Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.
Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap
Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…
Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.
Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse annuities. 234.32... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Annuities Due but Unpaid at Death § 234.32 Spouse or divorced spouse annuities. A spouse annuity or divorced spouse annuity which is unpaid at the death of the spouse or divorced spouse...
Boylstein, Craig; Hayes, Jeanne
This study examines how people caring for a spouse with Alzheimer's disease reconstruct the meaning of closeness within their marriage. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 men and 15 women. The authors discovered that significant changes in the social identity of the impaired spouse may have important implications for how caregivers view…
McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…
Manne, Sharon L; Siegel, Scott; Heckman, Carolyn J; Kashy, Deborah A
The purpose was to evaluate whether patient and spouse cancer-specific distress mediated the association between cancer severity and occupational functioning among employed spouses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, lower spouse-reported marital quality, and lower spouse self-rated health were associated with poorer spouse occupational functioning. One hundred forty-three currently employed spouses of women diagnosed with breast cancer were administered measures of socioeconomic status, occupational functioning (work absenteeism, low productivity, and poor performance), cancer-specific distress, marital quality, and self-rated health. Patients completed measures of cancer-related distress and functional impairment and cancer stage were collected from medical charts. In the model evaluating work absenteeism, greater patient functional impairment was associated with more absenteeism, but there was no evidence of a mediating effect for either partners' cancer-specific distress. Higher cancer stage and more functional impairment were associated with higher spouse cancer-specific distress, which in turn predicted poorer work productivity. Patient cancer-specific distress did not mediate the association between patient functional impairment or cancer stage and spouse work productivity. Finally, higher cancer stage was associated with more spouse cancer-specific distress, which in turn predicted poorer work performance. There were no direct or indirect effects of the patient's functional impairment on spouse work performance. Distressed spouses are more likely to have poorer work productivity after their partners' breast cancer diagnosis. These spouses may need assistance in managing their distress and the patient's functional impairment to ensure that their work productivity is not adversely affected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette
Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The authors investigated parents' quality of life (QOL) and stress-response symptoms and parent-child communication during the first year after diagnosis and examined possible relationships between communication and parents' functioning. Recently-diagnosed cancer patients (N=70) and spouses (N=55) participated within 4 months of diagnosis (T1) and 6 months (T2) and 12 months later (T3). Parents reported on communication with the children (PACS) and on their own physical and psychosocial functioning (RAND-36) and stress-response symptoms (IES). Parent-child communication remained stable throughout the first year after diagnosis and was similar to communication in families 1 year to 5 years after diagnosis. Patients' functioning improved and cancer-related distress decreased significantly. Spouses' cancer-related distress decreased; their functioning fluctuated through the year. In concurrent analyses, patients' open communication with the children related only to T1 intrusion. Spouses' open communication related to T3 psychosocial functioning; problem communication related to T1 and T2 psychosocial functioning and T2 avoidance. In prospective analyses, no significant relationships were found between parent-child communication and change in parents' functioning. Communication between parents and children remained stable over time; patients' and spouses' functioning improved. Parent-child communication seems to have a limited affect on parents' functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
For a report on the stress experiences of parents with hearing-impaired children in Germany, 317 parents completed a survey on how their families communicate and socialize, among other issues. The report focuses on how contacts with other parents and with hearing-impaired adults affect stress experiences, in the context of the child's hearing status and the means of communication. Parents who frequently meet with other parents show evidence of a warm, accepting, trusting relationship with their child. Parents who have many contacts with hearing-impaired adults show evidence of a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. The findings confirm the implication found in most reports describing empirical studies. Social support is to be regarded as a cornerstone of psychosocial intervention and has to play as great a role as possible in institutional programs.
Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen
Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…
Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana
Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL
Elfhag, Kristina; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn
The aim of the present study is to map associations of self-esteem in families with 12-year-old children and in separated spouses. The authors assessed self-esteem using the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adults (B. Messer & S. Harter, 1986) and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1988; L. Wichstrom, 1995) in (a) 1,236 pairs of spouses and their 12-year-old children and (b) 159 pairs of ex-spouses. The authors found links for all aspects of self-esteem for married and cohabiting spouses in contrast with ex-spouses who lacked such associations. Ex-spouses had a lower global self-worth than did married and cohabiting spouses. The authors also found parent-child associations for self-esteem. Girls resembled their mothers' global self-worth more than their fathers' and more than the boys. Family members manifest similar levels of self-esteem. The spouses' similarity can be due to assortative mating, a convergence over time, or both. For children, environmental influence in the family context can contribute to the formation of self-esteem. The stronger mother-girl link suggests that maternal identification of self-esteem is an environmental factor for girls in particular.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is the source of many problems in human-kind lives and threatens people's life constantly. Having hearing-impaired child, not only causes stress in parents, but also affects their marital satisfaction. The purpose of this study was comparing the stress and marital satisfaction status between the normal and hearing-impaired children's parents.Methods: This was a causal-comparative study. Eighty parents of normal children and 80 parents of hearing-impaired children were chosen from rehabilitation centers and kindergartens in city of Tabriz, Iran by available and clustering sampling method. All parents were asked to complete the Friedrich's source of stress and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires.Results: Parents of hearing-impaired children endure more stress than the normal hearing ones (p<0.001. The marital satisfaction of hearing-impaired children's parents was lower than the parents of normal hearing children, too (p<0.001.Conclusion: Having a hearing-impaired child causes stress and threatens the levels of marital satisfaction. This requires much more attention and a distinct planning for parents of handicap children to reduce their stress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.
Almogbel, Yasser S; Goyal, Rohit; Sansgiry, Sujit S
The objective of this study was to examine the association between parenting stress and functional impairment among children with Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD). A sample of 150 parents of children diagnosed with NDD were recruited from schools that offer special education services. Parents completed a self-administered survey containing the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) scale and the Columbia Impairment Scale. The multiple logistic regression conducted to compare those with clinically significant PSI-SF scores indicated that the risk of parents with clinically significant scores of parenting stress increased 5.5 times with functionally impaired children with NDD. Further the risk of stress increased 4.6 times when these parents reported having their own disorder/disease. The risk of stress was reduced by 57% for those who had higher than a college level education compared to those with a college level education or below. These findings might help health care providers to initiate early intervention strategies such as peer support and education that can prevent parenting stress and reduce the risk of potential incidence of depression.
van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R
Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang
Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.
Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.
Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y
This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners
... surviving spouse. (a) Spouse. “Spouse” means a person of the opposite sex whose marriage to the veteran... spouse” means a person of the opposite sex whose marriage to the veteran meets the requirements of § 3.1... the veteran continuously from the date of marriage to the date of the veteran's death except where...
Lester, Patricia; Aralis, Hilary; Sinclair, Maegan; Kiff, Cara; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Mustillo, Sarah; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid
Since 9/11, military service in the United States has been characterized by wartime deployments and reintegration challenges that contribute to a context of stress for military families. Research indicates the negative impact of wartime deployment on the well being of service members, military spouses, and children. Yet, few studies have considered how parental deployments may affect adjustment in young children and their families. Using deployment records and parent-reported measures from primary caregiving (N = 680) and military (n = 310) parents, we examined the influence of deployment on adjustment in military families with children ages 0-10 years. Greater deployment exposure was related to impaired family functioning and marital instability. Parental depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with impairments in social emotional adjustment in young children, increased anxiety in early childhood, and adjustment problems in school-age children. Conversely, parental sensitivity was associated with improved social and emotional outcomes across childhood. These findings provide guidance to developing preventive approaches for military families with young children.
Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing. Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are
Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J
You marry your spouse "for better, for worse" and "for richer, for poorer," but does your choice of partner make you richer or poorer? It is unknown whether people's dispositional characteristics can seep into their spouses' workplace. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of married individuals (N=4,544), we examined whether Big Five personality traits of participants' spouses related to three measures of participants' occupational success: job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of being promoted. For both male and female participants, partner conscientiousness predicted future job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of promotion, even after accounting for participants' conscientiousness. These associations occurred because more conscientious partners perform more household tasks, exhibit more pragmatic behaviors that their spouses are likely to emulate, and promote a more satisfying home life, enabling their spouses to focus more on work. These results demonstrate that the dispositional characteristics of the person one marries influence important aspects of one's professional life. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare
with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...... through the Long Life Family Study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Prevalence of cognitive impairment based on a diagnostic algorithm validated using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data set. RESULTS The cognitive algorithm classified 546 individuals (38.5%) as having cognitive impairment...... consistent with Alzheimer disease. Long Life Family Study probands had a slightly but not statistically significant reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with spouse controls (121 of 232 for probands vs 45 of 103 for spouse controls; odds ratio = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.4), whereas Long Life Family Study...
Emerson, E; Llewellyn, G; Hatton, C; Hindmarsh, G; Robertson, J; Man, W Y N; Baines, S
Little is known about the health and well-being of the 'hidden majority' of parents with mild intellectual disability (ID), who are less likely to be in contact with disability services. We sought to add to knowledge in this area by examining the health and living conditions of parents with and without intellectual impairment in a large contemporary nationally representative sample of UK parents aged between 16 and 49 years old (n = 14 371). Our results indicated that, as expected, parents with intellectual impairment were at significantly greater risk than other parents of having poorer self-reported general, mental and physical health. They were also at significantly greater risk of experiencing higher rates of household socio-economic disadvantage and environmental adversities and lower rates of neighbourhood social capital and intergenerational support. Adjusting risk estimates to take account of between group differences in household socio-economic disadvantage eliminated statistically significant differences in health status between parents with and without intellectual impairment on all but one indicator (obesity). Further adjusting risk estimates to take account of between group differences in neighbourhood adversity, neighbourhood social capital and intergenerational support had minimal impact on the results. That controlling for between-group differences in exposure to socio-economic disadvantage largely eliminated evidence of poorer health among parents with intellectual impairment is consistent with the view that a significant proportion of the poorer health of people with IDs may be attributable to their poorer living conditions rather than biological factors associated with ID per se. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shauli, Sophie; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Hearing-impaired children's chances of integrating into hearing society largely depend on their parents, who need to learn vast amounts of science knowledge in the field of hearing. This study characterized the role played by science knowledge in the lives of nonscientists faced with science-related decisions by examining the interactions between general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing, and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Based on six semi-structured interviews and 115 questionnaires completed by parents of hearing-impaired children, contextual science knowledge emerged as the only predictor for having slightly better advocacy attitudes and knowledge (5.5% explained variance). Although general science knowledge was the best predictor of contextual knowledge (14% of explained variance), it was not a direct predictor of advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Science knowledge plays some role in the lives of hearing-impaired families, even if they do not list it as a resource for successful rehabilitation.
Atkins, Dale V.
The author describes the concerns and needs of siblings of hearing-impaired children, offering practical suggestions for parents, educators, and mental health and community service workers. Examples of successful programs for siblings that provide emotional support, training and information about their siblings' disability, and effective…
Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie D; Loge, Jon H; Sørebø, Oystein; Dahl, Alv A
Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway (the HUNT-2 study) 71 couples were identified with primary invasive cancer in one parent. Their 81 teenage children took part in the Young-HUNT study. These families were compared to 322 cancer-free families with 328 teenagers. Based on self-report data the relations between three variables of parental impaired health and six psychosocial problems in teenagers were analyzed family wise by structural equation modeling. Significant associations between parental and teenagers' variables were observed in eight of 18 models. A history of parental cancer was a significant moderator which decreased four of eight significant associations. Such a history significantly weakened the associations between parental poor self-rated health and teenagers' anxiety/depression and school problems. A similar association of a history of parental cancer was found between psychological distress in parents and teenagers' feelings of loneliness and poor self-rated health. This study confirmed strong associations between impaired parental health and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. A history of parental cancer weakened several of the significant associations between parental impaired health variables and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor
We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...
Dr. Mahshid Foroughan
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the studies indicates that the parents of the hearing impaired children show many mental health problems after the diagnosis of their children's hearing impairment. Counselling with the parents of the hearing impaired children is one of the most important goals of any early intervention program. This paper describes a study to determine the effectiveness of a group counselling programme for parents of hearing impaired children. Materials and Method: It was a semi-experimental study with a single group pretest-post test design. The participants were all the parents of hearing impaired children attending in an early intervention center. First the parents' mental health were assessed.Then the group counselling program was implemented. Program has involved six weekly 1.5 hour sessions. The format of each session included both lecture presentation and group discussion using cognitive behavioral procedure. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after group therapy by means of General Health Questionnaire(GHQ and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90 questionnaires. Resuts: The first part of the project had shown that over the half of the parents had considerable psychosocial morbidity. Comparisons showed a significant reduction from pretreatment to posttreatment in depression, anxiety and most of other psychological problems. Conclusion: The study supports the effectiveness of group therapy programs in the treatment of parents of hearing impaired children. Concerning the progress of early detection programs for the children's hearing impairment more studies should be done in the field of counseling with their parents.
Ozanne, Anneli O; Graneheim, Ulla H; Strang, Susann
The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of finding meaning in life among spouses of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thirteen interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The spouses were struggling for meaning at the end of a dark tunnel. They felt limited and isolated in their proximity to death. They lived imprisoned lives, felt lonely, considered life to be unfair and incomplete, and mourned the loss of their future. However, they found meaning despite the proximity of death through cherishing their own lives, fellowship, accepting the present, and believing in meaning after the partner's death. Meaning in life strengthened spouses' well-being and ability to find pleasure in a difficult situation. It also strengthened their will to live after the partner's death. Limitations and isolations were strong predictors of what could impair their well-being and the possibility of finding meaning after the partner's death. Spouses need individual support throughout the disease process and after the partner's death, to give them the strength to find meaning in life and prioritize what is important for them. Paying attention to what might prevent them from finding meaning could make it easier to help them in their situation. Providing joint support to the patient and spouse might also help them to see each other's situation, come together, and help each other.
Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob
Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become...
Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob
Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become m...
The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...
August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann
Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.
Watanabe, Akiko; Suwa, Sayuri
To explore the mourning process of people with dementia who have lost their spouse, using family caregivers' and professionals' perspectives and to devise grief care for people with dementia. There have been studies on the loss of one's spouse; however, little is known about widows and widowers with dementia as they may find it hard to tell their perception and feelings to others accurately because of cognitive impairment. Qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews. Seven family caregivers and six professional caregivers from day care centres were interviewed between June and September 2015. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify mourning behaviours of people with dementia. In the mourning process of people with dementia, different behaviours were found according to dementia stages and different circumstances. In FAST2, they could remember their spouse's death. In FAST4 -6, it took 1 year to be able to perceive their spouse's death and more time to store it. In FAST 7, people with dementia did not discern his spouse's death throughout the process. Furthermore, it was revealed that people with dementia followed a different mourning process from conventional ones. In the care of widows and widowers with dementia it is crucial to adjust circumstances to allow people with dementia to guess reality. Further studies are needed to clarify differences between the mourning process of people with dementia and that of intact older people to develop a grief model and educational programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian
OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and
... of the marriage through annulment, divorce, or the death of the petitioning spouse, or if the... concurrently with the parent, the death of the parent, or other reasons may file a separate Petition to Remove... provided with written notification of the termination and the reasons therefor, and a notice to appear...
... the termination of the marriage through annulment, divorce, or the death of the petitioning spouse, or... concurrently with the parent, the death of the parent, or other reasons may file a separate Petition to Remove... residence. The alien shall be provided with written notification of the termination and the reasons therefor...
Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad
This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…
Pino, María J; Castillo, Rosa A; Raya, Antonio; Herruzo, Javier
To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
burden of hearing impairment on the children and their ... The Nigerian Health Journal, Vol. 12, No 4 ... certain cultural misconception and. 9,10 ... school. Information collected included parents age, sex and questions related to the perception ... routine care needed to avoid hearing loss due to. 15 ... Mental health: New.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse regular annuity rate. 226.33 Section... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.33 Spouse regular annuity rate. The final tier I and tier II rates, from §§ 226.30 and 226.32, are...
María J. Pino
Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. 226.34... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.34 Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of a divorced spouse is equal to...
Abzhandadze, Tamar; Forsberg-Wärleby, Gunilla; Holmegaard, Lukas; Redfors, Petra; Jern, Christina; Blomstrand, Christian; Jood, Katarina
To investigate life satisfaction in spouses of middle-aged stroke survivors from the long-term perspective and to identify factors that explain their life satisfaction. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Cohabitant spouses of survivors of ischaemic stroke aged life satisfaction was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer's Life Satisfaction Check-List (LiSAT 11). Stroke-related factors were examined with the National Institutes of Health stroke scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale. Spouses of stroke survivors had significantly lower satisfaction with general life, leisure, sexual life, partner relationship, family life, and poorer somatic and psychological health than spouses of controls. Caregiving spouses had significantly lower scores on all life domains except vocation and own activities of daily living than non-caregiving spouses. Spouses' satisfaction on different life domains was explained mainly by their age, sex, support given to the partner, and the survivor's level of global disability, to which both physical and cognitive impairments contributed. Seven years after stroke, spouses of stroke survivors reported lower life satisfaction compared with spouses of controls. Life satisfaction in stroke survivors' spouses was associated with spouses' age, sex, giving support, and the stroke survivors' level of global disability.
Al-Zboon, Eman; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A. H.; Baibres, Haithem
The aim of this study was to investigate fear in children with visual impairments (VI) from the perspective of their parents. The study was conducted in Jordan. One hundred and eight parents were surveyed. Results revealed that the main fear contents in children with VI are fear of voices and social communication fears. There were no statistically…
de Klerk, Heidi; Greeff, Abraham P.
This article reports on a study of the adaptation of parents with children with visual impairment in South Africa. The results showed that familial values (such as attitude toward the disability, religious faith, and familial closeness) permit a process of inclusion (through the use of resources and acceptance of help) and the development of a…
Yorgason, Jeremy B; Roper, Susanne O; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Berg, Cynthia A
Many studies examining illness within marriage have investigated how illness in one spouse influences the other spouse. In later-life marriages, where both spouses are more likely to have health challenges, there is an increased likelihood that health symptoms from both spouses affect each other. In the current study we examined how health symptoms in a "healthy" spouse may exacerbate health problems in a partner (the patient) who is managing multiple chronic illnesses. Surveys were collected across 14 days from 27 later-life couples where patients had both diabetes and osteoarthritis. Results indicated that higher healthy spouse symptoms were generally associated with higher patient symptoms, suggesting a spillover effect. Spouse reports of positive and negative mood were inversely linked with patient health outcomes. Spouse reports of higher positive marital interactions were surprisingly linked with higher patients' arthritis activity and activity limitations, possibly indicating a compensatory effect where marital interactions increase with symptoms. Daily spouse reports of positive marital interactions and mood were linked with patient health outcomes even after the spillover of health symptoms was taken into account.
Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana
Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.
Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Lennertz, Leonhard; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Pukrop, Ralf; Dreher, Jan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael
Neuropsychological deficits are candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia which can assist to explain the neurocognitive impact of genetic risk variants. The identification of endophenotypes is often based on the familiality of these phenotypes. Several studies demonstrate neuropsychological deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients without differentiating between genetic and non-genetic factors underlying these deficits. We assessed N=129 unaffected biological parents of schizophrenia patients, N=28 schizophrenia patients (paranoid subtype), and N=143 controls without a family history of schizophrenia with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Direct comparison of N=22 parents with an ancestral history of schizophrenia (more likely carriers, MLC) and N=17 of their spouses without such a history (less likely carriers, LLC) allowed the separation of genetic and non-genetic aspects in cognition. Overall, parents showed significant deficits in neuropsychological tasks from all cognitive domains with medium effect sizes. Direct comparisons of MLC- and LLC-parents showed that attentional and executive tasks were most strongly affected by genetic loading. To conclude, unaffected parents of schizophrenia patients showed modest yet significant impairments in attention, memory, and executive functioning. In particular, attentional and executive impairments varied most strongly with genetic loading for schizophrenia, prioritising these dysfunctions for genotype-endophenotype analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah
This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…
Kaur-Bola, Kulwinder; Randhawa, Gurch
Empirical research has shown that some South Asian families from Muslim backgrounds may use fewer additional support services for their severely impaired children compared to other non-Muslim families. Often this has been attributed to socioeconomic factors and stereotypical views such as "the family's faith prohibits the use of specific services". This paper focuses on clarifying what Islam purports to say about impairment and considers how cultural influences may inadvertently influence some South Asian parents' decisions to use services for their severely impaired children. This work aims to improve professional-parent/patient communication by enhancing better understanding of Islam on impairment, and supporting non-Muslim professionals to appreciate the differences between Islamic religion and general South Asian cultural beliefs regarding disability. Fourteen parents from ten Pakistani and Bangladeshi families took part in semi-structured open-ended interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The emerging theory suggested most first generation Muslim families from rural villages were unable to distinguish between Islamic religious and cultural beliefs on impairment, and risked missing out on essential services due to poor professional-parent/patient communication.
This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...
Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.
Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; O'reilly, Michelle A; Salt, Alison T; Dale, Naomi J
This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated. Infant age at baseline (T 1 ) was 8 to 16 months. Mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at T 1 (n=79) and at follow-up 12 months later (T 2 ) (n=73). Mothers of the total group had higher parenting stress levels (34.6% in clinical range) than community normative data at T 1 (p=0.017). Mothers of infants in the PVI subgroup had elevated stress at T 1 (p=0.014) and T 2 (p=0.009). The PVI subgroup was also elevated in the Difficult Child subscale at T 2 (p=0.001). Within-sample differences in parenting stress between the visual impairment subgroups were found at T 2 only: the PVI subgroup scored higher than the SVI subgroup (p=0.029). Adult anxiety and depression in the total group were not elevated compared with community normative data at T 1 and T 2 ; however, higher parenting stress was related to raised adult anxiety and depression levels at T 1 and T 2 (p=0.001). Regression analysis found parenting stress and lower child vision level (T 1 ) predicted parenting stress (T 2 ) (p=0.001; 42% variance). Mothers of 1-year-old infants with visual impairment showed raised risk for parenting stress, which continued to be elevated for children with PVI and those perceived as 'difficult' at 2 years. This was also a psychological risk, with greater adult anxiety and depression in those mothers with raised parenting stress. The clinical significance is that identification of parenting stress and targeted parenting, and behavioural support of the child in
Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla
This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…
van den Broek, Ellen G C; van Eijden, Ans J P M; Overbeek, Mathilde M; Kef, Sabina; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Schuengel, Carlo
Secure parent-child attachment may help children to overcome the challenges of growing up with a visual or visual-and-intellectual impairment. A large literature exists that provides a blueprint for interventions that promote parental sensitivity and secure attachment. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP) is based on that blueprint. While it has been adapted to several specific at risk populations, children with visual impairment may require additional adjustments. This study aimed to identify the themes that should be addressed in adapting VIPP and similar interventions. A Delphi-consultation was conducted with 13 professionals in the field of visual impairment to select the themes for relationship-focused intervention. These themes informed a systematic literature search. Interaction, intersubjectivity, joint attention, exploration, play and specific behavior were the themes mentioned in the Delphi-group. Paired with visual impairment or vision disorders, infants or young children (and their parents) the search yielded 74 articles, making the six themes for intervention adaptation more specific and concrete. The rich literature on six visual impairment specific themes was dominated by the themes interaction, intersubjectivity, and joint attention. These themes need to be addressed in adapting intervention programs developed for other populations, such as VIPP which currently focuses on higher order constructs of sensitivity and attachment.
Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D
To investigate smoking behaviour in young families. Cross-sectional study. Mother and child health centres in Oslo, Norway. The families of 1,046 children attending the health centres for 6-weeks-, 2- or 4- year well child visits. Daily smoking, smoking quantity and practical measures taken by the parents to prevent passive smoking among the children as assessed by parental reports. In 48% of the families at least one adult was smoking. 33% of the smoking parents smoked more than ten cigarettes per day. 47% of the smoking families reported that they did not smoke indoors. The parents were less likely to smoke if they were more than 35 years of age, had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee or had a long education. Smoking parents smoked less if they had a spouse/co-habitee, had a child aged less than one year or had few children. Smoking parents were more often careful and did not smoke indoors if they had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee, did not have a smoking spouse/co-habitee or smoked a low number of cigarettes per day.
Kef, S.; Dekovic, M.
In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to
Full Text Available For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992. It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early development of a child in several ways:· motor functioning;· concept development;· social skills;· range of experience;· ability to move independently;· play etc.All these obstacles in early development create the necessity of Early Intervention programs which should start immediately after child’s is diagnosed.As it was said above the best approach to involve parents in early Intervention programs is to develop strategies, which fit individual family needs. This means to take into account many factors important for each family. Some of them are:· future believes and expectations;· educational background and culture;· religion;· financial situation.
Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising
Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.
Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else
and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. DESIGN: Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study...... their role from spouse to caregiver and back' was identified as the core category of the study. The role shifts progressed in a dynamic process involving four elements: (1) committing to caregiving; (2) acquiring caregiving skills; (3) negotiating level of caregiving and (4) gradually leaving the caregiver...... role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare...
Brooks, Seraina; Eckerli-Wäspi, Irene; Händler Schuster, Daniela
Background: In daily communication, children with hearing impairment are restricted and dependent on their parents’ help. In case of a hospitalisation, the risk of insufficient information and resulting traumatisation for those children is high. The aim of this study is the investigation of the communicative needs of the children concerned in order to avoid negative consequences of a hospitalisation and of inappropriate communication by nursing staff. Aim: This study explores how parents of a child with hearing impairment experience the communication between the nursing staff and their hospitalised child. Method: The study was conducted together with an advisory centre for hearing-impaired children, where most of the parents could be recruited. Narrative, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to the method of interpretative phenomenology. Results: The parents expressed their wish for affectionate verbal and nonverbal love and care for their child. They often experienced the nursing staff having little time, that there was no continuity and that the communicative needs of the child were not recognised. Since the parents did not think the nursing staff were capable of communicating with the child and because they wanted to protect him or her, they adopted a mediating role. Conclusions: Besides the sensitisation of the nursing staff, time resources, continuity, professional knowledge and benevolence in the nursing care of a child with hearing impairment play a fundamental role.
Full Text Available Article reveals communication (information exchange between parents and their deaf children. The effectiveness of information exchange in different communication means between parents and children having hearing loss was investigated. Effectiveness here is an opportunity of fast understanding of the information given by one participant to another. Special experimental situation was constructed to measure the effectiveness. This situation was divided in two parts: at first parent was giving instructions to the child, then – child was giving instructions to the parent. The time that was needed to follow the instructions was measured, and communication means were registered. 17 deaf children and their mothers participated in the study. 5 of those mothers also have hearing impairment and do know sign language. Control group was represented by 10 regular developing children and their parents. Experimental results allows us to make the conclusion that there are significant difficulties in information exchange between parent and child in families raising deaf children. These difficulties are more shown in situations when children have to understand parents’ instructions and are the result of not very efficient communication means that parents use in several cases. The most efficient communication means that allow receiving information faster, accurately and fully is Russian sign language. That is shown by the best results of information exchange in pairs of mother and child both having hearing loss.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determination of relationship as...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS...) Divorced spouse. The claimant's relationship as the divorced spouse of an employee is determined when the...
Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena
To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.
Cascella, Paul W.; Trief, Ellen; Bruce, Susan M.
Three trends emerged from independent parent and teacher ratings of receptive communication and expressive forms and functions among students with severe disabilities and visual impairment/blindness. Parents had higher ratings than teachers, receptive communication was rated the highest, and no skills occurred often. Implications are discussed for…
Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Wynne, Lyman; Tienari, Pekka
Communication Deviance (CD) in rearing parents is a known indicator of a psychopathology risk in the offspring, but the direction of the effects of these two factors on each other has remained an unresolved question. The purpose of the present study was to clarify this issue by assessing the relationship of CD in adoptive parents with certain attributes of the adoptee and adoptive parents themselves. The subjects were 109 adoptees at a high or low risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. Communication Deviance was measured in individual, spouse and family Rorschach situations. Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index. The variability of CD in the adoptive parents in individual Rorschach situations was not significantly explained by any characteristics of the child. The variability in parental CD in family Rorschach situations was most closely associated with the characteristics of the parents themselves. The results strongly support the hypotheses that the frequency of Communication Deviance is an enduring trait rather than a fluctuating state and that frequent CD in parent's speech may impair the growing child's cognitive development and predispose him/her to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension benefits for former spouses. 19.9 Section 19.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.9 Pension benefits for former spouses. ...
Monin, Joan K; Poulin, Michael J; Brown, Stephanie L; Langa, Kenneth M
Research shows that active support provision is associated with greater well-being for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions. However, not all instances of support may be equally beneficial for spouses' well-being. The theory of communal responsiveness suggests that because spouses' well-being is interdependent, spouses benefit most from providing support when they believe their support increases their partner's happiness and is appreciated. Two studies tested this hypothesis. Study 1 was a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of 73 spouses of persons with dementia (74%) and other conditions. In Study 1, spouses self-reported active help, perceptions of how happy the help made the partner and how much the help improved the partner's well-being, and spouses' positive and negative affect at EMA time points. Study 2 was a 7-day daily assessment study of 43 spouses of persons with chronic pain in which spouses reported their emotional support provision, perceived partner appreciation, and their own physical symptoms. Study 1 showed that active help was associated with more positive affect for spouses when they perceived the help increased their partner's happiness and improved their partner's well-being. Study 2 showed that emotional support provision was associated with fewer spouse reported physical symptoms when perceptions of partner appreciation were high. Results suggest that interventions for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions take into account spouses' perceptions of their partners' positive emotional responses. Highlighting the positive consequences of helping may increase spouses' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae
Full Text Available It is important that married couples seek legal advice with regard to the assets falling within their joint estate, more particularly their retirement benefits. This article reflects on the entitlement (if any of non-member spouses to their spouses' retirement fund benefits. Pension benefits can be due before, during or after divorce, and parties to the marriage should be aware of their rights with regard to the accruing pension benefits of their spouses. While it is settled law that non-member spouses are entitled to receive a portion of their member spouses' pension benefits (known as "pension interest" immediately on divorce, it is not particularly clear whether non-member spouses are also entitled to receive the same before or sometime after divorce. In this article I provide a contextual understanding of the entitlements (if any which spouses or former spouses of members of pension funds have on such member spouses' retirement benefits. Furthermore, it shown in this article that various divisions of South African High Courts have been inconsistent in how they have approached the issue of the pension interest between divorcing spouses or divorced ex-spouses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as divorced spouse. 222.22 Section 222.22 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er...
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Previous research on the influence of accompanying expatriate spouses has emphasized the negative impact on the business expatriates that could contribute to unsuccessful outcomes of the foreign assignments. But spouses' influences could also be positive. Applying ethnographic field-work methodol....... These findings are consistent with recent theoretical developments focusing on positive outcomes of the work-family interface and social capital theory and are in line with empirical research on repatriation and post-assignment careers.......-work methodology, this study investigated female spouses' involvement in the career of a sample of Danish business expatriates living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. Results showed that the accompanying partners were active in trying to support and further their expatriate husbands' immediate careers...... and repatriation opportunities by using social strategies, such as creating alliances and establishing social networks with influential others through social contacts and dinner parties. The female trailing partners also tried as a group to influence company decisions regarding working schedules, pay, and holidays...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate life satisfaction in spouses of middle-aged stroke survivors from the long-term perspective and to identify factors that explain their life satisfaction. Design: Cross-sectional, case-control study. Subjects: Cohabitant spouses of survivors of ischaemic stroke aged < 70 years at stroke onset (n = 248 and spouses of controls (n = 246. Methods: Assessments were made 7 years after inclusion to the study. Spouses’ life satisfaction was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer’s Life Satisfaction Check-List (LiSAT 11. Stroke-related factors were examined with the National Institutes of Health stroke scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale. Results: Spouses of stroke survivors had significantly lower satisfaction with general life, leisure, sexual life, partner relationship, family life, and poorer somatic and psychological health than spouses of controls. Caregiving spouses had significantly lower scores on all life domains except vocation and own activities of daily living than non-caregiving spouses. Spouses’ satisfaction on different life domains was explained mainly by their age, sex, support given to the partner, and the survivor’s level of global disability, to which both physical and cognitive impairments contributed. Conclusion: Seven years after stroke, spouses of stroke survivors reported lower life satisfaction compared with spouses of controls. Life satisfaction in stroke survivors’ spouses was associated with spouses’ age, sex, giving support, and the stroke survivors’ level of global disability.
This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a) initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses' co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel, findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the coparental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.
Wilson, Stephan M.; And Others
Examined effects of employee versus spouse status, age, emotional well-being, physical health, number of marriage and family problems, and job stress on general perceived stress among 111 university staff, faculty, and their spouses. Results supported hypotheses that each of these variables, except employee versus spouse, would predict general…
Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G
Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...
Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.
The authors examined the effects of a parent resource manual on physical and sedentary activity levels of children with visual impairments. Children and youth with visual impairments, aged 9-23 years (7 girls, 11 boys), attended a 1-week summer sports camp in New York state. The authors found that 1 month after they provided the families of the…
Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob
A permanent stoma has a large impact on everyday life with several physical, mental, and social impairments for the individual. It seems obvious that if persons with stomas are affected socially by the stoma creation, it is likely that the family and/or relatives will be affected as well. The objective of this systematic review was to explore how stoma creation may affect spouses of patients with stomas. A systematic review was undertaken based on database searches including studies published from 1950 to 2012. We applied a method of synthesis based on narrative summaries of both qualitative and quantitative results being assessed in parallel processes and finally included in a joint synthesis of results on a study level. We identified 17 studies and included 6 studies. Spouses wanted to be more involved in the stoma education and specifically wanted more focus on the psychosocial aspects of stoma creation. Furthermore, spouses' sexual life was seriously affected, and their social life was restricted. In general, spouses wished for more support from the health care sector as well as from family and friends. There is a need for further research focusing on spouses or relatives. Talking about worries and concerns regarding the new life situation may alleviate suffering and reduce uncertainty. Stoma nurses and other health professionals play an important role in the care of patients as well as spouses, and a greater insight into the worries and concerns affecting spouses is warranted to improve postoperative counseling and education.
Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.
Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the
Full Text Available Objective: Genetic studies show that consanguineous marriage can increase the probability of incidence of genetic impairments such as hearing impairments. The target of this study is to identify the prevalence of consanguinity among the parents of hearing impaired students in primary schools. Materials and Methods: We selected all of deaf students of Tehran (614 students. Their mothers answered to questionnaires. The questions were about Risk Factors of deafness in mother pregnancy or in neonatal period. Results: from 614 students, 389 parents of them (64% had consanguineous marriage and 223 person (36% didn’t have this factor. 2 person did not answer to this question. In this study we observed that there is 32.3% family history of hearing loss, 29.2%deaf sister and brother, 17% ear infection history. Other risk factors were studied too. Also there is significant correlation between consanguinity and more than one deaf children in the family (p<0.005. Conclusion: According to high incidence of consanguinity (64%that was observed in this study it may be one of most important causes of sensory neural hearing loss in children, so we should give enough information about this problem to the people.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as surviving divorced spouse. 222.23 Section 222.23 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried...
Borgestig, Maria; Rytterstrom, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena
Objective: To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis...
Negovanska, V; Hergueta, T; Guichart-Gomez, E; Dubois, B; Sarazin, M; Bungener, C
Over the last decade, several programs have been developed for caregivers of Alzheimer disease patients. In France however, studies exploring their effects are still scarce. We conducted a study to compare two different interventions: a structured multidisciplinary program versus a classical intervention designed for Alzheimer disease patients and their spouses. Sixteen couples (Alzheimer's disease patient and spouse) residing in our administrative district participated in this monocentric study. For at least two years, these couples participated in a multidisciplinary program (n=8 couples) or received usual care (n=8 couples). The multidisciplinary program involved biannual consultations with a neurologist, a neuropsychologist and a psychologist, in addition to an annual meeting, stratified on the patient's MMSE score, for spouses). Usual care involved biannual consultations with the neurologist. The multidisciplinary program included a psychological intervention based on cognitive behavioral theories and centered on psycho-education, problem solving, adaptation strategies and on prevention of depression and anxiety. The spouses and the patients evaluated the 2-year follow-up during clinical interviews, completed by questionnaires. Sociodemographic data were noted for the patients and their spouses. Levels of depression and anxiety (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and care burden (Zarit Burden Inventory) were evaluated in spouses. Levels of cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination), autonomy (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), psychological state (Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale, Covi Anxiety Scale), and behavioral symptoms frequency (Neuropsychiatric Inventory) were assessed in patients. The main significant result showed that the spouses' state of anxiety was lower among participants in the multidisciplinary
Slagt, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Deković, M.; van Aken, M.A.G.
In this study, we examined whether parents are differentially susceptible to support from their spouse and adolescent child depending on their personality traits, and whether differences in susceptibility to support among parents, in turn, are linked to the quality of support parents give to their
Eadeh, Hana-May; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Langberg, Joshua M; Eddy, Laura D; Oddo, Lauren; Molitor, Stephen J; Evans, Steven W
Older adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly increased likelihood of developing comorbid depression. It is important to evaluate factors during the early adolescent period that may contribute to this risk. A predominant theory is that impairment and failure experiences lead to the development of low-self efficacy and depression, and that parent and family factors also play a role. In a sample of 326 young adolescents with ADHD ( Mage = 12), the present study evaluated whether parent-adolescent conflict mediated the association between social and academic impairment and the development of depression. This study builds upon prior work by evaluating these associations longitudinally and by using a multi-rater approach, including the parent, adolescent, and teacher perspectives. Social and academic impairment directly predicted depression controlling for baseline levels of depression and change in ADHD symptoms. The association between social impairment and depression was partially mediated by parent-adolescent conflict. Mediation through conflict was not found for academic impairment, and the association between academic impairment and depression was no longer significant when accounting for conflict. These findings highlight the importance of social impairment in the development of depression in adolescents with ADHD. Caregivers may play an important role in determining whether adolescents with ADHD internalize social impairment and failure experiences and develop depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings in terms of the importance of interventions focused on parent-adolescent conflict are discussed.
Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.
Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward
Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…
Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy
Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum former spouse survivor annuity... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Limitations on Survivor Annuities § 838.711 Maximum former spouse survivor annuity. (a) Under CSRS, payments under a court order may not exceed the amount...
van den Broek, Ellen G. C.; van Eijden, Ans J P M; Overbeek, Mathilde M.; Kef, Sabina; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Schuengel, Carlo
Secure parent-child attachment may help children to overcome the challenges of growing up with a visual or visual-and-intellectual impairment. A large literature exists that provides a blueprint for interventions that promote parental sensitivity and secure attachment. The Video-feedback
Stone, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S
Having a parent with chronic pain (CP) may confer greater risk for persistence of CP from childhood into young adulthood. Social learning, such as parental modeling and reinforcement, represents one plausible mechanism for the transmission of risk for CP from parents to offspring. Based on a 7-day pain diary in 154 pediatric patients with functional abdominal CP, we tested a model in which parental CP predicted adolescents' daily average CP severity and functional impairment (distal outcomes) via parental modeling of pain behaviors and parental reinforcement of adolescent's pain behaviors (mediators) and adolescents' cognitive appraisals of pain threat (proximal outcome representing adolescents' encoding of parents' behaviors). Results indicated significant indirect pathways from parental CP status to adolescent average daily pain severity (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.31, p = 0.03) and functional impairment (b = 0.08, SE = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.03) over the 7-day diary period via adolescents' observations of parent pain behaviors and adolescent pain threat appraisal. The indirect pathway through parental reinforcing responses to adolescents' pain did not reach significance for either adolescent pain severity or functional impairment. Identifying mechanisms of increased risk for pain and functional impairment in children of parents with CP ultimately could lead to targeted interventions aimed at improving functioning and quality of life in families with chronic pain. Parental modeling of pain behaviors represents a potentially promising target for family based interventions to ameliorate pediatric chronic pain.
Polenick, Courtney A; Fredman, Steffany J; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H
Relationships with parents have significant implications for well-being throughout the lifespan. At midlife, these ties are situated within both developmental and family contexts that often involve the adult offspring's spouse. Yet, it is not known how ties with aging parents are related to psychological well-being within middle-aged couples. This study examined how middle-aged wives' and husbands' views of the current quality of relationships with their own parents (positive and negative) are linked to their own and their partner's psychological well-being. Using a sample of 132 middle-aged couples from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we estimated actor-partner interdependence models to evaluate these dyadic associations while controlling for each spouse's marital satisfaction. Both actor and partner effects were observed. With respect to actor effects, wives who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had elevated depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction. Husbands who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had lower life satisfaction. In terms of partner effects, husbands had lower depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction when wives reported more positive relationship quality with their own parents. Finally, the link between wives' positive ties with parents and husbands' lower depressive symptoms was intensified when husbands had less positive relationships with their own parents. Findings suggest that relationship quality with wives' aging parents has implications for both spouses' well-being and may serve as a critical social resource for husbands. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie
Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…
Peyrot, Mark; And Others
Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…
Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.
Nevondwe 2012 Insurance and Tax as well as Marumoagae 2013 De Rebus 40, where ... interest" is as an asset in the joint estate of spouses married in community of ... ordering that the member spouse's retirement fund would have to make ..... court and the terms thereof may guide the pension fund scheme on how to deal.
Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M
Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane
The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…
van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.
Daviss, W Burleson; Diler, Rasim S
To examine potential predictors of lifetime suicidal behaviors (SBs) in adolescents with ADHD. Participants were 101 adolescents with ADHD aged 11 to 18 years, evaluated for lifetime SB and psychopathology with semistructured interviews, and for lifetime trauma exposure, parent-child conflict, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment with child, parent, and teacher ratings. Controlling for the effects of age, female sex, and comorbid depressive and other disorders, lifetime SB (n = 28) remained significantly associated (p = .001) with parent-child conflict, and to a lesser extent (p function and breadth of exposure to victimization events. Measures related to past and current ADHD symptoms and signs were not associated with lifetime SB. Apart from depression, clinicians should pay particular attention to parent-child conflict, victimization trauma, and social impairment rather than levels of ADHD symptoms when weighing the likelihood of SB in youth with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; spouse. 725.205 Section 725.205 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... Determination of dependency; spouse. For the purposes of augmenting benefits, an individual who is the miner's...
The questions related to Diversity were examined in the framework of the Five-yearly Review, which was approved in December 2015. The first themes implemented this year concern helping spouses or partners integrate into the working world, and improving the balance between professional and private life. To this end, the Social Affairs Service and the CERN Diversity Office organised together on Tuesday, 15 November, a “Welcome Drink” for the spouses and partners of employed members of the personnel of CERN who have recently arrived in the region. This event was an occasion for the spouses and partners to meet and greet with various internal services at CERN, including the Staff Association, as well as local networks that can provide assistance in integrating into the region, in terms of job search for instance. Therefore, several service providers were present, including: the Geneva Welcome Center (CAGI), a welcoming network for newly arrived employees of international organi...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and dependent children. 2634.309....309 Spouses and dependent children. (a) Special disclosure rules. Each report required by the... or dependent children of the reporting individual: (1) Income. For purposes of § 2634.302 of this...
Çömez, Saadet; Karayurt, Özgül
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Turkey. The emotional effects of this condition are experienced by the women and their families. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of women with breast cancer and their spouses from diagnosis to treatment completion. This qualitative study with a descriptive qualitative design was conducted at participants' homes. Fourteen women and their spouses were enrolled in the study (n = 28). Data were collected during in-depth interviews and analyzed with inductive content analysis. The women with breast cancer and their spouses' experiences were categorized into 4 main themes: "facing breast cancer," "treatment process," "coping with disease and treatment," and "life after treatment." Subthemes were also identified and described. The women with breast cancer and their spouses reported that they had positive and negative experiences in terms of their physical, psychological, and social status from diagnosis to completion of treatment, indicating that breast cancer is a disease of women and a condition of families. Knowledge of these experiences can help nurses plan care that is designed to improve the quality of life of women and their husbands.
Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S
This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.
Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.
Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658
Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.
Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…
Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R
Parents play a critical role in their child's language development. Therefore, advising parents of a child with language difficulties on how to facilitate their child's language might benefit the child. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been developed specifically for this purpose. In PCIT, the speech-and-language therapist (SLT) works collaboratively with parents, altering interaction styles to make interaction more appropriate to their child's level of communicative needs. This study investigates the effectiveness of PCIT in 8-10-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) in the expressive domain. It aimed to identify whether PCIT had any significant impact on the following communication parameters of the child: verbal initiations, verbal and non-verbal responses, mean length of utterance (MLU), and proportion of child-to-parent utterances. Sixteen children with SLI and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups: treated or delayed treatment (control). The treated group took part in PCIT over a 4-week block, and then returned to the clinic for a final session after a 6-week consolidation period with no input from the therapist. The treated and control group were assessed in terms of the different communication parameters at three time points: pre-therapy, post-therapy (after the 4-week block) and at the final session (after the consolidation period), through video analysis. It was hypothesized that all communication parameters would significantly increase in the treated group over time and that no significant differences would be found in the control group. All the children in the treated group made language gains during spontaneous interactions with their parents. In comparison with the control group, PCIT had a positive effect on three of the five communication parameters: verbal initiations, MLU and the proportion of child-to-parent utterances. There was a marginal effect on verbal responses, and a trend towards such an effect
Barfell, Kara S Francis; Snyder, Ryan R; Isaacs-Cloes, Kelly M; Garris, Jordan F; Roeckner, Alyssa R; Horn, Paul S; Guthrie, Michael D; Wu, Steve W; Gilbert, Donald L
The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (CTIM) rates 37 problems in school, social, and home domains separately for tics and for comorbid diagnoses. However, a shorter version would be easier to implement in busy clinics. Using published data from 85 children with Tourette syndrome, 92 controls, and parents, factor analysis was used to generate a "mini-CTIM" composed of 12 items applied to tic and comorbid diagnoses. Child- and parent-rated mini-CTIM scores were compared and correlated across raters and accounting for clinician-rated tic severity and presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The mini-CTIM achieved domain Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.71 to 0.94 and intra-item correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.96. The resulting scale correlated with clinician-rated tic severity and reflected the presence of ADHD and OCD. The mini-CTIM appears promising as a practical assessment tool for tic- and non-tic-related impairment in children with Tourette syndrome.
Preminger, Jill E; Montano, Joseph J; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe third-party disability experienced by adult-children as a result of hearing impairment (HI) in a parent. DESIGN: Using semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to describe the impact of a parent's HI on their relationship and communication...... factors of family relationships, communication situations, and the parent's personality, adult-children considered their coping strategies and feelings that arose as a result of the HI. Coping strategies included putting forth effort in communication, yelling as an ineffective communication strategy......, and providing support to the parent with HI. The described feelings included frustration, uncertainty, and loss surrounding their communication and relationship with their parent with HI. These feelings arose as a result of implementing coping strategies, plus these feelings drove the employment of coping...
Sargent, M Catherine; Sotile, Wayne; Sotile, Mary O; Rubash, Harry; Barrack, Robert L
Orthopaedic residents and attending physicians who report having a supportive spouse show lower levels of burnout and psychological distress than those without supportive spouses. However, little is known about the experiences of the spouses. This nationwide study examines burnout, psychological distress, and marital satisfaction of the spouses and significant others (collectively referred to hereafter as spouses) of orthopaedists in training and in orthopaedic practice in an academic setting. Employing previously reported methodology, 259 spouses of orthopaedic residents and 169 spouses of full-time orthopaedic faculty completed a voluntary, anonymous survey. The survey included three validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Psychological Health Questionnaire-12, and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and three novel question sets addressing demographic information, relationship issues, stress, and work/life balance. Psychological distress was noted in 18% of resident spouses compared with only 10% of faculty spouses (p = 0.014). Resident spouses reported greater loneliness (p < 0.0009) and stress (p = 0.03) than faculty spouses. Among working spouses, 30% of resident spouses and 13% of faculty spouses showed high levels of emotional exhaustion (p < 0.003). Twenty-eight percent of employed resident spouses and 5% of employed faculty spouses showed problematic levels of depersonalization (p < 0.0001). Twenty-six percent of employed resident spouses and 12% of employed faculty spouses showed a diminished sense of personal accomplishment (p = 0.012). Marital satisfaction was high for both resident and faculty spouses. Decreased satisfaction correlated with excessive mate irritability and fatigue that precluded their mate's involvement in family activities. A gratifying sex life, full-time work outside the home, and spending more than ninety minutes a day with their mate correlated significantly with marital satisfaction. Many orthopaedic
Lindsay, Geoff; Ricketts, Jessie; Peacey, Lindy V.; Dockrell, Julie E.; Charman, Tony
Background: There is increasing interest in examining the perspectives of parents of children with special educational needs (SEN). Exploring the view of parents of a child with language impairment (LI) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is particularly important because of their high prevalence, at over 30% of children with SEN in England, and the…
Full Text Available Abstract Panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey are used to examine the impact of involuntary job loss on the mental health of spouses and adolescent children. Estimates from fixed effects models show that the mental health of women (but not men declines following a spouse’s job loss, but only if that job loss results in a sustained period of non-employment or if the couple experienced prior financial hardship or relationship strain. A negative effect of parental job loss on the mental health of adolescent children is also found but is restricted to girls. JEL Classification: I31, J10, J65
In 1989, the European Parliament (EP) recognized that spouses (usually women) who help their husbands in a profession have no legal, fiscal, or social status as a result of their work, and, thus, lack access to social security or taxation schemes. The "helping spouse" performs work which is not comparable to that of the actual professional and has a special status which cannot be compared to the joint operation of a family business. Because there is no specific contract for the work of a helping spouse, there is a risk that the spouse will lose her widow's pension rights if she acquires rights of her own or may be prohibited from simultaneously holding pension rights of her own and secondary pension rights. Helping spouses find themselves in a difficult position when their spouse stops working or when the marriage ends. In addition, they have no maternity rights in European Economic Council (EEC) member states and, if they do choose to get paid, they often receive far less than market value for their work. The EP, therefore, hopes that all EEC member states will recognize the status of helping spouses in an "unpaid helping spouse's professional contract." Laws which penalize the professions exclusively and obstruct recognition of the work of a spouse and payment of a fair wage should be abolished. The EP hopes that all EEC states will pay maternity leave benefits and allowances to helping spouses, that they will be able to acquire their own pension rights, that the helping spouses will be allowed to share in the capital appreciation on the operating capital, and that the actual costs of a helping spouse's activities will be set off against the income tax liability of a professional. Further, when a spouse helps in a professional activity on a regular basis, a statement of involvement may be lodged with a professional association. That spouse will be eligible for benefits under social security schemes covering the various professions in cases where they contribute
Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem
It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Conclusions: The frequency of kin marriages in studied population did not change significantly in the last generation. Knowledge of biological harm of inbreeding has only a small inhibitory effect on choice of kin for spouse. Family reputation was far more important in selection of spouse than family wealth, social status and beauty of spouse, but reputation was uncorrelated with choice of kin for spouse.
Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth
There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social–emotional functioning. White and Black youth (n = 64; ages 6–17) with ASD without ID were compared on each of these domains. Black youth had significantly lower levels of impairment on all three domains. Findings may reflect better daily functioning among Black youth with ASD and/or cultural differences in parent response to questionnaires. Regardless, these findings raise concern about the sensitivity of commonly used measures for Black children with ASD and the impact of culture on daily functioning and symptom manifestation. PMID:26439481
Nielsen, Malene; Hansen, Jonni; Ritz, Beate
BACKGROUND: Caring for a chronically ill spouse is stressful, but the health effects of caregiving are not fully understood. We studied the effect on mortality of being married to a person with Parkinson disease. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a first-time hospitalization for Parkinson...... disease between 1986 and 2009 were identified, and each case was matched to five population controls. We further identified all spouses of those with Parkinson disease (n = 8,515) and also the spouses of controls (n = 43,432). All spouses were followed in nationwide registries until 2011. RESULTS: Among...... men, being married to a Parkinson disease patient was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.11]). Mortality was particularly high for death due to external causes (1.42 [1.09-1.84]) including suicide (1.89 [1...
Downer, Brian; González-González, Cesar; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca
The increased risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes for older parents in Mexico who have an adult child living in the United States may contribute to an increased risk for cognitive impairment in this population. The objective of this study was to examine if older adults in Mexico who have one or more adult children living in the United States are more or less likely to develop cognitive impairment over an 11-year period compared to older adults who do not have any adult children living in the United States. Data for this study came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The final sample included 2609 participants aged 60 and over who were not cognitively impaired in 2001 and had one or more adult children (age ≥15). Participants were matched using a propensity score that was estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model that included sociodemographic characteristics and migration history of the older parents. Having one or more adult children living in the United States is associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher number of depressive symptoms, but greater social engagement for older parents living in Mexico. No significant differences in the odds for developing cognitive impairment according to having one or more adult children living in the United States were detected. In summary, having one or more adult children living in the United States was associated with characteristics that may increase and decrease the risk for cognitive impairment. This may contribute to the non-significant relationship between migration status of adult children and likelihood for cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.
Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.
This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; divorced spouse. 725.207 Section 725.207 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 725.207 Determination of dependency; divorced spouse. For the purpose of augmenting benefits, an...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; surviving spouse. 725.215 Section 725.215 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 725.215 Determination of dependency; surviving spouse. An individual who is the miner's surviving...
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the influence of drug dependency on sexual function of wives of opium addicts.Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 150 wives of opiate dependent men were assessed for the impact of drug addiction. Sociodemographic factors like age, educational level, job, marital duration and having child were evaluated. Sexual function was measured using relationship and sexuality scale (RSS. Results: Approximately 73% of the participitants were sexually active with having at least one intercourse in the last 2 weeks, and approximately half of the participitants had unsatisfied intercourse. About ninety percent reported negative effect of the addiction on their sexual life. After the spouse addiction, sexual desire, ability to reach orgasm and frequency of sexual intercourse were decreased in 73%, 64% and 67.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The wives of opiate addicts believe that their sexual function has been impaired by the addiction of their husbands.
www.cna.org/pop- rep/2014/contents/contents.html. 61 On December 22, 2010, gay servicemembers were authorized to serve openly; however same-sex partners were...duty members’ spouses are male.63 Frequent moves , deployments, and other hardships continue to create challenges for civilian spouses of military
... requesting spouse's knowledge of the erroneous items or underpayment; (3) The extent of the requesting spouse's knowledge or participation in the family business or financial affairs; (4) The requesting spouse...; (6) Any asset transfers between the spouses; (7) Any indication of fraud on the part of either spouse...
Bass, Brenda L.; Butler, Adam B.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Linney, Kirsten D.
Using data collected over 14 consecutive days, we examined the impact of work hours and job demands on parent-child interactions for mothers and fathers in nonprofessional couples. Wives and husbands evaluated their interactions with their children similarly, such that changes in a spouse's evaluation of parent-child interactions typically matched…
Thompson, Trevor; Lloyd, Andrew; Joseph, Alain; Weiss, Margaret
Purpose The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form (WFIRS-P) is a 50-item scale that assesses functional impairment on six clinically relevant domains typically affected in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As functional impairment is central to ADHD, the WFIRS-P offers potential as a tool for assessing functional impairment in ADHD. These analyses were designed to examine the overall performance of WFIRS-P in differentiating ADHD and non-ADHD cases using receiver...
Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Merrick, Melissa T
Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Earlier research also shows that children raised by harsh parents are more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study evaluated nurturing and supportive behaviors of spouses or cohabiting romantic partners hypothesized to strengthen co-parent relationships and help break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from the Family Transitions Project, a 22-year, 3-generation study of a cohort of over 500 early adolescents (G2) grown to adulthood. During adolescence, observers rated G1 (parent of G2) harsh parenting to G2. Several years later, observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (G3). In addition, G2's romantic partner (spouse or cohabiting partner) was rated by observers on a range of behaviors expected to affect G2 harsh parenting. Romantic partner warmth and positive communication with G2 were associated with less G2 harsh parenting toward G3 (a compensatory or main effect) and when these partner behaviors were high, there was no evidence of intergenerational continuity from G1 to G2 harsh parenting (a moderating or protective effect). G1 harsh parenting slightly decreased the likelihood that G2 would select a supportive spouse or romantic partner (evidence of cumulative continuity). Romantic partner warmth and positive communication appear to disrupt continuity in harsh and abusive parenting. As appropriate, preventive interventions designed to reduce risk for child maltreatment should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As part of an ethnographic study, the impact of foreign postings on spouses who accompany military personnel was explored. Individual interviews and focus groups with 34 British military spouses based in one location in southern Europe were conducted. Key findings suggested that reaction to a foreign posting was a reflection of personal attitudes, prior experiences, support, ability to adjust to change and strength of relationship with the serving spouse and community. For many the experience was positive due to the increased opportunity for family time, for others this helped to compensate for the difficulties experienced. Some military spouses experienced significant distress on the posting, particularly if the family was not well-supported. The potential implications of military spouses not adapting to foreign postings have significant implications for healthcare practice. Provision of more appropriate support resources before and during the posting would facilitate the transition for the military spouse and their family.
Mackenzie, Corey S; Wiprzycka, Ursula J; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David
Family caregivers of older adults experience high levels of chronic stress and psychological distress, which are known to impair cognition. Very little research, however, has assessed the impact of caregiving on key cognitive outcomes such as learning and memory. This study compared 16 spouse caregivers with 16 matched controls using standardized neuropsychological measures of learning, episodic memory, and working memory. Analyses compared groups on these cognitive outcomes and examined whether psychological distress mediated group differences in cognition. Results indicated that caregivers were significantly more distressed than non-caregivers and exhibited deficits in learning, recall of episodic information after short and long delays, and working memory. Furthermore, the majority of group differences in cognitive outcomes were mediated by psychological distress. This study adds to a small body of literature demonstrating impaired cognitive functioning among family caregivers. It also suggests that distress is one of a number of possible underlying mechanisms leading to disruptions in learning and memory in this population.
... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...
Ben-Sasson, A; Soto, T W; Martínez-Pedraza, F; Carter, A S
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) affects many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), often leading to stressful encounters during daily routines. This study describes the associations between early SOR symptoms and the longitudinal course of restrictions in family life activities and parenting stress across three time-points in families raising a child with ASD (n = 174). Covariates were child diagnostic severity, emotional problems, and maternal affective symptoms. At time 1 mean chronological age was 28.5 months. Children were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Parents completed the Infant Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP), Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory (CES-D) at time 1; and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS) at the three annual time-points. Latent Growth Curve Models indicated that higher SOR scores on the ITSP at time 1 were associated with higher initial levels of family life impairment and parenting stress and with a smaller magnitude of change over time. These associations were independent of severity of ADOS social-communication symptoms, MSEL composite score, ITSEA externalizing and anxiety symptoms, and maternal affective symptoms as measured by the BAI and CES-D. On average FLIS and PSI did not change over time, however, there was significant individual variability. Concurrently, SOR at time 1 explained 39-45% of the variance in family stress and impairment variables. An evaluation of SOR should be integrated into the assessment of toddlers with ASD considering their role in family life impairment and stress. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available The increasing number of dysfunctional families causes an increase in the number of civil litigation on the education of the child, where the relationship between the persons are highly conflictual. The actual task is study the one of components in the structure of the psychological relationship - emotional and semantic constructs underlying semantic perception of each other and the child's parents. Examination of 42 testees (parents from harmonious families and 54 testees (parents during the forensic psychological and psychiatric examination (regarding the definition of child`s residence or the order of meetings for the child and the parent who don`t live with it by methods "Geometric test of relations" and "Semantic Differential" showed that in families where is highly conflictual relationship, there is positive assessments of herself and her child, while assessment of the spouse (wife characterized inversion. This negative attitude toward the spouse (wife is not the other parent's negative characteristics. It is the ignoring the other parent's positive characteristics. The positive acceptance of all family members was revealed in harmonious families.
Schalk, I van der; Spruit, M.
Family involvement plays a critical factor in the language development of a deaf or hearing impaired child. Hearing parents often have major difficulties in communicating with their child when it is deaf or hearing impaired. These difficulties often lead to issues in the language development of the
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S; Verey, A; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T
Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were cross-coded and checked for inter-rater reliability. Six major themes were identified: (1) communication between couples, (2) adverse family environment, (3) reintegration, (4) intimacy, (5) financial uncertainty and (6) transition from partner to caregiver. Partners caring for injured/ill military personnel appear to be at risk of experiencing personal distress caused by impaired relationship functioning, which may lead to diminished physical and mental well-being. Partners of WIS military personnel experience significant levels of distress and burden associated with caregiving in the form of arguments with the military partner, problems in reintegration and a lack of physical and emotional intimacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Clow, Daniel R.; And Others
Presents a group treatment model using Thought-Feeling-Action (TFA) Systems, an offense- and offender-specific group treatment for abusers. Describes use of TFA Systems in group of court-referred male spouse-abusers. Reviews evolution of TFA Systems, then focuses on TFA Systems treatment of spouse abusers. Notes that system can be adapted to other…
... resist the urge to take over. Avoid "boss – employee" roles. One parent often assumes most of the ... for you. When the Going Gets Tough Every relationship has its ups ... available to help spouses and families. You might start by asking a member of ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; surviving divorced spouse. 725.217 Section 725.217 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.217 Determination of dependency; surviving divorced spouse. An individual who is the miner...
Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal
To investigate the characteristics of the caregiving experience according to age at onset of dementia to adapt support programs. Fifty-seven spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) and 93 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) participated. The characteristics of the caregiving experience were assessed using questionnaires. We compared the two groups according to age at onset of the disease using a multivariate test, Pillai's Trace test. The analysis showed that there were similarities and differences between the two groups of spouse caregivers. All spouse caregivers were confident in their caregiving role and fairly well prepared for future needs and reported mild depressive and anxious symptoms. However, they lacked informal support, had low confidence in requesting respite care and reported effects on their health. Compared to spouse caregivers of PLOD, spouse caregivers of PEOD had more severe perceptions of the cognitive disorders of persons with dementia (PWD) and had a better sense of preparedness and knowledge of services. Spouse caregivers of PLOD were more confident in their ability to control disturbing thoughts. The results suggest that programs should provide information on support networks to improve preparedness for spouse caregivers of PLOD as well as emphasizing positive coping strategies for caregivers of PEOD to maintain good-quality relationships with PWD, which influences the perception of the symptoms. For both groups, family relationships should be considered.
Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.
Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.
Syse, Astri; Solem, Per Erik; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Mykletun, Reidar; Furunes, Trude
Research on spouses' joint work exits is scarce, although household factors such as spouses' work status, marital quality, and caregiving burdens are likely to affect seniors' work engagement. We therefore examine whether the work exit probability of one spouse affects that of the other. Discrete-time hazard regression analyses of survey data linked to later registry information including all gainfully employed married respondents aged 50-74 with a working spouse (N = 1,764) were used to assess subsequent work exits. A spouse's work exit is a strong predictor of a respondent's work exit (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval [2.5, 4.0]). Educational attainment, poor marital quality, and spouses' health and care needs do not predict work exits. Surprisingly, no gender differences are observed. Research on larger survey samples to distinguish different work exit routes and reasons for spouses' joint work exits appears warranted. To account for cultural and welfare state characteristics, cross-national studies ought to be undertaken. © The Author(s) 2013.
Reddy, B M; Malhotra, K C
The relationship between birth order of spouses with different degrees of consanguinity is examined in a sample of 1826 couples belonging to the endogamous Vadde Fisherfolk of Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India. We attempt to explain the wide variation in the frequency of different kinds of consanguineous marriages through the age-sex structure of the population in general and especially of the related families. This structure may also be manifested in the association between the birth orders of spouses. A highly significant and large correlation between the birth orders of spouses in uncle-niece marriages and a gradual decrease in the correlation with increase in remoteness of the relationship between the spouses were observed. Given the distribution of age differences between the spouses and assuming a standard age-sex structure, it seems possible to estimate the optimum frequency with which at least close consanguineous marriages occur in any particular population.
Johnson, Michael P; Leone, Janel M; Xu, Yili
In this article, we argue that past efforts to distinguish among types of intimate partner violence in general survey data have committed a critical error--using data on current spouses to develop operationalizations of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence. We use ex-spouse data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) to develop new operationalizations. We then demonstrate that NVAWS current spouse data contain little intimate terrorism; we argue that this is likely to be the case for all general surveys. In addition, the ex-spouse data confirm past findings regarding a variety of differences between intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, including those predicted by feminist theories.
Ratto, Allison B.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth
There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social-emotional functioning. White and Black…
... Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full surviving divorced spouse annuity before... which the surviving divorced spouse remarries unless the marriage is to an individual entitled to a...
Cano, Annmarie; Leong, Laura E M; Williams, Amy M; May, Dana K K; Lutz, Jillian R
The communication of pain has received a great deal of attention in the pain literature; however, one form of pain communication--emotional disclosure of pain-related distress (e.g., sadness, worry, anger about pain)--has not been studied extensively. This study examined the extent to which this form of pain communication occurred during an observed conversation with one's spouse and also investigated the correlates and consequences of disclosure. Individuals with chronic pain (ICP) and their spouses (N=95 couples) completed several questionnaires regarding pain, psychological distress, and relationship distress as well as video recorded interactions about the impact of pain on their lives. Approximately two-thirds of ICPs (n=65) disclosed their pain-related distress to their spouses. ICPs who reported greater pain severity, ruminative catastrophizing and affective distress about pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to disclose their distress to their spouses. Spouses of ICPs who disclosed only once or twice were significantly less likely to invalidate their partners whereas spouses of ICPs who disclosed at a higher rate were significantly more likely to validate their partners. Furthermore, spouses were more likely to engage in invalidation after attempting more neutral or validating responses, suggesting an erosion of support when ICPs engaged in high rates of disclosure. Correlates of spousal invalidation included both spouses' helplessness catastrophizing, ICPs' affective distress about pain, and spouses' anxiety, suggesting that both partners' distress are implicated in maladaptive disclosure-response patterns. Findings are discussed in light of pain communication and empathy models of pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS...) To reside abroad with the citizen spouse; and (ii) To take up residence within the United States...; and (3) Notify the Service immediately if he or she is unable to reside with the citizen spouse...
Jensen, Jakob F; Rauer, Amy J
This study examined the frequency and impact of "marriage work" (MW), or the act of discussing marital problems with spouses and friends, among a sample of older married couples (N = 64). Using actor-partner interdependence models, we examined how turning to one's spouse and one's friend was linked to changes in both spouses' marital satisfaction and conflict 1 year later. We also investigated whether satisfaction and conflict predicted change in MW for older spouses. Both wives and husbands engaged in more MW with spouses than with friends, and only husbands' MW with spouses decreased over time. Wives' MW with spouses was associated with decreased marital satisfaction for husbands, whereas husbands' MW with spouses was linked with increased satisfaction for husbands. Furthermore, wives' MW with spouses predicted increases in wives' marital conflict over time. When examining effects in the opposite direction, wives' marital satisfaction predicted decreases in wives' MW with spouse. Husbands' satisfaction was linked with increases in wives' MW with spouses, increases in wives' MW with friends, and decreases in husbands' MW with friends. Finally, husbands' conflict predicted increases in husbands' MW with friends. Findings suggest that openly engaging in discussions of marital problems may not be as uniformly helpful for aging couples as it is for their younger counterparts. Given that many older adults tend to actively avoid conflictual interactions in an attempt to maximize emotional rewards, researchers and clinicians should note that traditional approaches to working through romantic conflict may not be ideal for aging couples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Warren, Charlotte; Hasenstab, Suzanne
A study examined demographic, impairment-related, and parental variables that best predicted self-concept among 49 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired 5- to 11-year-olds. A strong relationship was observed between self-concept and parental indulgence, parental rejection, parental protection, parental discipline, and extent of language…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When spouse is living with employee. 222.15 Section 222.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.15 When spouse is living with...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage...-4 Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement. (a) If the marriage of an annuitant... spouse is dissolved by divorce or by death of the spouse, the retiree's annuity shall be recomputed, if...
Bratt, Anna Sofia; Stenström, Ulf; Rennemark, Mikael
Few studies have compared the impact of different familial losses on life satisfaction (LS). Furthermore, there is a lack of research on the effect of having lost both a child and a spouse among older adults. A random sample of 1402 individuals, 817 women and 585 men, aged 60-96 years from the Blekinge part of the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care (SNAC-B) participated in this cross-sectional study. The first aim was to compare the effects of child or spouse or both child and spouse bereavement on LS and, the second aim, to investigate if there were gender differences within the bereaved groups. The results showed that having lost a child, spouse or both child and spouse had a negative association with LS, although this effect was small. Having experienced multiple losses did not predict more variance than a single child or spouse loss. Gender differences were found within all the bereaved groups with bereaved men having lower LS than bereaved women. Longer time since the loss was associated with higher LS. Bereaved older adults have somewhat lower LS than non-bereaved and bereaved men seem more affected than bereaved women. Future research needs to address older men´s experiences after the loss of a loved one.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation and payment of pension to former... Computation and payment of pension to former spouse. (a) A pension to a former spouse is paid monthly on the... for a pension or any combination of pensions to former spouses of any one principal which exceeds the...
... divorce from the principal and failure to meet the definition of “former spouse,” or in the event of an... as will not cause a loss to the Fund. The following table illustrates the minimum monthly payments...
Bentovim, Arnon; Elliott, Ian
The purpose of this study is to distill the "effective practice elements" from randomised controlled interventions (RCTs) to prevent the recurrence of abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated health and developmental impairment of children. The resulting elements would be used then to develop a step-by-step modular-systemic approach to intervention that is suitable to the needs of a variety of frontline practitioners in social care, health, and education. A series of 22 randomised RCTs were analysed using the distillation and matching approach to establish the presence of effective practice elements. The focus was physical and sexual abuse, victims and children, and young people as perpetrators; neglect including failure to thrive, emotional abuse (exposure to violence and mental health issues). The studies were analysed for effective practice elements, across different approaches matched to interventions focused on parenting, on children and young people, and on family/professional relationships. The proportion of practice elements utilised in each form of maltreatment was defined. The distillation process resulted in a total of 47 practice elements present across all forms of maltreatment studied. An experienced group of practitioners from statutory and voluntary agencies ordered and integrated the most frequently utilised emerging elements into a series of step-by-step modules, which could fit the complex needs of families when maltreatment had occurred. The resulting manual, Hope for Children and Families, provides a "menu" of evidence-based, step-by-step modular interventions targeting the profile of abusive and neglectful parenting and associated impairments of children. To be effective for frontline practitioners, the manual will need to be delivered in a user-friendly format, training developed, and supervision and support provided.
Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Pang, See-Tong; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Liu, Hsueh-Erh
To determine the individual and mutual predictors of the marital satisfaction of couples in which the husband experienced prostate cancer. Marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer has been insufficiently studied in Asian countries as compared with Western countries. This study used a prospective and repeated-measures design. Seventy Taiwanese couples in which the husband had prostate cancer completed measures at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Assessments of physical symptoms, marital satisfaction, coping behaviour and psychological distress were made. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. The marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer and that of their spouses were significantly correlated. At 6 months, spouses' marital satisfaction, patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat and patients' serum prostate-specific antigen levels were found to be the predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Furthermore, patients' marital satisfaction and their spouses' psychological distress were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 12 months, spouses' marital satisfaction and patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as harm were predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Finally, spouses' marital satisfaction (at 6 months) and appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 6 months post-treatment, patients' and spouses' marital satisfaction will influence each other. However, at 12 months, patients' marital satisfaction exerts an insignificant effect on spouses' marital satisfaction. Moreover, patients' serum prostate-specific antigen level or the negative appraisal of prostate cancer affects their marital satisfaction. Spouses' marital satisfaction is affected by psychological distress and their negative appraisal of prostate cancer. The results can be used to develop interventions for prostate cancer couples. Such an intervention can be used to modify couples
... not exceed: (i) $400 for a mother or father not living together; (ii) $660 for a mother and father, or remarried parent and spouse, living together: (iii) $185 for each additional “member of the family” as... outlined in this section. (b) Basic rule. Dependency will be held to exist if the father or mother of the...
.... Under the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) Innocent Spouse Program, IRS can relieve taxpayers of tax debts on the basis of equity considerations, such as not knowing that their spouse failed to pay taxes due...
Warfield, Marji Erickson
Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner…
Goldsmith, Herbert R.
Studied risk assessment for abuse cases by examining cases (N=20) referred to local spouse treatment center. Focused on woman's perception of mate's personality/behavioral characteristics and relationship plus other situational factors. Confirmed majority of risk factors associated with spouse abuse as reported in the literature. Presents pilot…
Croteau, Claire; McMahon-Morin, Paméla; Morin, Claudia; Jutras, Benoît; Trudeau, Natacha; Le Dorze, Guylaine
Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. 26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged from 5 to 13 years old of the Assessment of Life Habits (Fougeyrollas et al., 2001). The questionnaire encompasses 196 life habits, grouped in 12 dimensions: nutrition, fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, education, work and recreation (Fougeyrollas, 2010). According to their parents and school professionals, children in this study carried out without difficulty life habits related to housing and mobility. However, they experienced difficulty with life habits related to interpersonal relationships, recreation and responsibilities, in addition to communication and education. Children with SLI are perceived by their parents and school professionals as having reduced social participation in many aspects of their daily life. Social participation should be considered as a major outcome when offering services in school to these children. This study proposes specific ways to help children with SLI. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In terms of psychotransgressionism, personality is a network of five equipollent psychons, the content of which determines the personality’s functioning. The strength and power of the individual psychons underlies the tendency to undertake transgressive actions. In this study, we hypothesized that transgressive spouses are characterized by greater potential strength, greater power of cognitive, instrumental, motivational, emotional, and personal psychons than protective spouses. We operationalized all psychons, created the appropriate research tools, and then studied married couples. Using the Transgression Scale developed by Studenski, we found a group of spouses with higher levels of transgression (transgressive, and a group of spouses with lower levels of transgression (protective. Transgressive wives are characterized by better knowledge about their husbands’ operational sphere, and are more aware of personal beliefs than protective wives. Similarly, transgressive husbands have greater knowledge of their wives’ operational sphere, stronger cognitive needs, and weaker personal needs than protective husbands. Transgressive husbands are characterized by a positive affective shift and have a greater awareness of personal beliefs than protective husbands. The potential brought into interpersonal relationships by transgressive spouses may create a climate conducive to building a satisfying marital relationship.
Granek, Leeat; Danan, Dor; Bersudsky, Yuly; Osher, Yamima
Patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by an unusually high divorce rate. As such, the purpose of the present study was to uncover information relating specifically to the impact of bipolar disorder on patients and spouses individually, and on the marital relationship from the perspectives of both patients and spouses. Eleven patients with bipolar disorder and ten spouses were interviewed separately about the impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their marital relationship. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The impact of bipolar disorder for spouses included self-sacrifice, caregiving burden, emotional impact, and a sense of personal evolution. The impact of bipolar disorder on patients included an emotional impact, responsibility for self-care, and struggling socially and developmentally. When comparing patient and spouse perspectives on the impact of the disorder, neither the patient nor the spouse was able to accurately assess the impact of the disorder on their partner's lives. The impact of bipolar disorder on the relationship included volatility in the relationship, strengthening the relationship, weakening the relationship, and family planning. The research indicated that patients and partners alike struggle with the tremendous impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their relationships. Given the high rates of divorce and volatility in these relationships, healthcare professionals can provide (or refer to) emotional and practical support both to patients and spouses on their own, and as a couple in their clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B
Using a sample of 639 dual-career couples, we examined the role of work-related spousal support on work-family balance and subsequent outcomes for both the job incumbent as well as his or her spouse. We further investigated whether the resource of work-related spousal support contributed to greater balance for those couples who were work-linked (work in same organization, same occupation, or both) and those who were not. We found work-related spousal support contributed to work-family balance and subsequent improved family satisfaction and job satisfaction of the job incumbent. Furthermore, support crossed over to the spouse through increased work-family balance to decrease stress transmission to enhance family satisfaction and reduce relationship tension of the spouse. Implications for researchers and organizational leaders are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dorenbos-Scholzel, C.J.M.; Draskovic, I.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
The objective of the study was to explore, in a sample of spouses of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease patients, predictors of quality of life (QoL) by rating QoL and burden. The authors assessed 97 spouses in a cross-sectional study with the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of
Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keizer, Renske; Schenk, Niels
This study investigated the extent to which women's and men's relationship satisfaction within couples is similarly or differently affected by becoming a parent and the extent to which changes in work hours and hours spent on household labor affect a person's own and his or her spouse's relationship satisfaction across the transition to…
Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.
Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…
Nichols, Linda Olivia; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey; Burns, Robert
Spouses of returning Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF) military service members report increased depression and anxiety post deployment as they work to reintegrate the family and service member. Reconnecting the family, renegotiating roles that have shifted, reestablishing communication patterns, and dealing with mental health concerns are all tasks that spouses must undertake as part of reintegration. We tested telephone support groups focusing on helping spouses with these basic reintegration tasks. Year-long telephone support groups focused on education, skills building (communication skills, problem solving training, cognitive behavioral techniques, stress management), and support. Spouse depression and anxiety were decreased and perceived social support was increased during the course of the study. In subgroup analyses, spouses with husbands whose injuries caused care difficulties had a positive response to the intervention. However, they were more likely to be depressed, be anxious, and have less social support compared to participants who had husbands who had no injury or whose injury did not cause care difficulty. Study findings suggest that this well-established, high-access intervention can help improve quality of life for military spouses who are struggling with reintegration of the service member and family.
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gift to spouse; in general. 25.2523(a)-1...) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(a)-1 Gift to spouse; in general. (a) In general. In determining the amount of taxable gifts for the calendar quarter...
van der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, E.L.; van Busschbach, J.T.; van Weeghel, J.
Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are
Van Der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, L.; Van Busschbach, J.T.; Van Weeghel, J.
Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are
Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua
This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…
...; (iii) When two parents or a parent and spouse resumed living together following a period of separation... dependent parent. (2) Surviving spouse. A statement by the surviving spouse or remarried surviving spouse... child. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) (4) Parent. A statement by a parent setting forth the month and year...
Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P
The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.
Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S
Aims To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. Methods 99 children aged 10–15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI—the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Results Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower −22.10 (CI 95% −24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=−11.8, BA LOA: lower −39.60 (CI 95% −42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Conclusions Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health status, and the risk factors associated with mild psychiatric disorders, of female foreign spouses (from Vietnam, Indonesia, and mainland China in southern Taiwan, and to understand the mental health needs of these women. Methods One hundred and twenty nine participants were willing to participate in this study. All participants fulfilled all questionnaires which included demographic information, the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, and the Mental Health Care Needs Questionnaire (MHCNQ. Results By multiple linear regression, neuroticism characteristics (p = 0.000, the dimension of knowledge of the level of their own psychological disturbance (p = 0.001, dimension of friends assistance (p = 0.033, and dimension of religion comfort (p = 0.041 in mental health care needs could be used to predict possible mild psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, SEM model showed that Indonesian or Vietnamese spouses have more likely degree in mental health care needs (β = -0.24, p = 0.003, compared with Chinese ones. A higher level of neuroticism was associated with a greater likelihood of mild psychiatric disorder (β = 0.54, p p = 0.013. A higher degree of mental health care needs was related to a greater likelihood of mild psychiatric disorder (β = 0.14, p = 0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, we have obtained a better understanding of the mental health status of female foreign spouses in transnational marriages, who face many difficulties. Indonesian or Vietnamese spouses tend to more likely degree in mental health care needs than Chinese spouses, and then indirectly influenced their mental health status. Some individuals with a neurotic personality are exposed to high risk and might suffer from mild psychiatric symptoms. The needs for psychological counseling and religion therapy were the first priority for these women, particularly the
Allen, S M; Goldscheider, F; Ciambrone, D A
Using data from a sample of married men and women undergoing treatment for cancer, we tested two potential hypotheses for the unequal representation of husbands and wives as spousal caregivers, including societal gender role norms and emotional closeness in the marital relationship. Multivariate analyses support both hypotheses; wives are only one third as likely as husbands to select their spouses as caregivers, and spouses who name their mates as confidants are three times more likely than those who do not to also name them as caregivers. We conclude that although gender role norms are key to caregiver selection, the intimacy inherent in the caregiving role renders an emotionally close marriage an important criterion to the selection of spouse as caregiver.
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang
This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cano, Annmarie; Leong, Laura E. M.; Williams, Amy M.; May, Dana K. K.; Lutz, Jillian R.
The communication of pain has received a great deal of attention in the pain literature; however, one form of pain communication—emotional disclosure of pain-related distress (e.g., sadness, worry, anger about pain)—has not been studied extensively. The current study examined the extent to which this form of pain communication occurred during an observed conversation with one’s spouse and also investigated the correlates and consequences of disclosure. Individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) and their spouses (N = 95 couples) completed several questionnaires regarding pain, psychological distress, and relationship distress as well as video recorded interactions about the impact of pain on their lives. Approximately two-thirds of ICPs (n = 65) disclosed their pain-related distress to their spouses. ICPs who reported greater pain severity, ruminative catastrophizing and affective distress about pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to disclose their distress to their spouses. Spouses of ICPs who disclosed only once or twice were significantly less likely to invalidate their partners whereas spouses of ICPs who disclosed at a higher rate were significantly more likely to validate their partners. Furthermore, spouses were more likely to engage in invalidation after attempting more neutral or validating responses, suggesting an erosion of support when ICPs engaged in high rates of disclosure. Correlates of spousal invalidation included both spouses’ helplessness catastrophizing, ICPs’ affective distress about pain, and spouses’ anxiety, suggesting that both partners’ distress are implicated in maladaptive disclosure-response patterns. Findings are discussed in light of pain communication and empathy models of pain. PMID:23059054
Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K
The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic ...
Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... spouses or incident to divorce (temporary). 1.1041-1T Section 1.1041-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Exchanges § 1.1041-1T Treatment of transfer of property between spouses or incident to divorce (temporary... of) a spouse or, if the transfer is incident to a divorce, a former spouse. The following questions...
Steenkamp, Maria M; Corry, Nida H; Qian, Meng; Li, Meng; McMaster, Hope Seib; Fairbank, John A; Stander, Valerie A; Hollahan, Laura; Marmar, Charles R
Approximately half of US service members are married, equating to 1.1 million military spouses, yet the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among military spouses remains understudied. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of eight mental health conditions in spouses of service members with 2-5 years of service. We employed baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a 21-year longitudinal survey following 9,872 military-affiliated married couples representing all US service branches and active duty, Reserve, and National Guard components. Couples were surveyed between 2011 and 2013, a period of high military operational activity associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Primary outcomes included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, alcohol misuse, insomnia, somatization, and binge eating, all assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. A total of 35.90% of military spouses met criteria for at least one psychiatric condition. The most commonly endorsed conditions were moderate-to-severe somatization symptoms (17.63%) and moderate-to-severe insomnia (15.65%). PTSD, anxiety, depression, panic, alcohol misuse, and binge eating were endorsed by 9.20%, 6.65%, 6.05%, 7.07%, 8.16%, and 5.23% of spouses, respectively. Having a partner who deployed with combat resulted in higher prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, and somatization. Spouses had lower prevalence of PTSD, alcohol misuse, and insomnia but higher rates of panic and binge eating than service members. Both members of a couple rarely endorsed having the same psychiatric problem. One third of junior military spouses screened positive for one or more psychiatric conditions, underscoring the need for high-quality prevention and treatment services. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1999 reveals a very strong negative educational gradient in divorce risk and no particularly harmful influence of heterogamy. Parent's education exerts a small positive effect, however. Among couples with the same current level of education, those who have taken education after entry into marriage display the highest divorce rate.
Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L
To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (ptic impairment ratings correlated with YGTSS (r=0.36 to 0.37; ptic and all 37 non-tic impairment items. For 29 items, children self-rated impairment higher for tics than non-tics. Diagnoses of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder had larger effects on parent impairment ratings. The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Kizildag, Seval; Yildirim, Ibrahim
The Spouse Emotional Jealousy Scale (SEJS) has been developed in order to measure spousal jealousy levels of married individuals in the frame of this study. In the process of developing the SEJS, which is the aim of this study, data was gathered from married people living in Ankara. SPSS and LISREL 8.7 were used for data analysis. After…
Wietzker, Anne; Buysse, Ann
Divorce is often accompanied by feelings of guilt toward the former spouse. So far, no scale has been available to measure such feelings. For this purpose, the authors developed the Guilt in Separation Scale (GiSS). Content validity was assured by using experts and lay experts to generate and select items. Exploratory analyses were run on samples…
Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S
To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. 99 children aged 10-15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI-the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower -22.10 (CI 95% -24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=-11.8, BA LOA: lower -39.60 (CI 95% -42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Peacock, Shelley; Sethi, Bharati; Williams, Allison; Duggleby, Wendy; Bayly, Melanie; Swindle, Jenny; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen
There is a paucity of research exploring how spouses to older adults with multiple chronic conditions make meaning of their caregiving experience. For this study, we asked: What is the experience of spousal caregivers to persons with multiple chronic conditions? We applied Thorne's interpretive description approach, interviewing 18 spouses who provided a rich description of their caregiving experience; interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Themes were categorized according to challenges encountered, rewards gleaned, and sustaining strategies employed by participants in caregiving to their spouse with multiple chronic conditions. Unique findings relate to the challenges inherent in decision-making within the context of multiple chronic conditions. This article begins to address the gap in the literature regarding the caregiving experience within the context of multiple chronic conditions.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose is to study how spouses of persons with dementia cope with losses and caregiving tasks during thedementia process and how their coping is related to the individual's and the couple's history of attachment. Thesample consists of 28 couples where one of the spouses has dementia. The caregiving spouses, aged 60-87, areinterviewed at an early stage of dementia and are followed up every 6-9 months over a periode of three years.The life situation is continually changing, and coping methods are repeatedly challenged. Coping with lossesand readjustments are dependent upon their need of the partner to feel safe. Different patterns of attachment behaviourare seen. Compulsive caregiving spouses attend to their spouse beyond their needs. Spouses in anxiousattachment often panic and try to fight back the symptoms of dementia. A pattern of compulsive self-sufficiencymanifests itself as arguing or withdrawal from the partner. Secure attachment makes it easier to accept thechanges, keep in contact and care. To understand the strains and coping of the spouses, we need to understandhow dementia triggers patterns of attachment behaviour. They need more than information on dementia andtraining in handling various symptoms. They need empathy and individually adapted interventions.INTRODUCTIONEmerging dementia with gradual mental deterioriationand increasing dependency ending in death, is frighteningto those involved, both to the person himself andto the family. The new situation disturbes an establishedbalance in the relationship and interferes withcommunication. Meaningful mutual contact and sharedmeaning is gradually lost.In the book ‘Living in the Labyrinth’ Diana FrielMcGowin, who had received a diagnosis of dementia,writes: ’My every molecule seems to scream out that Ido, indeed, exist, and that existence must be valued bysomeone! Without someone to walk this labyrinth bymy side, without the touch of a fellow traveller
Burns, John W; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J
Individuals with chronic pain may experience negative responses from spouse, family, and friends. Responses such as overt criticism and hostility may be associated with worsening pain and function for chronic pain sufferers. We used a laboratory procedure to evaluate whether variability in spouse criticism/hostility exhibited toward chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients during a conflictual discussion predicted variability in patient pain and function during a subsequent pain-induction task. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 71) and their spouses (n = 71) participated in a 10-minute discussion followed by the patient undergoing a 10-minute structured pain behavior task (SPBT). Spouse criticism/hostility perceived by patients and patient Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) scores correlated significantly and positively with pain intensity during the SPBT, whereas perceived spouse hostility, patient BDI scores, and spouse trait hostility correlated significantly and positively with observed pain behaviors during the SPBT. Spouse criticism/hostility coded by raters from video recordings interacted significantly with patient BDI scores, such that observed spouse criticism/hostility was related significantly and positively with pain behaviors only for patients with high BDI scores. Patient sex interacted significantly with observed spouse criticism/hostility, such that observed spouse criticism/hostility was related significantly and positively with pain behaviors only for female patients. Results support the hypothesis that spouse criticism and hostility-actually expressed or perceived-may worsen CLBP patient symptoms. Further, women patients and patients high in depressive symptoms appeared most vulnerable to spouse criticism/hostility. Thus, negative marital communication patterns may be appropriate targets for intervention, especially among these 2 at risk groups.
Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in their spouse or registered partner’s income or health insurance cover, must be reported to CERN in writing within 30 calendar days, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to it for the spouse or registered partner’s insurance cover. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2008, the indexed amounts of the supplementary monthly contribution for the different monthly income brackets are as follows, expressed in Swiss francs: more than 2500 CHF and up to 4250 CHF: 134.- more than 4250 CHF and up to 7500 CHF: 234.- more than 7500 CHF and up to 10,000 CHF: 369.- more than 10,000 CHF: 470.- It is in the member of the ...
... Forces initiative, we have partnered with the private sector to expand hiring for military spouses and..., let us pledge once more to serve them as well as they serve us. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA...
... spouses serve our country in their own special way, helping families and friends through the stress of a... their duties to family and country with the quiet courage and strength that has always exemplified the...
Solovyev, Aisen V; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Posukh, Olga L; Barashkov, Nikolay A; Bady-Khoo, Marita S; Lobov, Semen L; Popova, Natalya Yu; Romanov, Georgii P; Sazonov, Nikolay N; Bondar, Alexander A; Morozov, Igor V; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Fedorova, Sardana A; Khusnutdinova, Elza K
Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) caused by recessive GJB2 mutations is a frequent sensory disorder. The results of the molecular-based studies of HI are widely used in various genetic test systems. However, the ethical aspects are less described than the genetic aspects. The concerns expressed by individuals from groups with genetic risks must be included in the counseling of patients and their families. For evaluation of subjective opinions of hearing parents about the presumed causes of HI of their children, we analyze the cohort of parents having children with confirmed hereditary HI caused by biallelic recessive GJB2 mutations (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state). This study included 70 deaf children with HI due to mutations in the GJB2 gene and 91 questionnaires about the presumed causes of their deafness filled by their parents. Most of the parents at 78% (CI 68.4-85.4%) attributed their children's HI to "non-hereditary" causes and 22% (CI 14.7-31.6%) to "hereditary" causes (p < 0.05). Therefore, the prior opinions of the parents did not correspond to positive GJB2 genetic testing results. The subjective opinions of parents are probably partly based on family history, since respondents with deaf relatives in their pedigree more likely supposed hereditary causes for HI in their children than the respondents without deaf relatives (p < 0.001).
Full Text Available Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health and can be influenced by parental lifestyle habits and beliefs. Taking the above into account we aimed at locating predictors of parental induced exposure to SHS in the house and family car among 614 children who visited the emergency department of two large pediatric hospitals in Athens, Greece. The multivariate analysis revealed that the factors found to mediate household exposure to paternal SHS were the number of cigarettes smoked per day (O.R 1.13, p<0.001 while, having a non-smoking spouse had a protective effect (O.R 0.44, p=0.026. Maternally induced household SHS exposure was related to cigarette consumption. For both parents, child exposure to SHS in the family car was related to higher numbers of cigarettes smoked (p<0.001, and for fathers was also more often found in larger families. Additionally, lower educated fathers were more likely to have a spouse that exposes their children to SHS inside the family car (O.R 1.38 95%C.I: 1.04-1.84, p=0.026. Conclusively, efforts must be made to educate parents on the effects of home and household car exposure to SHS, where smoke free legislation may be difficult to apply.
Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Levy, Becca R; Keene, Danya E; Monin, Joan K
To determine how older adult spouses react to their partners' interpersonal suffering. Spouses of individuals with musculoskeletal pain were recorded describing their partners' suffering while their blood pressure (BP) was monitored. After the account, spouses described their distress. Speeches were transcribed and analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and coded for interpersonal content. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with interpersonal content variables predicting BP and distress. Exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti to explore mechanisms behind quantitative results. Describing partners' suffering as interpersonal and using social (family) words were associated with higher systolic BP reactivity. Husbands were more likely to describe partners' suffering as interpersonal. Qualitative results suggested shared stressors and bereavement-related distress as potential mechanisms for heightened reactivity to interpersonal suffering. Spouses' interpersonal suffering may negatively affect both men and women's cardiovascular health, and older husbands may be particularly affected. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kristensen, Pål; Heir, Trond; Herlofsen, Pål H; Langsrud, Øyvind; Weisæth, Lars
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.
Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Dahlström, Ulf; Fridlund, Bengt
Sleep related breathing disorders are common as well as a poor prognostic sign associated with higher mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). These patients often have a shorter total duration of sleep, disturbed sleep structure and increased daytime sleepiness, which can negatively affect all dimensions of the life situation. The spouse has an important role in supporting the patient in relation to sleep disorders, but this role may be adversely affected by the sleep situation of the couple. The aim of this study was to describe decisive situations that influence spouses' support to patients with CHF in relation to the couple's sleep situation. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Incidents were collected by means of interviews with 25 spouses of patients with CHF, strategically selected from two hospital-based specialist clinics in southern Sweden. Two main areas emerged in the analysis: support stimulating situations and support inhibiting situations. Support stimulating situations described how spouses' support was positively affected by their own adaptation in psychosocial or practical situations, and receiving help from others. Support inhibiting situations described how the spouses' support was negatively affected by sleep disturbances as a result of the patient's symptoms, anxiety in relation to the disease, limitations as a result of the sleeping habits, dissatisfaction with care related to the sleep situation, and being left to cope alone with the problems. An increased understanding of the stimulating and inhibiting situations influencing spouses' support for patients with CHF can guide health care personnel in deciding if an intervention is needed to improve the sleep situation for patient and spouse.
Duggleby, Wendy; Doell, Heather; Cooper, Dan; Thomas, Roanne; Ghosh, Sunita
The quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer may determine the support they are able to give their wives. Little is known about the factors associated with their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer with the following factors: (a) demographic variables of male spouses and their partners, (b) levels of hope of male spouses and their partners, (c) self-efficacy and loss and grief of male spouses, and (d) quality of life of partners with breast cancer. Six hundred surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer (stage 1-3) and their male spouses. A total of 110 surveys were completed. With the use of generalized linear modeling, participating male spouses with higher quality of life scores: (a) were older (P = .01), (b) had higher hope scores (P = .01), (c) had lower feelings of guilt scores (P life scores (P Hope, self-efficacy, feelings of guilt, age, and their partners' quality of life were significantly related to quality of life of the male spouses of women with breast cancer. The findings underscore the importance of assessing for and fostering hope and self-efficacy as well as decreasing guilt in male spouses of women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life.
Pinquart, Martin; Sörensen, Silvia
The present meta-analysis integrates the results from 168 empirical studies on differences between caregiving spouses, adult children, and children-in-law. Spouses differ from children and children-in-law significantly with regard to sociodemographic variables; also, they provide more support but report fewer care recipient behavior problems. Spouse caregivers report more depression symptoms, greater financial and physical burden, and lower levels of psychological well-being. Higher levels of...
Newcomer, Robert J.; Kang, Taewoon; Doty, Pamela
Purpose of the Study: Medicaid service use and expenditure and quality of care outcomes in California's personal care program known as In-Home Supportive Service (IHSS) are described. Analyses investigated Medicaid expenditures, hospital use, and nursing home stays, comparing recipients who have paid spouse caregivers with those having other…
Taylor, Carol G.; And Others
This study examined the court records of 206 seriously abused or neglected children and their families in a large urban area and found that in over half the records a parent had been diagnosed as having an emotional disorder and/or low intelligence, with a majority of these diagnoses indicating significant impairment. (Author/DB)
... in keeping our Armed Forces strong and our country safe. Our military spouses are a vital part of... we bear a sacred obligation to serve our men and women in uniform as well as they have served us, we...
Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa
Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P women in the intervention group was higher 3 months after intervention (P training of menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.
Olika, Ruth Erin Liselott
The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...
Shi, Li-Juan; Ou, Jian-Jun; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Su-Hong; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Zhu, Fu-Rong; Liu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Luo, Xue-Rong
Parents of children with autism have higher rates of broad autism phenotype (BAP) features than parents of typically developing children (TDC) in Western countries. This study was designed to examine the rate of BAP features in parents of children with autism and the relationship between parental BAP and the social impairment of their children in a Chinese sample. A total of 299 families with autistic children and 274 families with TDC participated in this study. Parents were assessed using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), which includes self-report, informant-report, and best-estimate versions. Children were assessed using the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Parents of children with autism were significantly more likely to have BAP features than were parents of TDC; mothers and fathers in families with autistic children had various BAP features. The total scores of the informant and best-estimate BAPQ versions for fathers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the autism group, whereas the total scores of the three BAPQ versions for mothers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the TDC group. In the autism group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents (informant and best-estimate) were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents. In the TDC group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents (best-estimate). Parents of autistic children were found to have higher rates of BAP than parents of TDC in a sample of Chinese parents. The BAP features of parents are associated with their children's social functioning in both autism families and TDC families, but the patterns of the associations are different.
Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan
In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS implantation. Methods: Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. Results: In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7% were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43Â Â±Â 3.59 years, meanÂ Â±Â SD. After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1Â Â±Â 38.0 to 272.4Â Â±Â 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. Conclusions: VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Key Words: children, refractory epilepsy, parenting stress, vagus nerve stimulation
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2003, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are : - more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- - more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- - more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- - more than 130'000 CHF: 468.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare as soon as possible a change in the annual income of his spouse in order that the contribution is adjusted w...
Bonanno, George A.; Papa, Anthony; Lalande, Kathleen; Zhang, Nanping; Noll, Jennie G.
In this study, the authors measured grief processing and deliberate grief avoidance and examined their relationship to adjustment at 4 and 18 months of bereavement for 2 types of losses (spouse, child) in 2 cultures (People's Republic of China, United States). Three hypotheses were compared: the traditional grief work assumption, a conditional…
Gibson, M C; Bol, N; Woodbury, M G; Beaton, C; Janke, C
Opinions regarding the appropriateness of elderly residents' sexual behaviors in a chronic care hospital and how to respond to inappropriate behaviors were surveyed. Study participation was open to all staff (N = 1,205), eligible residents (N = 182) and community-dwelling spouses (N = 103). Participation rates were 40% (residents), 42% (spouses), 34% (nursing staff), 50% (allied health staff), and 22% (support staff). Staff completed the questionnaire independently, while residents and spouses were offered self-completion or a structured interview. Almost all selected the interview. Residents and spouses were less tolerant than staff of residents' masturbating, engaging in sexual relationships, viewing sexual materials, and making sexual approaches to staff. Privacy was the primary determinant of appropriateness for behaviors for all groups. Staff and spouses were more likely to endorse counseling when behaviors were perceived as inappropriate than residents. Nurses endorsed counseling less frequently than allied health professionals and support staff. Nurses were more likely to have been approached sexually by a resident. Differences of opinion are interpreted in terms of cohort influences on values and contextual influences on behavior.
Brunella Tristão Simonelli
Full Text Available The adaptation of an expatriate is a function of several factors and family issues have been identified as potential influencers in the process. However, little is known about the effect of the existing role of the spouse in the adaptation of the expatriate. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the adjustment of expatriates and their spouses with the performance of the expatriate. It is a quantitative study with 217 couples in which one member of the couple occupied the expatriate position. The results showed no significant relationship between the adjustment of the spouse and the performance of the expatriate, but revealed that the adaptation of expatriate moderates the relationship between these variables. These results suggest that the adaptation of the spouse can have an indirect relationship on expatriate performance, via the expatriate’s adaptation. These findings support the idea that companies should invest in organizational support to facilitate a better fit of the expatriate and his spouse to the host country culture and to promote a higher individual performance.
Full Text Available Kerstin Kühl1, Wolfgang Schürmann2, Winfried Rief11Philipps University Marburg, Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Gutenbergstraße 18, D – 35032 Marburg, Germany; 2Private pulmonary practice, Bahnhofstraße 30, D – 35037 Marburg, GermanyAbstract: In the current study, the prevalence of the most common psychological disorders in COPD patients and their spouses was assessed cross-sectionally. The influence of COPD patients’ and their spouses’ psychopathology on patient health-related quality of life was also examined. The following measurements were employed: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second expressed in percentage predicted (FEV1%, Shuttle-Walking-Test (SWT, International Diagnostic Checklists for ICD-10 (IDCL, questionnaires on generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, European Quality of Life Questionnaire (EuroQol, a modified version of a Disability-Index (CDI, and a screening questionnaire for a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology (Symptom-Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. One hundred and forty-three stable COPD outpatients with a severity grade between 2 and 4 (according to the GOLD criteria as well as 105 spouses took part in the study. The prevalence of anxiety and depression diagnoses was increased both in COPD patients and their spouses. In contrast, substance-related disorders were explicitly more frequent in COPD patients. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that depression (SCL-90-R, walking distance (SWT, somatization (SCL-90-R, male gender, FEV1%, and heart disease were independent predictors of COPD patients’ health-related quality of life. After including anxiousness of the spouses in the regression, medical variables (FEV1% and heart disease no longer explained disability, thus highlighting the relevance of spouses’ well-being. The results underline the importance of depression
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne
Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during World War II. Results showed that about one third of spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. STS among spouses was related to hostility, anger and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but not to reminiscences with…
Ahmad, S; Mehmood, J; Awan, A B; Zafar, S T; Khoshnood, K; Khan, A A
An estimated 21% of injection drug users (IDUs) in Pakistan are HIV-positive and data suggest that the spouses of IDUs may be a critical component of the HIV transmission chain. This study interviewed 101 spouses of male IDUs about their sexual practices and drug use. We found that 43% had been sexually active with their partners in the past month but only 4% reported selling sex. Almost a quarter (23%) used drugs and 19% injected drugs, usually a combination of diazepam and pheniramine. Although sex work was infrequent among spouses of IDUs, their risk of contracting HIV and transmitting it to others was high because they received injection drugs, sometimes along with their IDU husbands, from the same health centres that provided therapeutic injections to the rest of the community. IDU spouses may thus serve as a bridge group via therapeutic injections, rather than via sex work.
Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W.
Narcissism is an important and consequential aspect of personality, yet we know little about its developmental origins. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families, we examined cross-lagged relations between parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, monitoring) and narcissism (superiority, exploitativeness). Parental hostility at age 12 was associated with higher levels of exploitativeness at age 14, whereas parental monitoring at age 12 was associated with lower levels of exploitativeness at age 14. These effects replicated across three different parenting measures: child reports, spouse reports, and behavioral coding of parent-child interactions. None of the parenting dimensions was related to superiority, suggesting that parenting practices are more strongly related to the maladaptive than the adaptive component of narcissism. PMID:28042186
Wawrziczny, Emilie; Pasquier, Florence; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal
The aim of this study was to explore the needs of spouse caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) and then to compare them based on the PWD's age at disease onset. This data could be used to adapt support programmes to address differences between the two groups. Thirty-eight spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia and 40 spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) agreed to participate in the study. The mean ± SD age of the PEOD was 57.6 ± 4.0 years, whereas it was 80.9 ± 5.3 years for the persons with late-onset dementia. Interviews were conducted in the spouse caregivers' homes with only the spouse caregiver. The semi-structured interviews were based on the French version of the Carers Outcome Agreement Tool. The interviews were analyzed in two steps. The first step was qualitative to identify needs. The data were thematically analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. The second step was quantitative to compare the needs depending on the PWD's age at onset. The comparison between the two groups was performed using the χ 2 test. The results demonstrated that the majority of needs are the same for the two groups of spouse caregivers. All caregivers need to unwind, to stimulate and pay attention to the PWD, to break the isolation, and to be more prepared and confident. However, some differences emerge, with the spouse caregivers of PEOD expressing a greater number of needs. The caregivers of PEOD seem to have a greater need to interact and maintain contacts with other people (P = 0.001), have more general care-related needs (P = 0.005), require more appropriate care structures (P = 0.037), and need greater assistance with administrative procedures (P = 0.004). To improve spouse caregivers' well-being and sense of efficiency, it would be interesting to develop a support programme with a common framework and specific modules depending on the PWD's age at disease onset. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Vazquez, Alejandro L; H Sibley, Margaret; Campez, Mileini
The DSM-5 requires clinicians to link ADHD symptoms to clinically meaningful impairments in daily life functioning. Measuring impairment during ADHD assessments may be particularly challenging in adolescence, when ADHD is often not the sole source of a youth's difficulties. Existing impairment rating scales are criticized for not specifying ADHD as the source of impairment in their instructions, leading to potential problems with rating scale specificity. The current study utilized a within subjects design (N = 107) to compare parent report of impairment on two versions of a global impairment measure: one that specified ADHD as the source of impairment (Impairment Rating Scale-ADHD) and a standard version that did not (Impairment Rating Scale). On the standard family impairment item, parents endorsed greater impairment as compared to the IRS-ADHD. This finding was particularly pronounced when parents reported high levels of parenting stress. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with greater concordance between the two versions. Findings indicate that adolescent family related impairments reported during ADHD assessments may be due to sources other than ADHD symptoms, such as developmental maladjustment. To prevent false positive diagnoses, symptom-specific wording may optimize impairment measures when assessing family functioning in diagnostic assessments for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uchudi, J M
Although the general objective of this study is to examine the extent to which spouses' socioeconomic characteristics determine whether modern contraception is used and whether family limitation (the demand for no more children) is desired, its central goal is to evaluate the degree to which the net effect of a woman's education on those fertility decisions is altered once a control is made for the level of schooling of the husband. Individual characteristics of spouses included as controls in this analysis are on the one hand women's attributes relating to employment, age, parity, ethnic identity, and urban residence and, on the other hand, the occupation of the husband. Data used in this research are provided by DHS surveys conducted in fourteen sub-Saharan countries: Mali. Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Senegal. Ghana, Central African Republic, Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Rwanda. With two dichotomous outcome variables, logistic regression was used to estimate two nested models for each dependent variable and for each country covered by the study. DHS respondents used as units of analysis in this study are women who were married (any kind of union) and non-pregnant at the time when each national survey was conducted. The findings suggest that, while an educated wife needs the support of an educated husband to state a preference for family limitation in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, controlling for husband's education and other relevant covariates does little to undermine the evidence that woman's advanced education and the adoption of modern family planning are positively related in the developing world.
L. E. Semenova
Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of modern fatherhood in the context of studying the personal experience of parenthood men - stepfathers and men biological fathers raising children of primary school age. The author presents the results of empirical studies of the specificity of a parental relationship stepfathers and their self-perception in the role of the father in view of the prevailing style of a parental relationship to the child of the spouse in comparison with similar parameters of personal experience in the family parenting fathers. Based on these data, the conclusion about the presence of qualitative differences in parental relation to stepfathers and biological fathers who are the predominance of the first ones are mostly unfavorable for the development of primary school children of parental attitude and, conversely, the predominance of the second is favorable for the development of the child of younger school age of parental attitude. Also noted for the fact of a high degree of coincidence in the system of self-perception of the subjects of the images "I" and "good father" with the prevalence in men is favorable for child development of parental attitude that, first of all, there is the biological fathers, and the differences of these images with the prevalence of adverse child development of parental attitude that is more common in stepfathers.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a personal history of drug use, an elevated anxiety score, and depression and exposure to physical abuse by their spouse may act as predictors of suicidal ideation or attempt in women with a drug user spouse. These findings may serve to benefit and support healthcare systems, associated with ongoing efforts to develop preventive programs for suicidal behavior in this population.
... forged. Our men and women in uniform take on the duty of protecting us all, and their spouses and... communities and our servicemembers. My Administration is committed to improving opportunities and quality of... servicemembers' compensation as well as funding for better housing, job training, counseling, outreach, and...
S. Mattessich, BS; K. Shea, MD; D. Whitaker-Worth, MD
Background: Women in medicine may feel pressure to choose between the competing demands of career goals and being a dedicated spouse and parent. Objective: The purpose of this survey study is to report on the current opinions of female dermatologists with regard to family planning, maternity leave, and career success. Methods: We surveyed 183 members of the Women’s Dermatologic Society using a 13-question survey that was approved for distribution by the institutional review board commit...
Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287
Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.
preferences are a barrier to spouse employment and education , and child care affordability is a particular concern. In the 2015 ADSS, the top two...top career fields, self-employment rates, licensure/certification requirements, and reasons for not working); however, some important differences...emerged, including the spouse unemployment rate, desire to work and educational enrollment among unemployed spouses, and spouses’ use of financial
Stallard, P; Williams, L; Lenton, S; Velleman, R
AIM—To detail the everyday occurrence of pain in non-communicating children with cognitive impairment. METHODS—Thirty four parents of cognitively impaired verbally non-communicating children completed pain diaries over a two week period. Each day, for five defined periods, parents rated whether their child had been in pain, and if so, its severity and duration. RESULTS—Twenty five (73.5%) children experienced pain on at least one day, with moderate or severe levels of pai...
Spahn, Claudia; Richter, Bernhard; Burger, Thorsten; Löhle, Erwin; Wirsching, Michael
The aim of the present study was to compare the parents of children with a hearing aid (HA) and children with a cochlear implant (CI) regarding their psychological distress, their expectations from treatment, their family climate, and the way they first obtained information on HA/CI. 154 parents (return quota 41%; 81 mothers and 73 fathers) of 90 children with a HA and 103 parents (return quota 59%; 57 mothers and 46 fathers) of 57 children with a CI were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. Both groups of parents felt distressed, particularly at the time of diagnosis. Their psychological well-being was gradually stabilized in the further course of rehabilitation. Due to the operation associated with it, fitting with a CI brought on a phase of heightened parental psychological distress compared with less invasive treatment with a HA. Regarding family climate, more distress was found in parents of CI children than in parents of HA children. Expectations from therapy appeared realistic in both parental groups; however, after CI fitting, the parents of the CI children showed heightened expectations by comparison with the parents of the HA children. The results of our study suggest that the parents of hearing impaired children fitted with a HA or a CI may be divided into two subgroups with divergent psychosocial parameters. For the counseling of the parents of hearing impaired children in clinical practice, it would seem important to take these specific differences into consideration.
Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of
Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick
Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…
Burns, John W; Gerhart, James I; Bruehl, Stephen; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J
To determine the degree to which anger arousal and anger regulation (expression, inhibition) in the daily lives of people with chronic pain were related to spouse support, criticism, and hostility as perceived by patients and as reported by spouses. Married couples (N = 105, 1 spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. On these diaries, patients completed items on their own anger arousal, anger expression, and inhibition, and on perceived spouse support, criticism, and hostility. Spouses reported on their responses toward patients and their negative affect. Hierarchical linear modeling tested concurrent and lagged relationships. Patient-reported increases in anger arousal and anger expression were predominantly related to concurrent decreases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse support, concurrent increases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse criticism and hostility, and increases in spouse-reported negative affect. Relationships for anger expression remained significant with anger arousal controlled. These effects were especially strong for male patients. Spouses reported greater negative affect when patients were present than when they were not. Social support may facilitate adjustment to chronic pain, with declining support and overt criticism and hostility possibly adversely impacting pain and function. Results suggest that patient anger arousal and expression may be related to a negative interpersonal environment for married couples coping with chronic low back pain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mikolajczak, Moïra; Brianda, Maria Elena; Avalosse, Hervé; Roskam, Isabelle
Parental burnout is a specific syndrome resulting from enduring exposure to chronic parenting stress. It encompasses three dimensions: an overwhelming exhaustion related to one's parental role, an emotional distancing from one's children and a sense of ineffectiveness in one's parental role. This study aims to facilitate further identification of the consequences of parental burnout for the parents themselves, their spouses and their child(ren). In a sample of 1551 parents, we examined the relationship between parental burnout and seven possible consequences: escapism and suicidal thoughts, addictions, sleep disorders, marital conflicts, a partner estrangement mindset, and neglect and violence towards one's child(ren). We examined (1) to what extent parental and job burnout related to each of these possible consequences and (2) whether parental burnout is specifically related to neglectful and violent behaviour towards one's child(ren). The results suggest that parental burnout has a statistically similar effect to job burnout on addictions and sleep problems, a stronger effect on couples' conflicts and partner estrangement mindset and a specific effect on child-related outcomes (neglect and violence) and escape and suicidal ideation. These results emphasize the importance of accurately diagnosing this syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shakya, Holly B
Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of..., RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.4 Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of kin, or interested... (or in advance thereof, if possible), provide for notification of his legal guardian, or in the...
Parents are influential over mate choice, and in most human societies they choose spouses for their offspring according to their own preferences. However, surprising little is known about the qualities which make a woman desirable as a daughter-in-law and a man desirable as a son-in-law. Using evidence from 67 societies such traits are identified and three hypotheses are tested: first, the hypothesis is tested that parents desire in an in-law qualities which are beneficial to them and their kin. Second, it is hypothesized that such preferences are contingent upon the sex of the in-law, as traits are weighted differently in a daughter-in-law and in a son-in-law. The third hypothesis tested is that parental preferences vary according to the subsistence type of a given society, as traits are valued differently in agropastoral societies and foraging societies. The evidence presented here provides support for all three hypotheses.
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.
Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J
Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Human Resources Division
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the affiliation of the spouse to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2002, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual income of his/her spouse as soon as possible in order to adjust contributions with the m...
Gorin, Amy A; Lenz, Erin M; Cornelius, Talea; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D
For married couples, when one spouse participates in weight loss treatment, the untreated spouse can also experience weight loss. This study examined this ripple effect in a nationally available weight management program. One hundred thirty dyads were randomized to Weight Watchers (WW; n = 65) or to a self-guided control group (SG; n = 65) and assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 25 years, BMI 27 to 40 kg/m 2 (≥ 25 kg/m 2 for untreated spouses), and no weight loss contraindications. WW participants received 6 months of free access to in-person meetings and online tools. SG participants received a weight loss handout. Spouses did not receive treatment. Untreated spouses lost weight at 3 months (WW = -1.5 ± 2.9 kg; SG = -1.1 ± 3.3 kg) and 6 months (WW = -2.2 ± 4.2 kg; SG = -1.9 ± 3.6 kg), but weight losses did not differ by condition. Overall, 32.0% of untreated spouses lost ≥ 3% of initial body weight by 6 months. Baseline weight was significantly correlated within couples (r = 0.26; P ripple effect was found in untreated spouses in both formal and self-guided weight management approaches. These data suggest that weight loss can spread within couples, and that widely available lifestyle programs have weight loss effects beyond the treated individual. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Gupta, Ritu; Banerjee, Pratyush; Gaur, Jighyasu
This study is an attempt to strengthen the existing knowledge about factors affecting the adjustment process of the trailing expatriate spouse and the subsequent impact of any maladjustment or expatriate failure. We conducted a qualitative enquiry using grounded theory methodology with 26 Indian spouses who had to deal with their partner's…
Johansson, Ingela; Swahn, Eva; Strömberg, Anna
Delay from onset of acute myocardial infarction symptoms to the delivery of medical care is a major determinant of prognosis. Although studies have explored patient reasons for delay, there are only limited data concerning experiences of the spouse. Was to describe spouses' conceptions of the pre-hospital phase when their partners suffered an acute myocardial infarction. A phenomenographic approach was applied. Fifteen spouses were interviewed rational, and consulting others. The category respecting independence contained: accepting the need for control, marital roles and experiences, restraining emotions, and seeking agreement. Our findings suggest that spouses have a strong influence on the course of events. When accepting the partner's need for control through following earlier marital roles and experiences, restraining own emotions and seeking agreement, this seemed to contribute to delay. However, when the spouse was resourceful by sharing the experience, having knowledge, understanding the severity, being rational and consulting others when needed, this seemed to have a positive influence on the pre-hospital time.
by many employers in the private sector . The income that a retired worker receives from the TSP will depend on the balance in his or her account. For...7 Disposable Retired Pay ............................................................................................................. 7 Life ...18 Working Spouses and Dual-Service Couples
Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar
Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S.; Verey, A.; Greenberg, N.; Fear, N. T.
Aim Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel.Methods Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were ...
... to revise the table of reduction factors for early commencing dates of survivor annuities for spouses... annuities, and to revise the annuity factor for spouses of deceased employees who die in service when those... precedence under 5 U.S.C. 8424, he or she may elect to receive the unexpended balance instead of an annuity...
Shahida, S.; Khurshid, S.
To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)
Full Text Available First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR in children with specific language impairment (SLI and typically developing children (TD in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11 and percent correct consonants (PCC (d = 1.79. The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12, and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49. The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037, and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7. When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47 than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57. Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and
König, Markus; Pfarr, Christian; Zweifel, Peter
Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual (rather than conventional unilateral) altruism. Contingent valuation experiments were conducted in 2000-2002, involving 126 Alzheimer patients and their caregiving spouses living in the Zurich metropolitan area (Switzerland). WTP values for three hypothetical treatments of the demented patient were elicited. The treatment Stabilization prevents the worsening of the disease, bringing dementia to a standstill. Cure restores patient health to its original level. In No burden, dementia takes its normal course while caregiver's burden is reduced to its level before the disease. The three different types of therapies are reflected in different WTP values of both caregivers and patients, suggesting that moderate levels of Alzheimer's disease still permit clear expression of preference. According to the WTP values found, patients do not rank Cure higher than No burden, implying that their preferences are entirely altruistic. Caregiving spouses rank Cure before Burden, reflecting less than perfect altruism which accounts for some 40 percent of their total WTP. Still, this constitutes evidence of mutual altruism. VALUE: The evidence suggests that WTP values reflect individuals' preferences even in Alzheimer patients. The estimates suggest that an economically successful treatment should provide relief to caregivers, with its curative benefits being of secondary importance.
According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1...
Kukulu, Kamile; Buldukoglu, Kadriye; Keser, Ibrahim; Keser, Ilkay; Simşek, Mehmet; Mendilcioğlu, Inanç; Lüleci, Güven
To evaluate both women's and their spouses' reasons for undergoing amniocentesis, their concerns relating to the procedure as well as their psychological reactions and coping mechanisms during the testing period. Eighty-five women undergoing amniocentesis and their spouses took part in the study. The couples completed a questionnaire that provided demographic data and insights into their experiences of amniocentesis. Age was the main reason for undergoing amniocentesis. When they first learned that they were going to undergo amniocentesis, women were more concerned about the potential danger to their fetus than their spouses. Most of participants believed that their pregnancy would continue after amniocentesis. However, they also stated that they were prepared for an abortion. Uncertainty and tension were two significant emotions experienced by couples while waiting for the test results. For the majority of women (80%) and men (42.3%) the strongest support was provided by their spouses during this period. In summary, we can conclude that the test did have a major psychological impact on both women and their spouses, but did not have a negative impact on their coping mechanisms. The psychological impact of amniocentesis on women and their spouses does not constitute a major obstacle to their ability to cope. However, a certain number of couples reported feelings of uncertainty, tension and anxiety about fetal injury. We strongly suggest that counseling should be given to high-risk families and that prenatal/antenatal care units must be established.
Full Text Available To investigate the association between spouse weekly working hours (SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.This cross-sectional study was based on the data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Data of 16,917 participants (8,330 husbands, 8,587 wives were used for this analysis. The participants' clinical data were collected to estimate the 10-years risk of CVD, as well as weekly working hours. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD. We also performed a stratified analysis according to each participant's and their spouse's employment status.Compared to those whose spouses worked 30 hours per week, estimated 10-years risk of CVD was significantly higher as SWWH increase among those whose spouses worked >30 hours per week. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio for high CVD risk was found to increase as SWWH increased, up to 2.52 among husbands and 2.43 among wives. We also found that the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD varied according to the employment status. Analysis of each component included in the CVD appraisal model showed that SWWH had close relationship with diabetes in men, and smoking habits in women.Spouse's long working hours are associated with individual's risk of CVD in future, especially among husbands.
Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda
We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Separation of property is defined as a principle of matrimonial regime such as, «Alimony» (Nafaqe, «Seal» (Mahriyeh and «Quantum Meruit» (Ojrat al-Mesl, in Iranian family law. Matrimonial regime in family law is- beside some other especial factors- mainly dependent on the "separation of property regime". But the result of this regime is not perfect. It seems that these factors are unable to create financial equality between spouses which is the main character of modern family law. In order to improve the financial structure of families and accommodate it with modern family requirements, we should redefine matrimonial regimes, for that to be able to create economic equality between spouses. There fore, it is recommended that the legislature, inspired by experiences of other legal systems, starts to modify the regime of separation and prepare the choice of “community of property” between spouses besides the currently existing financial regime.
Families in which one or both parents are gay or lesbian are becoming increasingly common as social acceptance of this lifestyle increases and legal barriers slowly erode. Despite past concerns and occasional reports to the contrary, the bulk of research has shown no evidence that children of parents who are gay or lesbian suffer any greater physical or mental pathology than children of heterosexual parents. However, research does suggest that there may be ways in which health care providers can be more respectful and supportive of homosexual parents and their families. Health care providers should examine their own attitudes toward these families and consider how to provide a welcoming environment and presence. Using gender neutral language about spouses, displaying posters and publications related to varied family types, and acknowledging both parents as participants in care are some examples. Health care providers who are aware of the special concerns these parents and their children may have, including stigmatization, the issue of disclosure, teasing, feeling different, and the stress resulting from challenges faced due to anti-homosexual social attitudes, can demonstrate sensitivity to the involved children and provide families with anticipatory guidance, support, suggested reading material, and referrals to appropriate organizations.
Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isaac, Carol; Petrashek, Kara; Steiner, Megan; Manwell, Linda Baier; Byars-Winston, Angela; Carnes, Molly
As the numbers of female physicians continue to grow, fewer medical marriages are comprised of the traditional dyad of male physician and stay-at-home wife. The "two-career family" is an increasingly frequent state for both male and female physicians' families, and dual-doctor marriages are on the rise. This qualitative study explored the contemporary medical marriage from the perspective of male spouses of female physicians. In 2010, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with nine spouses of internal medicine resident and faculty physicians. Interviewers queried work-home balance, career choices, and support networks. We used an interpretive, inductive, iterative approach to thematically analyze interview transcripts and develop broad, consensus-derived themes. A conceptual framework based on three major themes emerged: "A time for us? Really?", "Supporting and protecting her, sometimes at my expense,'" and "Hers is a career, mine is a job." This framework described the inflexibility of physicians' time and its impact on spousal time, career development, and choices. Having a set time for synchronizing schedules, frequent verbal support, and shared decision-making were seen as important by the husbands of female, full-time physicians. This exploratory study examined the contemporary medical marriage from the male spouse's perspective and highlights specific strategies for success.
Reasons for involvement in spouse sharing include the need for economic support, sexual satisfaction, increased social status, procreation, the problems of separation/divorce and widowhood. The focus group discussions revealed a possible exploitation of the gender-based economic weakness of the women by the men ...
Kruithof, Willeke J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M
Studies into caregivers usually have been focused on negative caregiving experiences. This study is based on the hypotheses that positive caregiving experiences (i.e., self-esteem derived from caregiving) of spouses of stroke patients also need to be taken into account, and that these are related to life satisfaction in 2 ways: first, by a direct association with life satisfaction, and second, indirectly by way of a buffer effect (i.e., by compensating for the impact of negative caregiving experiences on life satisfaction). In this cross-sectional study (n = 121) 3 years poststroke, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment was used to assess caregiver burden (Burden) and self-esteem derived from caregiving (Self-esteem scale). Life satisfaction was measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9). Spearman correlations and regression analyses were performed. Both Self-esteem and Burden scores were associated with life satisfaction (correlation coefficients 0.35 and -0.74, respectively). An interaction effect was also found (P = .006); spouses who perceived both high Burden and high Self-esteem reported significantly higher life satisfaction scores (mean 4.2, standard deviation [SD] 0.5) than spouses who perceived high Burden but low Self-esteem (mean 3.6, SD 0.7). Positive caregiving experiences are related to spouses' life satisfaction 3 years poststroke and mediate the impact of burden on life satisfaction. Positive caregiving experiences should get more attention in rehabilitation research and practice. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, E; Mackinnon, A; Waters, E
Parent-proxy reports of quality of life (QOL) are often used to guide decisions about children with cerebral palsy (CP), although little is known about the factors that influence parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the relationship between parental psychosocial distress and parent proxy-reported QOL; and (ii) whether parental psychosocial distress mediates the relationship between child impairment and proxy-reported QOL. A sample of 201 primary caregivers of children aged 4-12 years with CP completed the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children, a condition-specific QOL instrument, and a measure of psychosocial distress, the Kessler 10. The children, evenly distributed by gender (56% male) were sampled across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels (Level I = 18%, II = 28%, III = 14%, IV = 11%, V = 27%). Consistent with the hypotheses, parental distress was negatively correlated with all domains of parent proxy-reported QOL (r = -0.18 to r = -0.55). The relationship between impairment and proxy-reported QOL was mediated by parental distress for five of the seven domains of QOL (social well-being and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional well-being and self-esteem, and pain and impact of disability). Child impairment did not predict access to services or family health. This is the first study that assesses the relationship between parental distress and proxy-reported QOL for children with CP. Although the cross-sectional nature of the available data precludes any statements of causality, the results suggest that, when using parent proxy, the parents' psychological state should also be measured. This is particularly important when, as is often the case for child disability research, proxy-reported QOL are the only available data. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sherief, Laila M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abdalrahman, Hadel M; Youssef, Doaa M; Abd Alhady, Mohamed A; Ali, Adel S A; Abd Elbasset, Maha Aly; Hashim, Hiatham M
To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents.The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients.The study revealed significant low level of self-esteem in 84.83% of patients. Their parents had significant psychological stress. PSI was significantly associated with parents' low sense of competence, negative attachment to their children, feeling of high restriction, high depression, poor relation to spouse, high social isolation variables of parent's domains. It was significantly associated with low distraction, negative parents' reinforcement, low acceptability, and high demanding variables of child's domains. Long duration of disease was the most detrimental factor among demographic data of the patients.Chemotherapy for ALL has a significant impact on the psychological status of both patients and their parents with high prevalence of low self-esteem in children and high degree of stress in their parents.
Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W
The relationship with a former spouse and its impact on marital satisfaction were examined in a sample of 290 remarried individuals. There was little continued attachment and friendship with the former spouse; although infrequent, feelings of hostility were still more common than either friendship
Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Rantala, Markus J
Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.
Urszula M Marcinkowska
Full Text Available Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.
Fredman, Steffany J; Le, Yunying; Marshall, Amy D; Brick, Timothy R; Feinberg, Mark E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with disruptions in both couple functioning and parenting, and limited research suggests that, among military couples, perceptions of couple functioning and parenting stress are a function of both one's own and one's partner's mental health symptoms. However, this work has not been generalized to civilian couples, and little is known about the associations between PTSD symptoms and family adjustment in specific family developmental contexts. We examined PTSD symptoms' associations with perceived couple functioning and parenting stress within a dyadic context in civilian couples who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program and at least one member of the couple reported having experienced a Criterion A1 traumatic event. Results of actor-partner interdependence models revealed that parents' own and partners' PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with perceived couple functioning; contrary to expectation, the association of partners' PTSD symptoms with perceived couple functioning was strongest among men who received the intervention. A parent's own PTSD symptoms were positively associated with parenting stress for both men and women and were unexpectedly strongest for men who received the intervention. Partner PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with increased parenting stress for both men and women. Findings support a dyadic conceptualization of the associations between spouses' PTSD symptoms and family outcomes during the transition to parenthood and suggest that participating in a couple-based, psychoeducational program during this phase in the family life cycle may be particularly salient for men.
Geurts, Hilde; Embrechts, Mariëtte
Pragmatic assessment methods are very diverse and differ in informant type. Some rely on parents, others on teachers/professionals and some directly test pragmatic abilities in the children themselves. A widely used pragmatic parent questionnaire is the Children's Communication Checklist--2 (CCC-2). However, it is not known how scores on the CCC-2 relate to direct measures of pragmatics. The aim of the current study is determine whether children's language patterns on pragmatics obtained with a parent questionnaire were converging with findings when the children were directly tested with a pragmatic test. The CCC-2 and the Nijmegen Pragmatics Test (NPT) were applied to 24 pre-schoolers (aged 4-7 years) with various language impairments and 33 age-matched typically developing pre-schoolers. Both pragmatic language instruments clearly differentiated between pre-schoolers with language impairments and those without language impairments. However, the obtained correlations between the different measures were low to moderate. The specificity of each of the instruments was sufficient, but the sensitivity was generally poor. The instruments were not always converging, but when the instruments did converge the obtained results were valid. However, the obtained high specificity and relatively low sensitivity values for each of the instruments showed that better cut-off scores are needed. When only one of the instruments indicated the absence or presence of language impairments, one needs to be careful in concluding whether or not there are indeed language impairments.
Human Resources Department
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. Changes to the rules and simplification to the system are currently being prepared and should be operational by mid-2005. Meanwhile from 1.1.2005, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 459.- It is in the member o...
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in the spouse or registered partner's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse or registered partner's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse or registered partner. From 1.1.2007, for the following monthly income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 2'500 CHF and up to 4'250 CHF: 134.- more than 4'250 CHF and up to 7'500 CHF: 234.- more than 7'500 CHF and up to 10'000 CHF: 369.- more than 10'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual ...
Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Koca, Irfan; Celen, Esra; Korkmaz, Nurdan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of life and psychological condition of female patients with fibromyalgia and their spouses on sexual function. A total of 32 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their spouses were analyzed. Thirty married couples were included in the study as the control group. The demographic data of the fibromyalgia patients were recorded, a visual analog scale was used to evaluate the level of pain, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the symptoms on the quality of life of the patients. The quality of life of both the patients and the control group were evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and psychological variables were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index for female participants and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for male participants. The IIEF erectile dysfunction scores were significantly lower in the spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia than in the control group (p fibromyalgia (p fibromyalgia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). In all spouses of FMS patients and controls, there was a significantly negative correlation between erectile function, the BDI score, and to be married with FMS patient and positive correlations between erectile function and emotional role, social function, mental health, SF-36 pain score, and general health (p fibromyalgia might significantly interfere with quality of life and lead to a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Spouses of patients with fibromyalgia might also be investigated for sexual dysfunction and quality of life. Treatment programs for this group should be considered.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519
Carlson, Dawn S; Thompson, Merideth J; Crawford, Wayne S; Boswell, Wendy R; Whitten, Dwayne
The use of mobile technology for work purposes during family time has been found to affect employees' work and family lives. Using a matched sample of 344 job incumbents and their spouses, we examined the role of mobile device (MD) use for work during family time in the job incumbent-spouse relationship and how this MD use crosses over to affect the spouse's work life. Integrating the work-home resources model with family systems theory, we found that as job incumbents engage in MD use for work during family time, work-to-family conflict increases, as does the combined experience of relationship tension between job incumbents and spouses. This tension serves as a crossover mechanism, which then contributes to spouses' experience of family-to-work conflict and, subsequently, family spills over to work outcomes for the spouse in the form of reduced job satisfaction and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Skapinsky, Kaley F; Persky, Susan; Lewis, Megan; Goergen, Andrea; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D; Hadley, Donald; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M
Family health history is an accessible, clinically-recommended genomic tool that improves health risk evaluation. It captures both genetic and modifiable risk factors that cluster within families. Thus, families represent a salient context for family health history-based interventions that motivate engagement in risk-reducing behaviors. While previous research has explored how individuals respond to their personal risk information, we extend this inquiry to consider how individuals respond to their spouse's risk information among a sample of Mexican-Americans. One hundred and sixty spouse-dyads within Mexican-heritage households received a pedigree or a pedigree and personalized risk assessments, with or without behavioral recommendations. Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to assess the relationship between risk feedback, both personal and spouse, and self-reported physical activity levels at 3-month and 10-month assessments, controlling for baseline levels. The effect of being identified as an encourager of spouse's healthy weight was also evaluated. Personal feedback had no effect on participants' physical activity at either 3- or 10-month assessments. However, husbands' risk information was associated with wives' physical activity levels at 3-month assessment, with women whose husbands received both increased risk feedback and behavioral recommendations engaging in significantly higher physical activity levels than all other women. At 10-month follow-up, physical activity levels for both husbands and wives differed depending on whether they encouraged their spouse's healthy weight. Spousal risk information may be a stronger source of motivation to improve physical activity patterns than personal risk information, particularly for women. Interventions that activate interpersonal encouragement among spouses may more successfully extend intervention effects. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Successful recruiting and retention of the active duty force relies in large part on the extent to which service members and their spouses experience both job satisfaction and contentment with life in the military...
... children and step-children; an individual's brothers, sisters, parents, adoptive parents, and the spouses... are set aside for the burial arrangements of the eligible child's ineligible parent or parent's spouse... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation impossible...
OIF and Operation New Dawn - OND) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom – OEF). The goal was to build spouses’ resilience to cope with...mental or physical health, self- reported/perceived health, medical conditions (diabetes, depressive symptoms, hypertension , heart disease, cancer...at least one month post deployment from serving in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom – OIF, Operation New Dawn – OND) or Afghanistan (Operation Enduring
Bove, Dorthe Gaby; Zakrisson, Ann-Britt; Midtgaard, Julie; Lomborg, Kirsten; Overgaard, Dorthe
To explore how spouses of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience their role as informal caregiver. Informal caregiver spouses are of pivotal importance in the way that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cope with their daily life, including their opportunity to stay at home and avoid hospitalisations in the last stages of the disease. However, caregiving is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among caregivers. Further understanding of the role as an informal caregiver spouse of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is needed to develop supportive interventions aimed at reducing the caregiver burden. The study had a qualitative exploratory design. The data collection and analysis were based on framework method. Framework method is a thematic methodology and consists of five key stages: familiarisation, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting and mapping & interpretation. Three focus groups were conducted in November 2013 with 22 spouses of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Undefined and unpredictable responsibility was found to be the overarching theme describing the informal caregiver role. Underlying themes were: being constantly in a state of alertness, social life modified, maintaining normality, ambivalence in the relationship and a willingness to be involved. The informal caregiver spouses experienced ambiguity about expectations from their private and the health professionals' surroundings. The informal caregiver spouses wanted to provide meaningful care for their partners, but sought knowledge and support from the health professionals. We recommend that nurses take on the responsibility for including the informal caregiver spouses in those aspects of decision-making that involve the common life of the patients and their spouses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...
Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses
Abstract Collaborative Parent Counseling in Music Therapy (PCiMT) for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is a clinical approach, in which the music therapist conducts both the individual MT sessions for the child as well as the counseling sessions for the parents. This practice...... is now being tested in my PhD research. Description Early parent-child relationship, represented commonly by reciprocal musical-wise interaction (Stern, 1985), is interrupted by organic impairments, sourced at the core of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Parenting a child with ASD involves great...
..., accept, or receive contributions of money or the paid or unpaid services of a business or corporation, or... appear with her spouse in a political advertisement or a broadcast, and urge others to vote for her...
Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...
Brice, Roanne G.; Brice, Alejandro
This second article of a two-part case study focuses on the experiences of a patient and his spouse (caregiver) when a neurological trauma occurs. It is the personal account when A.B. survived a vertebral artery aneurysm and hemorrhage resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is also an in-depth post-trauma account from two speech-language…
Lodha, Abhay; Lakhani, Jahan; Ediger, Krystyna; Tang, Selphee; Lodha, Arijit; Gandhi, Vardhil; Creighton, Dianne
Investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years corrected age in infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents. Infants born between 1995 and 2010 with a birth weight ≤1250 g were considered eligible. Primary outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment; considered present if a child had any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, visual impairment, or deafness/neurosensory hearing impairment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1900 infants were eligible for inclusion. Follow-up data were available for 1395; 88 were born to a single parent. Infants in the single-parent group had higher mortality (18% vs. 11%, p = 0.009), IQ ≥1 SD below the mean (40% vs. 21%, p = 0.001) and any neurodevelopmental impairment (47% vs. 29%, p = 0.003). Single-parent family status, maternal education, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe neurological injury were significant predictors of intellectual impairment at 3 years corrected age. Preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents at birth have poorer intellectual functioning at 3 years corrected age.
Full Text Available Matrimonial regime is the synthesis of all the rights and obligations of spouses pecuniary valence, having its origins in the institution of marriage, leaving outside their regulatory and other economic issues that may arise property relationships between spouses, as: maintenance obligation, Liberties rights of inheritance. matrimonial regime, considering that it is the synthesis of all the rights and obligations of spouses pecuniary valence, having its origins in the institution of marriage, leaving outside their regulatory and other economic issues that may arise property relationships between spouses, such as: the obligation maintenance, Liberties, rights of Inheritance. Under company law, spouses are not forbidden to own a company, whether it one partnerships, or that they have an association with unlimited in a limited partnership or limited by shares or a company is limited or become shareholders in a joint stock company.
Full Text Available The new Civil Code has come to meet the diversification and complexity of social relationships, the growing interference between economic and social life in Romania and the one in Europe and in the world and not least the connection in a greater extent of the Romanian law to the European law. The issues which could occur, given precisely such interconnection with the European law, are those which give rise to issues of civil law enforcement in space, especially when the question would be the application of the Romanian civil law or the foreign civil law, and one of the typical situations in this respect is the law governing parental authority when spouses have different nationalities and misunderstandings arise between them regarding parental authority. Our analysis starts from a hypothetical case, but which may occur in fact, namely the intention of the parent in whose favour was handed down the custody ruling concerning the child, to move in another state together with the child, without having the agreement of the other parent in this respect.
Banks, J Burton
Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.
Anderson, Jared R; Novak, Joshua R; Johnson, Matthew D; Deitz, Sharon L; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C
Using dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a number of specific patient and spouse stressors (chronic life stress, diabetes-specific stress, and physical health stress in the form of the number of comorbidities) were associated with Type 2 diabetes patients' dietary and exercise adherence through two potentially modifiable patient and spouse factors-depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. We found that patient and spouse stressors, particularly patient and spouse diabetes stress and the number of patient comorbidities, were related to patient dietary and exercise adherence through patient depression symptoms and both patient and spouse diabetes self-efficacy. These conclusions were strengthened by incorporating a number of relevant control variables in our models and by testing four alternative models which supported our proposed model. These results are important because they provide further evidence of the significant role spouses' play in managing diabetes and they provide diabetes educators and clinicians with specific targets for intervention programming.
Park, Eliza M; Deal, Allison M; Yopp, Justin M; Edwards, Teresa; Stephenson, Elise M; Hailey, Claire E; Nakamura, Zev M; Rosenstein, Donald L
To elicit widowed fathers' perspectives on which domains of parenting-related communication they consider most important for dying parents to discuss at the end of life (EOL). Two hundred seventy nine fathers widowed by cancer completed a survey about their own depression and bereavement symptoms, their wife's illness, and EOL parental communication priorities. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used to evaluate relationships between maternal EOL characteristics and fathers' responses to parenting-related EOL communication priorities. Fathers identified raising children in a manner that reflected maternal wishes, whether/how to talk with children about their mother's death, and how the mother wanted to be remembered as the most important EOL communication domains. Fathers who reported that their dying wives were worried about the children were more likely to prioritize raising children in ways that reflect her wishes (p=0.01). Other EOL characteristics were not associated with communication domains. Communicating with children and maintaining emotional connection with the deceased parent are important priorities for bereaved fathers who lost a spouse to cancer. Health care providers working with seriously ill parents may improve family outcomes by supporting communication at the EOL between co-parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale
Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…
Malinen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Sevón, Eija; Schoebi, Dominik
Designing parenting interventions and preventions requires knowledge on the factors and processes that shape parenting behaviors. Using data collected over 10 days, during the last hour of work and before going to bed, this study examined the spillover of interpersonal work stresses into positive and negative parenting behaviors. Data were collected among 103 couples who had at least one child between the age of one and eight years. Of particular interest was the role of received emotional spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. Dyadic variants of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that on days on which mothers or fathers reported stressful interpersonal interactions in the workplace, they also reported less positive parenting behaviors. In addition, mothers reported more negative parenting behaviors on days characterized by these kinds of work experiences. Mothers and fathers were found to report more positive parenting behaviors, and mothers less negative parenting behaviors, on the days on which they received more spousal support. Received spousal support also moderated spillover of work stress into parenting behaviors and this finding was found to be gender-specific: for mothers, support enhanced spillover into positive behaviors, and for fathers, it enhanced spillover into negative parenting behaviors.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National dataset consisting of a snapshot of 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters combined with Impaired Waters with TMDLs whose parent cause is Nutrients, Sediments, and...
... annuity equal to the amount that the former spouse would have received if the marriage were never... be equal to a prorate share. The marriage began on [insert date].” ¶ 704Award of a fixed monthly... of the former spouse survivor annuity will be equal to a prorata share. The marriage to [former...
Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol
Although there are many studies on self-esteem, no study has analyzed the relationship between depressive symptom and difference in self-esteem between spouses. We aimed to determine how differences in self-esteem between spouses are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data collected from 2011 to 2013 by the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The initial 2011 baseline data included 3257 married couples over 25 years of age. We used linear mixed-effects models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the data, to analyze the associations between the self-esteem of spouses and CESD-11 scores. About 20% of the respondents had different self-esteem with their intimate partners. Individuals with spouses having lower self-esteem than self significantly higher depression scores. Individuals with spouses having higher self-esteem than self had significantly lower depression scores regardless of sex. Our findings show how different self-esteem with their intimate partners could be associated with depressive symptoms and imply that one's self-esteem could affect the mental health of one's partner. Therefore, we should give more attention to self-esteem, which can affect families and society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1) ...
Tietze, Anna L; Zernikow, Boris; Otto, Michael; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Michel, Erik; Koh, Michelle; Blankenburg, Markus
Children with severe psychomotor impairment (SPMI) often experience sleep disturbances that severely distress both the child and his or her parents. Validated questionnaires for the assessment of parents' distress related to their child's sleep disturbances are lacking. We developed and validated a new questionnaire, the HOST (holistic assessment of sleep and daily troubles in parents of children with SPMI) to assess the effect of the sleep disturbances in children with SPMI on their parents. The questionnaire was developed based on published data and expert opinion, and it was refined via direct consultation with affected parents. Its psychometric characteristics were assessed in a sample of parents of 214 children with SPMI. It was retested using a random subsample of the participants. Explorative factor analysis revealed that the HOST was composed of four scales. Fit indices, item analysis, and convergent validity (coherence with preexisting instruments of sleep disturbances and health status) were adequate. Retest analysis (n=62) revealed high stability of the HOST questionnaire and adequate replication validity. Sleep-related difficulties significantly impact the sociomedical characteristics of the parents of children with complex neurologic diseases. Typically, parents are severely affected in various aspects of daily life (i.e., medical health, social life, professional life). The HOST proved to be a valid, reliable and economical assessment tool of sleep-related difficulties in parents and relatives of children with SPMI. The HOST is capable of identifying individuals and specific areas requiring intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Førsund, Linn Hege; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Kiik, Riina; Ytrehus, Siri
To explore and describe spouses' experiences of losing couplehood with their dementia-afflicted partner living in institutional care. Despite the losses and experiences of discontinuity due to the cognitive decline caused by dementia, the feelings of belonging and reciprocity in close relationships are still crucial to many couples. However, these experiences of spouses with partners living in institutional care are not well documented and are thus the focus of this study. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to capture the relational processes described by the spouses. Conversational interviews were conducted with n = 10 spouses of dementia-afflicted persons living in institutional care. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. The spouses' experiences of losing couplehood were primarily connected to separation from the partner and the sense of being alone. They were also related to the loss of the shared past and future. However, these experiences did not seem to be constant; short glimpses of connectedness, reciprocity and interdependence contributed to a feeling of couplehood, although these were only momentary. The spouses' experiences of losing couplehood were dynamic and were related to the couple's entire life. The spouses wavered between senses of loss and belonging to couplehood, depending on the conditions characterising the moment. Healthcare personnel must recognise the severity of some spouses' experiences of losing couplehood and be aware of how these experiences can fluctuate and be situation dependent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
..., subsequent to filing, USCIS returns the petition to the applicant for any reason or makes a request for... status to that of lawful permanent residence; (iv) The V-1 spouse's divorce from the LPR becomes final...
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. Methods A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A convenience sample of 400 spouses of the male IDUs in this cohort was recruited in 2009. A risk assessment questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with prevalent HIV. Results Median age was 31 years; thirteen percent were widowed and 7% were not currently living with their spouse. Only 4 (1% reported ever injecting drugs; Twenty-two percent and 25% reported ever using non-injection drugs and alcohol, respectively. The majority had one lifetime sexual partner and 37 (9% reporting exchanging sex. Only 7% always used condoms with their regular partner. HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence were 2.5%, 3.8% and 0.5%, respectively; among spouses of HIV+ IDUs (n = 78, HIV prevalence was 10.3%. The strongest predictor of HIV was spousal HIV status (OR: 17.9; p Conclusions Our finding of a 10-fold higher HIV prevalence among spouses of IDUs compared with general population women indicates their vulnerability; prevalence is likely to increase given the context of low condom use and frequent sexual violence. Prevention efforts directed at IDUs should also include programs for spouses.
Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J
We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.
Full Text Available Parents are obliged to take care of their children’s future, especially by rendering sufficient education. Children are believed to bring about happiness every now and then, who generate family’s pride up to the almighty judication. Some people are save and some are not in that court, where children will give sigificant contribution in it. That’s why the children’s well being has become the parents obligation. To bring about children’s well being, parents should also render the good treatments during the life cycle of their children. The main duties of parents for their children are giving them the good names, sending them to the good schools where they can learn religion, and marry them to their good spouses. Psychologically, when children are sent to school for the first time, they will feel that they are put apart from parents’ care, so that may of them have to go difficult phase of adjustment. The adjustment includes that of education so as to run as naturally as possible. To get the naturality of the education delegation, teachers and educators are obliged to be able to nurture any value to students as naturally as possible. Parenting model of teaching serves the requirements of teaching children just the way the parrents do, so that it is assumptively effective in teaching elementary students by taking consideration on the psychologial aspect of children. Key words: Parenting Model of teaching, children education optimalization
Many variables must be considered during the evaluation and rehabilitation of children for cochlear implantation, one of which is parental influence (for the duration of this report the parents, caregivers and guardians of children with cochlear implants and / or hearing impairments will be referred to as 'parents'). The aim of ...
Spitzer, & Williams, 2001 Resilience Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC ) Connor & Davidson, 2003 Personal/Family Coping 1991-1992 Survey of Army...item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC ) assessed how respondents cope with stress, with responses from 0 (Not true at all) to 4 (True nearly...7; Resilience D CD RISC ; PTSDD PCL P. aN D 212. SERVICE MEMBER NEED AND SPOUSE SUPPORTIVE SERVICES USE 5 D ow nl oa de d by [ V A M C M em ph is
Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee
Self-esteem is considered a significant factor affecting both the emotional and functional outcomes of stroke survivors; however, research on self-esteem in this group is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender-specific effects of income status and the presence of a spouse on the self-esteem of stroke survivors using data from a population-based study in Korea. The Korea Welfare Panel Study was used to investigate the gender-specific effects of income and the presence of a spouse on the self-esteem of stroke survivors. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Males in the general income category had higher self-esteem than males in the low-income category. However, no differences were found in the self-esteem of females by income category. The self-esteem of females without a spouse or partner was lower than the males without a spouse. Self-management interventions to enhance self-esteem should focus on gender to facilitate patients' adjustment and rehabilitation after a stroke.
Witusik, Andrzej; Pietras, Tadeusz
Qualitative analysis of therapy of a couple with a partner who has bipolar disorder is an important research paradigm in contemporary psychotherapy of mental disorders.The qualitative method of the study is important both from the cognitive point of view and for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy in the individual, idiographical aspect. The aim of the study is a qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process of a couple in which one partner suffers from bipolar affective disorder. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The dysfunctionality of the discussed couple is largely due to the effects of bipolar disorder and related disturbances on marital functioning. The spectrum of autism in the child is probably related both to the genetic strain of predisposition to psychiatric disorders and to the dysfunctionality of the parental dyad. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the partner's family is also a genetic burden. The wife's aggression represents probably a syndrome of adaptation to disease in the family. Aggression plays a morphostatic role in the couple
Rouhani, Shada A; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan
Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal-child relationships. Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal-child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Thompson, Trevor; Lloyd, Andrew; Joseph, Alain; Weiss, Margaret
The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form (WFIRS-P) is a 50-item scale that assesses functional impairment on six clinically relevant domains typically affected in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As functional impairment is central to ADHD, the WFIRS-P offers potential as a tool for assessing functional impairment in ADHD. These analyses were designed to examine the overall performance of WFIRS-P in differentiating ADHD and non-ADHD cases using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. This is the first attempt to empirically determine the level of functional impairment that differentiates ADHD children from normal controls. This observational study comprised 5-19-year-olds with physician-diagnosed ADHD (n = 476) and non-ADHD controls (n = 202). ROC analysis evaluated the ability of WFIRS-P to discriminate between ADHD and non-ADHD, and identified a WFIRS-P cut-off score that optimises correct classification. Data were analysed for the complete sample, for males versus females and for participants in two age groups (5-12 versus 13-19 years). Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.93) for the overall WFIRS-P score, suggesting highly accurate classification of ADHD distinct from non-ADHD. Sensitivity (0.83) and specificity (0.85) were maximal for a mean overall WFIRS-P score of 0.65, suggesting that this is an appropriate threshold for differentiation. DeLong's test found no significant differences in AUCs for males versus females or 5-12 versus 13-19 years, suggesting that WFIRS-P is an accurate classifier of ADHD across gender and age. When assessing function, WFIRS-P appears to provide a simple and effective basis for differentiating between individuals with/without ADHD in terms of functional impairment. Disease-specific applications of QOL research.
Full Text Available Background: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is gradually being acknowledged as a functionally impairing disorder across the lifespan, underscored by heritability. Nonetheless, lack of ADHD (adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder data from South Africa is alarming which could be due to either the unawareness of ADHD symptoms or underutilization of available screening measures. Undiagnosed ADHD may influence family- and working lives unpleasantly. Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1 identified either positive or negative subgroups; the Weiss functional impairment rating scale (WFIR-S for functional impairment and the Jerome driving questionnaire (JDQ for risk-taking behaviour specifically driving. Results: Of the 39 (48% parents who experienced impairment in all seven areas of functioning, 23 (59% screened negative for ADHD, while 16 (41% screened positive. A significant association was found between parents who screened either positive or negative for ADHD and functional impairment across five of the seven individual categories namely family, work, self-concept, life-skills and social functioning. Conclusion: This study emphasized the high incidence of functional impairment in parents of ADHD children. Although a substantial number of parents screened negative for ADHD, they still reported impairment in functioning; probably due to undiagnosed ADHD with comorbid psychiatric disorders, and/or parental stress due to the complex behaviour of the child. Parents of children diagnosed with ADHD should be screened for functional impairment followed by referral for psychiatric assessment and parent management training to achieve better clinical outcomes.
Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar
Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.
The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…
Adam J. Zolotor; T. Walker Robinson; Desmond K. Runyan; Ronald G. Barr; Robert A. Murphy
Spanking is common in the United States but less common in many European countries in which it has been outlawed. Being spanked has been associated with child abuse victimization, poor self-esteem, impaired parent-child relationships, and child and adult mental health, substance abuse, and behavioral consequences. Being spanked as a child has also been shown to increase the likelihood of abusing one’s own children or spouse as an adult. Spanking of very young children less than two is almo...
Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Lühmann, D; Eisele, M; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Weeg, D; Heser, K; Jessen, F; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H
To investigate how visual impairment affects social ties in late life longitudinally. Population-based prospective cohort study. Individuals in old age were recruited via general practitioners' offices (at six study centers) in Germany. They were interviewed every 18 months. Individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline. Follow-up wave 2 (36 months after baseline, n=2,443) and wave 4 (72 months after baseline, n=1,618) were used for the analyses presented here. Social ties were assessed using the 14-item form of the questionnaire for social support (F-SozU K-14). Visual impairment was self-rated on a three level Likert scale (no impairment, mild visual impairment, or severe/profound visual impairment). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, hearing impairment and comorbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of mild visual impairment decreased the social support score, in particular the emotional support score. Additionally, the onset of mild hearing impairment decreased the social support score in men. Moreover, increasing age decreased the social support score in the total sample and in both sexes. Loss of spouse and increasing comorbidity did not affect the social support score. Our results highlight the importance of visual impairment for social ties in late life. Consequently, appropriate strategies in order to delay visual impairment might help to maintain social ties in old age.
... annuity, the retiree must deposit an amount equal to the sum of the monthly differences between the self... marriage to that former spouse) a reduced annuity to provide a current spouse annuity, must deposit an amount equal to the sum of the monthly differences between the self-only annuity and the amount of...
Full Text Available The growing number of dysfunctional families causes the increasing number of civil litigation on the parenting (upbringing of the child. In these families the relationship between the partners are high conflict. The actual problem is the study of the emotional-semantic reactions of wives and husbands on the family traumatic situations. 20 parents of harmonious families and 30 parents of disharmonious families (which are in the process of divorce and determination of the place of residence of the child or the order of meetings of the child with the noncustodial parent were surveyed by the rank grid test. It is shown that the application of the rank grid test in the study of high conflict and harmonious families allows to identify some features of the relationship of spouses to each other and the parents to the child. The specific of emotional response of adult family members to the traumatic situations associated with the behavior of a marriage partner and child is revealed. Types of the selected response: sthenic, ambivalent and asthenic, the latter two types have their substantial options.
Buus, Niels Henrik; Carlsen, Rasmus K; Khatir, Dinah S
AIM: Established essential hypertension is associated with increased arterial stiffness and peripheral resistance, but the extent of vascular changes in persons genetically predisposed for essential hypertension is uncertain. METHODS: Participants from the Danish Hypertension Prevention Project...... (DHyPP) (both parents hypertensive) (n = 95, 41 ± 1 years, 53% men) were compared with available spouses (n = 45, 41 ± 1 years) using measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), pulse wave velocity, central BP and augmentation index (AIx) in addition to forearm...... than men (P hypertension display increased AIx and LVMI, although vascular stiffness...
This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abuse and Addiction • Child Abuse •Depression •Domestic Violence •Grief •Suicide Prevention •Understanding & Dealing with Anger 11 Why are these...Satisfied Using Method % Email 91.9 3.3 ± 0.8 87.2 Phone calls 90.7 2.8 ± 0.9 84.2 Video conferencing 74.5 2.7 ± 1.0 77.5 Social networking site 62.7 2.8...moderately or very stressful. Common methods of communication were e-mail and tele- phone (Table 3), and spouses were satisfied with these meth- ods. For
The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...
Bhagwanji, Yash; Suarez-Sousa, Ximena
A study involving 77 Peruvian parents of children with autism and 77 parents of typical children found that parents of children with autism reported significantly higher stress levels related to the cognitive impairment of their children and life-span care. They also showed significantly higher overall stress levels than controls. (Contains…
Mansour, Hani; McKinnish, Terra
In direct contrast to conventional wisdom and most economic models of gender differences in age of marriage, we present robust evidence that men and women who are married to differently-aged spouses are negatively selected. Earnings analysis of married couples in the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 Decennial Censuses finds that male earnings decrease with within-couple age difference, regardless of whether the man is older or younger than his wife. In contrast, female earnings increase with within-...
Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan
There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends.The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27.Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained significant through the transition from
Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen
Knowledge about the ways in which race affects decision-making at the end of life is minimal, yet this information is critical for providing culturally sensitive care at the end of life. Data matching socio-demographic characteristics of 34 black and 34 white patients with end-stage renal disease and their spouses reveal that there are no…
Tellier, Myriam; Rochette, Annie; Lefebvre, Helene
Clients with mild stroke may present subtle deficits that have an impact on complex activities and roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived quality of life of spouses, 3 months after the client with stroke was discharged to go home from acute care. A qualitative design based on a constructivist paradigm was used. Interviews…
Bishop Dorothy VM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.
Clegg, F J
Log linear analysis was used to investigate the relationships between spouse isonymy and parental isonymy, time, endogamy/exogamy and groom's occupation in a total of 6266 first marriages of parish-born spouses in the civil parishes of Harris, Barra and Stornoway, between 1855 and 1990. Stornoway was divided into rural and urban (Burgh) components. Spouse isonymy comprised between 6% and 12% of all marriages, parental isonymy was generally slightly more frequent, due probably to the occurrence of occasional families in which both sets of parents were isonymous. Between 38% and 51% of marriages were endogamous. In the multi-way contingency tables, good fits between observed and expected cell numbers were obtained by a simple model, comprising the main effect of spouse isonymy and the first-order interactions between spouse isonymy and the independent variables. Inspection of the coefficients showed that in all four populations spouse isonymy was positively related to parental isonymy (doubtfully so in the case of Barra). The other independent variables showed less clear-cut relationships--endogamy/exogamy in Barra, and groom's occupation in Stornoway Rural; time period showed no significant relationships. It is concluded that the occurrence of this 'two-generational marital isonymy' might have an effect on the breeding structure of the population.
Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin
The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The study found that before participation in the activities, significantly more subjects in the experimental group who participated in happy Muslim family activities had violent behaviors against their spouses than those in the control group who participated in normal community activities. However, after participating in the happy Muslim family activities, those in the experimental group used significantly less domestic violence against their spouses when compared with those in the control group.
Sayers, S. L.
There is compelling evidence that mental health problems complicate the process of family reintegration of military service members after a wartime deployment. Couples in which one spouse has recently returned from military deployment in Iraq or Afghanistan and are experiencing marital problems can present a significant treatment challenge. There…
Keijsers, Loes; Laird, Robert D
This multi-informant longitudinal study aimed to understand whether the family dynamics that underlie adolescent voluntary disclosure regarding their leisure time behavior differs when adolescents strongly or weakly endorse the legitimacy of parental authority. Longitudinal linkages between parental monitoring behaviors and adolescents' secrecy and disclosure were tested among youths with strong and weak legitimacy beliefs. The sample included 197 adolescents (51% female, M age 12 years) and their mothers. Mothers reported on several of their own monitoring efforts (i.e., solicitation, active involvement, observing and listening, and obtaining information from spouses, siblings, and others). Adolescents reported their disclosure, secrecy, and legitimacy beliefs. Only among youths reporting strong legitimacy beliefs, more mother engagement and supervision (indexed by mother-reported active involvement and observing and listening) predicted more adolescent disclosure and less secrecy over time, and more mother solicitation predicted less secrecy. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foley, Debra L; Rowe, Richard; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon; Pickles, Andrew
The goal of this study was to characterize the contemporaneous and prognostic relationship between symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and associated functional impairment. The sample comprised n=2067 8–16 year-old twins from a community-based registry. Juvenile subjects and their parents completed a personal interview on two occasions, separated by an average follow-up period of 18 months, about the subject’s current history of SAD and associated functional impairment. Results showed that SAD symptoms typically caused very little impairment but demonstrated significant continuity over time. Older youth had significantly more persistent symptoms than younger children. Prior symptom level independently predicted future symptom level and diagnostic symptom threshold, with and without impairment. Neither diagnostic threshold nor severity of impairment independently predicted outcomes after taking account of prior symptom levels. The results indicate that impairment may index current treatment need but symptom levels provide the best information about severity and prognosis. PMID:17658718
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...
Glanemann, R; Reichmuth, K; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A
With the implementation of the UNHS, early educational services' existing concepts of early intervention have to be adapted to the situation and needs of families with a preverbal child who is deaf or hard of hearing. The Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a module in early family-centered intervention, fulfils this requirement. We report feedback from participating parents regarding processes and outcomes of the MPP. The self-developed questionnaire was checked for its suitability as feedback instrument for measuring parental satisfaction with the MPP. 29 parents who participated in the MPP assessed the programme by using the standardised FBB and the self-developed questionnaire FB-MEP, which is specific to the MPP. Using the FBB, 96% of parents judged the MPP to be good or very good. With the FB-MEP, parents rated setting, contents and didactics as highly as they did using the FBB (r = 0.7, p parents judged both the contact and exchange with other affected parents, and the specific individual support for communicating with their child (including video feedback) as especially helpful. The results reflect parents' high level of satisfaction with the setting, content, didactics and individual benefit gained by their child and themselves from the MPP. The parents are aware of the efficacy of the MPP, which was shown in the controlled intervention study. The self-developed questionnaire FB-MEP was shown to be a suitable instrument for quality assurance measurements of the MPP.
van de Weijer, Steve G A; Beaver, Kevin M
There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and examines spousal similarity on criminal offending behaviors. Moreover, we also examine the potential factors that might account for spousal similarity. This study analyzed data drawn from two generations of Dutch spouses. The analyses revealed statistically significant associations between mates on criminal offending prior to marriage, a finding that is directly in line with an assortative mating explanation of spousal similarity. In addition, the analyses also revealed that criminal offending between spouses becomes even more similar after marriage, a finding that is line with a behavioral contagion explanation of spousal similarity. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the study along with the implications that these findings have for criminological research.
Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi; Mojtabai, Ramin
Entering entrepreneurship (i.e. becoming an entrepreneur) is known to be a demanding activity with increased workload, financial uncertainty and increased levels of stress. However, there are no systematic studies on how entering entrepreneurship affects the people involved. The authors investigated prescriptions of psychotropics for 6,221 first-time entrepreneurs from 2001-2004 and their 2,381 spouses in the first two years after becoming entrepreneurs in a matched case-control study using linked data from three Danish national registries: The Danish database for Labor Market Research, the Danish Entrepreneurship database and the Danish Prescription database. Entrepreneurs were more likely to fill prescriptions at pharmacies for sedatives/hypnotics (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.45 [95% CI: 1.26-1.66], p entrepreneurs were also more likely to fill prescriptions for sedatives/hypnotics (AOR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.10-1.67], p = 0.005). No difference in prescription of antidepressants was found for spouses. This study showed that there was a significant relation between entering entrepreneurship and receiving prescriptions for sedative/ hypnotics both among the entrepreneurs themselves and their spouses, suggesting that entering entrepreneurship may be associated with increased stress for both the entrepreneurs and their families.
Wymbs, Frances A; Cunningham, Charles E; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E
Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e., group vs. individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a DCE composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child's problems and in understanding-as opposed to solving-their child's problems. A minority of parents (19.4%) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child's problems. About one fifth of parents (21.9%) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e., receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families.
-Briggs. Abstract. Background Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. Etiology of the hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis ...
Sheehan, Denice Kopchak; Draucker, Claire Burke
Advanced cancer profoundly affects those with the illness and their families. The interaction patterns between parents with advanced cancer and their adolescent children are likely to influence how a family experiences a parent's dying process. There is little information on such interactions. This study aimed to develop an explanatory model that explains interaction patterns between parents with advanced cancer and their adolescent children and to identify strategies to prepare children for their lives after a parent dies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 parents with advanced cancer, 7 of their spouses/partners, and 10 of their adolescent children. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a constructionist grounded theory approach. Twenty-six family participants were interviewed. Their main concern was not having enough time together. In response, they described a four-stage process for optimizing the time they had left together: coming to know our time together is limited, spending more time together, extending our time together, and giving up our time together to end the suffering. The adolescents and their ill parents did not change their interaction patterns until they realized their time together was limited by the advanced cancer. Then they spent more time together to make things easier for each other. Time was of great importance to the parents and adolescents; all the participants structured their stories in relation to the concept of time. The model reflects the dynamic process by which families continuously adapt their relationships in the face of advanced cancer. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Regulatory Action 1. Need for the Regulatory Action Certain spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens.... citizen spouses, parents, or children, while USCIS adjudicates their waiver applications. In some cases, waiver application processing can take well over one year, prolonging the separation of these immediate...
Williams, S E; Freer, C A
The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between marital satisfaction and knowledge of aphasia of the spouse of a stroke patient. Other factors such as the severity of the aphasia, length of time poststroke, and length of marriage were also examined. The subjects, 16 spouses of aphasic patients, were grouped according to severity of the aphasia (mild, moderate, severe). Spouses completed a Knowledge of Aphasia questionnaire and pre/poststroke forms of a Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). The questionnaire measured spouse understanding of aphasia, while the MSS examined changes in spouse attitudes toward their marriages after the patients became aphasic. Neither spouses' knowledge of aphasia nor its severity was related to their marital satisfaction. However, there was a significant negative change between the pre/poststroke MSS scores. Spouses of mildly impaired patients were less knowledgeable about aphasia than were those of severely impaired patients. Results are discussed in terms of the counseling needs of families of aphasic patients.
Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.
ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Boelen, Carolien C. A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the
ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Boelen, Carolien C. A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the
Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G
Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.
Ewelina Karolina Kucharska
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim In the life of every human senses, including the sense of hearing, they play an important role in the harmonious development. Each hearing loss in childhood influences, depending on the depth, nature and time of its inception, in a negative way on the development of many mental activities, intellectual, behavior, cognitive, causing significant impairment in the child's position the hearing impaired, deaf and especially in the world of the hearing. The aim of this study is to assess the parents' awareness of hearing loss in children with hearing loss as a result of a survey of parents of children from the first classes of primary schools in the Lublin province. Material and Methods Analysis was performed on 31 results of parents of children with hearing impairment made in children aged 6 and 7 years, pupils and primary schools in the Lublin province. Parents were asked the question: 'Do you think your child has hearing problems?' The analysis indicated the assessment of awareness of parents of children with hearing disorders. Results In the study group, as many as 77% of parents stated that the child does not have problems with hearing, only 3% of parents noted the problem, while 20% of parents did not answer the question. Conclusions Based on the research it can be stated with a high percentage of parents still do not notice hearing loss in their children. Early notice of the problem, the correct procedure and the cooperation with the parent group of specialists are often the way to success. It is crucial to support the child in difficult situations, which often is exposed to contact with all sorts of obstacles. An important issue is the numerous health programs, shaping the attitude of parents and society as a whole.
.... Need for the Regulatory Action Currently, certain spouses, children and parents of U.S. citizens..., separated from their U.S. citizen spouses, parents, or children. In some cases, waiver application processing can take well over a year, and the prolonged separation from immediate relatives can cause many U...
... families. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the... States of America the two hundred and thirty-third.BARACK OBAMA ... spouses work to maintain careers and a sense of community while moving to new duty stations around the...
Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac
Self-management post-stroke is challenging for many persons after a stroke. In this thesis is explored how stroke survivors, spouses and professionals perceived self-management post-stroke and how the process of self-management post-stroke evolved over time. The following studies are conducted: a
As part of a broader descriptive study of nurse educators' well-being at work in Finland, the quality of working life was assessed by the nurse educators themselves and by their spouses (or another adult living with them). Data were analysed from 477 (68% of 706) educators from 25 institutes throughout Finland and from 409 (58% of 706) spouses. Nurse educators evaluated their working life as being good. Background factors that improved one or several features of working life were: young age, being married, permanent employment in a small institute in the countryside, and highschool education. Lack of freedom to choose the teaching field and tasks at work reduced the quality of working life. Nurse educators estimated that they did an average of 9.6 hours overtime a week; according to their spouses the figure was 12.7 hours. More than moderate amounts of negative stress, derived mainly from work, were reported. Interactions with people at work and the support obtained for their work were generally judged to be good. Participants reported that they were not very satisfied with relationships with college directors, while they were, generally, satisfied with relationships with students. The spouses estimated nurse educators' working life more negatively than did the educators themselves, with the exception of the balance between work and leisure time, which both groups estimated similarly.
A child care agency located in the southeastern United States serving homeless youth up to the age of 21 years provided pregnant and parenting teenagers with shelter and support services and provided individual and group counseling sessions focusing on health and nutrition, parenting and child care, sexuality and pregnancy, family support services…
childhood infections like otitis media and ... The parents demonstrated different attitudes towards the children. Majority, 34(94.59%) of them felt sad, others expressed .... reported by other authors. 14 ... can be done with the use of hearing aids.
Runge, Catherine E.; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C. L.
Introduction There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Methods Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Findings Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non–respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included ‘inadequate support’, ‘deployment impacts’, ‘suggestions for supporting agencies’, ‘appraisal of experiences’ and ‘coping strategies’. Conclusions This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life. PMID:25479135
Carter, Lyndal; Black, Deborah; Bundy, Anita; Williams, Warwick
The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of parents of adolescent children (with, and without, hearing impairment), with the following objectives: (1) compare perceptions of the parent groups regarding the risk of leisure-noise-related hearing injury; and (2) investigate how comfortable parents felt endorsing their child's…
a mother with depression may be less sensitive to her child’s cues, and may feel less efficacious as a parent, decreasing her application of...functioning, spouse depression , spouse anxiety, child mental health symptoms and service use, and Soldier job satisfaction. Spouse depression was the...in Soldiers with PTSD and their spouses, and also to describe rates of spouse depression and anxiety, as well as child mental health problems. The
Seibel, Barbara L.
Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)
Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob
patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and higher socioeconomic costs compared to controls. The employment and income rates of employed spouses of COPD patients were significantly lower compared to controls. CONCLUSION: This study provides unique data...
Despite the fact that parents exercise considerable influence over their children's choice of a mate, little is known of their preferences for daughters- and sons-in-law, particularly in a post-industrial context. This research aims to close the gap in our knowledge by making a taxonomic contribution on the qualities desired in an in-law. In particular, parents have rated the desirability of 88 traits in a prospective daughter-in-law and a son-in-law; using principal components analysis, these traits have been classified into 11 broader in-law preferences. On the basis of this classification, four hypotheses were tested: First, parents ascribe different weights to different traits; second, parental preferences are contingent upon the sex of the in-law (i.e., certain traits are valued differently in a son- and in a daughter-in-law); third, parents have a preference for assortative mating (i.e., they want their prospective in-laws and their families to be similar to them); and fourth, in-law preferences are independent of the sex of the parent (i.e., mothers and fathers are in agreement with respect to what qualities they seek in a spouse for their children). The results from two independent studies provide support for the first three hypotheses, but little support for the fourth hypothesis.
... ``the spouse, parent, child, step family member, extended family member or an individual who lives with... veteran during the period of care in the custody of either a family member or a friend, whereas the... section, a family member includes the spouse, parent, child, step family member, extended family member or...
... Government pension. 404.408a Section 404.408a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.408a Reduction where spouse is receiving a Government pension. (a) When reduction is required... a monthly pension from a Federal, State, or local government agency (Government pension) for which...
Mittelman, Mary S.; And Others
Randomly assigned spouse-caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients to treatment group (individual and family counseling, support group participation, and ad hoc consultation) or control group (only routine support). Treatment group had less than half as many nursing home placements as control group. Placement also was affected by patient's need…
Kluft, Richard P.
A review of the parenting patterns of 75 mothers with multiple personality disorders indicated 38.7% were competent or exceptional mothers, 16% were grossly abusive, and 45.3% were compromised or impaired as parents. (DB)
Erbes, Christopher R; Kramer, Mark; Arbisi, Paul A; DeGarmo, David; Polusny, Melissa A
Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Partners' mental health was reassessed at 4 months (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) after soldiers deployed, and both spouses/partners and soldiers were reassessed 2-3 months postdeployment (Time 4). Latent class growth modeling of partner depression symptoms over time revealed 4 groups: Resilience (79.9%), Deployment Distress (8.9%), Anticipatory Distress (8.4%), and Post-Deployment Distress (2.7%). Three alcohol misuse trajectories were identified: Resilience (91.3%), Deployment Onset (5.4%), and Deployment Desistance (3.3%). Predeployment predictors of partners' depression symptom trajectories varied by group and included soldier reports of stressors and social support and partner levels of neuroticism, introversion, disconstraint, and reported stressors. Predeployment predictors of alcohol misuse trajectories varied by group, and included soldier levels of alcohol misuse as well as partner neuroticism, disconstraint, and family readiness. Delineating and predicting trajectories of partner adjustment can allow for better targeted interventions toward those most at risk for heightened distress or alcohol problems over the deployment cycle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Beresford, H R
Decisions to reduce care for patients with severe neurological impairment may raise legal questions. The laws of most states now authorize physicians to stop care for those who have suffered irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain ("brain death"). Where state law is not explicit, it is nevertheless probably lawful to regard brain death as death for legal purposes so long as currently accepted criteria are satisfied. Several courts have ruled that it is lawful to reduce care for patients in vegetative states, but have prescribed differing standards and procedures for implementing such decisions. The issue of whether parents can authorize physicians to reduce care for neurologically impaired children is the focus of current litigation. Implicit in this litigation is the question of how severe neurological impairment must be before parents and physicians may lawfully agree to reduce care. For severely impaired but not vegetative adults, there is some legal authority to justify certain decisions to reduce care. The issue of whether withholding feeding from a severely demented patient with life-threatening medical problems constitutes criminal behavior is now being considered by a state supreme court.
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children’s BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child’s lifetime and that child’s BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child’s lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child’s BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers’ spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Førsund, Linn Hege; Kiik, Riina; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Ytrehus, Siri
To explore and describe how spouses involve themselves in the relationship with their partners with dementia who live in institutional care. Positive reciprocity between partners has been proven to be significant for spouses with partners living with dementia at home. However, little is known about spousal involvement after placement of a partner in an institutional setting. This subject was therefore the focus of this study. Constructivist grounded theory was used to develop meaningful concepts considering the relational processes experienced and described by the spouses. Interviews were conducted with 15 spouses (eight women and seven men ranging in age from 64-90 years) of dementia-afflicted persons living in institutional care. Theoretical sampling, constant comparison and memo-writing guided the data collection and analysis. The analysis showed how the spouses adopted different visiting routines to preserve continuity in their relationship throughout the phases of dementia. Three categories described how these visiting routines were used and adapted along with their partners' dementia progressions in the process of constructing togetherness: 'maintaining involvement and intimacy to preserve continuity in their relationship,' 'structuring visits to facilitate interaction and communication' and 'pursuing moments of mutuality to preserve continuity in a deteriorating relationship.' Being involved and experiencing continuity in the relationship seemed important to the spouses after their partners' placement in institutional care. In the process of constructing togetherness, visiting routines were used to facilitate situations in which they could connect with their partners. These routines were continuously adjusted throughout the phases of dementia. There is a need for a systematic approach to provide sufficient support to spouses throughout their partners' dementia progressions to assist their ongoing involvement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc
Objective: To examine the relation of caregiver ratings of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with number and severity of symptoms and informant agreement in consecutive child psychiatry outpatient referrals. Methods: Parents and teachers completed a broadband "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale with disorder-specific impairment for 636…
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of the vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses in prediction of post-partum depression. A sample of 140 pregnant women were recruited. Data collection included two phases. In third trimester of pregnancy, demographic information, vulnerable personality style, spouse violence and coping responses were collected. The second phase was carried out after 2 weeks to 6 months after parturition that the post-partum depression questionnaire was completed. The results demonstrated that 49% of post-partum depression variances can be shown by vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses. It seems that one of the most important factors for depression after parturition is vulnerability of personality style. Women with this personality style perceive higher levels of stress and use maladaptive coping responses. So they are more disposed to post-partum depression.
Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina
Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.
Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut
The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.
Ghadim, Nafiseh Alaghehband; Jomhari, Nazean; Alias, Norlidah; Rashid, Syar Meeze Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd
An interview with parents of children with hearing impairment was carried out in the initial study since the coordinated effort of parents and children is essential in the education of children. Considering that this interview was appropriate for collecting qualitative-oriented data, it has been chosen as the knowledge elicitation method. In most…
da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira
The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and
Kyi Mar Wai
Full Text Available Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods.A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband's involvement as well as their spouses' utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models.Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8% and postnatal care (68.5%. Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%, delivery place (83.6%, and money saving (81.7% before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5% and a safe delivery kit (21.1%. In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband's involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services
Wai, Kyi Mar; Shibanuma, Akira; Oo, Nwe Nwe; Fillman, Toki Jennifer; Saw, Yu Mon; Jimba, Masamine
Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods. A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband's involvement as well as their spouses' utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8%) and postnatal care (68.5%). Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%), delivery place (83.6%), and money saving (81.7%) before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5%) and a safe delivery kit (21.1%). In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband's involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services was found
Full Text Available To investigate the effect of parental personality on birth outcomes.Prospective cohort study.727 pregnant women and 579 spouses receiving antenatal care at a single-center in rural Tokyo, Japan during 2010-2013.We measured the association between maternal effect of parental personality traits assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory on birth outcomes, using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics.Maternal self-transcendence personality was inversely associated with gestational age [-0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.51 to -0.01 weeks per unit] and positively associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.00 to 6.75 per unit], while paternal self-transcendence personality was positively associated with gestational age [0.31 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.55 weeks per unit]. Maternal reward dependence was positively associated with fetal growth [0.30 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.59 per unit]. Other maternal and paternal personality traits associated with adverse maternal behavior, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-directedness, were not associated with birth outcomes.We found that specific parental personality traits can be associated with birth outcomes.
Proulx, Christine M.; Helms, Heather M.; Payne, C. Chris
This study examined the friendship experiences of 52 wives and mothers, with particular attention given to wives' marriage work (discussions about concerns and problems in the marriage) in 10 domains with friends and spouses. A series of within-subjects repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated that in all but two domains, wives…
Muzik, Maria; Morelen, Diana; Hruschak, Jessica; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Bocknek, Erika; Beeghly, Marjorie
The postpartum period represents a major transition in the lives of many women, a time when women are at increased risk for the emergence of psychopathology including depression and PTSD. The current study aimed to better understand the unique contributions of clinically significant postpartum depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD/depression on mother-infant bonding and observed maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., behavioral sensitivity, negative affect, positive affect) at 6 months postpartum. Mothers (n=164; oversampled for history of childhood maltreatment given parent study's focus on perinatal mental health in women with trauma histories) and infants participated in 6-month home visit during which dyads engaged in interactional tasks varying in level of difficulties. Mothers also reported on their childhood abuse histories, current depression/PTSD symptoms, and bonding with the infant using standardized and validated instruments. Mothers with clinically significant depression had the most parenting impairment (self-report and observed). Mothers with clinically significant PTSD alone (due to interpersonal trauma that occurred predominately in childhood) showed similar interactive behaviors to those who were healthy controls or trauma-exposed but resilient (i.e., no postpartum psychopathology). Childhood maltreatment in the absence of postpartum psychopathology did not infer parenting risk. Findings are limited by (1) small cell sizes per clinical group, limiting power, (2) sample size and sample demographics prohibited examination of third variables that might also impact parenting (e.g., income, education), (3) self-report of symptoms rather than use of psychiatric interviews. Findings show that in the context of child abuse history and/or current PTSD, clinically significant maternal depression was the most salient factor during infancy that was associated with parenting impairment at this level of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... retroactive payment of family separation allowance an ineligible spouse received from one of the uniformed... section, the term “parent” means the natural or adoptive parent of a child, and the term “stepparent” means the spouse (as defined in § 416.1806) of such natural or adoptive parent who is living in the same...
Widarsson, Margareta; Engström, Gabriella; Berglund, Anders; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee
Parental stress can negatively affect the parent-child relationship and reduce the well-being of the whole family. Family disagreement is associated with parental divorce and with psychological problems in children. The aim was to examine perceived parental stress and draw comparisons among mothers and among fathers, in relation to educational level, parental experience, existence of a parental role model and sense of coherence. The aim was also to examine perceived dyadic consensus and its association with perceived parental stress within couples. Questionnaires were completed by 320 mothers and 315 fathers at 1 week and 18 months post-partum. The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Dyadic Consensus Subscale were used. Low education, lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in mothers in the subareas social isolation and spouse relationship problems, while lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in fathers in the subarea social isolation. Furthermore, parental experiences promoted stress among mothers in the subarea incompetence while this was not seen among fathers. Mothers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than fathers in the items recreational activities, friends, aims and life goals, time spent together, and decisions regarding career and personal development. Household tasks was the only item where fathers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than mothers. Additionally, there were associations between perceived parental stress and dyadic consensus in several items and in the total score. To promote parents' health and family stability, health professionals should consider factors affecting stress and stress reactions, and take gender roles into account. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Nuria de la Osa
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of feeding problems during the preschool period and to explore the associations of feeding related behaviors with parenting practices. Participants were a large community sample of N = 622 children longitudinally assessed yearly at ages 3, 4 and 5 years-old through diagnostic interview and questionnaires reported by parents. The prevalence of children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder during the follow-up was 1.6%, the amount of children who presented feeding disorder symptoms was 33.3%, those with clinical impairment due to these symptoms were 25.7% and 11.6% reported seek for professional help related to feeding problems. Logistic regressions adjusted to children's sex and other DSM-IV diagnoses different to feeding disorder showed that the dimensions of parenting more strongly related to feeding related behaviors and impairment due to feeding problems were poor monitoring, inconsistence practices, corporal punishment, low norms and low autonomy. Although the prevalence of preschool children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder was relatively low, the presence of feeding related behaviors (symptoms, impairment and consultation was common during this developmental period. Parenting practices are associated to the presence of these behaviors, and so they must be considered into the prevention and intervention programs.
Ask, Helga; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Holmen, Jostein; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Tambs, Kristian
Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.
Vannatta, Kathryn; Ramsey, Rachelle R; Noll, Robert B; Gerhardt, Cynthia A
To examine the impact of maternal breast cancer on the emotional and behavioral functioning of school-age children; evaluate whether child adjustment is associated with variations in distress, marital satisfaction, and parenting behavior evidenced by mothers and fathers; and determine whether these associations differ from families that are not contending with cancer. Participants included 40 children (age 8-16 years) of mothers with breast cancer along with their parents as well as 40 families of comparison classmates not affected by parental illness. Questionnaires assessing the domains of interest were administered in families' homes. Mothers with breast cancer and their spouses reported higher levels of distress than comparison parents; child internalizing problems were inversely associated with parental adjustment in both groups. No group differences were found in any indicators of family functioning, including parent-child relationships. Warm and supportive parenting by both mothers and fathers were associated with lower levels of child internalizing behavior, but only in families affected by breast cancer. These results suggest that children of mothers with breast cancer, such as most children, may be at risk for internalizing behavior when parents are distressed. These children may particularly benefit from interactions with mothers and fathers who are warm and supportive, and maintenance of positive parenting may partially account for the apparent resilience of these youth.
Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.
Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785
van Bochove, M.; Engbersen, G.
Expatriates - in this paper understood as highly skilled temporary migrants and accompanying spouses - are generally portrayed either as cosmopolitans with universal ties or as organisation men or women who live in a local expat bubble. On the basis of 75 interviews with expatriates in the city of
Cvetić Radenka M.
Full Text Available The paper examines the rules on transferring of immovables in the matrimonial ownership regime against the backdrop of general notion of joint ownership and joint ownership (property of spouses. It explores whether the party who invokes the principle of reliance in the real estate cadastre shall be protected in the absence of an explicit rule guaranteeing the protection of a good faith acquirer in case of an unauthoriesd transfer done by one of the spouses. In other words, should for the sake of protection of confidence in legal transactions, acquisition of ownership and other rights in rem exceptionally be allowed by the good faith acquirer, provided that general presumptions under which confidence in accuracy and completeness of public registry of rights on immovables are fulfilled, in case where ownership was not inscribed as a joint ownership. The answer has been given in the absence of general rules on joint ownership, taking into account existing rules in the neighbouring countries, principle of reliance in the real estate cadastre and with due regard to the stance taken by the highest judicial body in the Republic of Serbia. The conclusion is that a spouse who is not inscribed in the public registry should not benefit from the protection against the good faith acquirer.
...) Is not entitled to an old-age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal to or higher than... (or age 50 if he or she is a disabled surviving divorced spouse), such marriage shall be deemed not to...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of positive group psychotherapy on resiliency, happiness and general health in Women with substance dependent spouse. The research design was quasi - experimental with pre-test, post-test and one-month follow - up with the control group. The sample was comprised of women whom their spouse were referred to addiction clinic. Twenty - four women were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups were assessed by Davidson Resilience Scale, Peterson happiness directions questionnaires and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Positive group psychotherapy was conducted on the experimental group for 14 sessions, each session lasting 90- minutes. The data was analyzed with ANCOVA. The findings indicated that the mean scores of post-test in the experimental groups on resilience, happiness, and public health, was significantly higher than the mean scores of post-test in control group. Benferroni test was indicating the stable effect of therapy. According to the findings, it can be said that group positive psychotherapy was effective in promoting resiliency, happiness, and general health of women with the dependent drug spouses.
We aim to determine whether men can be of help in the early detection of lumps in their spouses' breast. 230 questionnaires were administered to married men. The responses were accepted as “yes” or “no. 217 men (94.35%) responded. 195 (89.86%) were aware of breast cancer. 212 ( 97.7%) were either Christians or ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When spouse is living in the same household with employee. 222.16 Section 222.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.16...
Yang, Ziwei; Zhang, Haina; Ho Kwong, Kwan; Chen, Shouming
The present study investigated the crossover effects of employee perceptions of servant leadership and job social support on the family satisfaction and quality of family life experienced by the employees’ spouses. These effects were explored through a focus on the mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Results from a three-wave field survey of 199 employee–spouse dyads in the People’s Republic of China support our hypotheses, indicating that OBSE fully mediates the...
van Nimwegen, K J M; Kievit, W; van der Wilt, G J; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Donders, A R T; Verhaak, C M; Grutters, J P C
Complex paediatric neurology (CPN) patients generally present with non-specific symptoms, such as developmental delay, impaired movement and epilepsy. The diagnostic trajectory in these disorders is usually complicated and long-lasting, and may be burdensome to the patients and their parents. Additionally, as caring for a chronically ill child can be stressful and demanding, parents of these patients may experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aims to assess parental HRQoL and factors related to it in CPN. Physical and mental HRQoL of 120 parents was measured and compared to the general population using the SF-12 questionnaire. Parents also completed this questionnaire for the measurement of patient HRQoL. Additional questionnaires were used to measure parental uncertainty (Visual Analogue Scale) and worry phenomena (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and to obtain socio-demographic data. A linear mixed model with random effect was used to investigate which of these variables were associated with parental HRQoL. As compared to the general population, HRQoL of these parents appeared diminished. Fathers showed both lowered physical (51.76, p parental worry phenomena were significantly correlated with overall and mental parental HRQoL. The reduction in parental mental HRQoL is alarming, also because children strongly rely on their parents and parental mental health is known to influence children's health. Awareness of these problems among clinicians, and supportive care if needed are important to prevent exacerbation of the problems. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bond, Suzie; Gourlay, Catherine; Desjardins, Alexandra; Bodson-Clermont, Paule; Boucher, Marie-Ève
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit. At admission, 77% of spouses and 56% of close relatives of burn patients reported anxiety, depression or PTSD-related symptoms in the clinical range. While spouses had higher scores than close relatives on symptom measures, significant differences were only established for anxiety symptoms (p<.02). A significant effect was found for gender, with women reporting more anxiety (p=.01) and depression (p=.02) symptoms than men. Results also showed a main effect for time, with anxiety (p<.0001), depression (p<.0001) and PTSD-related (p<.0001) symptoms being higher at admission than at discharge. Variables associated with the index patient, such as total body surface area burned, length of stay, number of ventilated days, facial burns, or level of care at admission, were not associated with outcome measures. Spouses and close relatives of burn survivors showed high levels of psychological distress in the first few days following admission, and more than a quarter still reported symptoms in the clinical range at discharge. Our analysis points to the need to offer psychological support and guidance to family members so that they can in turn provide effective support to the burn survivor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori
Attachment theory contends that insecure working models of the self and other built through negative attachment experiences are predisposing factors for depression and anxiety disorders. Meanwhile, patients with these psychiatric disorders tend to perceive that they received the affectionless control parenting, which is a combination of lack of care and overprotection. To test the hypothesis that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models, we examined the effects of perceived parenting styles on qualities of working models. The subjects were 691 healthy Japanese volunteers. Working models of the self and other were assessed by the Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into one of the four types defined by combinations of levels of care and protection. In all combinations of recipient sexes and parental sexes, the subjects with the affectionless control parenting (low care/high protection) had lower scores of the self-model and other-model than those with the optimal parenting (high care/low protection). The present study suggests that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models of the self and other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duncan, Stephen F.; Goddard, H. Wallace
Assessed how work as family professional is uniquely enhancing and stressful and whether enhancers and stressors are correlated with marital and family quality. Findings from 59 family professionals and their spouses strengthen idea that there are marital and family life enhancers and stressors uniquely associated with work as family professional.…
maintaining work / life balance . 4. Strong connection with extended family – both the partner’s (for support) and the soldier’s (for attempting to...the demands of the military, due to frequent moves. 2. Disruptions to family life , such as canceled vacations (due to changes in work demands...Some spouses noted that effective leaders could reduce the negative impact (e.g., by attempting to help soldiers achieve work / family balance with
Mattessich, S; Shea, K; Whitaker-Worth, D
Women in medicine may feel pressure to choose between the competing demands of career goals and being a dedicated spouse and parent. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the current opinions of female dermatologists with regard to family planning, maternity leave, and career success. We surveyed 183 members of the Women's Dermatologic Society using a 13-question survey that was approved for distribution by the institutional review board committee of the University of Connecticut Health Center. We found that women were most likely to have children while they were residents (51%), despite the fact that residents were more likely to report barriers to childbearing at this career stage. These barriers included length of maternity leave, appearing less committed to residency responsibilities compared with peers, and inadequate time and privacy to breast feed. Strategies to achieve a work-life balance included hiring in-home help and working part-time. Of note, many women commented on the need for more family planning resources at work. Thought should be given to future administrative strategies that can lessen the burden of parents who are dermatologists and have academic ambitions.
Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F
A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults
Donfrancesco, R; Loprieno, U
In Italy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains under-diagnosed. The Lifetime Impairment Survey assessed impairments/symptoms of ADHD in children across six European countries. Results relating to the Italian sample are discussed here. Parents/caregivers of children aged ADHD (ADHD group) and without ADHD (control group) were invited to participate in an online survey. Participants answered questions relating to their eldest/only child. History of ADHD diagnosis was self-reported. Eight impairment and symptom scales and two summed scores were created to compare the ADHD and control groups; higher scores indicate greater impairment. In Italy, 104 parents/caregivers of children with ADHD and 105 parents/caregivers of children without ADHD participated in the survey (N.=83 and N.=84, respectively, after exclusion of participants with implausible answers). The ADHD group had higher mean (standard deviation) scores than the control group for home impairment (2.1 [0.5]) vs. 1.9 [0.4]; Pschool impairment (2.8 [0.6] vs. 2.1 [0.6]; Pschool were correlated with each other (r=0.478; PADHD symptoms (r=0.321; Pschool failure (r=0.208; PADHD in Italy are significantly affected by impairments associated with ADHD. Children and adolescents with ADHD in Italy should receive prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy.
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is said to be a core feature of schizophrenia. Executive function is an important cognitive domain. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess cognitive impairment among Indian patients with schizophrenia (Sz or schizoaffective disorder (SzA, compared with their parents and unaffected individuals (controls. Settings and Design: Executive functions as measured by Trail-making Test (TMT, of patients and their parents were compared with controls. The patients were recruited from the Outpatients′ Department (OPD of a government hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed as Sz or SzA (n=172 and their parents (n=196: families n=132, 119 fathers and 77 mothers participated. We also included 120 persons with no history of psychiatric illness. Cognitive function was assessed with the TMT. The Information Score of the Post Graduate Institute Battery of Brain Dysfunction test, developed in India for Indian subjects was used as a proxy for general fixed knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Logistic and linear regression was used to compare cognitive deficits of cases, parents and controls. Results: Cases and their parents took significantly more time than controls on Part B of the TMT. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and parents on any of the TMT parameters. Using regression analysis, the most significant correlates of all TMT parameters among cases were with occurrence of auditory hallucinations and current age. Conclusion: Cases, as well as their parents showed more cognitive impairment than controls on the TMT.
Tuekpe, Mallet Korsi-ntumi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Zheng, Kui-Cheng; Kouadio, Kouame; Ariizumi, Makoto
This study investigated associations between lifestyle factors and selected aspects of mental health in a group of Japanese overseas workers and their accompanying spouses who were residing in and around Düsseldorf, Germany, in February 1994. Considering four aspects of mental health (depression, mental instability, nervousness and neurosis) and six lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, cigarette smoking, physical exercise, eating breakfast and eating snacks), a cross-sectional study involving 822 volunteers (486 workers and 336 spouses) was performed using the Todai Health Index (THI) for surveying self-perceived health and a lifestyle related self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol consumption had no associations with any of the four aspects of mental health, and only very weak inverse associations were found between the other five lifestyle factors and the four aspects of mental health in the workers group. In the spouses group, physical exercise was the only lifestyle factor significantly associated with mental health.
Maysa Ferreira Martins Ribeiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate parental stress of mothers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy; to verify whether parental stress undergoes variations according to the level of motor compromise, the child's phase of life, and sociodemographic variables.METHOD: a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with 223 mothers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.RESULTS: 45.3% of the mothers presented high levels of stress; there were differences in stress between mothers of children with mild and severe motor impairment; mothers of older children were more stressed than mothers of younger children and of adolescents; paid work and leisure activities reduced the stress.CONCLUSION: mothers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, whose children present mild to severe motor impairment are vulnerable to parental stress. Paid work and leisure activities were the factors that contributed most to reducing the stress.
Horstman, Haley Kranstuber; Holman, Amanda
Grounded in communicated sense-making (CSM) theorizing, we investigated communicated perspective-taking (CPT; i.e., conversational partners' attendance to and confirmation of each other's views) in association with individual and relational well-being in married couples who had miscarried (n = 183; N = 366). Actor-partner interdependence modeling revealed husbands' perceptions of wives' CPT were positively related to husbands' positive affect about the miscarriage and both spouses' relational satisfaction, as well as negatively associated with wives' positive affect. Wives' perceptions of husbands' CPT related positively to their own relational satisfaction and negatively to husbands' negative affect. Analyses revealed identification as a parent to the miscarried child (i.e., "parenting role salience") positively moderated the relationship between CPT and relational satisfaction. Implications for advancing CSM theorizing in health contexts and practical applications are explored.
Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.
Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…
DeVoe, Ellen R; Paris, Ruth; Emmert-Aronson, Ben; Ross, Abigail; Acker, Michelle
Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period. Using a home-based modality, service members, at-home parents, and their young child were assessed at baseline, 3 months posttreatment/wait period, and 6 months from baseline. Service member parents in Strong Families evidenced greater reductions in parenting stress and mental health distress relative to those in the waitlist comparison group. Service members with more posttraumatic stress symptoms reported higher levels of perceived parental efficacy in the intervention group than service members in the comparison group. Intervention also resulted in enhanced parental reflective capacity, including increased curiosity and interest in the young child among those in the intervention group relative to comparison. Service member parents and their spouses demonstrated high interest in participating in a postdeployment parenting program targeting families with very young children. Findings point to the feasibility, appeal, and efficacy of Strong Families in this initial trial and suggest promise for implementation in broader military and community service systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kuzmanovic Tatjana Djuric
Full Text Available In this pilot study we explore the mutual conditionality of bargaining power between spouses in the processes of intra-household allocation of resources (care work and the assignment of their roles in family businesses (paid work in Vojvodina, Serbia. Our intention is to explain the changes in gender relations in family businesses run by spouses under different socio-economic and institutional conditions, and especially in the context of enforced postsocialist neoliberal transformation after 2009. We formulate a theoretical and methodological framework based on the case of ten firms and check its validity for deeper and wider research into the key causes, forms and characteristics of gender bias in this area.
van Eldik, Willemijn M; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7.70 years; 368 mothers, 355 fathers). Marital stress related to having a child, children's externalizing behavior, and perceived parental competence were assessed three times across 8 years. Multigroup analyses were used to examine models for both parents simultaneously and test for similarity in associations across spouses. A bivariate latent growth model indicated positive associated change between marital stress and externalizing behavior, supporting the idea of codevelopment. The cross-lagged panel model revealed a reciprocal relation between marital stress and perceived parental competence across a time interval of 6 years. Additionally, two elicitation effects appeared during adolescence, showing that parents who reported higher externalizing problems in early adolescence reported more marital stress and a lower sense of competence two years later. Similar associations were found for mothers and fathers. Overall, this study indicates that marital stress and externalizing behavior codevelop over time and supports literature on developmental differences regarding interrelations between subsystems and individuals within the family system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Arnaud, Catherine; White-Koning, Melanie; I. Michelsen, Susan
: The parental response rates were >93% for all domains except one. Gross motor function and IQ level were found to be associated independently with quality of life in most domains. However, greater severity of impairment was not always associated with poorer quality of life; in the moods and emotions, self-perception......, social acceptance, and school environment domains, less severely impaired children were more likely to have poor quality of life. Pain was associated with poor quality of life in the physical and psychological well-being and self-perception domains. Parents with higher levels of stress were more likely...
Hamblin, Rebecca J; Salloum, Alison; Andel, Ross; Nadeau, Joshua M; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A
Diagnostic agreement between parents' and children's reports on children's anxiety problems is notoriously poor; however, very few investigations have examined specific predictors of inter-rater agreement on child anxiety diagnoses. This study examined predictors of categories of parent and child diagnostic endorsement on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. One hundred eight children (ages 7-13) and their parents completed structured diagnostic interviews for non-OCD/PTSD anxiety diagnoses and paper and pencil measures of functioning and impairment in a variety of domains. Parent-child agreement was statistically significant for social phobia and separation anxiety disorder, but was overall poor for all anxiety diagnoses. Externalizing disorder status, family accommodation frequency, and child rated impairment in various domains differentially predicted informant discrepancies for different anxiety disorders. These data are among the first to suggest variables that may explain parent-child concordance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Heijmans, M.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.
In this cross-sectional study, the illness representations of patients suffering from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (n=49) and Addison's Disease (n=52) and those of their spouses were compared. Couples generally held similar views with regard to the dimensions of illness identity and cause but disagreed
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that they must notify CERN of any change in their marital status and any change in the income or health insurance cover of their spouse or registered partner, in writing and within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2009 onwards, the following indexed monthly supplementary contributions, expressed in Swiss francs, are payable for the various monthly income brackets: •\tmore than 2’500 CHF and up to 4’250 CHF: 134.- •\tmore than 4’250 CHF and up to 7’500 CHF: 234.- •\tmore than 7’500 CHF and up to 10’000 CHF: 369.- •\tmore than 10’000 CHF: 485.- It is in the member of...
Song, HoSook; Oh, HyunSoo; Kim, HwaSoon; Seo, WhaSook
The present study was conducted to examine whether a sexual rehabilitation intervention program, which was developed during the present study and designed for stroke patients and their spouses, was effective in terms of sexual knowledge and satisfaction and frequency of sexual activity at 1 month after intervention. The study subjects were conveniently selected from stroke patients admitted to the neurology department at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. A total of 46 subjects (12 couples for the experimental group and 11 couples for the control group) were included. Sexual knowledge, sexual satisfaction, frequency of sexual activity, level of cognitive function, and performance with respect to daily living activities were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that the devised sexual rehabilitation intervention program significantly increased sexual satisfaction and frequency of sexual activity, but that it did not promote sexual knowledge. The present study has meaning because the intervention program could be used as a practical guideline for post-stroke sexual rehabilitation. In addition, the findings of this study provide evidence regarding the usefulness of sexual education and counseling on the sexual health of post-stroke patients and their spouses.
Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.
Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta
A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons
Gibbs, Deborah A
...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...
Heinrich, Carolyn J
Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.
Olga A. Karabanova
Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.
Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.
Psychogiou, L; Parry, E
Although existing research has shown that depression in parents has a negative effect on parent-child interactions, the mechanisms underpinning impaired parenting are still unknown. In this editorial, we review core difficulties that have been noted in depressed individuals including reduced positive and increased negative affect, poor emotion regulation, executive function deficits, reduced motivation and rumination, and discuss how each of these can alter parenting. We suggest that these causal processes are inter-related and can interact with one another in affecting parenting. We conclude that an improved understanding of these processes will have implications for the development of more specific and potentially more effective treatments that have the potential to break the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology.
Kayser, Lars; Hansen-Nord, Nete S; Osborne, Richard H
BACKGROUND: Early stage prostate cancer patients may be allocated to active surveillance, where the condition is observed over time with no intervention. Living with a cancer diagnosis may impose stress on both the men and their spouses. In this study we explore whether the scores of and verbal...
... surviving spouse. (a) In general. The value, for the purpose of the marital deduction, of any deductible... expenses could include executor commissions and attorney fees (except to the extent of commissions or fees... executor properly makes an election under section 2056(b)(7) to treat as qualified terminable interest...
Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…
Wisnoski, Steven T
... 9 months and 4 years of active duty service. Logistic regression is utilized to measure the influence of various demographic, military, and attitudinal variables on spouse's desire that the significant other stay on active duty...
Sáez, Belén; Servera, Mateu; Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P
Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children and advancements in its measurement, little research has examined child self-reported SCT. Child self-report of SCT is important for the multi-informant assessment of SCT. The current study used a large, school-based sample of children and a multi-informant design to examine child self-reported SCT using the Child Concentration Inventory - Version 2 (CCI-2) which was recently revised based on meta-analytic findings and parallels the item content of validated parent and teacher rating scales. The study involved 2142 unique children (ages 8-13 years, 50.51% males). Children (n = 1980) completed measures of SCT, loneliness, and preference for solitude. Mothers (n = 1648), fathers (n = 1358), and teachers (n = 1773) completed measures of SCT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-IN (ADHD-IN), academic impairment, social impairment, and conflicted shyness. Children's self-reported SCT demonstrated good reliability with the 15 SCT symptoms showing moderate to strong loadings on the SCT factor. The child self-report SCT factor also showed moderate convergent validity with mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT. In addition, higher child-reported SCT predicted greater mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's academic impairment even after controlling for mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. Higher child-rated SCT also predicted greater mother ratings of children's social impairment after controlling for mother ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. The present study provides initial empirical support for the reliability and validity of child-reported SCT as part of the multi-informant assessment of SCT. A key direction for future research includes evaluating the unique contributions of different informants and their utility within specific contexts to guide evidence-based recommendations for assessing SCT.
Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan
The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.
Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.
Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined
Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Demirel, Omer Faruk; Yavuz, Mesut; Demir, Türkay
Research findings debate about features of broad autism phenotype. In this study, we tested whether parents of children with autism have problems recognizing emotional facial expression and the contribution of such an impairment to the broad phenotype of autism. Seventy-two parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder and 38 parents of control group participated in the study. Broad autism features was measured with Autism Quotient (AQ). Recognition of Emotional Face Expression Test was assessed with the Emotion Recognition Test, consisting a set of photographs from Ekman & Friesen's. In a two-tailed analysis of variance of AQ, there was a significant difference for social skills (F(1, 106)=6.095; p<.05). Analyses of variance revealed significant difference in the recognition of happy, surprised and neutral expressions (F(1, 106)=4.068, p=.046; F(1, 106)=4.068, p=.046; F(1, 106)=6.064, p=.016). According to our findings, social impairment could be considered a characteristic feature of BAP. ASD parents had difficulty recognizing neutral expressions, suggesting that ASD parents may have impaired recognition of ambiguous expressions as do autistic children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, E I; da Silva, C A; Guerra, G M
The purpose of this study was to identify the basic needs of the spouses of patients with myocardial infarction. The concepts of basic needs from Maslow were used as conceptual framework. The data's analysis showed the following needs affections of this population: safety, belongingness and love, esteem.
Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Bhagyavathi, Haralahalli D; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N
Schizophrenia patients experience impairments across various functional roles. Emotional unresponsiveness and an inability to foster intimacy and display affection may lead to impairments in parenting. A comprehensive cognitive understanding of parenting abilities in schizophrenia has the potential to guide newer treatment strategies. As part of a larger study on functional ability in schizophrenia patients, we attempted a cognitive deconstruction of their parenting ability. Sixty-nine of the 170 patients who participated in a study on social cognition in remitted schizophrenia were parents (mean age of their children: 11.8 ± 6.2 years). They underwent comprehensive assessments for neurocognition, social cognition (theory of mind, emotion processing, social perception and attributional bias), motivation and insight. A rater blind to their cognitive status assessed their social functioning using the Groningen Social Disabilities Schedule. We examined the association of their functional ability (active involvement and affective relationship) in the parental role with their cognitive performance as well as with their level of insight and motivation. Deficits in first- and second-order theory of mind (t = 2.57, p = 0.01; t = 3.2, p = 0.002, respectively), speed of processing (t = 2.37, p = 0.02), cognitive flexibility (t = 2.26, p = 0.02) and motivation (t = 2.64, p = 0.01) had significant association with parental role dysfunction. On logistic regression, second-order theory of mind emerged as a specific predictor of parental role, even after controlling for overall functioning scores sans parental role. Second-order theory of mind deficits are specifically associated with parental role dysfunction of patients with schizophrenia. Novel treatment strategies targeting theory of mind may improve parenting abilities in individuals with schizophrenia.
Rossen, Sine; Hansen-Nord, Nete Sloth; Kayser, Lars
with their partner, and how they handle the situation. METHODS: Interviews were recorded with 8 spouses of potential low-risk prostate cancer patients on active surveillance as part of a clinical self-management lifestyle trial. RESULTS: We identified 3 phases that the spouses went through: feeling insecure about...... their situation, coping strategies to deal with these insecurities, and feeling reassured. CONCLUSIONS: The framework of a clinical trial should include mobilizing spousal empowerment so that they can take on an active and meaningful role in relation to their husband's disease. The observations here substantiate...
Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Lima, Fernão Dias de
arrangements, the single largest group (32.1%) of elderly persons lived with the spouse and children or with just the children; the next largest group (20.0%) lived with just the spouse. The living arrangement in which the highest proportion (56.4%) of elderly persons with functional impairments received help was living with nonrelatives. The elderly persons with functional impairments in São Paulo are not receiving enough assistance from their family members or other persons with whom they live. Further, there are no public policies in Brazil to fill this gap. Taking into account the country's aging population, the health care system in Brazil is at risk of becoming not only inadequate but chaotic.
Hindmarsh, Gabrielle; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Emerson, Eric
Background: Children of parents with intellectual impairment are thought to be at risk for poor social-emotional well-being. This study investigated the relationship between maternal intellectual impairment and poor child social-emotional well-being. Method: Secondary analysis of data from waves 2-4 of the Millennium Cohort Study (UK).…
Park, Joon-Ho; Schachar, Russell J
Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable and valid parent and teacher scales for measurement of functional impairment in children and adolescents in order to assist the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Seventy-two children with ADHD fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th Edition criteria and forty-two normal controls were enrolled in this study. Parents and teachers of the subjects completed the parent and teacher form of the preliminary items of Child and Adolescent Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS) made up by the authors. Based on the reliability and factor analysis, the final parent (CAFIS-parent form) and teacher version (CAFIS-teacher form) were constructed. Scales were analyzed for reliability and validity. Relative operating characteristics curve was drawn to calculate the cutoff scores of these scales for children with ADHD. Results The CAFIS-parent and CAFIS-teacher forms consist of four and three factors, respectively. Internal consistency and test-retest correlation of the scales were satisfactory. The CAFIS and Children's Global Assessment Scale were significantly correlated. All scores of subscales of CAFIS in ADHD group were significantly higher than those of control group. The sensitivity and specificity of the subscales were mostly at an appropriate level. Conclusion The CAFIS is a brief layperson-administered scale to assess functional impairment of children and adolescents. It can be a useful tool for parents and teachers to objectively measure the functions of children at home and in school. This scale was found to be reliable and valid, and it appears to be a valuable instrument in Korean language. PMID:21852987
This paper aims to identify how Taiwanese and Mandarin (the two dominant languages in Taiwan) are used as interactional resources by Vietnamese female spouses in bilingual Taiwanese families. Three Vietnamese-Taiwanese transnational families (a total of seventeen people) participated in the research, and mealtime talks among the Vietnamese wives…
Duffy, Lisa V
Parents of children with epilepsy, like parents of children with many other chronic conditions, are faced with a constant feeling of uncertainty about their child's condition. This uncertainty can lead to a decreased ability to cope as evidenced by increased stress levels, negative mood states, and impaired family functioning. Because altered coping in the parent may have a profound negative impact on the child's psychosocial adjustment to living with a chronic condition, it is important to identify ways to facilitate positive coping skills in the parent. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the existing literature related to the challenges associated with parenting a child who has epilepsy. Interventions geared toward facilitating coping in parents will also be reviewed, and gaps in the literature will be identified. Lastly, future implications for nursing research will be discussed.
Ugargol, Allen Prabhaker; Bailey, Ajay
The Indian state of Kerala leads the demographic transition and characteristically showcases emigration of predominantly male adult children, leaving behind parents, spouses and children. When men emigrate, gendered contexts burden women, especially spouses and daughters-in-law, with caregiving
... tax liability on the spouse's death.” The statement must be signed, under penalties of perjury, by the... permissible under local law. Any such division must be accomplished no later than the end of the period of... a pro rata portion of each asset held by the undivided trust. (C) Local law. A trust may be divided...
Gonçalves, Bruna Miroski; Dias, Loraine Fernandes; Pereira, Carla da Silva; Ponte, Marcos Ximenes; Konrath, Andréa Cristina; Bolan, Michele da Silva; Cardoso, Mariane
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of dental trauma and impaired esthetics on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool children and their relatives. Methods: Study conducted with 192 children aged 2 to 5 years in 11 preschools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire on quality of life (Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scales - B-ECOHIS), a socioeconomic survey, and then answered specific questions related to dental trauma. The subjects were examined by three accordant examiners (Kappa>0.7). Dental trauma was evaluated on the basis of indexes adopted by the World Health Organization, and esthetic impairment was then classified. Data were descriptively analyzed and put to bivariate analysis by chi-square and Fisher tests, with significance level at 5%. Results: The prevalence of dental trauma was 62.5% with 15.6% of esthetic impairment. Almost 12% of parents reported impact on the quality of life of their children. Dental trauma was not significantly associated with gender, age or QoL. Crown color change by trauma was associated with esthetic impairment. Also esthetic impairment had a negative impact on QoL (pEsthetic impairment had a negative impact on children’s quality of life, while dental trauma was not associated to it. PMID:28977132
Ajallouyan, Mohammad; Radfar, Shokofeh; Nouhi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seid Abbas; Amirsalari, Susan; Yousefi, Jaleh; Hasanali Fard, Mahdieh
It seems that there is a relationship between consanguinity and profound hearing loss but there is little data about the association of consanguinity and hearing loss in Iran. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the causes of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among Iranian samples who are candidates for cochlear implantation. This study was retrospective, analytical, and designed to collect information about profound hearing impaired cases referred to the Baqiyatallah Cochlear implantation center using enumeration. A total of 310 children with profound hearing impairments participated in this study. They were aged from 6 months to 4 years old. The study was done between January 2007 and April 2009. Chi-square tests were used to show whether there was any statistical difference between the incidence of marital consanguinity of their parents and the normal population. Sixty-five percent of those 310 children had parents who had married with their relatives. Of the 203 (65%) parents that had consanguineous marriages, 132 were first cousins, which includes the children of two brothers (37 [11.8%] patrilateral parallel cousins), the children of two sisters (38 [12.2%] multi-lateral parallel cousins), or the children of a brother and a sister (57 [18.3%] cross cousins). Fifty-four (17.4%) of the parents were second cousins and 17 (5.2%) were beyond second cousins. Also, hearing loss etiology was obvious in 237 (76.3%) of the patients with profound hearing loss but was unknown in 73 (23.7%). Hereditary was identified as the most common cause in 33% of the cases. Our data demonstrated a 65% occurrence of consanguineous marriage among the parents of deaf children, which is statistically different from the percentage of consanguineous marriage among Iranian population (38%). This indicates an obvious relationship between severe hearing loss and consanguineous marriage.
Ashley, Julia R.; Cates, Dennis L.
A survey of teachers of the visually impaired and adults with albinism or parents of children with albinism (total responses=144) found no use of Braille by the adults or children with albinism, awareness of the condition by almost all teachers, support for mainstreaming by all, and specific teaching suggestions from teachers. (DB)
Athina Paschou; Dimitrios Damigos; Petros Skapinakis; Kostas Siamopoulos
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the burden and depression in spouses of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The interrelation between burden and depression in family caregivers has been pointed out by previous researches in several chronic diseases and researchers agree that they clearly go together and one cannot talk about one without considering the other. More particularly, in the present study, the caregiver burden, the depression, anxiety, and also health-rel...
Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.
Thandi, Gursimran; Harden, L; Cole, L; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T
For the purposes of this review, caregivers are individuals who provide care that is typically unpaid and usually takes place at home. This systematic review aims to identify burden among spouses/partners caring for wounded, injured or sick military personnel and the factors associated with caregiver burden. A systematic review was undertaken using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guidelines. Five electronic databases and relevant websites were searched. Two reviewers appraised the quality of the studies and carried out data extraction. Ten original papers were identified, of which eight were quantitative studies and two were qualitative. These papers highlighted the potential negative impact caregiving can have on spouses/partners and also some of the positive aspects of caring that can strengthen intimate relationships. Caring for an injured or ill military spouse or partner is a difficult task, compounded by the complexity of dealing with potentially both their physical and mental health problems. However, research has also identified some positive aspects of caring that can strengthen intimate relationships. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Clarke, Tana L; O'Brien, Kelly A; Raggi, Veronica L; Diaz, Yamalis; Mintz, Abigail D; Rooney, Mary E; Knight, Laura A; Seymour, Karen E; Thomas, Sharon R; Seeley, John; Kosty, Derek; Lewinsohn, Peter
More than 50% of mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with impaired parenting and predict adverse developmental and treatment outcomes for children with ADHD. For these reasons, we developed and examined the preliminary efficacy of an integrated treatment targeting parenting and depressive symptoms for mothers of children with ADHD. This integrated intervention incorporated elements of 2 evidence-based treatments: behavioral parent training (BPT) and cognitive behavioral depression treatment. Ninety-eight mothers with at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to receive either standard BPT (n = 51) or the integrated parenting intervention for ADHD (IPI-A; n = 47). Participants were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3- to 6-month follow-up on measures of (a) self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, (b) observed positive and negative parenting, and (c) observed and mother-reported child disruptive behavior and mother-reported child and family impairment. The IPI-A produced effects of small to moderate magnitude relative to BPT on maternal depressive symptoms, observed negative parenting, observed child deviance, and child impairment at posttreatment and on maternal depressive symptoms, child disruptive behavior, child impairment and family functioning at follow-up. Contrary to expectations, the BPT group demonstrated moderate to large effects relative to IPI-A on observed positive parenting at follow-up. This treatment development study provides encouraging preliminary support for the integrated intervention targeting parenting and depressive symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD. Future studies should examine whether this integrated intervention improves long-term developmental outcomes for children with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Lovell, Anne M; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B
To compare parental adjustment, social support, and family functioning between families of children with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and a group of demographically similar comparison families, and to examine the impact of disease severity. Questionnaires were completed at home by parents of 54 children with NF1 (54 mothers and 42 fathers) and 51 comparison children (49 mothers and 32 fathers). Few differences between groups were identified for parental distress, social support, or family environment. Greater neurological impairment in children with NF1 was associated with greater distress, more family conflict, less positive mealtime interactions, and less social support from the perspectives of mothers. Overall, parents of children with NF1 appear similar to parents of comparison children. Mothers who have children with NF1 characterized by greater neurological impairment may be at risk for more difficulties. Future work exploring long-term adjustment for these mothers as well as interventions to ameliorate any potential difficulties may be appropriate.
Slutske, Wendy S.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.
The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder by examining whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than the children of non-alcoholic parents even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of their 18–39 year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured psychiatric telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of non-alcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark
This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for 3 years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach, Sandeen, & O'Leary, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally discordant couples are discussed.
a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....
Early diagnosis of hearing impairment is of crucial importance in a child’s life. For this reason, a pediatrician should perform a hearing exam, along with other necessary specialised tests, immediately after he/she had identified risks of hearing impairment in the newborn‘s anamnesis or had ben warned by the parents about a possible problem. Both the diagnosis of congenital or acquired hearing impairment after birth, and the installment of hearing aids, should take place by the end of the first year in a child’s life at the latest. (author)
Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China.An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively. A nested case-control study of risk factors of HIV seroconversion among sero-different couples was conducted in April and May of 2013, based on the open cohort. Sero-different couples with the HIV-negative spouse seroconverting at least 3 months after the previous negative diagnosis during cohort observation period were labeled as "case couples". The "control couples" were selected randomly from the same cohort that did not have the HIV-negative spouse seroconversion during the same period. The "case couples" and "control couples" were matched on gender, age, and region of residence. Sexual behaviors among HIV sero-different couples before and after the index spouses notifying their HIV infection status to their HIV-negative spouses were collected via face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with HIV seroconversion among HIV sero-different couples.Of 4481 HIV sero-different couples, a total of 53 seroconversions were observed within 5218 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate was 1.02 (95%CI: 0.76-1.33 per 100 person-years. Forty "case couples" confirmed HIV-negative spouse seroconversions infected via marital sexual transmission, were matched to 80 "control couples". Of the 120 couples, 81(67.5% were receiving ART, and 70 (58.3% reported consistently used condoms during intercourse after the index
Tang, Houlin; Wu, Zunyou; Mao, Yurong; Cepeda, Javier; Morano, Jamie
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively. A nested case-control study of risk factors of HIV seroconversion among sero-different couples was conducted in April and May of 2013, based on the open cohort. Sero-different couples with the HIV-negative spouse seroconverting at least 3 months after the previous negative diagnosis during cohort observation period were labeled as "case couples". The "control couples" were selected randomly from the same cohort that did not have the HIV-negative spouse seroconversion during the same period. The "case couples" and "control couples" were matched on gender, age, and region of residence. Sexual behaviors among HIV sero-different couples before and after the index spouses notifying their HIV infection status to their HIV-negative spouses were collected via face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with HIV seroconversion among HIV sero-different couples. Of 4481 HIV sero-different couples, a total of 53 seroconversions were observed within 5218 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate was 1.02 (95%CI: 0.76-1.33) per 100 person-years. Forty "case couples" confirmed HIV-negative spouse seroconversions infected via marital sexual transmission, were matched to 80 "control couples". Of the 120 couples, 81(67.5%) were receiving ART, and 70 (58.3%) reported consistently used condoms during intercourse after the index spouse was
This paper investigates the determinants of older workers’ early retirement behavior in Denmark. Instead of considering dual retirement we recognize the importance of the spouse in the early retirement decision by assessing the effect of a rich number of spousal variables. Given the grouped nature...... of the data we set up a semi-parametric single risk grouped duration proportional hazard model accounting for right censoring and allows for time-varying covariates, a nonparametric baseline and unobserved heterogeneity. We find that spousal characteristics do influence the retirement decision and significant...
Pruett, Marsha Kline; Williams, Tamra Y; Insabella, Glendessa; Little, Todd D
This research used structural equation modeling to examine relations among family dynamics, attorney involvement, and the adjustment of young children (0-6 years) at the time of parental separation. The article presents baseline data (N = 102 nonresidential fathers and N = 110 primary caretaking mothers) from a larger longitudinal study. Results showed that the effects of parental conflict on child outcomes were mediated by paternal involvement, the parent-child relationship, and attorney involvement. A scale assessing parental gatekeeping yielded two significant factors: Spouse's Influence on Parenting and Positive View of Spouse. Paternal involvement was related to children's adaptive behavior, whereas negative changes in parent-child relationships predicted behavior problems. Mothers who experienced greater psychological symptomatology were less likely to utilize an attorney, which in turn predicted greater internalizing problems in their children.
Kroth, Roger L.
It is suggested that professionals can help families cope with a child who is hearing-impaired by being sensitive to their emotional needs, both at the time of diagnosis and thereafter. Listening and informing skills are discussed with emphasis on improving the ongoing parent-professional relationship. (Author/VW)
Borelli, Jessica L.; West, Jessica L.; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E.
Parenting and emotion regulation are two known, and potentially interrelated, areas of impairment among substance-abusing mothers. In this study, we examine substance -abusing mothers’ (positive and negative) emotion language word use during their discussion of negative parenting experiences on the Parent Development Interview for its association with reflective functioning (RF), recent substance-use history, and sensitivity to child cues. Within a sample of 47 methadone-maintained mothers, we evaluate the hypothesis that linguistic evidence of emotional avoidance (more frequent positive feeling words and less frequent negative emotion words) will be associated with lower RF, more recent substance use, and more insensitive parenting. Further, we evaluate whether language use mediates the association between self-focused RF and insensitive parenting. Results of hierarchical regressions suggest that more frequent positive feeling word use, but not negative emotion word use, is associated with lower RF, more recent substance use, and lower sensitivity to child cues. Positive feeling word use partially mediates the association between self-focused RF and insensitive parenting. Results are discussed in the context of their contribution to the literature on emotion and parenting in substance-abusing populations. PMID:23049148
Padilla, Jenny; McHale, Susan M; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Parents' differential treatment (PDT) is a common family dynamic that has been linked to youth development and well-being, including adjustment problems and poor sibling relationships. Much less is known, however, about the developmental course of PDT and the conditions under which parents treat their children differently in adolescence and young adulthood. This study examined longitudinal changes in mothers' and fathers' differential warmth and conflict with their two offspring from early adolescence through young adulthood and examined parents' experiences of individual stress (depressive symptoms and role overload) and marital difficulties as time-varying correlates of (changes in) PDT. We also tested crossover effects to determine whether mothers' experiences of individual stress and marital difficulties were linked to fathers' differential treatment, and vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and two siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who were interviewed in their homes on three occasions over 8 years. Multilevel models revealed that mothers' and fathers' differential conflict with their two children increased until middle adolescence and then declined into young adulthood, but there were no changes over time for parents' differential warmth. In general, both mothers' and fathers' levels of differential treatment were exacerbated by their own experiences of individual stress and marital difficulties and also by the experiences of their spouses. However, in some cases, greater stress than usual was linked to less differential treatment than usual. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Gajria, Kavita; Kosinski, Mark; Sikirica, Vanja; Huss, Michael; Livote, Elayne; Reilly, Kathleen; Dittmann, Ralf W; Erder, M Haim
Measurement properties of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report Form (WFIRS-P), which assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related functional impairment in children/adolescents (6-17 years), were examined. Data from seven randomized, controlled trials were pooled. Analyses were conducted in two random half-samples. WFIRS-P conceptual framework was evaluated using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Reliability was estimated using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability methods. Convergent validity was assessed using correlations between WFIRS-P domain scores and the ADHD-RS-IV and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales. Responsiveness was tested by comparing mean changes in WFIRS-P domain scores between responders and non-responders based on clinical criteria. CFA adequately confirmed the item-to-scale relationships defined in the WFIRS-P conceptual framework. Cronbach's alpha coefficient exceeded 0.7 for all domains and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.7 for all but Risky Activities. With few exceptions, WFIRS-P domains correlated significantly (p ADHD-RS-IV Total, Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores and CGI-S at baseline and follow-up in both random half-samples. Mean changes in WFIRS-P domain scores differed significantly between responder and non-responder groups in the expected direction (p < 0.001). Study results support the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the WFIRS-P. Findings were replicated between two random samples, further demonstrating the robustness of results.
Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven
There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability
Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.
Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia
Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted.
Blusi, Madeleine; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Jong, Mats
Many older spouse caregivers are tied to the home by their caring duties and feel isolated. The values of supporting older caregivers are well known. In rural areas with long distances and decline in essential services, attending caregiver support groups can be difficult. Using Internet-based services can provide an opportunity for rural caregivers to participate in caregiver support, regardless of geographical distances and without the need for physical presence. This study aimed to explore how Internet-based caregiver support may influence the experience of isolation among older spouse caregivers in rural areas. An intervention study where 63 older rural caregivers received an Internet-based caregiver support service. A qualitative interview study based on 31 interviews with open-ended questions, analysed using latent content analysis. Two themes represent the findings from the study: Expanding the concept of place and Developing networks. Even though participants still spent their days in the house, they experienced that daily life was being spent in a variety of places, both physically, virtually and emotionally. The Internet-based support service provided them with a tool to reconnect with family and develop new friends. Internet-based caregiver support may reduce the experience of isolation for spouse caregivers in rural areas. Nurses played a crucial part in the development, by encouraging, educating and inspiring caregivers and supporting their independence. Internet-based services ought to be an option for caregiver support in rural areas as it may reduce feelings of isolation for older spouse caregivers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Small, Jeff A; Perry, JoAnn
This study examined the types of questions caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended questions and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and their spouses would be more successful when caregivers used yes-no rather than open-ended questions; however, it was also predicted that a more positive communication outcome would occur when caregivers used open-ended questions that requested information from semantic rather than episodic memory. Eighteen caregivers and their spouses diagnosed with AD were audiotaped while they conversed for approximately 10 min on a topic of their choosing. The conversations were transcribed and coded according to the occurrence of questions, the type of question (yes-no, choice, or open-ended), the type of memory required to respond to a question (semantic or episodic), and the outcome of a response to a question (communication breakdown). The results indicated that caregivers used yes-no and open-ended questions to a similar extent, whereas episodic questions were used almost twice as frequently as semantic questions. Communication was more successful when caregivers used yes-no compared with open-ended questions and when questions placed demands on semantic rather than episodic memory. The findings from this study suggest that caregivers can reduce communication problems by avoiding the use of questions that depend on episodic memory. In addition, while yes-no questions were associated with more favorable outcomes than open-ended questions, the latter do not need to be avoided if they refer to information that draws only on semantic memory.
Napper, Lucy E; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; LaBrie, Joseph W
The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents' and college students' perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceived the risks of alcohol poisoning (pacademic impairment (pparents rated the majority of alcohol consequences (e.g., passing out, regrettable sexual situation, throwing up) as more severe than students (all psparents tended to be more optimistic than their child about the comparative likelihood of alcohol consequences. After controlling for demographics and past alcohol communication, greater absolute likelihood (β=.20, p=.016) and less confidence in knowledge of student behavior (β=.20, p=.013) predicted greater intentions to discuss alcohol. Providing parents of college students with information about college drinking norms and the likelihood of alcohol consequences may help prompt alcohol-related communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S
Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.
Pogrund, Rona L.; Darst, Shannon; Boland, Teryl
Introduction: The results of a 2009-2010 program evaluation study that examined parents, teachers of students with visual impairments, administrators, and students regarding overall satisfaction with and effectiveness of the short-term programs at a residential school for students who are blind and visually impaired are described. The findings are…
... years, or a life estate subject to termination upon the occurrence of a specified event (e.g., divorce... the donor spouse's death does not cause the property subject to the retained interest to be includable... on divorce. The facts are the same as in Example 3 except that if S and D divorce, S's interest in...
Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W
Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family's needs would help ensure appropriate support. To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals' communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents' feelings of supporting their children. A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent's illness. There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents' illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent's illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise.
Full Text Available Hearing impairment may affect children’s communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD. Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41–60 dB HL, severe (61–80 dB HL, profound (81–90 dB HL, or complete (>91 dB HL. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. A weighted number of 567,915 hearing impairment children were identified, yielding a prevalence of 17.49 per 10,000 people (95% CI: 16.90–18.08, with prevention or treatment options possible for 64.6% of hearing impairment children. The main causes of hearing impairment were hereditary, tympanitis, and drug intoxication. Illiteracy in one or both parents (mother: OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.125–1.714, p < 0.0001; father: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.152–2.049, p < 0.0001 relative to no school or primary school, annual family income lower than national average (OR = 1.323, 95% CI: 1.044–1.675, p = 0.0203, relative to higher than national average, household size larger than three people (OR = 1.432, 95% CI: 1.164–1.762, p = 0.0007, relative to smaller than three people and single-mother family (OR = 2.056, 95% CI: 1.390–3.042, p = 0.0176, relative to intact family were the independence risk factors for hearing impairment among Chinese children. Lower annual family income, male children, larger household size, single-mother family, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education were independent risk factors for hearing impairment for Chinese children. Further studies on hearing impairment prevention and the relationship between parental social factors and the risk of hearing impairment are needed.
Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Mishra, Rajkishor; Singh, Varun; Mohan, Priyanka
Introduction Parental support is important in the habilitation/rehabilitation of children using cochlear implant devices. Hence, it is important for families to know the realistic expectations regarding outcomes from CIs. Objective The objective of the present study is to know the parents' expectation from children using CIs. Methods For this study, we recruited 23 parents of children using CIs. We administered 15 questions translated in to Hindi related to communication abilities, social skills, academic achievement, change in future life, rehabilitation demand, and stress due to hearing impairment. Results The response of the questions (5-point rating scale) related to communication abilities showed that parents were expecting children using CIs to use the telephone (95%), to be able to detect soft sounds (99%), to listen in crowds (86%), to be able to easily understand others (76%), and to show improvement in communication skills (78%). Similarly, for questions related to social skills showed 90% of the parents expecting that their children with CIs should be able to easily make friends with normal hearing peers, and 80% of the parents were expecting the children to achieve high standards in their reading and writing skills. Questions related to change in future life showed 86% of the parents expecting their children with CIs to act like normal hearing children. Further, 78% parents showed positive response regarding importance of intensive training. However, 70% of the parents reported stress in the family due to the existence of the hearing impaired child. Conclusion Overall, the existing questionnaire-based study showed that parents have high expectations from their children with cochlear implant.
Full Text Available Objective & aim: Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts. Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected. Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses. At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996. Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively. The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression. Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.
Smyth, Catherine A.; Spicer, Carol L.; Morgese, Zoe L.
Infants with visual impairment often require additional interaction from adults to reinforce behaviors that lead to competency at mealtimes, but parental and professional confidence in teaching these skills is often limited. In the following collective case study, the authors, a speech/language pathologist (S/LP), occupational therapist (OT), and…
Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Appels, Melanie; Nuyen, Jasper; Kahn, René S
Recent research shows that categorizing patients with schizophrenia based on frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal memory profiles may yield neurobiologically meaningful disease subtypes. We hypothesize that parents of patients exhibit similar memory profiles. Both parents of 36 patients with schizophrenia (N = 72) and 26 healthy married control couples (N = 52) participated in this study. All subjects were physically healthy and had no history of neurological illness or alcohol/drug abuse. The presence of a psychiatric and/or personality disorder was assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-lifetime (SADS-L) interview and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), respectively. Cluster analysis of selected measures from the Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) delineated parents into two subgroups with distinct memory deficits and a third subgroup without impairments. Specific frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal subgroups, however, were not found. In addition, our results indicated that mothers seem to be more protected against the negative effects of genetic liability to schizophrenia than fathers. Furthermore, relatives with a higher level of intelligence may have more cognitive reserve to compensate for the negative impact of implied brain dysfunction on verbal memory than relatives with a low level of intelligence. Although the parents of patients with schizophrenia could be delineated into subgroups with primary memory deficits, frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal subgroups could not be unambiguously identified. The association that emerged between level of intelligence, gender and severity of memory impairment deserves further exploration.
Bussanich, P; Hartley, S L; Bolt, D
The present study examined parental attributions for positive child behaviour in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their association with parent outcomes. In total, 175 couples who had a child with ASD (5-12 years) completed measures about the child's positive behaviour, ASD symptoms, functional skills and negative behaviour problems, and their own positive and negative affect and closeness in the parent-child relationship. A comparison group of 170 couples who had a child without a neurodevelopmental disability also completed measures. Dyadic multilevel models were conducted. Parents of children with ASD believed that their child's positive behaviour was due to factors less internal to the child, less stable and less controllable by the child than the comparison group. Beliefs about stability were associated with closeness in the parent-child relationship. Child age and level of impairment and parent education were associated with parental attributions. Interventions that alter parental attributions may offer pathways to increase closeness in the parent-child relationship. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barlow, J; Coren, E
Mental health problems are common and there is evidence to suggest that the origins of such problems lie in infancy and childhood. In particular, there is evidence from a range of studies to suggest that maternal psychosocial health can have a significant effect on the mother-infant relationship, and that this in turn can have consequences for both the short and long-term psychological health of the child. The use of parenting programmes is increasing in the UK and elsewhere and evidence of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for children has been provided. Evidence is now required of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for mothers. The objective of this review is to address whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health including anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. A range of biomedical, social science, educational and general reference electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE CINAHL, PsychLIT, ERIC, ASSIA, Sociofile and the Social Science Citation Index. Other sources of information included the Cochrane Library (SPECTR, CENTRAL), and the National Research Register (NRR). Only randomised controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme, and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. A systematic critical appraisal of all included studies was undertaken using a modified version of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published criteria. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. Where appropriate the results were then combined in a meta
Finding a place to connect: A qualitative study exploring the influences of the physical and social environments on spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care.
Førsund, Linn Hege; Ytrehus, Siri
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how physical and social environments influence spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care. Interviews with 15 spouses whose partners lived in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia, observations of physical environments and participant observations were conducted. The results showed how finding a place for spouses to connect in the long-term care facility was important in maintaining relationships. Access to individual rooms was an important feature that enabled connections throughout the phases of dementia, whereas common areas appeared more difficult to use because small spaces limited private interactions. Health personnel were important in sustaining spouses' abilities to maintain their relationships in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia. © The Author(s) 2016.
Rim, Tyler H T; Nam, Jae S; Choi, Moonjung; Lee, Sung C; Lee, Christopher S
To describe the age, gender specific prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a total 14 924 randomly selected national representative participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale (Jin's vision chart). Independent risk factors for visual impairment were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (≤20/40) of adults 40 years and older was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) based on the better seeing eye. The overall prevalence of blindness (≤20/200) for adults 40 years and older was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Risk indicators of visual impairment were increasing age, low education status, living in rural area, being unemployed, being without spouse and the absence of private health insurance. The visually impaired were more likely to have eye diseases compared with the normal subjects, and they were less likely to utilize eye care. The prevalence of visual impairment was demonstrated to be higher while that of blindness was similar to previous population studies in Asia or U.S. Sociodemographic disparities are present in the prevalence of visual impairment and more targeted efforts are needed to promote vision screening in high risk groups. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Koc, Kevser; Koc, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Selda
Professionals agree that book characters can be excellent role models for young children. Therefore, analyzing children's literature portraying impairments provides valuable information for educators, parents, siblings, extended family members and librarians. In this study, forty-six picture books are analyzed in order to determine the…
Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Ahlsten, Gunnar; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena
To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents' satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention. Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1-15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9-10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities. Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents' satisfaction with the AT and with services was high. The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.
McMahon, Caitlin R.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Yoder, Paul J.; Stone, Wendy L.
Infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at elevated risk for social, cognitive, and language delays which may cause parents to become hypervigilant (i.e., excessively worried) about their infant's development. The extent to which parental concern is related to actual cognitive or language impairment in these infants is…
Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne
This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…
Cano, Annmarie; Leong, Laura E. M.; Williams, Amy M.; May, Dana K. K.; Lutz, Jillian R.
The communication of pain has received a great deal of attention in the pain literature; however, one form of pain communication—emotional disclosure of pain-related distress (e.g., sadness, worry, anger about pain)—has not been studied extensively. The current study examined the extent to which this form of pain communication occurred during an observed conversation with one’s spouse and also investigated the correlates and consequences of disclosure. Individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) and...
Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja
Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development.
Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo
Research in parental social support has chiefly examined received social support. Studies have suggested that provided social support may also be protective for child mental health problems. We aim to investigate the association between parental social interaction (both received and provided social support) and offspring behavior problems. We analyzed the data of 982 households, including 1538 children aged 4 to 16 years, from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) survey conducted over 2010-2011. We used a 5-point Likert scale to assess social interaction including parental emotional and instrumental support received from and provided to the spouse, other co-residing family members, non-co-residing family members or relatives, neighbors, and friends. Behavior problems in offspring were assessed using parental responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations between parental social interaction and behavior problems were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. We found that higher maternal social interaction is significantly associated with lower odds of both difficult and prosocial behavior problems, while the same associations were not found for paternal social interaction. Further, maternal provided social support showed an independent negative association with prosocial behavior problems in offspring, even when adjusted for received maternal social support and paternal social interaction. This study showed that maternal social interaction, but not paternal social interaction, might have a protective effect on offspring behavior problems. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the intervention to increase social participation among mothers whose children have behavior problems.
Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Wymbs, Brian T; Sibley, Margaret H; Derefinko, Karen J; Kuriyan, Aparajita B
This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Two sets of pairwise comparisons: (a) COMP versus CA and (b) CA versus MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared with COMP and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared with CA. Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. © The Author(s) 2012.
Boeije, H.R.; Doorne-Huiskes, A. van
This qualitative study examines how spouses experience caregiving when predominantly motivated by a sense of duty and addresses whether any differences between female and male caregivers can be detected. For our purpose semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight male and five female
Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.