ICU-delirium was unaffected by preadmission use of psychotropic drugs. Prevalence of PTSD-symptoms was unaffected by use of antipsychotics and sedation in the ICU. ICU-delirium did not increase the risk of PTSD-symptoms at 2 and 6 months after ICU discharge.

  20. The Relationship between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure with and without Cognitive Restructuring for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M.; Gillihan, Seth J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Foa, Edna B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we examined the relationship between posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) treatment with and without cognitive restructuring (CR) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Female assault survivors (N = 153) with PTSD were randomized to either PE alone or PE…

  1. Restless 'rest': intrinsic sensory hyperactivity and disinhibition in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kevin; Ding, Mingzhou; Bernat, Edward; Schmidt, Norman B; Li, Wen

    2017-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder. To elucidate a sensory pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder, we examined intrinsic visual cortical activity (based on posterior alpha oscillations) and bottom-up sensory-driven causal connectivity (Granger causality in the alpha band) during a resting state (eyes open) and a passive, serial picture viewing state. Compared to patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 20), patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 25) demonstrated intrinsic sensory hyperactivity (suppressed posterior alpha power, source-localized to the visual cortex-cuneus and precuneus) and bottom-up inhibition deficits (reduced posterior→frontal Granger causality). As sensory input increased from resting to passive picture viewing, patients with post-traumatic stress disorder failed to demonstrate alpha adaptation, highlighting a rigid, set mode of sensory hyperactivity. Interestingly, patients with post-traumatic stress disorder also showed heightened frontal processing (augmented frontal gamma power, source-localized to the superior frontal gyrus and dorsal cingulate cortex), accompanied by attenuated top-down inhibition (reduced frontal→posterior causality). Importantly, not only did suppressed alpha power and bottom-up causality correlate with heightened frontal gamma power, they also correlated with increased severity of sensory and executive dysfunctions (i.e. hypervigilance and impulse control

  2. Meditation for posttraumatic stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Colaiaco, Benjamin; Apaydin, Eric; Sorbero, Melony E; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta M; Hempel, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of post-traumatic stress disorder on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Solis, Ana Cristina; Araújo, Álvaro Cabral; Corchs, Felipe; Bernik, Marcio; Duran, Érica Panzani; Silva, Cláudio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The stress experienced as an intense and traumatic event can increase the odds of orofacial pain, affect the biomechanics of masticatory system and compromise the periodontal health. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on oral health. A case-control study with a convenience sample was designed. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing, and plaque were recorded at 6 sites per tooth. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain after probing. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II (RDC/TMD Axis II) and Structured Clinical Interview (DSM-IV) were also applied. The final sample comprised 38 PTSD patients and 38 controls. Patients with PTSD had a higher degree of chronic pain, more depression and nonspecific physical symptoms (including and excluding pain) compared with the control group (Fisher exact test p < 0.001, and Chi-squared test, p < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001, respectively). Patients with PTSD also had more pain after periodontal probing compared with controls (Mann-Whitney, p = 0.037). The prevalence of sites with CAL or PPD ≥ 4, ≥ 5, ≥ 6 were not different between the groups. Age was associated with moderate periodontitis (multivariable logistic regression model, OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.03-10.75, p = 0.04). The severity of PTSD precluded an ample sample size. Patients with PTSD presented a worse RDC/TMD Axis II profile, more pain after periodontal probing, and no difference related to periodontal clinical parameters. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  5. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  6. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  7. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614

  8. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and risk-taking behavior in veterans of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlicky, Vlad; Solomon, Zahava; Benbenishty, Rami; Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has revealed heightened risk-taking behavior among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether the risktaking behavior is a direct outcome of the traumatic exposure or whether this relationship is mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms. The sample was comprised of 180 traumatized Israeli reserve soldiers, who sought treatment in the wake of the Second Lebanon War. Combat exposure was indirectly associated with risk-taking behavior primarily through its relationship with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results of the multivariate analyses depict the implication of posttraumatic stress symptoms in risk taking behavior, and the role of self-medication and of aggression in traumatized veterans.

  10. ICD-11 Prevalence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a German Nationwide Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören

    2018-01-27

    Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.

  11. Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; James, Karen; Bromfield, Tom; Temblett, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been reported in survivors of critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of critical illness. Patients attending the intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up clinic completed the UK-Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory and data was collected from their medical records. Predictors investigated included age, gender, Apache II score, ICU length of stay, pre-illness psychopathology; delirium and benzodiazepine administration during ICU stay and delusional memories of the ICU stay following discharge. A total of 198 patients participated, with 54 (27%) patients suffering with post-traumatic stress disorder. On multivariable logistic regression, the significant predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder were younger age, lower Apache II score, pre-illness psychopathology and delirium during the ICU stay. The predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in this study concur with previous research however a lower Apache II score has not been previously reported.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5 and ICD-11: Clinical and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Fyvie, Claire; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-04-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization provide distinct trauma-based diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and the forthcoming 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), respectively. The DSM-5 conceptualizes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a single, broad diagnosis, whereas the ICD-11 proposes two "sibling" disorders: PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD). The objectives of the current study were to: (a) compare prevalence rates of PTSD/CPTSD based on each diagnostic system; (b) identify clinical and behavioral variables that distinguish ICD-11 CPTSD and PTSD diagnoses; and (c) examine the diagnostic associations for ICD-11 CPTSD and DSM-5 PTSD. Participants in a predominately female clinical sample (N = 106) completed self-report scales to measure ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD, DSM-5 PTSD, and depression, anxiety, borderline personality disorder, dissociation, destructive behaviors, and suicidal ideation and self-harm. Significantly more people were diagnosed with PTSD according to the DSM-5 criteria (90.4%) compared to those diagnosed with PTSD and CPTSD according to the ICD-11 guidelines (79.8%). An ICD-11 CPTSD diagnosis was distinguished from an ICD-11 PTSD diagnosis by higher levels of dissociation (d = 1.01), depression (d = 0.63), and borderline personality disorder (d = 0.55). Diagnostic associations with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation and self-harm were higher for ICD-11 CPTSD compared to DSM-5 PTSD (by 10.7%, 4.0%, and 7.0%, respectively). These results have implications for differential diagnosis and for the development of targeted treatments for CPTSD. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Lifetime events and posttraumatic stress disorder in 4 postconflict settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, J T; Komproe, I H; Van Ommeren, M; El Masri, M; Araya, M; Khaled, N; van De Put, W; Somasundaram, D

    2001-08-01

    Little is known about the impact of trauma in postconflict, low-income countries where people have survived multiple traumatic experiences. To establish the prevalence rates of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 4 postconflict, low-income countries. Epidemiological survey conducted between 1997 and 1999 among survivors of war or mass violence (aged >/=16 years) who were randomly selected from community populations in Algeria (n = 653), Cambodia (n = 610), Ethiopia (n = 1200), and Gaza (n = 585). Prevalence rates of PTSD, assessed using the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1 and evaluated in relation to traumatic events, assessed using an adapted version of the Life Events and Social History Questionnaire. The prevalence rate of assessed PTSD was 37.4% in Algeria, 28.4% in Cambodia, 15.8% in Ethiopia, and 17.8% in Gaza. Conflict-related trauma after age 12 years was the only risk factor for PTSD that was present in all 4 samples. Torture was a risk factor in all samples except Cambodia. Psychiatric history and current illness were risk factors in Cambodia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-5.4 and adjusted OR,1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7, respectively) and Ethiopia (adjusted OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4 and adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7, respectively). Poor quality of camp was associated with PTSD in Algeria (adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5) and in Gaza (adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8). Daily hassles were associated with PTSD in Algeria (adjusted OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4). Youth domestic stress, death or separation in the family, and alcohol abuse in parents were associated with PTSD in Cambodia (adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8; and adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4, respectively). Using the same assessment methods, a wide range of rates of symptoms of PTSD were found among 4 low-income populations who have experienced war, conflict, or

  14. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  15. Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric injury patients: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Willie; Olff, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that about a quarter to a third of children with traffic-related injuries develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early symptoms of PTSD have been found to predict poor mental and physical outcome in studies of medically injured children. However, these symptoms are rarely recognized by physicians who provide emergency care for these children. In addition, there is insufficient knowledge about predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in this specific pediatric population. Early identification of those children at particular risk is needed to target preventive interventions appropriately. After some introducing remarks on the classification and the nature of posttraumatic stress reactions, current research findings on psychological and biological correlates of PTSD in pediatric injury patients are presented. The particular focus in this paper is on the neurobiological mechanisms that influence psychological responses to extreme stress and the development of PTSD. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD in pediatric injury patients, both in terms of neurobiology and treatment is needed.

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kosovo Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoza Shahini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD at veterans 8 years after war, to find out relation of PTSD with other demographic and health related variables and discover the impact of depression and trauma on PTSD on 687 veterans from six municipalities in Kosovo. Method: Participants were 687 war veterans selected from six regions of Kosovo during 2008. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ-40, was administered to measure PTSD and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25 for depression and anxiety. Pearson chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Results indicated that 11.2 % of veterans even 8 years after the war ended were suffering from PTSD. Six percent of veterans with PTSD did not seek medical help. They reported to have had emotional problems and physical problems, but they did not seek medical help. The findings suggest that self-medication may be one way of veterans dealing with PTSD symptoms. Veterans with PTSD symptoms were more concerned with “family issues” than those without PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: The study found that 8 years after the war the veterans of the war in Kosovo suffer PTSD symptoms and that a good number of them do not seek help for this problem. The establishment of adequate services by the state would transform these veterans’ dealing with PTSD not into a moral challenge but into a fundamental right to equal and high-quality services.

  17. The neurocognitive performance of female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Nikki H; Keller, Jenna E; Castillo, Diane T; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive problems are common with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are important to understand because of their association with the success of PTSD treatment and its potential neural correlates. To our knowledge, this is the first neurocognitive study in an all-female U.S. veteran sample, some of whom had PTSD. We examined neurocognitive performance and assessed whether learning deficits, common in PTSD, were associated with executive functioning. Veterans with PTSD (n = 56) and without (n = 53) were evaluated for psychiatric and neurocognitive status. The PTSD group had a lower estimated IQ (d = 0.53) and performed more poorly on all neurocognitive domains (d range = 0.57-0.88), except verbal retention (d = 0.04). A subset of the 2 groups that were matched on IQ and demographics similarly demonstrated poorer performance for the PTSD group on all neurocognitive domains (d range = 0.52-0.79), except verbal retention (d = 0.15). Within the PTSD group, executive functioning accounted for significant variance in verbal learning over and above IQ and processing speed (ΔR(2) = .06), as well as depression (ΔR(2) = .07) and PTSD severity (ΔR(2) = .06). This study demonstrated that female veterans with PTSD performed more poorly than females without PTSD on several neurocognitive domains, including verbal learning, processing speed, and executive functioning. Replication of these results using a control group of veterans with more similar trauma exposure, history of mild traumatic brain injury, and psychiatric comorbidities would solidify these findings. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of current psychiatric classifications and ongoing discussions we briefly summarize and discuss important key points. The definition of the event, associated with PTSD is different in DSM-III (introduced for the fist time in a classification of mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICD-10. DSM-IV is less restrictive and includes events that occur more frequently. In DSM-5, PTSD is placed in chapter “Trauma and Stressor-related disorders” and the accent is on the variable clinical characteristics of psychological distress. Emotional reactions to the traumatic event are no longer part of Criterion A. The clinical presentation varies and a number of intrusive psychological and physiological reactions of distress are described. Here comes a problem- the assessment of the trauma itself and the determination of the basic symptoms, when such an event happens. So, the skills to assess the trauma, to determine and competently attribute these symptoms to the specific event and cluster are of great importance. We conclude that a number of risk and prognostic factors should be considered in the process of assessment, diagnosis and management.

  19. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Deficient fear extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicking, Manon; Steiger, Frauke; Nees, Frauke; Diener, Slawomira J; Grimm, Oliver; Ruttorf, Michaela; Schad, Lothar R; Winkelmann, Tobias; Wirtz, Gustav; Flor, Herta

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience. They underwent a three-day ABC-conditioning procedure in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Two geometric shapes that served as conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented in the context of virtual reality scenes. Electric painful stimuli were delivered after one of the two shapes (CS+) during acquisition (in context A), while the other (CS-) was never paired with pain. Extinction was performed in context B and extinction memory was tested in a novel context C. The PTSD patients showed significantly higher differential skin conductance responses than the non-PTSD and HC and higher differential amygdala and hippocampus activity than the HC in context C. In addition, elevated arousal to the CS+ during extinction and to the CS- throughout the experiment was present in the PTSD patients but self-reported differential valence or contingency were not different. During extinction recall, differential amygdala activity correlated positively with the intensity of numbing and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity correlated positively with behavioral avoidance. PTSD patients show heightened return of fear in neural and peripheral measures. In addition, self-reported arousal was high to both danger (CS+) and safety (CS-) cues. These results suggest that a deficient maintenance of extinction and a failure to identify safety signals might contribute to PTSD symptoms, whereas non-PTSD subjects seem to show normal responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The neural correlates of emotional memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohawn, Kathryn Handwerger; Offringa, Reid; Pfaff, Danielle L; Hughes, Katherine C; Shin, Lisa M

    2010-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is marked by intrusive, chronic, and distressing memories of highly emotional events. Previous research has highlighted the role of the amygdala and its interactions with the hippocampus in mediating the effect of enhanced memory for emotional information in healthy individuals. As the functional integrity of these regions may be compromised in PTSD, the current study examined the neural correlates of emotional memory in PTSD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an event-related subsequent memory recognition paradigm to study amygdala and hippocampus activation in 18 individuals with PTSD and 18 trauma-exposed non-PTSD control participants. Memory enhancement for negative, relative to neutral, pictures was found across all subjects, without significant differences between groups. Relative to the trauma-exposed non-PTSD group, the PTSD group showed exaggerated amygdala activation during the encoding of negative versus neutral pictures. This effect was even more pronounced when the analysis included data from only pictures that were subsequently remembered 1 week later. In the PTSD group, degree of amygdala activation during the encoding of negative versus neutral pictures was positively correlated with hippocampal activation and current PTSD symptom severity. The PTSD group also showed exaggerated hippocampal activation in response to negative pictures that were remembered versus forgotten. Finally, hippocampal activation associated with the successful encoding of negative relative to neutral pictures was significantly greater in the PTSD group. Exaggerated amygdala activation during the encoding of emotionally negative stimuli in PTSD is related to symptom severity and to hippocampal activation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain Structural Covariance Network Topology in Remitted Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delin Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a prevalent, chronic disorder with high psychiatric morbidity; however, a substantial portion of affected individuals experience remission after onset. Alterations in brain network topology derived from cortical thickness correlations are associated with PTSD, but the effects of remitted symptoms on network topology remain essentially unexplored. In this cross-sectional study, US military veterans (N = 317 were partitioned into three diagnostic groups, current PTSD (CURR-PTSD, N = 101, remitted PTSD with lifetime but no current PTSD (REMIT-PTSD, N = 35, and trauma-exposed controls (CONTROL, n = 181. Cortical thickness was assessed for 148 cortical regions (nodes and suprathreshold interregional partial correlations across subjects constituted connections (edges in each group. Four centrality measures were compared with characterize between-group differences. The REMIT-PTSD and CONTROL groups showed greater centrality in left frontal pole than the CURR-PTSD group. The REMIT-PTSD group showed greater centrality in right subcallosal gyrus than the other two groups. Both REMIT-PTSD and CURR-PTSD groups showed greater centrality in right superior frontal sulcus than CONTROL group. The centrality in right subcallosal gyrus, left frontal pole, and right superior frontal sulcus may play a role in remission, current symptoms, and PTSD history, respectively. The network centrality changes in critical brain regions and structural networks are associated with remitted PTSD, which typically coincides with enhanced functional behaviors, better emotion regulation, and improved cognitive processing. These brain regions and associated networks may be candidates for developing novel therapies for PTSD. Longitudinal work is needed to characterize vulnerability to chronic PTSD, and resilience to unremitting PTSD.

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Metabolic Syndrome Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Green, Jonathan D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Stoop, Tawni B.; Barretto, Kenneth M.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Lee, Lewina O.; Fang, Shona C.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rosen, Raymond C.; Keane, Terence M.; Marx, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design. Methods 1,355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2). Results The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = .08, p = .002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%. Conclusions Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions. PMID:27087657

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Structural Characterization with 3-T MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Lingjiang; Du, Fei; Li, Jing; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Turner, Jessica A; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To explore cerebral alterations related to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by using three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging and also to explore the relationship of gray and white matter abnormalities and the anatomic changes with clinical severity and duration of time since the trauma. Materials and Methods Informed consent was provided, and the prospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the West China Hospital. Recruited were 67 patients with PTSD and 78 adult survivors without PTSD 7-15 months after a devastating earthquake in western China. All participants underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a 3-T imager to obtain anatomic images. Cortical thickness and volumes of 14 subcortical gray matter structures and five subregions of the corpus callosum were analyzed with software. Statistical differences between patients with PTSD and healthy survivors were evaluated with a general linear model. Averaged data from the regions with volumetric or cortical thickness differences between groups were extracted in each individual to examine correlations between morphometric measures and clinical profiles. Results Patients with PTSD showed greater cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and left precuneus (P PTSD severity was positively correlated with cortical thickness in the left precuneus (r = 0.332; P = .008). The volumes of posterior corpus callosum were negatively correlated with PTSD ratings in all survivors (r = -0.210; P = .013) and with cortical thickness of the left precuneus in patients with PTSD (r = -0.302; P = .017). Conclusion Results indicate that patients with PTSD had alterations in both cerebral gray matter and white matter compared with individuals who experienced similar psychologic trauma from the same stressor. Importantly, early in the course of PTSD, gray matter changes were in the form of increased, not decreased, cortical thickness, which may have

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder, physical activity, and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Hoerster, Katherine D; Yancy, William S

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a prevalent and costly psychiatric disorder, is associated with high rates of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies have examined PTSD and risky behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol/substance abuse); far fewer have examined the relationship between PTSD and health-promoting behaviors. Physical activity and eating behaviors are 2 lifestyle factors that impact cardiometabolic risk and long-term health. This comprehensive review of the literature (1980-2014) examined studies that reported physical activity and eating behaviors in adults with PTSD or PTSD symptoms. A systematic search of electronic databases identified 15 articles on PTSD-physical activity and 10 articles on PTSD-eating behaviors in adults. These studies suggest that there may be a negative association among PTSD, physical activity, and eating behaviors. Preliminary evidence from 3 pilot intervention studies suggests that changes in physical activity or diet may have beneficial effects on PTSD symptoms. There was considerable heterogeneity in the study designs and sample populations, and many of the studies had methodological and reporting limitations. More evidence in representative samples, using multivariable analytical techniques, is needed to identify a definitive relationship between PTSD and these health behaviors. Intervention studies for PTSD that examine secondary effects on physical activity/eating behaviors, as well as interventions to change physical activity/eating behaviors that examine change in PTSD, are also of interest. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Cognitive-behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress in schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C; Hardy, A; Smith, B; Wykes, T; Rose, S; Enright, S; Hardcastle, M; Landau, S; Baksh, M F; Gottlieb, J D; Rose, D; Mueser, K T

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence for effective interventions in the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Clinicians have concerns about using exposure treatments with this patient group. The current trial was designed to evaluate a 16-session cognitive restructuring programme, without direct exposure, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms specifically within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A multicentre randomized controlled single-blinded trial with assessments at 0 months, 6 months (post-treatment) and 12 months (follow-up) was conducted. A total of 61 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia and exhibiting post-traumatic stress symptoms were recruited. Those randomized to treatment were offered up to 16 sessions of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT, including psychoeducation, breathing training and cognitive restructuring) over a 6-month period, with the control group offered routine clinical services. The main outcome was blind rating of post-traumatic stress symptoms using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes were psychotic symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale. Both the treatment and control groups experienced a significant decrease in post-traumatic stress symptoms over time but there was no effect of the addition of CBT on either the primary or secondary outcomes. The current trial did not demonstrate any effect in favour of CBT. Cognitive restructuring programmes may require further adaptation to promote emotional processing of traumatic memories within people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.

  7. Evaluation of physical activity habits in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antonio de Assis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present data from a survey that aimed to assess the physical activity habits of adult Brazilian patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. METHOD: Fifty male and female patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder participated in this study. The mean age at onset was 37±12 years, and the mean time between diagnosis and follow-up was 3.6±4.2 years. RESULTS: Substantial changes in physical activity habits were observed following the onset of PTSD. While more than half of the patients participated in physical activities prior to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder onset, there was a significant reduction in their participation afterwards. The justifications for stopping physical activities or sport participation were lack of time and lack of motivation. DISCUSSION: Several studies have shown that physical exercise decreases reverts symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and social isolation. We could therefore hypothesize that patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder who exercise should experience the same benefits. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder have low levels of participation in sports or physical activities.

  8. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  9. A psychomotor diagnostic instrument for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Beek, P.J.; Cuijpers, Pim; van de Kamp, Minke

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of physical disorders as a consequence of chronic stress reactions and adverse lifestyle behaviours. In addition, various other physical signs and symptoms may be present, as well as problems with emotional awareness, such as

  10. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS among Dutch war veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, R. A.; Carlier, I. V.; Schreuder, B. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed concept Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DES NOS) or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) is designed to encompass long-standing symptoms not present in PTSD. An exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS was performed with the Structured

  11. Oxidative status and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac Štefanović, Leda; Kalinić, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Aladrović, Jasna; Mandelsamen Perica, Marina; Curić, Maja; Grošić, Petra Folnegović; Delaš, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the parameters of oxidative stress in the blood of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. The study included 80 male war veterans who participated actively in the Homeland war in Croatia. Volunteers were divided into two groups: 50 veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 30 without diagnosis. The self-assessment Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to detect the severity of depression and anxiety in the post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Catalytic concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes and the concentration of malondialdehyde in serum were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the catalytic concentrations of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase were within the reference range for both groups, the values obtained for the post-traumatic stress disorder group were significantly lower (Ppost-traumatic stress disorder may indicate a weaker response to oxidative stress due to impaired enzyme activity and/or decreased synthesis. Conversely, no significant changes in serum malondialdehyde concentrations suggest a compensated balance and adaptive response to (oxidative) stress. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Together in Pain: Attachment-Related Dyadic Processes and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Doron, Guy; Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2010-01-01

    We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to explore associations among attachment-related dyadic processes, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war veterans, and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in their wives. A sample of 157 Israeli couples (85 former prisoners of war and their wives and a comparison group of 72 veterans not held…

  13. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  14. Prepartum autobiographical memory specificity predicts post-traumatic stress symptoms following complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Engelhard, Iris M.; Peeters, Louis L.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that reduced autobiographical memory specificity predicts an increase in post-traumatic stress severity in traumatised individuals. Studies have also demonstrated that reduced memory specificity predicts later symptoms of depression after pregnancy-related life stress. So

  15. Written Disclosure Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Rodney A.; Lombardo, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive exposure-based approaches to treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are effective, but they are time intensive and not widely used because of factors such as client noncompliance and fears of iatrogenic effects. Exposure by writing disclosure (WD), modeled after Pennebaker's brief stress-reduction procedure, may circumvent…

  16. Fear of childbirth and obstetrical events as predictors of postnatal symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

    2007-12-01

    This prospective study examined psychological and obstetrical predictors of enduring postpartum symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Contrary to prediction, prenatal fear of childbirth did not significantly predict symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder at one month postpartum, but anxiety sensitivity was an unexpected predictor that merits further investigation. Several obstetrical and neonatal variables significantly predicted symptoms of post-traumatic disorder, but not depression.

  17. [Trauma history and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents attending a mental health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    Systematic exploration of potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress symptoms of patients attending a hospital for child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy. The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV was filled in by 413 children and adolescents and 403 caregivers at their first attendance at the clinic. At least one traumatic event was reported by 46.9% of the children and adolescents and/or caregivers. Clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms were reported in 22.9%. In the investigated sample routinely performed screening assessments can identify clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms in almost one of four patients of child mental health services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  19. Acute obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Nacasch, Nitsa; Zohar, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, as the patients described were chronic, and the onset of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms was dated some time previously, this hampers interpretation of the temporal, biological and psychological relationship of OCD following traumatic events. In the current paper we describe the emergence of posttraumatic obsessions a short time following the exposure to a traumatic event. The emergence of posttraumatic obsessions, a few months after exposure to trauma, is described for five veterans. All the veterans participated in combat during the summer of 2006 (in the Second Lebanon War). For all cases, OCD symptoms were initially related to the trauma but later became generalized and independent. The course of the symptoms suggests a potential environmental role in the development of OCD following an exposure to a traumatic event. These observations suggest a biological linkage between exposure to trauma and OCD.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Stressful Life Events Among Rural Women With HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Alexander, Melissa; Reid, Paula; Jackson, Morgan Parks

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events are frequent and distressing problems for women living with HIV (WLWH). Studies have independently focused on the impact of these problems, but little work has examined the relationship between PTSD and stressful life events. Our cross-sectional study examined relationships between PTSD and recent stressful life events in WLWH. A sample of 60 women recruited through HIV community agencies in southeastern North Carolina completed the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). PTSD prevalence was high (43.2%). Two-thirds (66%) reported three or more recent life stressors. Women who experienced a higher number of recent life stressors scored higher on the PCL-C than those with fewer life stressors (p stressful life events may accelerate PTSD symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues in HIV treatment settings. Implications for nursing practice are provided. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep Dynamic Therapy for Cerro Grande Fire evacuees with posttraumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry J; Melendrez, Dominic C; Johnston, Lisa G; Clark, James O; Santana, Erin M; Warner, Teddy D; Hollifield, Michael A; Schrader, Ron; Sisley, Brandy N; Lee, Samuel A

    2002-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among disaster survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms but is rarely addressed as a primary therapeutic target. Sleep Dynamic Therapy (SDT), an integrated program of primarily evidence-based, nonpharmacologic sleep medicine therapies coupled with standard clinical sleep medicine instructions, was administered to a large group of fire evacuees to treat posttraumatic insomnia and nightmares and determine effects on posttraumatic stress severity. The trial was an uncontrolled, prospective pilot study of SDT for 66 adult men and women, 10 months after exposure to the Cerro Grande Fire. SDT was provided to the entire group in 6, weekly, 2-hour sessions. Primary and secondary outcomes included validated scales for insomnia, nightmares, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression, assessed at 2 pretreatment baselines on average 8 weeks apart, weekly during treatment, posttreatment, and 12-week follow-up. Sixty-nine participants completed both pretreatment assessment, demonstrating small improvement in symptoms prior to starting SDT. Treatment and posttreatment assessments were completed by 66 participants, and 12-week follow-up was completed by 59 participants. From immediate pretreatment (second baseline) to posttreatment, all primary and secondary scales decreased significantly (all p values stress disorder subscales demonstrated similar changes: intrusion (d = 0.56), avoidance (d = 0.45), and arousal (d = 0.69). Fifty-three patients improved, 10 worsened, and 3 reported no change in posttraumatic stress. In an uncontrolled pilot study, chronic sleep symptoms in fire disaster evacuees were treated with SDT, which was associated with substantive and stable improvements in sleep disturbance, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression 12 weeks after initiating treatment.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  4. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Disaster-Exposed Youth with Posttraumatic Stress: Results from a Multiple-Baseline Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.

    2011-01-01

    Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…

  5. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  6. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thad E; Blevins, Amy; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature. The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1) determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2) identify targeted areas for further research. A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1) the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2) the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology. A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD measures (such as a physician exam) generally failed to find a relationship. Among studies that examined the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes, there was more consistent evidence that PTSD affects the perception of respiratory symptom burden and management. In addition, methods for measuring an important confounder (smoking) were generally lacking. There is inconclusive evidence to

  7. Does Early Psychological Intervention Promote Recovery From Posttraumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Bryant, Richard A; Ehlers, Anke

    2003-11-01

    In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they hoped that their interventions would mitigate psychological distress and prevent the emergence of this syndrome. Typically developing in response to horrific, life-threatening events, such as combat, rape, and earthquakes, PTSD is characterized by reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., intrusive recollections of the trauma, nightmares), emotional numbing and avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and hyperarousal (e.g., exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping). People vary widely in their vulnerability for developing PTSD in the wake of trauma. For example, higher cognitive ability and strong social support buffer people against PTSD, whereas a family or personal history of emotional disorder heightens risk, as does negative appraisal of one's stress reactions (e.g., as a sign of personal weakness) and dissociation during the trauma (e.g., feeling unreal or experiencing time slowing down). However, the vast majority of trauma survivors recover from initial posttrauma reactions without professional help. Accordingly, the efficacy of interventions designed to mitigate acute distress and prevent long-term psychopathology, such as PTSD, needs to be evaluated against the effects of natural recovery. The need for controlled evaluations of early interventions has only recently been widely acknowledged. Psychological debriefing-the most widely used method-has undergone increasing empirical scrutiny, and the results have been disappointing. Although the majority of debriefed survivors describe the experience as helpful, there is no convincing evidence that debriefing reduces the incidence of PTSD, and some controlled studies

  8. Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities: a case report of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Thomas J; te Wildt, Bert T

    2005-01-01

    In posttraumatic stress disorder, a traumatic event is persistently re-experienced in the form of intrusive recollections, dreams or dissociative flashback episodes; cues to the event lead to distress and are avoided, and there are persistent symptoms of increased arousal. While this diagnostic concept has been widely discussed and its existence questioned, a novel written by Charles Dickens long before it was included in any diagnostic system can be viewed as an early case report of posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3 years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from...... with posttraumatic stress would be associated with reductions in symptoms. The second aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the Darryl, a cartoon-based PTSD screening instrument. Methods One hundred and eight children participated in the treatment program, all of whom fulfilled at least two out of the three DSM...

  10. [Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in people affected by the 2010 earthquake in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alicia Ruth; Estario, Juan Carlos; Enders, Julio Enrique; Neira, María Josefina López de; Abeldaño, Roberto Ariel

    2014-11-01

    The authors conducted an assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder screening in the Chilean population following the February 2010 earthquake, based on the Post Earthquake Survey with a multistage sample of 24,982 individuals over 18 years of age, applying the Davidson Trauma Scale. Multivariate analysis was performed with significance set at pearthquake proved to be a protective factor as compared to other social or neighborhood groups, and more years of schooling were also protective (p<0.05). Positive screening for posttraumatic stress disorders revealed clear social inequalities.

  11. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in breast cancer: Prevalence, predictors, consequences, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Zachariae, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are evident in a significant proportion of women after having experienced diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Several risk factors...... for developing long-term PTSS after breast cancer have been identified. Younger age, low education and income, pre-cancer previous psychiatric history, cancer disease severity, poor physical functioning, and acute symptoms of PTSS are predictors of long-term post-cancer PTSS, with poor physical functioning...

  12. Cognitive deficits and posttraumatic stress disorder in children: A diagnostic dilemma illustrated through a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarbi, Stephanie; Muscara, Frank; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the neuropsychological functioning of children who experience trauma have predominantly focused on maltreated populations. This article presents a case study that details the longitudinal outcome of a girl who experienced a motor vehicle accident at 5 years of age. It highlights the clinical relevance of research investigating the neuropsychological impact of single-incident trauma on children. It illustrates difficulties clinicians face in discriminating between the effects of developmental delay, traumatic brain injury, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trauma, and posttraumatic stress symptoms or posttraumatic stress disorder, especially in children with compensable injuries. The state of the current literature is discussed, and directions for future research are provided.

  13. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and postpartum depression in couples after childbirth: the role of partner support and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Jane; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen

    2011-05-01

    The roles of partner attachment and perceptions of partner support were explored in relation to symptoms of posttraumatic stress and postpartum depression in couples within the first three postnatal months. Participants (n=372) were recruited within the first seven days postpartum, and completed questionnaire measures of trait anxiety, symptoms of acute posttraumatic stress, and perceptions of partner support. Postal questionnaires were completed at six weeks and three months, assessing attachment, perception of partner support, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and postpartum depression. Two hundred and twelve couples completed all time-points. Results indicated that symptoms were significantly related within couples. Men's acute trauma symptoms predicted their partner's subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Less secure attachment and dissatisfaction with partner support were associated with higher levels of postpartum depression and posttraumatic stress. Men's and women's responses following childbirth appear to be strongly interlinked; services should target both members of the dyad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and post-traumatic stress disorder after a skiing accident: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Birgit Maria; Wonisch, Manfred; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Fazekas, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of a post-traumatic stress disorder can follow Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. This vignette describes such a linkage and exemplifies the risk that these symptoms may remain undetected. After a skiing accident that had evoked existential fear of suffocation, a post-menopausal woman was diagnosed with Tako-tsubo syndrome and myocardial contusion. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder appeared 2 weeks after remission of the cardiomyopathy. Two months later, a psychological assessment was conducted during cardiac rehabilitation. A post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed and successfully treated by narrative exposure. This case report suggests that these patients should be informed during the initial hospital stay that post-traumatic stress symptoms could appear. It also suggests including a screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the follow-up of these patients.

  16. Are the neural substrates of memory the final common pathway in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, B.M.; Bremner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A model for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a disorder of memory is presented drawing both on psychological and neurobiological data. Evidence on intrusive memories and deficits in declarative memory function in PTSD-patients is reviewed in relation to three brain areas that are involved in memory functioning and the stress response: the hippocampus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. Neurobiological studies have shown that the noradrenergic stress-system is involved in enhanced...

  17. Secondary Traumatization of Wives of War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frančišković, Tanja; Stevanović, Aleksandra; Jelušić, Ilijana; Roganović, Branka; Klarić, Miro; Grković, Jasna

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the symptoms of secondary traumatic stress and possible influences of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the occurrence of secondary traumatic stress in wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: The study included 56 wives of war veterans diagnosed with PTSD and treated at the Center for Psychotrauma in Rijeka, Croatia. A short structured interview was conducted with each woman to collect demographic and socioeconomic data. The women i...

  18. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin; Michel, Per-Olof; Mortensen, Erik L; Weisaeth, Lars; Andersen, Henrik S; Hultman, Christina M

    2011-02-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies. To examine the association between exposure to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and symptoms of post-traumatic stress in three Scandinavian tourist populations. Postal survey of Norwegian, Danish and Swedish Southeast Asia tourists registered by the police when arriving at national airports. Follow-up time was 6 (Norway), 10 (Denmark) and 14 months (Sweden) post-disaster; 6772 individuals were included and categorized according to disaster exposure: danger exposed (caught or chased by the waves), non-danger exposed (other disaster-related stressors) and non-exposed. Outcome measures were the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL). Danger exposed reported more post-traumatic stress than non-danger exposed, and the latter reported more symptoms than non-exposed (each PDisaster-exposed tourists repatriated to unaffected home environments show long-term post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms related to the severity of exposure.

  19. Deployment stress, tobacco use, and postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder: Gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J; Gregor, Kristin; Pineles, Suzanne L; Gradus, Jaimie L; Street, Amy E; Prabhala, Rao; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that tobacco use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur and are highly prevalent among Veterans; research with female Veterans is limited. Given the increasing numbers of women deployed to combat zones in recent conflicts, the objective of the current study was to examine gender-specific associations between deployment stress, tobacco use and postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Two thousand thirteen Veterans deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq (50.9% female; mean age = 35.53) completed a postdeployment, mailed survey that assessed tobacco use before, during, and after deployment, deployment stressors, and postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Warfare stress was associated with initiation and increases in tobacco use during deployment in both men and women, whereas harassment stress was associated with initiation and increases in tobacco use in women only. Only among women was continued postdeployment tobacco use associated with postdeployment PTSD symptoms. We found a dose-dependent relationship between deployment stress and adoption and escalation of tobacco use; the stressors that provoked initiation and escalation of tobacco use differed by gender. Continued tobacco use after deployment was associated with PTSD in women suggesting that women used tobacco more selectively than men to regulate negative affect. Implications of this work are that training before combat and during combat on healthy means of coping with deployment stress is needed to prevent tobacco use. For women, reducing harassment stress during deployment and early treatment of acute stress and PTSD during and soon after deployment may prevent intractable tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Rumination in posttraumatic stress and growth after a natural disaster: a model from northern Chile 2014 earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Soto, Francisco; Carmona-Halty, Marcos; Ferrer-Urbina, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences, such as natural disasters, produce multiple and serious impacts on people. Despite the traditional focus on negative consequences, in many cases there are also positive consequences, such as posttraumatic growth. Tedeschi and Calhoun proposed a model of posttraumatic growth that emphasizes the role of rumination after the basic beliefs breakdown due to the occurrence of a traumatic experience. A total of 238 volunteers affected by two major earthquakes and tsunami alerts in northern Chile on April 1 and 2, 2014, responded to an online survey measuring subjective severity, basic beliefs change, social share of emotion, rumination, posttraumatic stress, and posttraumatic growth. Path analyses reveal that posttraumatic stress goes through a negative change in basic beliefs, intrusive rumination, and deliberated rumination, meanwhile posttraumatic growth is only achieved directly from a positive change in basic beliefs and deliberated rumination. The model is consistent with the empirical model obtained in Chilean people affected by the earthquake and tsunami that occurred on 27 February, 2010, but it is slightly different and in a form that is more consistent with Tedeschi and Calhoun's theoretical model. Both models remark on the role of deliberated rumination in posttraumatic growth and failure to progress from intrusive to deliberated rumination in posttraumatic stress, but the proposed one is more parsimonious and assumes subjective severity as an antecedent to basic belief changes. These conclusions must be considered in light of limitations that a cross-sectional design and the correlational nature of the statistical analysis carried out impose. Role of subjective severity, change of basic beliefs, social sharing of emotion, and rumination on posttraumatic stress and growth were modeled from responses of people affected by the April 1-2, 2014, northern Chilean earthquakes. Posttraumatic stress goes through negative changes in basic beliefs

  1. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, intrusive thoughts, loss, and immune function after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironson, G; Wynings, C; Schneiderman, N; Baum, A; Rodriguez, M; Greenwood, D; Benight, C; Antoni, M; LaPerriere, A; Huang, H S; Klimas, N; Fletcher, M A

    1997-01-01

    To examine the impact of and relationship between exposure to Hurricane Andrew, a severe stressor, posttraumatic stress symptoms and immune measures. Blood draws and questionnaires were taken from community volunteer subjects living in the damaged neighborhoods between 1 and 4 months after the Hurricane. The sample exhibited high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms by questionnaire (33% overall; 76% with at least one symptom cluster), and 44% scored in the high impact range on the Impact of Events (IES) scale. A substantial proportion of variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms could be accounted for by four hurricane experience variables (damage, loss, life threat, and injury), with perceived loss being the highest correlate. Of the five immune measures studied Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity (NKCC) was the only measure that was meaningfully related (negatively) to both damage and psychological variables (loss, intrusive thoughts, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). White blood cell counts (WBCs) were significantly positively related with the degree of loss and PTSD experienced. Both NKCC (lower) and WBC were significantly related to retrospective self-reported increase of somatic symptoms after the hurricane. Overall, the community sample was significantly lower in NKCC, CD4 and CD8 number, and higher in NK cell number compared to laboratory controls. Finally, evidence was found for new onset of sleep problems as a mediator of the posttraumatic symptom-NKCC relationship. Several immune measures differed from controls after Hurricane Andrew. Negative (intrusive) thoughts and PTSD were related to lower NKCC. Loss was a key correlate of both posttraumatic symptoms and immune (NKCC, WBC) measures.

  2. Positive emotions in caring for a spouse: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Tiina; Rissanen, Sari

    2018-03-01

    This article aimed at identifying the positive emotions connected to spouse caregiving and the advantages for spouse carers. Theoretically, the article is based on the concept of emotion and the assumptions of positive psychology. Data search is conducted via electronic literature databases and the analysis method is partly theory-driven and partly inductive content classification. Our analyses discover and clarify the concepts associated with positive emotions in caring, such as the gains of caregiving, benefit-finding, finding meaning, personal growth, post-traumatic growth and resilience. We also utilise a conceptual framework to describe positive emotions in caregiving, and the identified advantages of positive emotions in spouse caregiving include distress buffering, mediation in coping with stress, increased quality of life and well-being, and finding a sense of purpose. Finally, spouse care is seen in this article as a challenging life situation which at best can support personal growth, if the processing of both positive and negative emotions is included in daily life. Hence, the service and support system should be developed further by utilising the findings of positive psychology as well as studies of personal growth. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craparo G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Craparo,1 Alessio Gori,2 Elvira Mazzola,1 Irene Petruccelli,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Giuseppe Rotondo3 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Unit of Psychotraumatology, San Raffaele Giglio Hospital of Cefalù, Cefalù, Italy Background: Several studies have demonstrated a significant association between dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms. A dissociative reaction during a traumatic event may seem to predict the later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, several researchers also observed an alexithymic condition in a variety of traumatized samples.Methods: A total of 287 flood victims (men =159, 55.4%; women =128, 44.6% with an age range of 17–21 years (mean =18.33; standard deviation =0.68 completed the following: Impact of Event Scale–Revised, Dissociative Experiences Scale II, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.Results: We found significant correlations among all variables. Linear regression showed that peritraumatic dissociation plays a mediator role between alexithymia, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.Conclusion: Our results seem to confirm the significant roles of both dissociation and alexithymia for the development of posttraumatic symptoms. Keywords: peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic symptoms, PTSD

  4. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post-traumatic

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and their parents following admission to the pediatric intensive care unit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lara P; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder in children who have been admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and their families. Studies were identified through PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid. All descriptive, observational, and controlled studies with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and the pediatric intensive care unit were included. Posttraumatic stress disorder rates in children following admission to the pediatric intensive care unit were between 5% and 28%, while rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were significantly higher, 35% to 62%. There have been inconsistencies noted across risk factors. Objective and subjective measurements of disease severity were intermittently positively associated with development of posttraumatic stress disorder. There was a positive relationship identified between the child's symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and their parents' symptoms.The biological mechanisms associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit have yet to be explored. Studies in children following burn or other unintentional injury demonstrate potential relationships between adrenergic hormone levels and a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Likewise genetic studies suggest the importance of the adrenergic system in this pathway.The rates of posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following their child's admission to the pediatric intensive care unit ranged between 10.5% and 21%, with symptom rates approaching 84%. It has been suggested that mothers are at increased risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder compared to fathers. Objective and subjective measures of disease severity yielded mixed findings with regard to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Protective parental factors may include education or the opportunity to discuss the parents' feelings during the admission. Following admission to the pediatric intensive

  6. [Spouses and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F

    2011-02-01

    To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  7. EARLY PROGNOSTIC SCREENING FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER WITH THE DAVIDSON TRAUMA SCALE AND THE SPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the accuracy of the 17-item. Dutch version of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and the four-item SPAN (Startle, Physiological Arousal, Anger and Numbness) to detect survivors at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the first 2 weeks after the trauma.

  8. Pre-trauma individual differences in extinction learning predict posttraumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, M.J.J.; Engelhard, I.M.; Sijbrandij, M.; van Hout, M.A.; Hermans, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a traumatic event, many people suffer from psychological distress, but only a minority develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pre-trauma individual differences in fear conditioning, most notably reduced extinction learning, have been proposed as playing an important role

  9. Violence Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Treatment by Integrating Existential and Narrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an integration of existential and narrative therapies with current evidence-supported approaches to treating the aforementioned population. First, she briefly defines interpersonal violence, then provides a history and review of the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which frequently…

  10. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  11. Neglect, Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Look at Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kelsey R.; Scott, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder that is largely overlooked in the counseling field and literature, specifically in children and adolescents. Etiology, treatment options, and the course in which the disorder manifests itself holds great importance in understanding the grave effects these traumatic events have on youth. This…

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  13. Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology, and Later Nonsuicidal Self-Harm in a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal population-based study examined pathways to nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH) in relation to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), assault victimization in early adulthood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology (PTSD), and other mental disorders. At age 21, 476 men and 455 women completed interviews on assault victimization, PTSD, and…

  14. DSM-5 AND ICD-11 DEFINITIONS OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER : INVESTIGATING "NARROW" AND "BROAD" APPROACHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Atwoli, Lukoye; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Maercker, Andreas; Petukhova, Maria; Shahly, Victoria; van Ommeren, Mark; Alonso, Jordi; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Matschinger, Herbert; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Background: The development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) and ICD-11 has led to reconsideration of diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys allow investigation of the implications of the

  15. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  16. Factors Influencing the Course of Posttraumatic Stress Following a Natural Disaster: Children's Reactions to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined psychosocial and behavioral factors involved in the course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in youth affected by Hurricane Katrina. Participants (N = 152; 54% female; 61% Caucasian; mean age = 11.5 years) self-reported on hurricane exposure, PTSD symptoms, fear reactivity, regulatory abilities, social…

  17. Child maltreatment, revictimization and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among adults in a community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, A.M.; Sales, L.; Mooren, G.T.M.; Mota Cardoso, R.; Kleber, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with revictimization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, this relation is hardly examined in South European countries, and in community samples. We tested these associations in a convenience sample of 1,200

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  19. Postdeployment Suicidal Ideations and Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Danish Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicidal ideation in veterans is of great concern. The objective of this study is to examine how heterogeneous posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideation in veterans 2.5 years postdeployment to a combat zone in Afghanistan...

  20. Understanding the Impact of Trauma Exposure on Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…

  1. "Dwelling in the Past": The Role of Rumination in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echiverri, Aileen M.; Jaeger, Jeff J.; Chen, Jessica A.; Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged exposure, a cognitive behavioral therapy including both in vivo and imaginal exposure to the traumatic memory, is one of several empirically supported treatments for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, we provide a case illustration in which this well-validated treatment did not yield expected clinical gains…

  2. Impact of Race on Early Treatment Termination and Outcomes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kristin; Artz, Caroline; Resick, Patricia A.; Young-Xu, Yinong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the influence of race on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment among 94 African American and 214 Caucasian female victims of interpersonal violence participating in 2 studies of cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD that were conducted sequentially and continuously. Method: In each study,…

  3. Anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms following wisdom tooth removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Ad; Olff, Miranda; van Hoolwerff, Hans; Aartman, Irene H. A.; Broekman, Birit; Lindauer, Ramón; Boer, Frits

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychological impact of wisdom teeth removal and to identify the psychological risk factors for the development of dental anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Participants were 34 consecutive elective patients referred for surgical removal

  4. The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Voerman, A. E.; Gersons, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Certain individuals, such as police officers, are exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational roles. In an effort to prevent psychological illnesses, notably the post-traumatic stress disorder, from arising out of work-related traumatic incidents, psychological interventions have been

  5. Latent Classes of Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Predict Functioning and Disorder after 1 Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Lynsay; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Ken; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify latent classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a national sample of adolescents, and to test their associations with PTSD and functional impairment 1 year later. Method: A total of 1,119 trauma-exposed youth aged 12 through 17 years (mean = 14.99 years, 51% female and 49% male) participating in the…

  6. Implicit and explicit avoidance in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurkens, P.F.T.; Rinck, M.; Minnen, A. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: Avoidance of stimuli that are associated with the traumatic event is a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus far, studies on the role of avoidance in the development and maintenance of PTSD focused primarily on strategic or explicit avoidance. However, patients may

  7. Visual feedback in written imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, F.L.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the visual feedback hypothesis, which states that visual feedback from written trauma narratives contributes to the efficacy of written imaginal exposure in reducing posttraumatic stress, as visual feedback allows for the reuptake of traumatic content during the production of

  8. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  9. Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. General Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Childhood, in our culture, does not preclude exposure to trauma. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, natural disaster, urban violence, school violence, and terrorism result in significant numbers of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Many factors contribute to symptomatic expression, with some children showing few effects…

  10. Executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of comorbid depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Polak, A Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.

    BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, such as impaired verbal memory and executive functioning. Less is known about executive function and the role of comorbid depression in PTSD. Recently, studies have shown that verbal memory impairments

  11. Executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of comorbid depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Polak, A. Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, such as impaired verbal memory and executive functioning. Less is known about executive function and the role of comorbid depression in PTSD. Recently, studies have shown that verbal memory impairments may be

  12. Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder with brief cognitive behavioral therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; de Vries, Mirjam H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from various types of psychological trauma. METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 143 patients with acute PTSD (irrespective

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Former Prisoners of War: Incidence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Robert A.; And Others

    Following World War I, researchers began to study psychological and behavior problems resulting from war experiences. Today these problems are defined as Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD). The PTSD problems of Vietnam veterans have been widely reported but less is known about World War II and Korean veterans. A study was undertaken to examine…

  14. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity : The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it

  15. Predicting post-traumatic stress disorder treatment response in refugees : Multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagen, Joris F G; Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Kleber, Rolf J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Given the recent peak in refugee numbers and refugees' high odds of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), finding ways to alleviate PTSD in refugees is of vital importance. However, there are major differences in PTSD treatment response between refugees, the determinants of

  16. From non-pharmacological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder to novel therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Erik; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    The development of new pharmacological therapies starts with target discovery. Finding new therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders is a difficult process. Most of the currently described drugs for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on the inhibition of serotonin reuptake. The

  17. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.; Holm, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    , there is controversy whether PCS deserves to be identified as a diagnostic syndrome. OBJECTIVE To assess whether persistent symptoms 3 months following head injury are specific to MTBI or whether they are better described as part of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted...

  18. Memory traces of trauma: Neurocognitive aspects of and therapeutic approaches for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 81% of the general population experiences at least one potentially traumatic event in their life, such as a traffic accident, assault, rape, or disaster. Around 7% of people fulfill the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder at some point during their life. Certain details of

  19. The role of major depression in neurocognitive functioning in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur after traumatic experiences and share neurocognitive disturbances in verbal memory and executive functioning. However, few attempts have been made to systematically assess the role of a comorbid

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    An adult woman with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder who was nonresponsive to 20 sessions of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented in this case study. Two months after her CBT trial, she was treated with 21 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for PTSD. Measurements of PTSD severity,…

  1. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  2. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis

  3. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of

  4. Screening and Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Children Following Single-Incident Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Ellis, Alicia A.; Nehmy, Thomas J.; Ball, Shelley-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Three screening methods to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in children following single-incident trauma were tested. Children and adolescents (N = 90; aged 7-17 years) were assessed within 4 weeks of an injury that led to hospital treatment and followed up 3 and 6 months later. Screening methods were adapted…

  5. Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder : A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feder, Adriana; Parides, Michael K.; Murrough, James W.; Perez, Andrew M.; Morgan, Julia E.; Saxena, Shireen; Kirkwood, Katherine; Aan Het Rot, Marije; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.; Wan, Le-Ben; Iosifescu, Dan; Charney, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Few pharmacotherapies have demonstrated sufficient efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a chronic and disabling condition. OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy and safety of a single intravenous subanesthetic dose of ketamine for the treatment of PTSD and

  6. Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric injury patients: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeland, Willie; Olff, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that about a quarter to a third of children with traffic-related injuries develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early symptoms of PTSD have been found to predict poor mental and physical outcome in studies of medically injured children. However, these symptoms are rarely

  7. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Exposed to Man-Made Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manix, Mary M.

    This paper reviews the literature published in the last 10 years that focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children exposed to man-made disasters such as war, school shootings, and the Oklahoma City bombing. As mass violence continues in society, mental health professionals need to be prepared to treat child victims of such…

  9. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents after sexual abuse is readily treated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.J.; Minnen, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a boy aged 19 years and a girl aged 16 years, were diagnosed to be suffering from a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 7 and 2 years after sexual abuse, respectively. There was thus a serious delay in the correct diagnosis and the start of cognitive behavioural therapy, which was

  10. Posttraumatic Stress and Growth in Student Service Members and Veterans: The Role of Personal Growth Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowa, Dominika; Robitschek, Christine; Harmon, Kevin Andrew; Shigemoto, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the extent to which personal growth initiative (PGI) may predict posttraumatic stress and growth in student service members/veterans (SSM/V). Participants: Participants were 136 SSM/V (79% men) representing multiple branches of the armed forces. Forty-four percent of participants reported having combat experience.…

  11. Intracolleague aggression in a group of Dutch prison workers : Negative affectivity and posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, S.; van der Laan, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined workplace aggression among a Dutch group of 174 prison workers at 10 penitentiaries in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the main and interaction effects of Type D personality and violence on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results showed a

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency than dichotomous measures of nonmedical prescription drug use alone. Further, the association between the frequency of posttraumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use and dependence symptoms among college students with a trauma history deserves further investigation due to the resulting vulnerability to increasingly negative outcomes.

  13. Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth and traumatic birth experiences: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Lisanne F; Honig, Adriaan; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Stramrood, Claire A I

    2018-01-16

    Between 9 and 44% of women experience giving birth as traumatic, and 3% of women develop a post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Knowledge on risk factors is abundant, but studies on treatment are limited. This study aimed to present an overview of means to prevent traumatic birth experiences and childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Major databases [Cochrane; Embase; PsycINFO; PubMed (Medline)] were searched using combinations of the key words and their synonyms. After screening titles and abstracts and reading 135 full-text articles, 13 studies were included. All evaluated secondary prevention, and none primary prevention. Interventions included debriefing, structured psychological interventions, expressive writing interventions, encouraging skin-to-skin contact with healthy newborns immediately postpartum and holding or seeing the newborn after stillbirth. The large heterogeneity of study characteristics precluded pooling of data. The writing interventions to express feelings appeared to be effective in prevention. A psychological intervention including elements of exposure and psycho-education seemed to lead to fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in women who delivered via emergency cesarean section. No research has been done on primary prevention of traumatic childbirth. Research on secondary prevention of traumatic childbirth and post-traumatic stress disorder following delivery provides insufficient evidence that the described interventions are effective in unselected groups of women. In certain subgroups, results are inhomogeneous. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Probable Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Self-harming Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. S.; Simonsen, E.

    2017-01-01

    The current study screened for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-harming behaviours, often related to borderline personality disorder (BPD), among individuals in a job centre considered unemployable primarily for psychological reasons. Participants (N = 112) filled in questionnaires...

  15. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  16. The experience of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after acute myocardial infraction: A qualitative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staikos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide, which may result in post-traumatic stress (acute or chronic, as well as in psychological distress, both of which change to a decisive extent the life and daily routine of the patient. Purpose: To investigate the experience of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients who suffered an AMI and its effect on their quality of life. Methodology: This qualitative research was conducted using the hermeneutic/phenomenological approach. Using with the method of semi-structured interviews, 20 (15 men, 5 women patients described their experiences. The data were analyzed using the empirically grounded theory. Results: Patients who suffered an AMI exhibited a series of acute post-traumatic stress symptoms during the first hours after the onset of the disease, which sometimes may be evident for up to two years. The daily presence of psychological distress and the evident manifestation of the concept of spiritual maturation significantly altered their daily habits. Conclusions: Patients with AMI experience post-traumatic stress which starts in the first hours after the event and may last for up to two years, which significantly affect their quality of life.

  17. The Materiality of Virtual War: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Disabling Effects of Imperialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Laura Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A slew of recent news coverage has reported favorably on the use of virtual reality video games as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Drawing on critical disability studies work, this paper argues that such depictions (re)produce a depoliticized framework for understanding…

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Group Leadership Instruction for Rehabilitation Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nykeisha; Wadsworth, John; Cory, James

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety syndrome that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event in which harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is often treated with group therapy. Rehabilitation counselors need to be aware of the group treatments for PTSD because counselors may be leaders of group therapy, may work with consumers…

  19. Treatment of sleep disturbances in refugees suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Hinuga; Vindbjerg, Erik; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are often referred to as the hallmark of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although PTSD is prevalent in refugees, studies on sleep disturbances in trauma-affected refugees are scarce. This article presents the results of two studies: a systematic review of the literature...

  20. Contrasting Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reply to Monroe and Mineka (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Bohni, Malene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the 4 main points in S. M. Monroe and S. Mineka's comment. First, the authors show that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis includes an etiology and that it is based on a theoretical model with a…

  1. A Memory-Based Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evaluating Basic Assumptions Underlying the PTSD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohni, Malene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association,…

  2. Specificity and generalization of attentional bias in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurkens, P.F.T.; Rinck, M.; Minnen, A. van

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated specificity of attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli using an Emotional Stroop Task. Participants were 14 women suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had experienced a sexual trauma and 24 healthy non-traumatized women. They were asked to name

  3. Assessing the specificity of posttraumatic stress disorder's dysphoric items within the dysphoria model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Shevlin, M.

    2013-01-01

    The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) currently used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), has received limited support. A four-factor dysphoria model is widely supported. However, the dysphoria factor of this model has been ...

  4. Current Perspective on MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thal, Sascha B.; Lommen, Miriam J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper discusses the current literature with regard to substance-assisted psychotherapy with Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the development from MDMA’s early application in

  5. Validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features': a review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, M. H.; Kortmann, F. A. M.; van den Brink, W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence from empirical studies regarding the validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features' (PTSD-SP) as a separate diagnostic entity. METHOD: The authors performed a review tracing publications between 1980 and January 2008. RESULTS:

  6. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  7. The School Counselor: An Analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas E.; And Others

    The prescriptive approach to treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires an accurate diagnosis. Many of the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III (DSM-III) and DSM-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) have proven quite helpful in the diagnosis of PTSD. The DSM-III-R includes specification of generic…

  8. Long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients after secondary peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Kimberly R.; Mahler, Cecilia W.; Unlu, Cagdas; Lamme, Bas; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Sprangers, Mirjam A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; de Borgie, Corianne A.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology in patients following secondary peritonitis and to determine whether the prevalence of PTSD-related symptoms differed between patients admitted to the intensive care

  9. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Victims of Violence Applying for State Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the predictive value of victims' emotions experienced shortly after violence exposure to identify those vulnerable for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many victims remain unidentified during the initial recovery phase, yet may still be highly in need of psychological help after substantial…

  11. Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Implications for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer J.; Willett, Marjorie; Ruminski, Christine; Spring, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of healthy relationships on child development is widely accepted. A healthy relationship between mother and child is at risk when a mother experiences symptoms of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mothers of children with special needs are at high risk for this disorder and early intervention (EI)…

  12. Reducing the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Following Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohay, Heather; Forbes, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer long-term psychological disturbance following exposure to a natural disaster. Evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship exists, so that children and adolescents who experience the most intense or extensive exposure to the risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are likely to develop…

  13. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  14. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of

  15. The Monsters in My Head: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Child Survivor of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Stacie E.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is 1 of several possible outcomes of child sexual victimization. There is a growing body of literature regarding the prevalence of PTSD among children who have been sexually victimized. Using specific case examples, this article looks at the nature and scope of the problem, diagnostic criteria according to the…

  16. Internet-Based Early Intervention to Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Injury Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  17. The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Former Foster Youth Entering Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe to what degree foster care students perceive that the elements of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect their academic performance in postsecondary education. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify the perceived impacts of internal and external influences on…

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  19. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  20. Psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in a young rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, the case narrative shows how the treatment of PTSD is of necessity a slow, complex process which takes into account the individual's unique history, idiosyncratic vulnerabilities and socio-cultural context. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, psychodynamic psychotherapy, rape, South Africa Journal of ...

  1. Response to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of pretreatment verbal memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies have consistently demonstrated impaired verbal memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-focused treatment for PTSD is thought to rely on memory, but it is largely unknown whether treatment outcome is influenced by memory performance. The aim of the study,

  2. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder: An evaluation of two self-report scales among crime victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; van den Brink, Wim; Winkel, Frans Willem; ter Smitten, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The validity of the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptom Scale, Self-Report version (PSS-SR) was examined among crime victims. Both instruments performed well as screeners for PTSD. For the IES, sensitivity ranged between .93 and 1.00; for the PSS-SR,

  3. Characteristics of polytrauma patients with posttraumatic stress disorder in a level 1 trauma center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Kreis; N.J.Y. Castano; W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); L.C.A. Hoogenboom; S.A.G. Meylaerts (Sven); S. Rhemrev (Steven)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: The aims of this study were to determine if the severity of injury is related to the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in polytrauma patients and to review the personality traits of patients with PTSD. Methods: During 2006 and 2007, 252 polytrauma patients were

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  5. Exposure to Violence and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Margaret Wright; Stabb, Sally D.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates variables associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents in a metropolitan area. Comparisons were made with regard to gender, ethnicity, family constellation, self-reported exposure to violence, self-reported exposure to trauma, and incidence of violent crime in the vicinity of school attendance. Revealed minority males…

  6. Online Structured Writing Therapy for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Complicated Grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Lindefors, N.; Andersson, G.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief are related disorders for which well-described and effective cognitive-behavioural therapeutic procedures exist that are firmly rooted in theoretical work. As a result, several research groups have been able to successfully translate these

  7. Late-Onset Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following a Disaster: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van der Velden, Peter G.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2012-01-01

    In disaster survivors, the occurrence of mental health problems beyond the immediate aftermath of the disaster has repeatedly been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the course of symptoms and mental health services (MHS) utilization in late-onset posttraumatic stress disorder

  8. Disasters and Youth: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Jami M.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Meta-analyze the literature on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in youths post-disaster. Method: Meta-analytic synthesis of the literature (k = 96 studies; N[subscript total] = 74,154) summarizing the magnitude of associations between disasters and youth PTS, and key factors associated with variations in the magnitude of these…

  9. Late-onset posttraumatic stress disorder following a disaster : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G.; van der Velden, P.G.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Kleber, R.J.

    In disaster survivors, the occurrence of mental health problems beyond the immediate aftermath of the disaster has repeatedly been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the course of symptoms and mental health services (MHS) utilization in late-onset posttraumatic stress disorder

  10. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3½ years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from a substantial number of symptoms 3½ years after the…

  11. Utility of the impact of event scale in screening for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Anke B.; Bramsen, Inge; Hovens, Johannes E.; van der Ploeg, Henk M.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the optimal cut-off point for the Impact of Event Scale and compares its screening properties with those of the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among war-related trauma victims. 74 patients with war-related trauma were administered the Impact of Event

  12. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  13. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Quality of Life, and the Subjective Experience in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgios, Paslakis; Mingo, Beckmann; Susanne, Beckebaum; Christian, Klein; Jan, Gräf; Yesim, Erim

    2017-01-01

    A high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among transplant recipients has been associated with a low adherence to treatment and poor survival. It is crucial to detect and prevent the development of posttraumatic stress in transplant settings. We examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms in 3 liver transplant recipients by means of the Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), a self-report questionnaire. The Short Form-36 was used to assess the perceived health-related quality of life. Patients were asked to indicate the most traumatic events within the context of the liver transplantation procedure. Five patients (4.9%) fulfilled the criteria for PTSD related to liver disease or transplantation (ETI score greater than 27). In these patients, diagnosis was confirmed by a structured clinical interview. Fourteen (13.6%) patients had a partial PTSD with the ETI score less than 27 and greater than 16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were significantly associated with perceived poor physical and mental health-related quality of life. Patients reported that the physicians' disclosure of diagnosis was experienced as traumatic, followed by treatment in an intensive care unit and the liver transplantation itself. The ETI resulted in prevalence rates for PTSD comparable to previous studies in liver transplantation settings. Medical professionals requested additional training in how to deliver severe diagnoses to patients.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Frequency and Intensity Ratings Are Associated with Factor Structure Differences in Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Biehn, Tracey L.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Magruder, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined possible differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of whether frequency or intensity symptom response formats were used to assess PTSD. Participants included 669 veterans recruited from an epidemiological study of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers' primary care clinics in the…

  16. Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Injury Severity on Recovery in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenardy, Justin; Le Brocque, Robyne; Hendrikz, Joan; Iselin, Greg; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The adverse impact on recovery of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated in returned veterans. The study assessed this effect in children's health outcomes following TBI and extended previous work by including a full range of TBI severity, and improved assessment of PTSD within a…

  17. The Lifetime Prevalence of Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Giel-Jan; Olff, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on the life time prevalence of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population of the Netherlands. A national representative sample of 1087 adults aged 18 to 80 years was selected using random digit dialing and then surveyed by telephone

  18. Relationship between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Urban Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rohini; Abramovitz, Robert; Greenberg, Rick; Schoor, Alan; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Schmeidler, James; Levine, Paul; Nomura, Yoko; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 157 help-seeking children (aged 8-17). Structured clinical interviews are carried out, and linear and logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and type of trauma exposure controlling for age, gender,…

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Maltreated Youth: A Review of Contemporary Research and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Wechsler, Adrianna; Kaur, Harpreet; Lemos-Miller, Amie

    2010-01-01

    Youths who have been maltreated often experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this special population has received increased attention from researchers. Pathways toward maladaptive effects of maltreatment and PTSD are remarkably similar and reflect specific biological diatheses and psychological vulnerabilities that…

  20. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it…

  1. Intrusive traumatic recollections and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Voerman, B. E.; Gersons, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have found evidence of the presence and role of intrusive traumatic memories in depressed patients. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings, examining the full range of early and later traumatic events, as well as comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, in male and

  2. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  3. Alcohol use, cigarette consumption and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Velde, W; Aarts, PGH; Falger, PRJ; Hovens, JE; van Duijn, H; de Groen, JHM; van Duijn, MAJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 147 male former members of the civilian resistance against the Nazi occupation of Holland during World War II. Methods: The subjects were interviewed at home. Measures

  4. Treatment Outcome-Related White Matter Differences in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; Van Rooij, Sanne J H; Tromp, Do P M; Fox, Andrew S.; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Kahn, René S.; Kalin, Ned H.; Geuze, Elbert

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder that has been associated with brain abnormalities, including white matter alterations. However, little is known about the effect of treatment on these brain alterations. To investigate the course of white matter alterations in PTSD, we

  5. Treatment Outcome-Related White Matter Differences in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Tromp, Do P M; Fox, Andrew S; Rademaker, Arthur R; Kahn, René S; Kalin, Ned H; Geuze, Elbert

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder that has been associated with brain abnormalities, including white matter alterations. However, little is known about the effect of treatment on these brain alterations. To investigate the course of white matter alterations in PTSD, we

  6. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  7. Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzy, Ronit; Amir, Marianne; Kotler, Moshe

    The increasing prevalence of domestic violence in Israel has engendered a critical need to identify and treat battered women. This paper looks at Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and considers its predictors among battered women. The research sample was comprised of a sample of 91 battered women between the ages of 20 and 60 who applied to the…

  8. Hippocampal activation of microglia may underlie the shared neurobiology of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Zhang, Zuoxia; Lei, Yishan; Liu, Yue; Lu, Cui'e; Rong, Hui; Sun, Yu'e; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity. We showed that rats exposed to single prolonged stress, an established posttraumatic stress disorder model, exhibited persistent mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior, which were accompanied by increased activation of microglia and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal activation of microglia was significantly correlated with mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Our data also showed that both intraperitoneal and intra-hippocampal injection of minocycline suppressed single prolonged stress-induced microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines accumulation in the hippocampus, and attenuated both single prolonged stress-induced mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Taken together, the present study suggests that stress-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus may serve as a critical mechanistic link in the comorbid relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. The novel concept introduces the possibility of cotreating chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Work disability in soldiers with posttraumatic stress disorder, posttraumatic embitterment disorder, and not-event-related common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Rau, Heinrich; Willmund, Gerd Dieter; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD). In this observational study, 101 soldiers (85% men, 31 years, 50% experienced expedition abroad) with different mental disorders were investigated concerning common mental disorders (MINI) and accompanying work capacity impairment (Mini-ICF-APP). Interviews were conducted by a state-licensed psychotherapist with expertise in sociomedical description of (work) capacity impairment. Patients with PTSD, PTED, and other CMD were compared concerning their degrees and pattern of work capacity impairment. PTSD patients (n = 23) were more strongly impaired in mobility as compared to patients with other CMD (n = 64) or PTED. Patients with PTED (n = 14) were more impaired in interactional capacities (contacts with others, group integration) as compared to patients with other CMD or PTSD. PTSD patients need support to improve mobility in (work-relevant) traffic situations. Apart from this, they are not specifically more or less impaired than patients with other CMD. PTED patients should get attention concerning their interactional problems as these may disturb esprit de corps, which is an essential requirement for service in the armed forces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coentre Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, suicidal ideation, recurring nightmares, hyper-arousal, and initial and middle insomnia. She was prescribed trifluoperazine (5 mg/day and began cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. Her psychotic symptoms gradually resolved over a period of three weeks; however, she continues to experience ongoing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In our case report, we review both the diagnostic and treatment issues regarding post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic symptoms. Conclusions There are many factors responsible for the symptoms that occur in response to a traumatic event, including cognitive, affective and environmental factors. These factors may predispose both to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or psychotic disorders. The independent diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic features remains an open issue. A psychological formulation is essential regarding the appropriate treatment in a clinical setting.

  11. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Mazanec, Polly M; Burant, Christopher J; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J

    2015-06-01

    To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. None. Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p=0.01) and emotion-focused (pcoping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p=0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2=0.50, pcoping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2=0.30, p=0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Darshit; De Ieso, Paolo; Garvey, Gail; Thachil, Thanuja; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Penniment, Michael; Jayaraj, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is potentially a traumatic stressor which may be associated with negative outcomes, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or positive changes, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study aims to identify the core issues of BC related PTSD, PTG and psychological distress by interrogating the literature in BC survivors. We have also highlighted issues related to the assessment, diagnosis and clinical management of PTSD and PTG. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 1985 to 2014 pertaining to PTSD, psychological distress and PTG in BC survivors with particular attention paid to incidence rates and causative factors. Multiple studies intimated that women with BC have evidence of PTSD at the initial stages of diagnosis, whereas PTG develops once patients undergo treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of PTSD/PTG is paramount from literature review but the previously mentioned relationship between PTSD and PTG in BC patients could not be verified. It is evident from the literature that a small percentage of BC patients experience PTSD, while the majority experience PTG after BC diagnosis and treatment. Future research should include prospective studies focusing on high-risk patients, causative factors and the development of psychological interventions.

  13. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Tatari; Sayyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Elahe Khoshbakht

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD). The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between agg...

  14. Predictors of parent post-traumatic stress symptoms after child hospitalization on general pediatric wards: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Wray, Jo; Gay, Caryl; Dearmun, Annette K; Lee, Kirsty; Cooper, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of parental post-traumatic stress symptoms following child hospitalization. In this prospective cohort study, a sample of 107 parents completed questionnaires during their child's hospitalization on pediatric (non-intensive care) wards and again three months after discharge. Eligible parents had a child expected to be hospitalized for three or more nights. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess parent distress during the child's hospitalization, parent coping strategies and resources, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress after the hospitalization. Correlations and multiple regressions were used to determine whether parent distress during hospitalization and coping strategies and resources predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms three months after the child's discharge, while controlling for relevant covariates. Three months after the child's hospital discharge, 32.7% of parents (n=35) reported some degree of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and 21.5% (n=23) had elevated (≥34) scores consistent with a probable diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the multivariable model, parent anxiety and uncertainty during hospitalization and use of negative coping strategies, such as denial, venting and self-blame, were associated with higher post-traumatic stress symptoms scores at three months post-discharge, even after controlling for the child's health status. Parental anxiety and depression during hospitalization moderated the relationship between negative coping strategies and post-traumatic stress symptoms. More than one quarter of parents of children hospitalized on pediatric (non-intensive care) wards experienced significant post-traumatic stress symptoms after their child's discharge. Parents' hospital-related anxiety, uncertainty and use of negative coping strategies are potentially modifiable factors that most strongly influenced post-traumatic stress symptoms. Further research is urgently needed

  15. Cortical surface area reduction in identification of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Sun, Yawen; Su, Shanshan; Wang, Yao; Qiu, Yongming; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Zeping; Wang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Victims of motor vehicle accidents often develop post-traumatic stress disorder, which causes significant social function loss. For the difficulty in treating post-traumatic stress disorder, identification of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder is essential for providing possible intervention. This paper aims to examine the cortical structural traits related to susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder. To address this issue, we performed structural magnetic resonance imaging study in motor vehicle accident victims within 48 hours from the accidents. A total of 70 victims, available for both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data, enrolled in our study. Upon completion of 6-month follow-up, 29 of them developed post-traumatic stress disorder, while 41 of them didn't. At baseline, voxelwise comparisons of cortical thickness, cortical area and cortical volume were conducted between post-traumatic stress disorder group and trauma control group. As expected, several reduced cortical volume within frontal-temporal loop were observed in post-traumatic stress disorder. For cortical thickness, no between-group differences were observed. There were three clusters in left hemisphere and one cluster in right hemisphere showing decreased cortical area in post-traumatic stress disorder patients, compared with trauma controls. Peak voxels of the three clusters in left hemisphere were separately located in superior parietal cortex, insula and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The finding of reduced surface area of left insula and left rostral anterior cingulate cortex suggests that shrinked surface area in motor vehicle accident victims could act as potential biomarker of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder.

  16. An Extension of the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology: Cardiovascular Recovery in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severity and Cognitive Appraisals of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jeffrey L

    2018-02-01

    Beyond the construct of cardiovascular reactivity, the measurement of cardiovascular recovery from stress represents an important index of exaggerated physiological arousal and disease risk. Cardiovascular recovery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not received adequate attention. The present study examined whether cardiovascular recovery following an oral speaking stressor was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, and whether cognitive stress appraisals of threat and challenge were significantly associated with PTSD severity and recovery. The sample consisted of 50 trauma-exposed civilian women ranging from 19 to 49 years of age (M = 30.9, SD = 7.8). The PTSD severity indices were quantified based on structured interview. Cardiovascular recovery was assessed at two posttask time points as percentage return to baseline; the recovery measures consisted of impedance cardiography-derived cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), heart rate and blood pressure. Total PTSD severity was associated with less CO recovery, r = -.39, p = .006; this effect was similar across PTSD symptom categories, with significant correlations ranging from r = -.30 to r = -.44. However, only PTSD severity in the avoidance cluster was associated with less TPR recovery, r = -.29, p = .047. Total PTSD severity was associated with greater threat appraisal, r = .30, p = .035, and greater threat appraisal was associated with less CO recovery, r = -.33, p = .019. Results partially support the theory that greater PTSD severity and cognitive appraisals of threat contribute to less cardiovascular recovery when confronted with a stress-inducing situation. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Ethnic and mainstream social connectedness, perceived racial discrimination, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Wang, Kenneth T; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Du, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Carter (2007) proposed the notion of race-based traumatic stress and argued that experiences of racial discrimination can be viewed as a type of trauma. In a sample of 383 Chinese international students at 2 predominantly White midwestern universities, the present results supported this notion and found that perceived racial discrimination predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above perceived general stress. Furthermore, Berry (1997) proposed an acculturation framework and recommended that researchers advance the literature by examining the moderation effects on the association between racial discrimination and outcomes. The present results supported the moderation effect for Ethnic SC (i.e., social connectedness in the ethnic community), but not for Mainstream SC (i.e., social connectedness in mainstream society). A simple effects analysis indicated that a high Ethnic SC weakened the strength of the association between perceived racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms more than a low Ethnic SC. Moreover, although Mainstream SC failed to be a moderator, Mainstream SC was significantly associated with less perceived general stress, less perceived racial discrimination, and less posttraumatic stress symptoms.

  18. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index. php /mra/article/view/1665/1635

  19. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/1665/1635

  20. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo

  1. Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Hadler, James L; DiGrande, Laura; Ekenga, Christine C; Farfel, Mark R; Friedman, Stephen; Perlman, Sharon E; Stellman, Steven D; Walker, Deborah J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2009-08-05

    The World Trade Center Health Registry provides a unique opportunity to examine long-term health effects of a large-scale disaster. To examine risk factors for new asthma diagnoses and event-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among exposed adults 5 to 6 years following exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack. Longitudinal cohort study with wave 1 (W1) enrollment of 71,437 adults in 2003-2004, including rescue/recovery worker, lower Manhattan resident, lower Manhattan office worker, and passersby eligibility groups; 46,322 adults (68%) completed the wave 2 (W2) survey in 2006-2007. Self-reported diagnosed asthma following September 11; event-related current PTS symptoms indicative of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed using the PTSD Checklist (cutoff score > or = 44). Of W2 participants with no stated asthma history, 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9%-10.5%) reported new asthma diagnoses postevent. Intense dust cloud exposure on September 11 was a major contributor to new asthma diagnoses for all eligibility groups: for example, 19.1% vs 9.6% in those without exposure among rescue/recovery workers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]). Asthma risk was highest among rescue/recovery workers on the WTC pile on September 11 (20.5% [95% CI, 19.0%-22.0%]). Persistent risks included working longer at the WTC site, not evacuating homes, and experiencing a heavy layer of dust in home or office. Of participants with no PTSD history, 23.8% (95% CI, 23.4%-24.2%) reported PTS symptoms at either W1 (14.3%) or W2 (19.1%). Nearly 10% (9.6% [95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%]) had PTS symptoms at both surveys, 4.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-4.9%) had PTS symptoms at W1 only, and 9.5% (95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%) had PTS symptoms at W2 only. At W2, passersby had the highest rate of PTS symptoms (23.2% [95% CI, 21.4%-25.0%]). Event-related loss of spouse or job was associated with PTS symptoms at W2. Acute and prolonged exposures were both

  2. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  3. Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C

    2014-07-08

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants

  4. [Does mobbing cause posttraumatic stress disorder? Impact of coping and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Barbara; Sulyok, Christoph; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has documented that a variety of anxiety, depressive, and psychosomatic symptoms are present in a substantial portion of mobbing victims. This study aimed to explore the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among mobbing victims, and to investigate how PTSD was linked to pertinent psychometric scales. We recruited 20 mobbing victims and conducted the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID) to assess PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. The trauma criterion was homogeneously defined as mobbing. 55% of our entire sample had a current PTSD, and 70% suffered from severe posttraumatic stress symptoms according to the Impact of Event Scale. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), we found that mobbing victims with a current PTSD tended to demonstrate higher levels of stress and depressive symptoms, and less quality of life (SF 36 Short-Form Health Survey), especially in terms of bodily pain, compared with those without a PTSD diagnosis. No significant differences in personality factors (Freiburg Personality Inventory) between mobbing-victims with and without PTSD were evident by multivariate analysis. Univariate statistics, however, revealed that mobbing-related PTSD showed a trend towards higher scores in social orientation and somatic complaints. There was no general evidence that mobbing victims with a PTSD used more often negative and positive coping strategies (SVF - Stress Coping Questionnaire). However, they showed a tendency to employ control strategies, avoidance, social withdrawal, and cognitive preoccupation. Posttraumatic stress disorder subsequent to mobbing can occur frequently. PTSD therefore should be specifically considered in routine care.

  5. Pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Autumn Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has a lifetime prevalence of almost 9% in the United States. The diagnosis is associated with increased rates of comorbid substance abuse and increased rates of depression. Providers are taught how to diagnose and treat PTSD, but little discussion is devoted to how to prevent the disorder. Behavioral research in animal studies has provided some evidence for the use of medications in decreasing the fear response and the reconsolidation of memories. A heightened fear response and the re-experience of traumatic memory are key components for diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the evidence for pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment in acute stress/trauma in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The body of the review includes discussions on medications, medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery, and special considerations for military, first responders, and women. This article concludes with implications for practice and recommendations for future research. The key words used for the literature search were "prophylactic treatment of PTSD," "pharmacotherapy and trauma," "pharmacological prevention of PTSD," "beta blockers and the prevention of PTSD," "acute stress and prevention of PTSD," "propranolol and PTSD," "secondary prevention of PTSD," and "medications used to prevent PTSD." Findings were categorized by medications and medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery. The literature suggests that hydrocortisone, propranolol, and morphine may decrease symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  7. Literature review of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Matthew; Collier, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    To determine which factors relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in adult patients who are admitted to critical care units. Patient survival rates from critical care areas are improving each year and this has led to interest in the long-term outcomes for patients who have been discharged from such environments. Patients typically require invasive and extensive treatment, which places a stress on physical and mental health. Prevalence estimates of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care discharge population vary from 5-63%, yet it remains unclear what the predisposing factors are. A systematised review. Subject heading and keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect, with 23 articles identified that examined the relationship between critical care and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Three main themes were identified; Critical Care Factors, Patient Factors and Experience Factors. Eight key and three potential causative factors were found: younger age, female, previous psychiatric history, length of ICU stay, benzodiazepine sedation, use of stress hormones, delusional memory and traumatic memory, delirium, GCS score of ≤9 on admission & use of mechanical restraint. Post-traumatic stress reactions can be strongly related to the development and presence of traumatic and delusional memories. Younger patients may exclude themselves from research to avoid their traumatic thoughts. The role of prior psychiatric illness is unknown. Distinction between 'factual' and 'false' or delusional memory as occurs in the literature maybe unhelpful in understanding trauma reactions. There are around 38,000 occupied critical care beds each year in England. The scale of the issue is therefore substantial. Risk factors can be isolated from available evidence and provide a rudimentary risk assessment tool to inform practice development in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of personality traits in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Brajković, Lovorka; Ivezić, Ena; Topić, Radmila; Jakovljević, Miro

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that although exposure to potentially traumatic events is common, development of PTSD is relatively rare, which is one of the reasons PTSD still remains a controversial psychiatric entity. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research on the role of personality traits in the vulnerability, resilience, posttraumatic growth and expressions associated with PTSD. Personality based approach represents a dimensional aspect of the transdisciplinary integrative model of PTSD. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete from 1980 (the year PTSD was first included in the DSM) and 2012 (the year the literature search was performed). Manual examination of secondary sources such as the reference sections of selected articles and book chapters were also conducted. Most of the reviewed studies dealing with personality traits as vulnerability and protective factors for PTSD examined the relationship between basic personality dimensions and severity of symptoms of PTSD. These studies have applied three types of methodological designs: cross-sectional, post-trauma and pre-trauma longitudinal studies, with latter being the least common option. Finding that appears relatively consistent is that PTSD is positively related to negative emotionality, neuroticism, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking and self-transcendence, as well as to trait hostility/anger and trait anxiety. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms are negatively associated with extraversion, conscientiousness, self-directedness, the combination of high positive and low negative emotionality, as well as with hardiness and optimism, while posttraumatic growth shows inverse relation to most of these traits. Furthermore, a number of studies have confirmed the existence of three distinct personality-based subtypes of PTSD: internalizing, externalizing and low pathology PTSD. These findings may help in further uncovering etiological mechanisms and

  9. Investigating the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of traumatized detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K; Chaplo, Shannon D

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we tested the validity of a dissociative subtype in a sample of 225 detained adolescents (142 boys, 83 girls) likely meeting full or partial criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing theories of dissociation pose controversy regarding dissociation as a taxon versus a continuum, and results of the current study contribute to this debate by providing evidence of distinct group differences between those high and low in dissociation. Mixture modeling revealed 2 groups of youth with differing levels of depersonalization/derealization dissociative symptoms. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding trauma exposure and several posttraumatic reactions: posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotion dysregulation, and emotional numbing. Compared with youth classified in the low-dissociation group, youth who exhibited high levels of dissociation demonstrated higher levels of total PTSS, posttraumatic symptom clusters of emotional numbing, intrusion, and associated features, as well as reporting more difficulties with emotion dysregulation. To test theory regarding the factors that increase the likelihood of persistent dissociation, bootstrapped regression analyses were performed to examine the possibility of an indirect effect of peritraumatic dissociation. Results consistent with statistical mediation suggested that the presence of peritraumatic dissociation at the time of trauma may contribute to the continuation of dissociative symptoms as a more generalized pattern. The results of the current study have implications for clinical treatment with traumatized youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mood States of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Zargar, Fatemeh; Akbari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Mood and negative emotional states and their regulation in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder have family, social and employment problems. Practices that could be helpful in this area are highly important. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in improving mood state of combat veterans. In this randomized clinical trial study, participants were selected from the patients referring to the counseling center of the veterans. The participants had post-traumatic stress disorder according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text review (DSM-IV-TR). Sixty- two patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: (31 for MBSR and 31 for the control group). Analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the groups at baseline (P mindfulness-based stress reduction is a useful method to regulate the mood state in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have difficulties in mood and emotions in Kashan.

  11. Exposure to workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology: the role of protective psychological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Nosko, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship between nurses' exposure to workplace bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology and the protective role of psychological capital (PsyCap). Workplace bullying has serious organisational and health effects in nursing. Few studies have examined the relation of workplace bullying to serious mental health outcomes, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Even fewer have examined the effect of intrapersonal strengths on the health impact of workplace bullying. A survey of 1205 hospital nurses was conducted to test the hypothesized model. Nurses completed standardized measures of bullying, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and PsyCap. A moderated regression analysis revealed that more frequent exposure to workplace bullying was significantly related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology regardless of the PsyCap level. That is, PsyCap did not moderate the bullying/PTSD relationship in either group. Bullying exposure and PsyCap were significant independent predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in both groups. Efficacy, a subdimension of PsyCap, moderated the bullying/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder relationship only among experienced nurses. Workplace bullying appears to be predictive of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology, a serious mental health outcome. Workplace bullying is a serious threat to nurses' health and calls for programmes that eliminate bullying and encourage greater levels of positive resources among nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An overview of posttraumatic stress disorder genetic studies by analyzing and integrating genetic data into genetic database PTSDgene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kunlin; Qu, Susu; Chang, Suhua; Li, Gen; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Kechi; Olff, Miranda; Wang, Li; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome with complex etiology. Studies aiming to explore genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers of PTSD have been increasing. However, the results are limited and highly heterogeneous. To understand the genetic study

  13. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms:results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Konuk, E.; Cetinkaya, M.; Senay, I.; Sijbrandij, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Aker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been published on treating

  14. Prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress among relatives of missing persons and homicidally bereaved individuals : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke I M; van Denderen, Mariëtte Y; de Keijser, Jos; Wessel, Ineke; Boelen, Paul A

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic loss (e.g., homicide) is associated with elevated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies comparing relatives of missing persons with homicidally bereaved individuals showed inconsistent results about the difference in PGD- and

  15. The Patient Observer : Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress following Childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramrood, Claire A. I.; van der Velde, Janneke; Doornbos, Bennard; Paarlberg, K. Marieke; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    Background: No standard intervention with proved effectiveness is available for women with posttraumatic stress following childbirth because of insufficient research. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of using eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for

  16. The Association of Family Support After Childbirth With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women With Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Narges; Abedian, Zahra; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2015-10-01

    Stressful situations and life-threatening issues such as preeclampsia can lead to Post-traumatic stress disorders [PTSD]. It seems that within social supports, family support has more effect on mental health. The aim of this study was to determine the association between family supports in the postpartum period with occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following preeclampsia. In this descriptive longitudinal study, 100 women with preeclampsia admitted in government hospitals of Mashhad were selected using convenience sampling. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed by psychiatrist interview and perinatal posttraumatic stress questionnaire (PPQ) in sixth week postpartum and family support was measured by family support scale (FSS) in second and sixth weeks postpartum. Data analyzed by SPSS 16 using Spearman correlation coefficient, paired sample T-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. A reverse significant association was found between family support in weeks 2 and 6 (92.6 ± 22.6, 83.7 ± 21.6, respectively) and PTSD (mean score of 4.8 ± 2.5) (respectively, P = 0.010 and P =0.011). The most important variables affecting PTSD with presence of family support in weeks 2 and 6 were postpartum depression in week 6 as well as trait anxiety at the time of admission. The more support in weeks 2 and 6 postpartum, the less PTSD occurs. Therefore, it is suggested to health care providers who face mothers after delivery to evaluate the support received by mothers and help those with inadequate or inappropriate support.

  17. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  18. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016

  19. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-07-30

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars.This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  20. Lower-Limb Amputation and Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs Outpatient Cost Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    SD = standard deviation, TBI = traumatic brain injury. 831 BHATNAGAR et al. Lower-limb amputation , PTSD, and VA costsFigure 1. Among Veterans with...PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury. 835 BHATNAGAR et al. Lower-limb amputation , PTSD, and VA costsModel Covariates...JRRD Volume 52, Number 7, 2015Pages 827–838Lower-limb amputation and effect of posttraumatic stress disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs