Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap
Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…
Lu, Yueh-Feng Yvonne; Haase, Joan E.
The purpose of this paper is to describe commonalities of the lived experience of being a spouse caregiver of a person with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Colaizzi method of empirical phenomenology was used for inter-viewing and analyzing data obtained from 10 spouse caregivers of persons with MCI. Four major themes were found and labeled: (a) Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together-There Really is Something Wrong; (b) A Downward Spiral into a World of Silence; (c) Consequences to Caregivers...
Green, Glenn R.; And Others
Two male stroke victims (ages 63 and 67) whose verbal disorders impaired social interactions and suggested the need for nursing home placement were treated by teaching spouses to reinforce positive and ignore undesired verbal responses. Problem behaviors were reduced sufficiently to permit continued home care, and alternative positive behaviors…
Lu, Yueh-Feng Yvonne; Haase, Joan E
The purpose of this paper is to describe commonalities of the lived experience of being a spouse caregiver of a person with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Colaizzi method of empirical phenomenology was used for inter-viewing and analyzing data obtained from 10 spouse caregivers of persons with MCI. Four major themes were found and labeled: (a) Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together-There Really is Something Wrong; (b) A Downward Spiral into a World of Silence; (c) Consequences to Caregivers of Living in a World of Silence; (d) Taking Charge of Care. The findings of this study provided rich data to guide interventions to help caregivers to improve their awareness of MCI, gain new information and skills to deal more effectively with and adjust to the caregiving of their spouse with MCI over the long-term.
Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.
Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of
Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M
A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.
Simons, Ronald L.; And Others
Collected data from 451 2-parent families to test model regarding direct and indirect effects of socialization and spousal attitudes upon supportive parenting and harsh discipline of husbands and wives. As hypothesized, quality of parenting received as child, satisfaction with parent-child relationship, education, and various parenting beliefs…
Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad
This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…
Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F
To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All
Liebermann, Laura; Leske, David A; Hatt, Sarah R; Castañeda, Yolanda S; Wernimont, Suzanne M; Cheng-Patel, Christina S; Birch, Eileen E; Holmes, Jonathan M
To identify specific health-related quality of life and visual function concerns affecting children with bilateral visual impairment as expressed by children or one of their parents (proxy) and concerns affecting the parents themselves. A total of 37 children visual impairment (visual acuity worse than 20/70 in the better eye) and one parent for each child were prospectively enrolled. Semistructured individual interviews were performed with children 5-15 years of age (n = 16) and with one parent for each child (ages 0-15 years, N = 37). Interview transcripts were analyzed using NVivo software. Categories of concern were identified from both child and parent interviews, from which broad themes were identified. The frequencies of the themes and specific categories of concerns were calculated. Regarding the child's experience, categories of concern were grouped into 6 themes: visual function (expressed by 13 of 16 children [81%] and 33 of 37 parents [89%]), treatment (63% and 54%), emotions (50% and 68%), social (50% and 70%), physical discomfort (50% and 22%), and worry (38% and 8%). Concerns expressed regarding the parents' own experience were grouped into 5 themes: worry (100%), compensate-adjust for condition (89%), treatment (84%), emotions (81%), and affects family (46%). Individual interviews identified a wide spectrum of concerns in children with visual impairment and their parents, affecting functional, emotional, social and physical domains. Specific concerns will be used to develop patient-derived questionnaires for quantifying the effects of visual impairment on children and parents in everyday life. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt
Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Alison; Stansfield, Jois
People with intellectual impairments are recognised as having communication difficulties and even people with mild intellectual impairments can be challenged by complex language and limited literacy. The focus of this paper is parents who have learning disabilities, outlining a novel approach to support them in stressful case conference…
A survey of 317 German parents of children with hearing impairments found parents who frequently met with other parents had warm, accepting, trusting relationships with their children. Parents who had many contacts with adults with hearing impairments had a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. (Contains extensive…
Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan
While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.
... as defined or recognized under State law for purposes of marriage in the State where the employee resides, including common law marriage in States where it is recognized. (b) Parent. Parent means a... at 29 CFR 1630.2(h), (i), and (j), issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.
Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen
Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…
Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla
This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…
Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y
This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners
Bonanno, George A.; Papa, Anthony; Lalande, Kathleen; Zhang, Nanping; Noll, Jennie G.
In this study, the authors measured grief processing and deliberate grief avoidance and examined their relationship to adjustment at 4 and 18 months of bereavement for 2 types of losses (spouse, child) in 2 cultures (People's Republic of China, United States). Three hypotheses were compared: the traditional grief work assumption, a conditional…
Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob
Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become...
Boylstein, Craig; Hayes, Jeanne
This study examines how people caring for a spouse with Alzheimer's disease reconstruct the meaning of closeness within their marriage. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 men and 15 women. The authors discovered that significant changes in the social identity of the impaired spouse may have important implications for how caregivers view…
Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward
Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…
Al-Zboon, Eman; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A. H.; Baibres, Haithem
The aim of this study was to investigate fear in children with visual impairments (VI) from the perspective of their parents. The study was conducted in Jordan. One hundred and eight parents were surveyed. Results revealed that the main fear contents in children with VI are fear of voices and social communication fears. There were no statistically…
Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah
This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…
Hughes, Deanna M.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Wulfeck, Beverly B.
Background: There is accumulating evidence that adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) have impairments in domains beyond formal language that may affect academic and social outcomes. The findings of previous studies as well as parent reports of behavioural concerns suggest that they lag behind peers in functions such as…
Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.
The authors examined the effects of a parent resource manual on physical and sedentary activity levels of children with visual impairments. Children and youth with visual impairments, aged 9-23 years (7 girls, 11 boys), attended a 1-week summer sports camp in New York state. The authors found that 1 month after they provided the families of the…
ABSTRACT. Background: Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. The etiology of hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis media and meningoencephalitis. The morbidity and burden of hearing impairment on the ...
... of America A Proclamation Military spouses serve as steady and supportive partners to the heroes in... readiness of our troops depends on the readiness of our military families, as millions of parents, children...
... families, often celebrating their children's life milestones while the other parent is away. Military spouses also care for our wounded warriors and honor the memory of our Nation's fallen heroes, including...
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Previous research on the influence of accompanying expatriate spouses has emphasized the negative impact on the business expatriates that could contribute to unsuccessful outcomes of the foreign assignments. But spouses' influences could also be positive. Applying ethnographic field-work methodol....... These findings are consistent with recent theoretical developments focusing on positive outcomes of the work-family interface and social capital theory and are in line with empirical research on repatriation and post-assignment careers.......Previous research on the influence of accompanying expatriate spouses has emphasized the negative impact on the business expatriates that could contribute to unsuccessful outcomes of the foreign assignments. But spouses' influences could also be positive. Applying ethnographic field...
-Briggs. Abstract. Background Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. Etiology of the hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis ...
childhood infections like otitis media and meningoencephalitis. Morbidity and burden of hearing impairment on the ... educational disadvantage, social isolation and stigmatization. The affected children are often neglected; they also ... attitude lowers self esteem. This study was carried out to ascertain the perception and.
Kargin, Tevhide; Baydik, Berrin; Akcamete, Gonul
This study investigated the information needs of parents who have children in transition into public kindergarten. The research group consisted of 94 parents who have children with hearing impairment with ages ranging from 3 to 5. "The Scale Parental Information Needs in Transition to Kindergarten" was used in this study. Parents'…
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug-impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug-impaired drivers (RWI). The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009-2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p parenting practices and selected covariates. Father's monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors.
Wood, Lesley; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J.; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.
Background Sedentary time is associated with obesity and is a risk factor for other adverse health outcomes. We examined how sedentary time and screen viewing (SV) behaviours in parents of young children are associated and whether associations differed for weekdays versus weekend days. Methods Data were from a cross sectional study (B-ProAct1v) based in Bristol, UK investigating associations between physical activity and SV in children and parents. Parents were eligible for analysis if they a...
Emerson, E; Llewellyn, G; Hatton, C; Hindmarsh, G; Robertson, J; Man, W Y N; Baines, S
Little is known about the health and well-being of the 'hidden majority' of parents with mild intellectual disability (ID), who are less likely to be in contact with disability services. We sought to add to knowledge in this area by examining the health and living conditions of parents with and without intellectual impairment in a large contemporary nationally representative sample of UK parents aged between 16 and 49 years old (n = 14 371). Our results indicated that, as expected, parents with intellectual impairment were at significantly greater risk than other parents of having poorer self-reported general, mental and physical health. They were also at significantly greater risk of experiencing higher rates of household socio-economic disadvantage and environmental adversities and lower rates of neighbourhood social capital and intergenerational support. Adjusting risk estimates to take account of between group differences in household socio-economic disadvantage eliminated statistically significant differences in health status between parents with and without intellectual impairment on all but one indicator (obesity). Further adjusting risk estimates to take account of between group differences in neighbourhood adversity, neighbourhood social capital and intergenerational support had minimal impact on the results. That controlling for between-group differences in exposure to socio-economic disadvantage largely eliminated evidence of poorer health among parents with intellectual impairment is consistent with the view that a significant proportion of the poorer health of people with IDs may be attributable to their poorer living conditions rather than biological factors associated with ID per se. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clegg, Judy; Ansorge, Lydia; Stackhouse, Joy; Donlan, Chris
Purpose: This study identifies the outcomes and documents the longitudinal life experiences of adults who attended a specialist residential school for children with pervasive and complex developmental communication impairments. Method: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 26 adult ex-pupils who had attended the school and the parents of…
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug–impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug–impaired drivers (RWI). Method: The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Results: Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p teen substance use. Conclusions: Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors. PMID:24411792
María J. Pino
Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie Dorothea; Loge, Jon Håvard; Sørebø, Øystein; Dahl, Alv A.
Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub
Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie D; Loge, Jon H; Sørebø, Oystein; Dahl, Alv A
Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway (the HUNT-2 study) 71 couples were identified with primary invasive cancer in one parent. Their 81 teenage children took part in the Young-HUNT study. These families were compared to 322 cancer-free families with 328 teenagers. Based on self-report data the relations between three variables of parental impaired health and six psychosocial problems in teenagers were analyzed family wise by structural equation modeling. Significant associations between parental and teenagers' variables were observed in eight of 18 models. A history of parental cancer was a significant moderator which decreased four of eight significant associations. Such a history significantly weakened the associations between parental poor self-rated health and teenagers' anxiety/depression and school problems. A similar association of a history of parental cancer was found between psychological distress in parents and teenagers' feelings of loneliness and poor self-rated health. This study confirmed strong associations between impaired parental health and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. A history of parental cancer weakened several of the significant associations between parental impaired health variables and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Article reveals communication (information exchange between parents and their deaf children. The effectiveness of information exchange in different communication means between parents and children having hearing loss was investigated. Effectiveness here is an opportunity of fast understanding of the information given by one participant to another. Special experimental situation was constructed to measure the effectiveness. This situation was divided in two parts: at first parent was giving instructions to the child, then – child was giving instructions to the parent. The time that was needed to follow the instructions was measured, and communication means were registered. 17 deaf children and their mothers participated in the study. 5 of those mothers also have hearing impairment and do know sign language. Control group was represented by 10 regular developing children and their parents. Experimental results allows us to make the conclusion that there are significant difficulties in information exchange between parent and child in families raising deaf children. These difficulties are more shown in situations when children have to understand parents’ instructions and are the result of not very efficient communication means that parents use in several cases. The most efficient communication means that allow receiving information faster, accurately and fully is Russian sign language. That is shown by the best results of information exchange in pairs of mother and child both having hearing loss.
Yucel, Esra; Derim, Deray; Celik, Demet
Exploring the information and support needs of parents with hearing impairment in habilitation process. The effects of variables such as duration of hearing aid use and habilitation (duration of intervention) and the number of hearing impaired individuals in family are also considered during the evaluation. Sixty-five parents of children between 24 and 348 months of age (median: 80) participated in this study by returning the completed in The Family Needs Survey. Age at diagnosis of deafness varied from 1 to 84 months of age (median: 16). The duration of hearing aid use was 8-252 months (median: 24) and the duration of intervention was 2-176 months (median: 36). In view of the fact that the family dynamics might have effects on the type and amount of the needs of parents, the number of siblings (none, two or more siblings) and the presence of hearing impaired individuals apart from their child was also explored. The parental needs with regard to different topics such as general information, hearing loss, communication-services and educational resources, family and social support, childcare and community services, financial were evaluated separately. The needs of parents participating in a multi-dimensional Auditory-Verbal intervention program differed by their preferential demands. The duration of intervention was found significantly correlated with the amount of information needs related with other conditions their children may have, explaining their children's hearing problem to others, locating good baby-sitters and day-care programs for their children and transportation (pneeds for the parents. No significant correlation was found between hearing impaired individuals existence with the type and amount of family needs (p>0.05). These findings support the positive effect of persistent and long-term Auditory-Verbal therapy and Counseling approach which incorporates parents as inalienable members in all rehabilitation process. Creating an adequate and appropriate
María J. Pino; Rosa A. Castillo; Antonio Raya; Javier Herruzo
Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-...
Wood, Lesley; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L
Sedentary time is associated with obesity and is a risk factor for other adverse health outcomes. We examined how sedentary time and screen viewing (SV) behaviours in parents of young children are associated and whether associations differed for weekdays versus weekend days. Data were from a cross sectional study (B-ProAct1v) based in Bristol, UK investigating associations between physical activity and SV in children and parents. Parents were eligible for analysis if they and their partner had both provided valid accelerometer data (290 dyads) or had both provided valid screen-viewing data (325 dyads). Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations of (a) sedentary behaviours and (b) self-reported time spent on weekdays and weekend days watching TV, using a PC, and using a phone in the dyads. Models were adjusted for the number of media items in the house, mothers' age and body mass index, and household index of multiple deprivation. Sedentary behaviour was lower at weekends than on weekdays for fathers and mothers. In contrast, the proportion of parents watching at least 2 h TV was higher on weekend days than on weekdays. Adjusted multivariable linear regression models suggested that 3 min of sedentary time on weekend days in fathers were associated with an additional minute of mothers' sedentary time (B 0.38; 95 % CI 0.26 to 0.49). Logistic regression indicated that mothers' screen use was positively predicted by fathers' use (e.g., the odds of a mother watching more than 2 h TV on a weekend day were increased fivefold if the father also watched this amount OR 5.09, 95 % CI 3.30 to 7.86), except for PC use at weekends where the association was reversed and the odds of mothers using a PC for more than 30 min per weekend day was halved if the father used a PC for this amount of time (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.22 to 0.94). Programmes that encourage at least one adult in the household to decrease sedentary behaviour and become more active, particularly at
de Maddalena, H; Reich, K; Arold, R
Despite significant improvements in early detection of hearing losses in children, a relatively long interval still exists from initial concern by families to definite audiological identification. The aim of our retrospective cross-sectional study was to identify parental factors contributing to the delay of early detection. The parents of 70 hearing-impaired children were interviewed. All children were fitted with hearing aids in our clinical and had no additional physical or cognitive disabilities. At an average age of 19.5 months, parents or family doctors noticed first signs of a possible hearing impairment. On average it then took an additional 7.2 months until hearing impairment was diagnosed by an expert and the necessary first steps taken for rehabilitation (fitting of hearing aids). Significantly, total hearing loss or profound hearing impairments were detected earlier than mild or moderate hearing impairments. In addition to hearing loss, parental education correlated significantly with an earlier start of rehabilitation. Statistical analysis revealed that children with hearing-impaired close relatives as well as first-born children tended to be diagnosed later. To further improve secondary prevention of hearing loss, the competence of specific parental groups should be taken into consideration.
Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R
Parents play a critical role in their child's language development. Therefore, advising parents of a child with language difficulties on how to facilitate their child's language might benefit the child. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been developed specifically for this purpose. In PCIT, the speech-and-language therapist (SLT) works collaboratively with parents, altering interaction styles to make interaction more appropriate to their child's level of communicative needs. This study investigates the effectiveness of PCIT in 8-10-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) in the expressive domain. It aimed to identify whether PCIT had any significant impact on the following communication parameters of the child: verbal initiations, verbal and non-verbal responses, mean length of utterance (MLU), and proportion of child-to-parent utterances. Sixteen children with SLI and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups: treated or delayed treatment (control). The treated group took part in PCIT over a 4-week block, and then returned to the clinic for a final session after a 6-week consolidation period with no input from the therapist. The treated and control group were assessed in terms of the different communication parameters at three time points: pre-therapy, post-therapy (after the 4-week block) and at the final session (after the consolidation period), through video analysis. It was hypothesized that all communication parameters would significantly increase in the treated group over time and that no significant differences would be found in the control group. All the children in the treated group made language gains during spontaneous interactions with their parents. In comparison with the control group, PCIT had a positive effect on three of the five communication parameters: verbal initiations, MLU and the proportion of child-to-parent utterances. There was a marginal effect on verbal responses, and a trend towards such an effect
... available space, and has no spouse or child who is buried, or surviving spouse or child who, upon death, may... death has no spouse or child who is buried, or surviving spouse or child who, upon death, may be... provides burial eligibility to those parents whose unmarried veteran son or daughter dies due to combat or...
... surviving spouse. (a) Spouse. “Spouse” means a person of the opposite sex whose marriage to the veteran... spouse” means a person of the opposite sex whose marriage to the veteran meets the requirements of § 3.1... the veteran continuously from the date of marriage to the date of the veteran's death except where...
Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Lim, Lynne H Y; Choo, Daniel I; Buyniski, Samantha; Wiley, Susan
Caregivers of children who are deaf/hard of hearing have been reported to have greater stress than caregivers of children with normal hearing. The time of diagnosis is a particularly stressful time and stress levels may change over time based on varying needs at different life events. Thus, we hypothesized that stress experienced by caregivers evolves over time and is impacted by the duration since the diagnosis of hearing loss. The 68-item pediatric hearing impairment caregiver experience (PHICE) is a validated questionnaire used to measure stress. The PHICE was administered to 152 caregivers of children with permanent hearing loss. Domain scores were converted into z-scores for analysis of trends of stress over time. Parents of children whose hearing loss was identified more than 60 months ago reported higher stress levels regarding educational aspects of their child's needs as compared to parents of children with less than 24 months or 24-60 months duration since diagnosis. Parents of children diagnosed with hearing loss within the preceding 24 months reported higher stress levels in the area of healthcare than parents of children diagnosed greater than 24 months ago. Parental stressors change over time with respect to the time of diagnosis of hearing impairment. This phenomenon was observed irrespective of the age of diagnosis of hearing loss. As professionals serving families of children with hearing loss, we should be aware of changing stressors over time and identify the appropriate support services for families to meet those changing needs. By addressing those evolving stressors, the families' ability to support and improve the outcomes for their children who are deaf or hard of hearing may be enhanced.
Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy
Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…
Full Text Available Objective: Genetic studies show that consanguineous marriage can increase the probability of incidence of genetic impairments such as hearing impairments. The target of this study is to identify the prevalence of consanguinity among the parents of hearing impaired students in primary schools. Materials and Methods: We selected all of deaf students of Tehran (614 students. Their mothers answered to questionnaires. The questions were about Risk Factors of deafness in mother pregnancy or in neonatal period. Results: from 614 students, 389 parents of them (64% had consanguineous marriage and 223 person (36% didn’t have this factor. 2 person did not answer to this question. In this study we observed that there is 32.3% family history of hearing loss, 29.2%deaf sister and brother, 17% ear infection history. Other risk factors were studied too. Also there is significant correlation between consanguinity and more than one deaf children in the family (p<0.005. Conclusion: According to high incidence of consanguinity (64%that was observed in this study it may be one of most important causes of sensory neural hearing loss in children, so we should give enough information about this problem to the people.
Kef, S.; Dekovic, M.
In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to
Given, B; Stommel, M; Collins, C; King, S; Given, C W
In this paper three categories of variables were identified to predict spouses' reactions to caregiving roles: patient characteristics, the caregiving environment, and characteristics of the caregiver. Measures of these variables were administered to 159 spouse caregivers. Four domains of caregivers' responses were identified: negative emotional reactions, feelings of responsibility for the patient, feelings of abandonment by family, and impact of caregiving on daily schedules. These domains were influenced most by patient negative behaviors, physical health, and age, and by caregiver age, employment, and emotional status. Amount of assistance, affective support, and hours of care also were predictive of spouse responses.
... household finances to comforting children impacted by a military parent's absence, military spouses take on... eighth day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand nine, and of the Independence of the United...
Bentovim, Arnon; Elliott, Ian
The purpose of this study is to distill the "effective practice elements" from randomised controlled interventions (RCTs) to prevent the recurrence of abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated health and developmental impairment of children. The resulting elements would be used then to develop a step-by-step modular-systemic approach to intervention that is suitable to the needs of a variety of frontline practitioners in social care, health, and education. A series of 22 randomised RCTs were analysed using the distillation and matching approach to establish the presence of effective practice elements. The focus was physical and sexual abuse, victims and children, and young people as perpetrators; neglect including failure to thrive, emotional abuse (exposure to violence and mental health issues). The studies were analysed for effective practice elements, across different approaches matched to interventions focused on parenting, on children and young people, and on family/professional relationships. The proportion of practice elements utilised in each form of maltreatment was defined. The distillation process resulted in a total of 47 practice elements present across all forms of maltreatment studied. An experienced group of practitioners from statutory and voluntary agencies ordered and integrated the most frequently utilised emerging elements into a series of step-by-step modules, which could fit the complex needs of families when maltreatment had occurred. The resulting manual, Hope for Children and Families, provides a "menu" of evidence-based, step-by-step modular interventions targeting the profile of abusive and neglectful parenting and associated impairments of children. To be effective for frontline practitioners, the manual will need to be delivered in a user-friendly format, training developed, and supervision and support provided.
Eyalati, Nazanin; Jafari, Zahra; Ashayeri, Hassan; Salehi, Masoud; Kamali, Mohammad
Introduction: The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The objectives of our study were to explore the information and support needs of parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and to investigate the effects of the parents? level of education and economic status on the score attained in the parents?-needs questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one parents of children wit...
Shi, Li-Juan; Ou, Jian-Jun; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Su-Hong; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Zhu, Fu-Rong; Liu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Luo, Xue-Rong
Parents of children with autism have higher rates of broad autism phenotype (BAP) features than parents of typically developing children (TDC) in Western countries. This study was designed to examine the rate of BAP features in parents of children with autism and the relationship between parental BAP and the social impairment of their children in a Chinese sample. A total of 299 families with autistic children and 274 families with TDC participated in this study. Parents were assessed using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), which includes self-report, informant-report, and best-estimate versions. Children were assessed using the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Parents of children with autism were significantly more likely to have BAP features than were parents of TDC; mothers and fathers in families with autistic children had various BAP features. The total scores of the informant and best-estimate BAPQ versions for fathers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the autism group, whereas the total scores of the three BAPQ versions for mothers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the TDC group. In the autism group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents (informant and best-estimate) were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents. In the TDC group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents (best-estimate). Parents of autistic children were found to have higher rates of BAP than parents of TDC in a sample of Chinese parents. The BAP features of parents are associated with their children's social functioning in both autism families and TDC families, but the patterns of the associations are different.
Daviss, W Burleson; Diler, Rasim S
To examine potential predictors of lifetime suicidal behaviors (SBs) in adolescents with ADHD. Participants were 101 adolescents with ADHD aged 11 to 18 years, evaluated for lifetime SB and psychopathology with semistructured interviews, and for lifetime trauma exposure, parent-child conflict, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment with child, parent, and teacher ratings. Controlling for the effects of age, female sex, and comorbid depressive and other disorders, lifetime SB (n = 28) remained significantly associated (p = .001) with parent-child conflict, and to a lesser extent (p parent-child conflict, victimization trauma, and social impairment rather than levels of ADHD symptoms when weighing the likelihood of SB in youth with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.
Achieving a balance between one's career and personal life is a never-ending challenge. As a surgeon, add-on cases and double-booked clinics can lead to long hours at work and make availability for family time unpredictable. It may seem like the threat of interruption because of patient needs always loom. Disruptions to family time extend beyond the long hours spent in surgery and clinics. Inattentiveness at home because of the technology tethers that keep one available for constant questions and patient care issues can also distract from time spent with family. Although the practice of an orthopaedic trauma surgeon can involve unpredictable schedules and patient care issues, there are means of mitigating the chaos that can envelop one's personal life as a result of a chosen career track. Clear priorities and expectations in both personal and professional arenas can improve the work-life balance. Flexible jobs that allow for more time with family do exist. Negotiating for this flexibility and self-assurance in holding fast to personal ideals are important in achieving a successful balance.
Kang, Seo Young; Yang, Myung Hwa; Lee, Jung Ah; Jang, Wooyoung; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Young Sik
Patients with parkinsonism exhibit motor symptoms, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric changes, and these symptoms increase caregiver burden. Family dynamics can be influenced by the presence of comorbidities, which is especially important in diseases causing caregiver burden. We investigated the effects of spousal parkinsonism on family functioning and communication. Couples without parkinsonism, who visited hospital-based family practices, were recruited by 28 family physicians from 22 hospitals between April 2009 and June 2011; patients with parkinsonism and their spouses were recruited from a single institution. The participants completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, family functioning (the Korean version of the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Evaluation Scale [FACES] III), and family communication (the Family Communication Scale of the FACES-IV). We compared family functioning and communication between spouses of the patients with and without parkinsonism. The mean family adaptability and cohesion scores of the spouses of the patients with parkinsonism were 23.09±6.48 and 32.40±8.43, respectively, whereas those of the control group were 23.84±5.88 and 34.89±7.59, respectively. Family functioning and family communication were significantly different between the spouses of individuals with and without parkinsonism. After adjusting for age, sex, income, and cardiovascular disease in the logistic regression analysis, family functioning was found to significantly deteriorate in the spouses of patients with parkinsonism but not the control group. Family communication decreased significantly in spouses of patients with parkinsonism. Family functioning and family communication significantly deteriorated in spouses of patients with parkinsonism.
Preminger, Jill E; Montano, Joseph J; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe third-party disability experienced by adult-children as a result of hearing impairment (HI) in a parent. DESIGN: Using semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to describe the impact of a parent's HI on their relationship and communication...... factors of family relationships, communication situations, and the parent's personality, adult-children considered their coping strategies and feelings that arose as a result of the HI. Coping strategies included putting forth effort in communication, yelling as an ineffective communication strategy......, and providing support to the parent with HI. The described feelings included frustration, uncertainty, and loss surrounding their communication and relationship with their parent with HI. These feelings arose as a result of implementing coping strategies, plus these feelings drove the employment of coping...
Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Piacentini, John A.; Khanna, Muniya; Moore, Phoebe; Cashin, Susan
Knowledge of cross-informant rating concordance is critical for the assessment of child and adolescent problems in clinical and research settings. We explored parent-youth rating concordance for hair pulling variables, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of child and adolescent hair pullers (n = 133) satisfying conservative…
Ratto, Allison B.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth
There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social-emotional functioning. White and Black…
White-Koning, Melanie; Grandjean, Hélène; Colver, Allan; Arnaud, Catherine
To examine parent-professional agreement in proxy-reports of child quality of life (QoL) and the factors associated with low child QoL in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and associated intellectual impairment. Professional (teacher, therapist, or residential carer) and parent reports of QoL for 204 children (127 males, 77 females, mean age 10 y 4 mo [SD 1y 6mo]; range 8-12 y) with CP and IQParent-professional agreement was studied using correlation and mean differences; multilevel logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing QoL reports and agreement. The mean parent-reported scores of child QoL were significantly higher than the professional reports in the Psychological well-being domain and significantly lower for Social support. The average frequency of disagreement (parent-professional difference >0.5SD of scores) over all domains was 62%. High levels of stress in parenting negatively influenced parent reports of child QoL compared with professional reports, while child pain was associated with professionals rating lower than parents. Proxies do not always agree when reporting the QoL of children with severe disabilities. Parental well-being and child pain should be taken into account in the interpretation of QoL reports in such children.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.
Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…
Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth
There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social–emotional functioning. White and Black youth (n = 64; ages 6–17) with ASD without ID were compared on each of these domains. Black youth had significantly lower levels of impairment on all three domains. Findings may reflect better daily functioning among Black youth with ASD and/or cultural differences in parent response to questionnaires. Regardless, these findings raise concern about the sensitivity of commonly used measures for Black children with ASD and the impact of culture on daily functioning and symptom manifestation. PMID:26439481
Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M
Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eyalati, Nazanin; Jafari, Zahra; Ashayeri, Hassan; Salehi, Masoud; Kamali, Mohammad
The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The objectives of our study were to explore the information and support needs of parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and to investigate the effects of the parents' level of education and economic status on the score attained in the parents'-needs questionnaire. Fifty-one parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing loss (53% girls, 47% boys; mean age 47.96 months) who used the Auditory-Verbal Therapy approach were asked to complete the parents'-needs questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information and hearing-loss history and covered six domains which evaluated the information or support needs of parents. Parental needs with regard to different domains were evaluated separately in all participants. Statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in the score attained in the parents'-needs questionnaire with increasing level of education of the child's parents (Phearing-impaired children need adequate and appropriate information in all domains, and these findings support the positive effect of creating an appropriate educational environment by considering individualized needs. Furthermore, parents' levels of education and economic status have a significant effect on their parents' needs.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising
Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.
Croteau, Claire; McMahon-Morin, Paméla; Morin, Claudia; Jutras, Benoît; Trudeau, Natacha; Le Dorze, Guylaine
Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. 26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged from 5 to 13 years old of the Assessment of Life Habits (Fougeyrollas et al., 2001). The questionnaire encompasses 196 life habits, grouped in 12 dimensions: nutrition, fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, education, work and recreation (Fougeyrollas, 2010). According to their parents and school professionals, children in this study carried out without difficulty life habits related to housing and mobility. However, they experienced difficulty with life habits related to interpersonal relationships, recreation and responsibilities, in addition to communication and education. Children with SLI are perceived by their parents and school professionals as having reduced social participation in many aspects of their daily life. Social participation should be considered as a major outcome when offering services in school to these children. This study proposes specific ways to help children with SLI. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as divorced spouse. 222.22... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.22 Relationship as divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the divorced spouse of an...
Lai, Ying-Chieh; Chen, I-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Li, Hsien-Chang
Immigration is a global issue. Taiwan has a high proportion of immigrant spouses who take care of the aging parents-in-law at home mainly based on filial piety. Difficulties in communication in many aspects of daily life occur between the elderly and immigrant spouses, and result in the elderly becoming vulnerable and thus, influencing their psychological well-being. Although past studies demonstrated that due to cultural differences, employed foreign care providers negatively influenced elder care quality (e.g., care receipts' health or mortality rates), no studies have explored whether immigrant spouses, as family caregivers, have any influence on elderly suicides due to cross cultural communication differences. To address the above gap, this study was to examine the static relationship between immigrant spouses and elderly suicides. National-level authority data, comprising a 10-year longitudinal nationwide sample, were used. The number of immigrant spouses was treated as a proxy of cultural differences. Twelve models of outcomes with and without city- and time-fixed effects were conducted using panel data analysis. Descriptive statistics of the study variables are provided. The results revealed that overall the number of immigrant spouses had a positive correlation with suicides in older adults. Further, the gender of immigrant spouses had different impacts on elderly suicides. This is the first study to examine relation between immigrant spouses and the elderly suicides. The study results provide another viewpoint of understanding of the role of immigrant spouses in elder care, while promoting elder-caregiver interactions for optimal elder health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abzhandadze, Tamar; Forsberg-Wärleby, Gunilla; Holmegaard, Lukas; Redfors, Petra; Jern, Christina; Blomstrand, Christian; Jood, Katarina
To investigate life satisfaction in spouses of middle-aged stroke survivors from the long-term perspective and to identify factors that explain their life satisfaction. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Cohabitant spouses of survivors of ischaemic stroke aged life satisfaction was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer's Life Satisfaction Check-List (LiSAT 11). Stroke-related factors were examined with the National Institutes of Health stroke scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale. Spouses of stroke survivors had significantly lower satisfaction with general life, leisure, sexual life, partner relationship, family life, and poorer somatic and psychological health than spouses of controls. Caregiving spouses had significantly lower scores on all life domains except vocation and own activities of daily living than non-caregiving spouses. Spouses' satisfaction on different life domains was explained mainly by their age, sex, support given to the partner, and the survivor's level of global disability, to which both physical and cognitive impairments contributed. Seven years after stroke, spouses of stroke survivors reported lower life satisfaction compared with spouses of controls. Life satisfaction in stroke survivors' spouses was associated with spouses' age, sex, giving support, and the stroke survivors' level of global disability.
Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McDonald, David
Background: Children who meet language test criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) are not necessarily the same as those who are referred to a speech and language therapist. Aims: To consider how far this discrepancy reflects insensitivity of traditional language tests to clinically important features of language impairment. Methods &…
Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.
Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)
Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.
Full Text Available First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR in children with specific language impairment (SLI and typically developing children (TD in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11 and percent correct consonants (PCC (d = 1.79. The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12, and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49. The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037, and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7. When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47 than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57. Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and
Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield. Instructional Materials Center.
Intended for parents of blind preschool children, the booklet lists games and activities to develop independence by means of tactual, aural, physical, self care, social visual, and mobility training. Activities are listed for the 3-year-old, the 4-year-old, and the 5-year-old under the specific skill developed. Instructions for particular games…
van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R
Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else
and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. DESIGN: Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study...... role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare...... intensive care unit patients' families for the time following intensive care unit and hospital discharge. Hospital staff, rehabilitation experts and primary care professionals must acknowledge spouses' important contribution from intensive care unit admission throughout recovery....
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension benefits for former spouses. 19.9 Section 19.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.9 Pension benefits for former spouses. ...
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Downer, Brian; González-González, Cesar; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca
The increased risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes for older parents in Mexico who have an adult child living in the United States may contribute to an increased risk for cognitive impairment in this population. The objective of this study was to examine if older adults in Mexico who have one or more adult children living in the United States are more or less likely to develop cognitive impairment over an 11-year period compared to older adults who do not have any adult children living in the United States. Data for this study came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The final sample included 2609 participants aged 60 and over who were not cognitively impaired in 2001 and had one or more adult children (age ≥15). Participants were matched using a propensity score that was estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model that included sociodemographic characteristics and migration history of the older parents. Having one or more adult children living in the United States is associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher number of depressive symptoms, but greater social engagement for older parents living in Mexico. No significant differences in the odds for developing cognitive impairment according to having one or more adult children living in the United States were detected. In summary, having one or more adult children living in the United States was associated with characteristics that may increase and decrease the risk for cognitive impairment. This may contribute to the non-significant relationship between migration status of adult children and likelihood for cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.
The questions related to Diversity were examined in the framework of the Five-yearly Review, which was approved in December 2015. The first themes implemented this year concern helping spouses or partners integrate into the working world, and improving the balance between professional and private life. To this end, the Social Affairs Service and the CERN Diversity Office organised together on Tuesday, 15 November, a “Welcome Drink” for the spouses and partners of employed members of the personnel of CERN who have recently arrived in the region. This event was an occasion for the spouses and partners to meet and greet with various internal services at CERN, including the Staff Association, as well as local networks that can provide assistance in integrating into the region, in terms of job search for instance. Therefore, several service providers were present, including: the Geneva Welcome Center (CAGI), a welcoming network for newly arrived employees of international organi...
Dr.Sc. Juelda Lamçe
Full Text Available Islamic Law, the third largest global legal system, next to Civil Law and Common Law, has been far -back subject of an increased interest to the academics. Its main peculiarity is the absorption of theology in the law. There is no clear borderline between juridical and religious regulation. For this reason it is important to understand how certain legal institutes where regulated in the past. In fact, Islamic classic law despite its later evolution is considered the most authoritative legal source, because closest to the Divine Revelation. With regard to the rights and obligations of spouses, they’re conceived in terms of complementary, while their equality is interpreted in terms of moral and spiritual rights and obligations. In order to better comprehend their rights and obligations, it is necessary to analyze the different roles of gender inside the Islamic family. Given the premises, this paper will focus on specific rights and obligations between spouses and with regard to the child-parent relationship. In particular, it will treat the meaning of the supremacy or authority of the man to the woman; the rights and obligations that they have towards the children born in and out of wedlock; the questions on the practice of the polygyny.
Portela, Natália; Amaral, Josária Ferraz; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti
A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years) and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years) a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®), forearm blood flow (Hokanson®), and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®). At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96), heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18), forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16), and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21), respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86), heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86), and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25), respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03). Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. O histórico familiar para hipertensão arterial está relacionado a anormalidades vasculares e autonômicas, bem como disfunções no comportamento neuro-hemodinâmico durante o exerc
August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann
Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.
Bray, Nathan; Noyes, Jane; Harris, Nigel; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor
The objective of this research project was to evaluate the validity of proxy health-related quality of life measures in the context of paediatric mobility impairment. Accurate health-related quality of life data is essential for quality-adjusted life year calculation; a key outcome in economic evaluation. Thirteen child-parent dyads (13 children with mobility impairments, 13 parent proxies) were asked to complete a range of outcome measures (EQ-5D-Y, VAS and HUI2/3) relating to the child's health. The relationship between respondent outcomes was examined using tests of respondent type effect (Wilcoxon signed-rank), correlation (Spearman's rank-order) and agreement (Bland-Altman plots). Parent proxies significantly undervalued the health-related quality of life of their mobility-impaired children: children rated their health-related quality of life higher than their parents by proxy on all measures. The VAS had the highest overall mean score for children and proxies (79.50 [SD = 15.01] and 75.77 [SD = 14.70] respectively). Child and proxy results were significantly different (p < 0.05) for all measures besides the VAS (p = 0.138). Strong correlation and acceptable agreement were observed for equivalent child/proxy VAS and HUI measures. The EQ-5D-Y exhibited the least agreement between children and proxies. Sufficient association between child/proxy VAS and HUI measures indicated a degree of interchangeability.
Full Text Available Introduction: The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The objectives of our study were to explore the information and support needs of parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and to investigate the effects of the parents’ level of education and economic status on the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing loss (53% girls, 47% boys; mean age 47.96 months who used the Auditory-Verbal Therapy approach were asked to complete the parents’-needs questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information and hearing-loss history and covered six domains which evaluated the information or support needs of parents. Parental needs with regard to different domains were evaluated separately in all participants. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire with increasing level of education of the child’s parents (P
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the influence of drug dependency on sexual function of wives of opium addicts.Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 150 wives of opiate dependent men were assessed for the impact of drug addiction. Sociodemographic factors like age, educational level, job, marital duration and having child were evaluated. Sexual function was measured using relationship and sexuality scale (RSS. Results: Approximately 73% of the participitants were sexually active with having at least one intercourse in the last 2 weeks, and approximately half of the participitants had unsatisfied intercourse. About ninety percent reported negative effect of the addiction on their sexual life. After the spouse addiction, sexual desire, ability to reach orgasm and frequency of sexual intercourse were decreased in 73%, 64% and 67.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The wives of opiate addicts believe that their sexual function has been impaired by the addiction of their husbands.
the uses of sexually compulsive behavior to avoid the traumatic memories of combat. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 14 (2), 77-94. Karney, B.R...Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND W81XWH-08-2-0195 September 2008 – September 2011 Reintegration Challenges Marital infidelity Marital
EmanuelsZuurveen, L; Emmelkamp, PMG
Twenty-three non-maritally distressed depressed patients who were married or cohabitating were randomly assigned to either individual behavioral-cognitive therapy or spouse-aided treatment. Both treatment conditions focused on depressed mood, behavioral activity, and dysfunctional cognitions, the
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...
Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287
Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.
Visser, A; Huizinga, GA; Hoekstra, HJ; van der Graaf, WTA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM
BACKGROUND. The vulnerability of children when a parent is diagnosed with cancer may depend on a variety of variables. The current study examined the impact of characteristics of 180 parents diagnosed with cancer, along with 145 spouses, on the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in
This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....
Chen, Deborah; McCann, Mary Ellen
Translated into Spanish, this booklet is intended for parents of infants and preschoolers with visual impairments or blindness. The guide focuses on the parent's role in selecting an appropriate program and helping the child make a positive transition into the program. The first section looks at feelings about transitions and positive steps…
Negovanska, V; Hergueta, T; Guichart-Gomez, E; Dubois, B; Sarazin, M; Bungener, C
Over the last decade, several programs have been developed for caregivers of Alzheimer disease patients. In France however, studies exploring their effects are still scarce. We conducted a study to compare two different interventions: a structured multidisciplinary program versus a classical intervention designed for Alzheimer disease patients and their spouses. Sixteen couples (Alzheimer's disease patient and spouse) residing in our administrative district participated in this monocentric study. For at least two years, these couples participated in a multidisciplinary program (n=8 couples) or received usual care (n=8 couples). The multidisciplinary program involved biannual consultations with a neurologist, a neuropsychologist and a psychologist, in addition to an annual meeting, stratified on the patient's MMSE score, for spouses). Usual care involved biannual consultations with the neurologist. The multidisciplinary program included a psychological intervention based on cognitive behavioral theories and centered on psycho-education, problem solving, adaptation strategies and on prevention of depression and anxiety. The spouses and the patients evaluated the 2-year follow-up during clinical interviews, completed by questionnaires. Sociodemographic data were noted for the patients and their spouses. Levels of depression and anxiety (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and care burden (Zarit Burden Inventory) were evaluated in spouses. Levels of cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination), autonomy (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), psychological state (Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale, Covi Anxiety Scale), and behavioral symptoms frequency (Neuropsychiatric Inventory) were assessed in patients. The main significant result showed that the spouses' state of anxiety was lower among participants in the multidisciplinary
Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob
A permanent stoma has a large impact on everyday life with several physical, mental, and social impairments for the individual. It seems obvious that if persons with stomas are affected socially by the stoma creation, it is likely that the family and/or relatives will be affected as well. The objective of this systematic review was to explore how stoma creation may affect spouses of patients with stomas. A systematic review was undertaken based on database searches including studies published from 1950 to 2012. We applied a method of synthesis based on narrative summaries of both qualitative and quantitative results being assessed in parallel processes and finally included in a joint synthesis of results on a study level. We identified 17 studies and included 6 studies. Spouses wanted to be more involved in the stoma education and specifically wanted more focus on the psychosocial aspects of stoma creation. Furthermore, spouses' sexual life was seriously affected, and their social life was restricted. In general, spouses wished for more support from the health care sector as well as from family and friends. There is a need for further research focusing on spouses or relatives. Talking about worries and concerns regarding the new life situation may alleviate suffering and reduce uncertainty. Stoma nurses and other health professionals play an important role in the care of patients as well as spouses, and a greater insight into the worries and concerns affecting spouses is warranted to improve postoperative counseling and education.
Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
This paper reports a study that focused on three risk factors that may be relevant for forming relationships with peers, namely, level of vision loss, low extroversion (high introversion), and parental overprotection. The authors analyzed the role of parental overprotection and extroversion in forming relationships with peers among 158 adolescents…
Bishop Dorothy VM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Foster, Dawn W; Garey, Lorra; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J
Cannabis users, especially socially anxious cannabis users, are influenced by perceptions of other's use. The present study tested whether social anxiety interacted with perceptions about peer and parent beliefs to predict cannabis-related problems. Participants were 148 (36.5% female, 60.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) current cannabis users aged 18-36 (M = 21.01, SD = 3.09) who completed measures of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, social anxiety, and cannabis use behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to investigate the predictive value of the social anxiety X parent injunctive norms X peer norms interaction terms on cannabis use behaviors. Higher social anxiety was associated with more cannabis problems. A three-way interaction emerged between social anxiety, parent injunctive norms, and peer descriptive norms, with respect to cannabis problems. Social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems when parent injunctive norms were high (i.e., perceived approval) and peer descriptive norms were low. Results further showed that social anxiety was positively related to more cannabis problems regardless of parent injunctive norms. The present work suggests that it may be important to account for parent influences when addressing normative perceptions among young adult cannabis users. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions incorporating feedback regarding parent norms impacts cannabis use frequency and problems.
... requesting spouse's knowledge of the erroneous items or underpayment; (3) The extent of the requesting spouse's knowledge or participation in the family business or financial affairs; (4) The requesting spouse...; (6) Any asset transfers between the spouses; (7) Any indication of fraud on the part of either spouse...
.... To use visual assistant method for training and developing the speech ability of hearing impaired children, we used the technique of dynamic computer graphics to establish an animation display system...
Baxendale, Janet; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline
Treatment trials that enquire into parents' and teachers' views on speech-language interventions and outcomes for primary school-age children are relatively rare. The current study sought perceptions of the process of intervention and value placed on outcomes resulting from a trial of intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Project (SCIP), for children with communication disorders characterized by persistent needs in pragmatics and social use of language. To describe parent and teacher views around the process and experience of participating in SCIP intervention, including aspects of collaborative practice; and to gain understanding of parents' and teachers' perceptions of communication outcomes for children who had received intervention. Parents and teachers of eight children in the intervention arm of the SCIP study participated in semi-structured interviews with a researcher within 2 months of completion of SCIP intervention. The framework method of analysis was used to explore predetermined themes based around a list of topics informed by previous thinking and experience of the research. Parents and teachers perceived liaison with the SCIP speech and language therapist as being an important element of the intervention. Indirect approaches to liaison with parents were perceived as effective in transferring information as were brief meetings with teachers. Teachers and parents were able to make explicit links between therapy actions and perceived changes in the child. Work on comprehension monitoring and emotional vocabulary was perceived to be particularly effective with respect to communication outcomes. Parents also reflected that they had adopted different strategies towards communication and behaviour in the home as a result of intervention. The limits of potential change in terms of child communication in areas such as non-verbal communication and pragmatic skills were discussed by parents. This analysis has contributed essential information to
... Integrated Process Team. The Integrated Process Team (IPT) found that spouses of service members who were... inconsistency between this group and other individuals eligible for noncompetitive entry into Federal service... advantage as military spouses. Executive Order 13473 authorizes noncompetitive appointment only for certain...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and dependent children. 2634.309....309 Spouses and dependent children. (a) Special disclosure rules. Each report required by the... or dependent children of the reporting individual: (1) Income. For purposes of § 2634.302 of this...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; spouse. 725.204 Section 725.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 725.204 Determination of relationship; spouse. (a) For the purpose of augmenting benefits, an...
Spouse-abuse as used in this study is defined “women and men who have been emotionally abused (nagging, sexual and emotion deprivation) and or physically beaten by their spouses with blows, slapped, kicked and have experienced these over three times in a single relationship. A 2 X 2 ANOVA of data collected from ...
Clipp, Elizabeth C.; George, Linda K.
Compared 272 spouse caregivers of dementia sufferers with 30 spouse caregivers of cancer victims on multiple indicators of well-being. Found that dementia caregivers were more adversely affected by their role than cancer caregivers. Illness duration and caregivers' employment status did not help to explain this difference. Younger spouse…
Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.
This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…
Hall, George C.
A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…
Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal; Pasquier, Florence; Coulombe, Renée
To date, few studies have examined the experience of spouse caregivers living with a person with early-onset dementia. Moreover, few support resources are offered to these family caregivers and fewer are still tailored to their unique trajectory. The aim of this qualitative study was to document the lived experience of spouse caregivers of young patients in order to inform the development of professional support tailored to their reality. A sample of 12 spouses of persons diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65 participated in semistructured interviews. Six themes emerged from their caregiver trajectories, namely, difficulty managing behavioral and psychological symptoms, long quest for diagnosis, nondisclosure to others and denial of diagnosis, grief for loss of spouse and midlife projects, difficulty juggling unexpected role and daily life responsibilities, and difficulty planning for future. Results open up innovative avenues for the development of interventions geared to facilitating role transition for these spouse caregivers.
Klatte, Inge S.; Roulstone, Sue
A common early intervention approach for preschool children with language problems is parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). PCIT has positive effects for children with expressive language problems. It appears that speech and language therapists (SLTs) conduct this therapy in many different ways. This might be because of the variety of…
.... In the future, we will use the network tuition model to assist the special education teachers in their teaching method. Using such an assistant system, we are sure of the improvement of the efficiency and efficacy for developing the language and speech ability of hearing impaired children.
The 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel gather information on current location, member's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse's employment, family information...
Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark L; Bartholomew, Helen C
Concordance between spouses may be due to partner selection factors and/or the effects of marriage/environment. The extent to which partner selection factors contribute to spouse concordance has important implications for heritability studies. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude of spouse correlation in lung function measures and its relationship to duration of marriage. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected over the period 1969 to 1995 for 2615 couples from the Busselton Health Study have been analyzed using the program FISHER. Unadjusted correlations were around 0.45 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 0.25 for FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) and were reduced to 0.05 and 0.10, respectively, after adjustment for age, height, and smoking. No trend with marriage duration was apparent in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses but there was a significant downward trend in the correlations with age at marriage. The findings indicate that observed correlations in lung function measures are mostly due to partner selection factors and that partner selection factors have greater influence for couples that marry at younger ages. Family studies that aim to identify and separate genetic from other influences on lung function measures should not regard the mother-father correlation as due to common environment effects.
Sáez, Belén; Servera, Mateu; Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P
Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children and advancements in its measurement, little research has examined child self-reported SCT. Child self-report of SCT is important for the multi-informant assessment of SCT. The current study used a large, school-based sample of children and a multi-informant design to examine child self-reported SCT using the Child Concentration Inventory - Version 2 (CCI-2) which was recently revised based on meta-analytic findings and parallels the item content of validated parent and teacher rating scales. The study involved 2142 unique children (ages 8-13 years, 50.51% males). Children (n = 1980) completed measures of SCT, loneliness, and preference for solitude. Mothers (n = 1648), fathers (n = 1358), and teachers (n = 1773) completed measures of SCT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-IN (ADHD-IN), academic impairment, social impairment, and conflicted shyness. Children's self-reported SCT demonstrated good reliability with the 15 SCT symptoms showing moderate to strong loadings on the SCT factor. The child self-report SCT factor also showed moderate convergent validity with mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT. In addition, higher child-reported SCT predicted greater mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's academic impairment even after controlling for mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. Higher child-rated SCT also predicted greater mother ratings of children's social impairment after controlling for mother ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. The present study provides initial empirical support for the reliability and validity of child-reported SCT as part of the multi-informant assessment of SCT. A key direction for future research includes evaluating the unique contributions of different informants and their utility within specific contexts to guide evidence-based recommendations for assessing SCT.
Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang
Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.
Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.
Sterrett-Hong, Emma M; Karam, Eli; Kiaer, Lynn
Many community mental health (CMH) systems contain inefficiencies, contributing to unmet need for services among youth. Using a quasi-experimental research design, we examined the implementation of an adapted structural-strategic family intervention, Parenting with Love and Limits, in a state CMH system to increase efficiency of services to youth with co-existing internalizing and externalizing functional impairments (PLL n = 296; Treatment-As-Usual n = 296; 54% male; 81% Caucasian). Youth receiving PLL experienced shorter treatment durations and returned to CMH services at significantly lower rates than youth receiving treatment-as-usual. They also demonstrated significant decreases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms over time. Findings lay the foundation for further examination of the role of an adapted structural-strategic family treatment in increasing the efficiency of CMH systems.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.
Nielsen, Malene; Hansen, Jonni; Ritz, Beate
BACKGROUND: Caring for a chronically ill spouse is stressful, but the health effects of caregiving are not fully understood. We studied the effect on mortality of being married to a person with Parkinson disease. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a first-time hospitalization for Parkinson...... disease between 1986 and 2009 were identified, and each case was matched to five population controls. We further identified all spouses of those with Parkinson disease (n = 8,515) and also the spouses of controls (n = 43,432). All spouses were followed in nationwide registries until 2011. RESULTS: Among...... men, being married to a Parkinson disease patient was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.11]). Mortality was particularly high for death due to external causes (1.42 [1.09-1.84]) including suicide (1.89 [1...
Full Text Available This article deals with one of the aspects of a pluralistic society: the existence of informal marriages. These are marriages concluded in accordance with religious or cultural traditions that do not comply with the requirements of the formal secular legal order. Two aspects of those marriages will be discussed: primarily, whether and to what extent spouses in informal marriages should be regarded and protected by law as spouses, and secondly, whether spouses who are involuntary kept in their informal marriages should be released by and protected by formal law. With regard to both aspects the question will be raised whether human rights could and should serve as a means to offer spouses of informal marriages their desired protection. From recent case law both from the European Court of Human Rights and the national courts, it becomes clear that human rights have only recently and very cautiously started to demand a role in the informal legal orders.
Wolchik, Sharlene A.; And Others
Examined visitation problems from the perspectives of residential and nonresidential parents through interviews. Subjects were 341 fathers and 271 mothers from 378 divorcing families. Residential parents perceptions of visitation problems were correlated with concerns about their ex-spouse's parenting abilities. Anger and hurt about the divorce…
... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...
Conclusions: The frequency of kin marriages in studied population did not change significantly in the last generation. Knowledge of biological harm of inbreeding has only a small inhibitory effect on choice of kin for spouse. Family reputation was far more important in selection of spouse than family wealth, social status and beauty of spouse, but reputation was uncorrelated with choice of kin for spouse.
Bell, Nicole S.
Little is known about health and occupational outcomes of male spouse abuse victims. In all, 11,294 male spouse abuse victims with a history of spouse abuse perpetration, 3,277 victims without prior spouse abuse perpetration, and 72,855 nonvictims and nonperpetrators were followed for 12 years to assess army attrition and hospitalization risk. In…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage...-4 Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement. (a) If the marriage of an annuitant... spouse is dissolved by divorce or by death of the spouse, the retiree's annuity shall be recomputed, if...
Witusik, Andrzej; Pietras, Tadeusz
Qualitative analysis of therapy of a couple with a partner who has bipolar disorder is an important research paradigm in contemporary psychotherapy of mental disorders.The qualitative method of the study is important both from the cognitive point of view and for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy in the individual, idiographical aspect. The aim of the study is a qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process of a couple in which one partner suffers from bipolar affective disorder. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The dysfunctionality of the discussed couple is largely due to the effects of bipolar disorder and related disturbances on marital functioning. The spectrum of autism in the child is probably related both to the genetic strain of predisposition to psychiatric disorders and to the dysfunctionality of the parental dyad. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the partner's family is also a genetic burden. The wife's aggression represents probably a syndrome of adaptation to disease in the family. Aggression plays a morphostatic role in the couple
Lee, Kathy; Chiu, Sung Nok; van Hasselt, C A; Tong, Michael
This study aimed to investigate (a) the accuracy of adult reports in assessing the vocabulary knowledge of Cantonese-speaking children with hearing impairment (HI) and (b) the factors that are associated with the accuracy of those reports. The first participant group consisted of 47 children and their mothers. The second group consisted of 47 children and 21 teachers. All of the children had profound HI, with a mean age of 57 months. The ratings of the adults were compared with the children's test scores in a standardized test. Both adult groups reported children's performance with satisfactory accuracy. Mother and teacher ratings showed fair to good agreement with each other. Two factors significantly associated with the accuracy of the report were (a) the difficulty of the vocabulary and (b) the child's vocabulary ability as determined by the standardized norm-referenced receptive vocabulary test. The mothers' education level, occupation, and socioeconomic status, and the teachers' teaching experience and length of time they had trained the child, were not significant factors. The results suggest that employing adult reports to collect data on the word knowledge of children with HI is applicable to a broad spectrum of the Cantonese-speaking Chinese population.
Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael
Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…
Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette
Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The authors investigated parents' quality of life (QOL) and stress-response symptoms and parent-child communication during the first year after diagnosis and examined possible relationships between communication and parents' functioning. Recently-diagnosed cancer patients (N=70) and spouses (N=55) participated within 4 months of diagnosis (T1) and 6 months (T2) and 12 months later (T3). Parents reported on communication with the children (PACS) and on their own physical and psychosocial functioning (RAND-36) and stress-response symptoms (IES). Parent-child communication remained stable throughout the first year after diagnosis and was similar to communication in families 1 year to 5 years after diagnosis. Patients' functioning improved and cancer-related distress decreased significantly. Spouses' cancer-related distress decreased; their functioning fluctuated through the year. In concurrent analyses, patients' open communication with the children related only to T1 intrusion. Spouses' open communication related to T3 psychosocial functioning; problem communication related to T1 and T2 psychosocial functioning and T2 avoidance. In prospective analyses, no significant relationships were found between parent-child communication and change in parents' functioning. Communication between parents and children remained stable over time; patients' and spouses' functioning improved. Parent-child communication seems to have a limited affect on parents' functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.
Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child
Pedersen, Jacob K; Elo, Irma T; Schupf, Nicole
be expected to have better health than the background population due to shared family environment with the longevity-enriched family members and due to assortative mating. METHODS: A Danish cohort study of 5,363 offspring of long-lived siblings, born 1917-1982, and 4,498 "first spouses" of these offspring...... deaths and 502 offspring spouse deaths were observed. Compared with the background population, the hazard ratio for male offspring was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.50) and for female offspring it was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49-0.66). For male spouses, the hazard ratio was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.......59-0.74), whereas for female spouses it was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54-0.76). Sensitivity analyses in restricted samples gave similar results. CONCLUSION: The mortality for ages 20-69 years of spouses marrying into longevity-enriched families is substantially lower than the mortality in the background population, although...
Nihtilä, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka
We investigated the risk of entering long-term institutional care after the death of a spouse in relation to the duration of widowhood among older Finnish men and women. We also examined whether high levels of education or household income buffered the effects of bereavement on institutionalization. We used linked register-based data on Finnish adults 65 years or older who were living with a spouse at the beginning of the study period (n=140902) and were followed from January 1998 to December 2002. The excess risk of institutionalization was highest during the first month following a spouse's death compared with still living with a spouse (adjusted hazard ratio=3.31 for men, 3.62 for women). This risk decreased over time among both men and women. The relative effect of the duration of widowhood on institutionalization did not significantly vary according to the level of education or income. Risk of institutionalization is particularly high immediately after the death of a spouse, demonstrating the importance of loss of social and instrumental support.
Uchudi, J M
Although the general objective of this study is to examine the extent to which spouses' socioeconomic characteristics determine whether modern contraception is used and whether family limitation (the demand for no more children) is desired, its central goal is to evaluate the degree to which the net effect of a woman's education on those fertility decisions is altered once a control is made for the level of schooling of the husband. Individual characteristics of spouses included as controls in this analysis are on the one hand women's attributes relating to employment, age, parity, ethnic identity, and urban residence and, on the other hand, the occupation of the husband. Data used in this research are provided by DHS surveys conducted in fourteen sub-Saharan countries: Mali. Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Senegal. Ghana, Central African Republic, Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Rwanda. With two dichotomous outcome variables, logistic regression was used to estimate two nested models for each dependent variable and for each country covered by the study. DHS respondents used as units of analysis in this study are women who were married (any kind of union) and non-pregnant at the time when each national survey was conducted. The findings suggest that, while an educated wife needs the support of an educated husband to state a preference for family limitation in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, controlling for husband's education and other relevant covariates does little to undermine the evidence that woman's advanced education and the adoption of modern family planning are positively related in the developing world.
Merugumala, Sri Vamshi; Pothula, Vijay; Cooper, Max
In low income countries, deaf children are identified late due to the absence of a universal screening. Hearing impairment is a common yet neglected disability in India that leads to loss of speech and language. This qualitative study explored barriers to accessing appropriate hearing services in one city in southern India. To identify the barriers in timely management of deafness, 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were examined using Applied Thematic Analysis. Seventeen mothers of deaf children, primarily from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and eight staff members at a charitable hearing centre in Hyderabad. Barriers to accessing hearing services included failure to recognise deafness, the dominant role of elders in household decisions, belief that deafness would resolve, reassurance from a child's overall good health, lack of funds and transportation barriers to reach the centre particularly from rural areas. Parents frequently learned about services through word of mouth. The challenges to accessing appropriate services for deafness operate prior to presentation and include educational, cultural, navigational and financial barriers especially for those of lower socioeconomic status and residents of rural areas. The findings highlighted the need to raise awareness and implement wider screening programmes for early interventions.
Mona M. Rafik
Full Text Available We screened for evidence of HCV infection in healthy heterologous monogamous spouses of chronic HCV patients and studied the relation with various risk factors. A cross-sectional study of fifty healthy monogamous heterosexual spouses of HCV-positive index cases was carried out. All participants were HBV and HIV negative. The association with various risk factors was studied. Five spouses (10% showed evidence of HCV infection. Two partners were positive for HCV antibody alone (4% and 3 for antibody and HCV PCR (6%. No association was found between HCV infection and various sociodemographic parameters with the exception of older age categories. Intraspousal transmission of HCV may be an important source of spread of HCV infection. The reservoir of HCV-infected individuals in Egypt is sizable, and sexual transmission of HCV may contribute to the total burden of infection in Egypt.
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S; Verey, A; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T
Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were cross-coded and checked for inter-rater reliability. Six major themes were identified: (1) communication between couples, (2) adverse family environment, (3) reintegration, (4) intimacy, (5) financial uncertainty and (6) transition from partner to caregiver. Partners caring for injured/ill military personnel appear to be at risk of experiencing personal distress caused by impaired relationship functioning, which may lead to diminished physical and mental well-being. Partners of WIS military personnel experience significant levels of distress and burden associated with caregiving in the form of arguments with the military partner, problems in reintegration and a lack of physical and emotional intimacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...
.... Under the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) Innocent Spouse Program, IRS can relieve taxpayers of tax debts on the basis of equity considerations, such as not knowing that their spouse failed to pay taxes due...
... Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full surviving divorced spouse annuity before... which the surviving divorced spouse remarries unless the marriage is to an individual entitled to a...
Full Text Available Abstract Panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey are used to examine the impact of involuntary job loss on the mental health of spouses and adolescent children. Estimates from fixed effects models show that the mental health of women (but not men declines following a spouse’s job loss, but only if that job loss results in a sustained period of non-employment or if the couple experienced prior financial hardship or relationship strain. A negative effect of parental job loss on the mental health of adolescent children is also found but is restricted to girls. JEL Classification: I31, J10, J65
This exploratory study of the incidence of physical spouse abuse in Nigeria reveals that women are the primary victims. The study further reveals that early marriages, length of marriage, number and ages of children, size of household, amount of household income and the reluctance of the police to intervene in familial ...
Women desire to have their spouses present and involved during childbirth. Childbirth is a period characterized by stress and pain that is excruciating and described as the worst pain ever.. The spousal presence and involvement during childbirth have been reported to contribute positively in relation to pain relief,.
Hooker, Karen; And Others
Examined personality factors and coping strategies among 50 spouse caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia. Results showed that personality traits explained 60% of variance in emotion-focused coping, 30% of variance in problem-focused coping, and 15% of variance associated with social support coping.…
... Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 93 May 14, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 8976--Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 93 / Tuesday, May 14, 2013 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President [[Page 28463
Autio, Tiina; Rissanen, Sari
This article aimed at identifying the positive emotions connected to spouse caregiving and the advantages for spouse carers. Theoretically, the article is based on the concept of emotion and the assumptions of positive psychology. Data search is conducted via electronic literature databases and the analysis method is partly theory-driven and partly inductive content classification. Our analyses discover and clarify the concepts associated with positive emotions in caring, such as the gains of caregiving, benefit-finding, finding meaning, personal growth, post-traumatic growth and resilience. We also utilise a conceptual framework to describe positive emotions in caregiving, and the identified advantages of positive emotions in spouse caregiving include distress buffering, mediation in coping with stress, increased quality of life and well-being, and finding a sense of purpose. Finally, spouse care is seen in this article as a challenging life situation which at best can support personal growth, if the processing of both positive and negative emotions is included in daily life. Hence, the service and support system should be developed further by utilising the findings of positive psychology as well as studies of personal growth. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Brice, Roanne G.; Brice, Alejandro
This second article of a two-part case study focuses on the experiences of a patient and his spouse (caregiver) when a neurological trauma occurs. It is the personal account when A.B. survived a vertebral artery aneurysm and hemorrhage resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is also an in-depth post-trauma account from two speech-language…
Quinn, Kathleen L.
A major component of Adlerian psychology concerns the belief in responsibility to self and others. In both incest perpetrator and spouse the basic underlying assumption of responsibility to self and others is often not present. Activities and behaviors occur in a social context and as such need to be regarded within a social context that may serve…
Background: Childbirth is a period characterized by severe pain, and most women desire to ameliorate their pain among other things by having their spouses present and involved in the birthing process. In developing countries like Nigeria, spousal involvement is still an emerging concept in childbirth. Aim: To investigate ...
Reasons for involvement in spouse sharing include the need for economic support, sexual satisfaction, increased social status, procreation, the problems of separation/divorce and widowhood. The focus group discussions revealed a possible exploitation of the gender-based economic weakness of the women by the men ...
Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...
Background: The prevalence of both hypertension and obesity have been observed to be on the increase worldwide and in Nigeria. Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for Hypertension. The aim was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure levels of spouses of people living with ...
of Islamic law only, to share in the other spouse's pension interest upon divorce, thereby ordering that the ... principles such as Islamic law are not yet recognised under South African law, when the parties divorce their ..... bank account the amount due to him, the applicant launched an urgent application for an interdict ...
Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.
Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the
Blocklin, Michelle K.; Crouter, Ann C.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.
We examined correlates of sources of parental knowledge of youths' experiences in Mexican American families, including "child self-disclosure", "parental solicitation", "spouse", "siblings", and "individuals outside the family". Home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers, fathers, and their seventh-grade male and female offspring in 246…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation and payment of pension to former... Computation and payment of pension to former spouse. (a) A pension to a former spouse is paid monthly on the... for a pension or any combination of pensions to former spouses of any one principal which exceeds the...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence of spouse during service at... Residence of spouse during service at unhealthful post. (a) The calculation of the pro rata share of... assignment. Both the participant and spouse shall sign the completed form. If there is a change in residence...
Çömez, Saadet; Karayurt, Özgül
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Turkey. The emotional effects of this condition are experienced by the women and their families. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of women with breast cancer and their spouses from diagnosis to treatment completion. This qualitative study with a descriptive qualitative design was conducted at participants' homes. Fourteen women and their spouses were enrolled in the study (n = 28). Data were collected during in-depth interviews and analyzed with inductive content analysis. The women with breast cancer and their spouses' experiences were categorized into 4 main themes: "facing breast cancer," "treatment process," "coping with disease and treatment," and "life after treatment." Subthemes were also identified and described. The women with breast cancer and their spouses reported that they had positive and negative experiences in terms of their physical, psychological, and social status from diagnosis to completion of treatment, indicating that breast cancer is a disease of women and a condition of families. Knowledge of these experiences can help nurses plan care that is designed to improve the quality of life of women and their husbands.
Golan, Rachel; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris
We examined the halo effect of a 2-year weight-loss diet trial, the Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT), on the weight and nutritional patterns of participants' spouses. DIRECT participants in a research centre workplace were randomly assigned to one of three diets: Low-fat, Mediterranean or Low-carbohydrate. A sample of wives of the DIRECT participants, who attended support update meetings specific to their husband's diet during the first 6 months, were followed for 2 years. South Israel. Seventy-four women (mean age = 51 years, mean BMI =26.6 kg/m2). Among the wives of husbands randomised to the Low-fat, Mediterranean and Low-carbohydrate diet, self-reported weight change was respectively -1.48 kg, -2.30 kg and -4.62 kg after 6 months, and +0.39 kg, -3.00 kg and -2.30 kg after 2 years. Weight loss among wives whose husbands were in the alternative diet groups combined (Mediterranean+Low-carbohydrate) was significantly greater than among wives whose husbands were in the Low-fat group after 6 months (P = 0.031) and 2 years (P = 0.034). Overweight wives experienced more weight loss. The weight change of couples was significantly correlated (r = 0.42, P carbohydrate consumption in the Low-carbohydrate group (P = 0.013 compared to Low-fat). Six-month weight change among the seventy-four DIRECT participants whose wives took part in the group support sessions was -5.2 kg, compared to -3.5 kg among the 248 DIRECT participants whose wives did not take part in these sessions (P = 0.020). Focusing on the couple as a unit could provide a cost-effective approach to weight-loss programmes.
Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae
Full Text Available It is important that married couples seek legal advice with regard to the assets falling within their joint estate, more particularly their retirement benefits. This article reflects on the entitlement (if any of non-member spouses to their spouses' retirement fund benefits. Pension benefits can be due before, during or after divorce, and parties to the marriage should be aware of their rights with regard to the accruing pension benefits of their spouses. While it is settled law that non-member spouses are entitled to receive a portion of their member spouses' pension benefits (known as "pension interest" immediately on divorce, it is not particularly clear whether non-member spouses are also entitled to receive the same before or sometime after divorce. In this article I provide a contextual understanding of the entitlements (if any which spouses or former spouses of members of pension funds have on such member spouses' retirement benefits. Furthermore, it shown in this article that various divisions of South African High Courts have been inconsistent in how they have approached the issue of the pension interest between divorcing spouses or divorced ex-spouses.
Monin, Joan K; Poulin, Michael J; Brown, Stephanie L; Langa, Kenneth M
Research shows that active support provision is associated with greater well-being for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions. However, not all instances of support may be equally beneficial for spouses' well-being. The theory of communal responsiveness suggests that because spouses' well-being is interdependent, spouses benefit most from providing support when they believe their support increases their partner's happiness and is appreciated. Two studies tested this hypothesis. Study 1 was a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of 73 spouses of persons with dementia (74%) and other conditions. In Study 1, spouses self-reported active help, perceptions of how happy the help made the partner and how much the help improved the partner's well-being, and spouses' positive and negative affect at EMA time points. Study 2 was a 7-day daily assessment study of 43 spouses of persons with chronic pain in which spouses reported their emotional support provision, perceived partner appreciation, and their own physical symptoms. Study 1 showed that active help was associated with more positive affect for spouses when they perceived the help increased their partner's happiness and improved their partner's well-being. Study 2 showed that emotional support provision was associated with fewer spouse reported physical symptoms when perceptions of partner appreciation were high. Results suggest that interventions for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions take into account spouses' perceptions of their partners' positive emotional responses. Highlighting the positive consequences of helping may increase spouses' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose is to study how spouses of persons with dementia cope with losses and caregiving tasks during thedementia process and how their coping is related to the individual's and the couple's history of attachment. Thesample consists of 28 couples where one of the spouses has dementia. The caregiving spouses, aged 60-87, areinterviewed at an early stage of dementia and are followed up every 6-9 months over a periode of three years.The life situation is continually changing, and coping methods are repeatedly challenged. Coping with lossesand readjustments are dependent upon their need of the partner to feel safe. Different patterns of attachment behaviourare seen. Compulsive caregiving spouses attend to their spouse beyond their needs. Spouses in anxiousattachment often panic and try to fight back the symptoms of dementia. A pattern of compulsive self-sufficiencymanifests itself as arguing or withdrawal from the partner. Secure attachment makes it easier to accept thechanges, keep in contact and care. To understand the strains and coping of the spouses, we need to understandhow dementia triggers patterns of attachment behaviour. They need more than information on dementia andtraining in handling various symptoms. They need empathy and individually adapted interventions.INTRODUCTIONEmerging dementia with gradual mental deterioriationand increasing dependency ending in death, is frighteningto those involved, both to the person himself andto the family. The new situation disturbes an establishedbalance in the relationship and interferes withcommunication. Meaningful mutual contact and sharedmeaning is gradually lost.In the book ‘Living in the Labyrinth’ Diana FrielMcGowin, who had received a diagnosis of dementia,writes: ’My every molecule seems to scream out that Ido, indeed, exist, and that existence must be valued bysomeone! Without someone to walk this labyrinth bymy side, without the touch of a fellow traveller
Military Family Life o Table 2. Mixed Model Analysis of Outcome Variables o Table 3. Baseline Communication Methods While Service Member Deployed o Table 4...Stress of Life Index; SM = Service Member. an = number of spouses reported to have experienced situation 13 Table 2. Mixed Model Analysis of...at least once per day. Other methods of communication included sending packages and flowers . 15 Table 4. Decision Making When Service Member (SM
decision on United States v. Windsor holding sections of DOMA unconstitutional , DOD issued a new policy extending all military benefits for married...situation, it would be hard to argue (as it was for justification of the USFPA), that one or the other had the primary responsibility for child care...Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues Kristy N. Kamarck Analyst in Military Manpower January 6, 2017
... spouses or incident to divorce (temporary). 1.1041-1T Section 1.1041-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Exchanges § 1.1041-1T Treatment of transfer of property between spouses or incident to divorce (temporary... of) a spouse or, if the transfer is incident to a divorce, a former spouse. The following questions...
König, Markus; Pfarr, Christian; Zweifel, Peter
Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual (rather than conventional unilateral) altruism. Contingent valuation experiments were conducted in 2000-2002, involving 126 Alzheimer patients and their caregiving spouses living in the Zurich metropolitan area (Switzerland). WTP values for three hypothetical treatments of the demented patient were elicited. The treatment Stabilization prevents the worsening of the disease, bringing dementia to a standstill. Cure restores patient health to its original level. In No burden, dementia takes its normal course while caregiver's burden is reduced to its level before the disease. The three different types of therapies are reflected in different WTP values of both caregivers and patients, suggesting that moderate levels of Alzheimer's disease still permit clear expression of preference. According to the WTP values found, patients do not rank Cure higher than No burden, implying that their preferences are entirely altruistic. Caregiving spouses rank Cure before Burden, reflecting less than perfect altruism which accounts for some 40 percent of their total WTP. Still, this constitutes evidence of mutual altruism. VALUE: The evidence suggests that WTP values reflect individuals' preferences even in Alzheimer patients. The estimates suggest that an economically successful treatment should provide relief to caregivers, with its curative benefits being of secondary importance.
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in their spouse or registered partner’s income or health insurance cover, must be reported to CERN in writing within 30 calendar days, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to it for the spouse or registered partner’s insurance cover. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2008, the indexed amounts of the supplementary monthly contribution for the different monthly income brackets are as follows, expressed in Swiss francs: more than 2500 CHF and up to 4250 CHF: 134.- more than 4250 CHF and up to 7500 CHF: 234.- more than 7500 CHF and up to 10,000 CHF: 369.- more than 10,000 CHF: 470.- It is in the member of the ...
Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of
Ha, Jung-Hwa; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
This paper examines: (1) the impact of having a child with a disability on parents’ mental and physical health among urban-dwelling African Americans and (2) the extent to which positive and negative social interactions with family other than the spouse moderate the impact of child’s disability on parental adaptation. Analyses are based on a probability sample of African Americans living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The analytic sample includes 48 parents of a child with a disability and 144 comp...
usefulness of involving the spouse in cardiac rehabilitation and risk reduction. Gilliss (1984) compared patient’s and spouse’s subjective stresses of...and withdrew from these friends. Gilliss (1984) also examined the recovery period six months after surgery and found it was a mixed experience...study, Gilliss ’ (1984) research does provide some valuable information on the kinds of stresses identified by CABG patients and their spouses, and
drinking 5. Impulsive behavior : for example, buying a new car without any research or discussion Changes in Personality and Values Spouses...several themes with regard to difficulties with overall military lifestyle, personal struggles of spouses, issues related to deployment, behavioral health...service members who may be struggling with behavioral health problems. Unfortunately, spouses/partners of service members or veterans with symptoms of
B’tari Sekar Nastiti; Bagus Wismanto
In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method...
This report describes the sampling design, sample selection, estimation procedures, and the missing data compensation procedures used for the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel, Together...
Johnson, Michael P; Leone, Janel M; Xu, Yili
In this article, we argue that past efforts to distinguish among types of intimate partner violence in general survey data have committed a critical error--using data on current spouses to develop operationalizations of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence. We use ex-spouse data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) to develop new operationalizations. We then demonstrate that NVAWS current spouse data contain little intimate terrorism; we argue that this is likely to be the case for all general surveys. In addition, the ex-spouse data confirm past findings regarding a variety of differences between intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, including those predicted by feminist theories.
Le Priol, Laure; Chambelland, Didier; Connan, Laurent; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Huez, Jean François
The caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) play a key role in their management. Half of them are spouses. This involvement may alter their own health, leading to exhaustion and depression. Since 2010, general practitioners (GPs) have been invited in France to offer an annual specific medical support to spouse caregivers. The aims of this study were to understand their experience of this situation by spouse caregivers, and how the spouse caregiver perceives the role of the GP in this context. A qualitative approach was conducted using semi-structured interviews of 14 spouse caregivers recruited from adult day care in Angers, France. The analysis of interviews showed that AD was an existential crisis for the dyad AD patient/spouse caregiver. The emotional connection and the sense of commitment strongly involved the spouse caregivers into cares for the loved ones. Even if the frequency of medical consultations remained unchanged, caregivers were more prone to delay non-urgent cares for themselves. Moreover their intention to handle things on their own and the interaction with health professionals of the care recipients interfered with the involvement of the caregivers' GPs. Caregivers' adaptation to their spouses' AD resulted in both negative and positive behaviors. Instead of a mandatory annual consultation focused on caregivers' health, the improvement of communication between all support services, including caregivers' GPs, may help to enhance the medical support of spouse caregivers of AD patients.
Cuca, Janet Melei
National information about 1978 graduating medical students is reported that confirms a substantial relationship between their preferred practice settings and their hometowns and those of their spouses. (JMD)
BrintzenhofeSzoc, K M; Smith, E D; Zabora, J R
Grief is the expected reaction to the death of a family member or close friend and is accompanied by substantial distress for almost everyone who experiences it. For some the grief response becomes complicated. This pilot study sought to identify individuals at high risk for complicated grief, by 1) examining the relationships that exist between family functioning before the death, psychological distress, and the grief reaction of a family after the death, and 2) presenting the use of screening with standardized measures to identify those at risk. This pilot study examined the relationships between family functioning, psychological distress, and grief reaction. A cross-sectional design was used and the instrument included the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG). Significant relationships were identified between the level of family functioning, psychological distress and grief reaction. Depression, anxiety, and general distress were significantly correlated with the two subscales of the TRIG. The findings clearly illustrate the merit of psychosocial screening of spouses and suggest the possible benefits of screening before the patient's death, using FACES III and the BSI to identify which spouses are at risk for complicated grief reactions.
McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy
Purpose: To explore the application of the Activities and Participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY, World Health Organization, 2007) as a framework for investigating the perceived impact of speech impairment in childhood. Method: A 32-item questionnaire based on…
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Nash, Marysia; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Background: The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC 1998) was revised in 2003 (CCC-2) to provide a general screen for communication disorder and to identify pragmatic/social interaction deficits. Two validation studies were conducted with different populations of children with language and communication impairments. Methods & Procedures: In…
Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Neto, Jose Pedro Simões; Sousa, Maria Fernanda B; Santos, Raquel L; Lacerda, Isabel Barbeito; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento
The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects couples' relationship. We investigated the perception of change and sexual satisfaction in spouse-caregivers and their partners diagnosed with AD. We compared 74 dyads of people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD)/spouse-caregivers and 21 elderly dyads control. We assessed sexual satisfaction with Questionnaire on Sexual Experience and Satisfaction (QSES), cognition using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), disease severity using a Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), awareness of disease with Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), functionality with Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), depressive symptoms with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), quality of life using a Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), and burden using a Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). We found differences between the perception and no perception of change in sexual activity of PwAD (p caregivers (p caregivers, and 31% of controls. PwAD sexual satisfaction was related to cognitive impairment (p caregivers sexual satisfaction was related to gender (p caregivers, in comparison with couples of elderly without dementia.
Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Van Der Graaf, Winette Ta; Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette Ehm
A study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent
Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
This study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent
Franks, Melissa M.; Lucas, Todd; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.; Gonzalez, Richard
In this dyadic study, we examined diabetes distress experienced by male and female patients and their spouses (N = 185 couples), and its association with depressive symptoms using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Diabetes-related distress reported by both patients and spouses was associated with each partner's own depressive symptoms…
... estate tax, or any estate, succession, legacy, or inheritance tax, has upon the net value to the... spouse is $100,000 and the spouse is required to pay a State inheritance tax in the amount of $1,500. If... interest at $30,000, and imposed an inheritance tax (at graduated rates) of $4,800 with respect to the two...
Hayes, Alicia G.
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare educational needs and goals during deployment and nondeployment of spouses of active-duty Army service members. The sample consisted of spouses of active-duty military service members from the Army brigades who had recently returned from a deployment or who were experiencing a deployment…
... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.16... the employee and spouse customarily live together as a married couple in the same residence. (b) The employee and spouse are also considered members of the same household when they live apart but expect to...
... your spouse an eligible couple, even if you both remain eligible, at the beginning of whichever of... an eligible couple. 416.1830 Section 416.1830 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered Your Spouse § 416...
Dorenbos-Scholzel, C.J.M.; Draskovic, I.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
The objective of the study was to explore, in a sample of spouses of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease patients, predictors of quality of life (QoL) by rating QoL and burden. The authors assessed 97 spouses in a cross-sectional study with the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of
through these organizations. Statistics are not available for the numbers of cohabitating couples in either heterosexual or homosexual relationships...civilian spouses, (d) analyze whether the relationships between PTSS and couple functioning differ for male versus female soldiers and their spouses...between PTSS and couple functioning (age, gender, rank, resilience, coercion and trauma history) were statistically significant. No differences in
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of..., RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.4 Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of kin, or interested... (or in advance thereof, if possible), provide for notification of his legal guardian, or in the...
Keizer, Renske; Schenk, Niels
This study investigated the extent to which women's and men's relationship satisfaction within couples is similarly or differently affected by becoming a parent and the extent to which changes in work hours and hours spent on household labor affect a person's own and his or her spouse's relationship satisfaction across the transition to…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...
Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P
The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.
Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob
on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early...... at a national level before and after initial diagnosis. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2010), 171,557 patients with COPD and 86,260 spouses were identified; patients were compared with 664,821, and the spouses with 346,524, all controls were randomly selected and matched...... are earning approximately half of that of controls before diagnosis. After diagnosis this effect diminishes due to people getting older and retiring from work (65 years). Total health expenses are more than twice as high in the COPD group regardless of age and gender compared to controls. Spouses of COPD...
Bjornestad, Andrea G; Schweinle, Amy; Elhai, Jon D
Little research to date has examined secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses of military veterans. This study investigated the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 227 Army National Guard veterans and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among their spouses. The veterans completed the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Military Version (PCL-M) (Weathers et al., 1993) to determine the probable prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A modified version of the PCL-M was used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in the spouses. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the modified version of the PCL-M used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses fits using the same four-factor PTSD structure as the PCL-M for veterans. This study provides initial evidence on the underlying symptom structure of secondary traumatic stress symptoms among spouses of traumatic event victims.
Kara, Magfiret; Mirici, Arzu
To identify the differences in loneliness, depression, and social support among Turkish patients with COPD and their spouses. The convenience sample consisted of 30 patients with COPD and their spouses. Descriptive statistics, Student's t tests, and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyse the data. Data were collected during structured interviews in an outpatient clinic in Turkey by using the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family scales. Levels of loneliness, depression, and perceived social support from family and friends were similar for patients and spouses. Loneliness and depression were positively related, but both loneliness and depression were greater with less perceived social support from family and friends for both patients and their spouses. Patients' and spouses' psychologic reactions to COPD might include feelings of loneliness and depression, which might be alleviated by social support.
Yener, Mahmut; Askin, Ayhan; Soyupek, Feray; Akpinar, Abdullah; Demirdas, Arif; Sonmez, Selma; Soyupek, Sedat
Fibromyalgia (FM) can cause neuropsychiatric symptoms and sexual dysfunction. However, no data exist regarding anxiety and depression status in spouses of sexually active women with FM. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate whether emotional status are affected in spouses of women with FM, and to search whether there was a relationship between sexual dysfunction of women with FM and emotional status of their spouses. Thirty newly diagnosed, never treated reproductive women with FM and 30 age-matched healthy women as well as their spouses were included. Psychological status was evaluated using Beck depression/anxiety inventory (BDI/BAI). Sexual function was evaluated using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Index of Female Sexual Function (IFSF). BDI, BAI, FSFI and IFSF scores were significantly higher in women with FM than in controls. The spouses of women with FM had increased BDI and BAI scores as compared to spouses of controls (7.10 ± 7.76 vs. 2.10 ± 2.68, 6.96 ± 6.62 vs. 2.20 ± 3.16, respectively, p<0.001). BDI scores of women with FM significantly correlated to BDI scores of their spouses, but there was no significant relationship between BDI scores of spouses and sexual functions of women with FM. FM can cause deterioration of emotional status and lead to sexual dysfunction. Also, psychological status could be affected in spouses of women with FM at reproductive age, and the severity of depression of their spouses was significantly correlated to that of women with FM. However, this affection in psychological status did not relate to sexual problems of the women with FM.
Shim, Bomin; Barroso, Julie; Gilliss, Catherine L; Davis, Linda L
Dementia caregiving can be burdensome with many challenges, especially for spousal caregivers who are elderly and may have limited resources and chronic conditions of their own. However, it can also be an opportunity for growth and transcendence. Thematic qualitative analysis was conducted with 11 caregiver interviews to investigate how spousal caregivers of individuals with dementia found personal meaning in their caregiving experience. Caregivers commonly had altruistic values, and the discipline to live those values. They found meaning by believing in a choice of attitude and perceiving satisfaction in living according to their values in life. They had faith in a higher power, a strong sense of love for their spouses and they derived strength from past challenges. Positive attitudes among caregivers of individuals with dementia may be enhanced by sharing these stories and strategies. Study results also provide an expansion beyond commonly held views of caregiving for nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Linda Lindsey; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Shim, Bomin; Gilliss, Catherine L
Although family home care problems are frequently described in the health care literature, the ways in which families and other informal caregivers manage those problems are not often addressed. We conducted a descriptive analysis of interviews in which spouses caring for a partner with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease were asked to describe difficult home care problems and how they managed those problems. Analysis of these interviews indicated three recurring management styles. Adapters told stories about applying pre-existing skills to manage home care problems. Strugglers told stories of reoccurring home care problems for which they had few or no management strategies. Case managers' interview stories focused on the challenges of finding and coordinating home care services. These findings suggest that caregiving burden might be influenced more by the caregiver's management style than the demands of the care situation. Suggestions for tailoring support programs for the three types of caregivers are proposed. © The Author(s) 2014.
B’tari Sekar Nastiti
Full Text Available In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method uses the qualitative method. Subjects in this study are 3 pairs of husband and wife practicing commuter marriage, which has a minimum marriage age of 5 years and has at least one child. The research result has shown that wives tend to experience dissatisfaction in the marriage, while the husbands feel quite happy in the marriage.
The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...
The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...
Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State...Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2...interviews regarding their psychological health, marital and family functioning, and parent functioning. Spouses complete questionnaires regarding
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne
Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during World War II. Results showed that about one third of spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. STS among spouses was related to hostility, anger and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but not to reminiscences with…
Wyers, Norman L.
Reviews a 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers. Discovered differences between the men and women in: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. (Author/ABB)
Trone, Daniel W; Powell, Teresa M; Bauer, Lauren M; Seelig, Amber D; Peterson, Arthur V; Littman, Alyson J; Williams, Emily C; Maynard, Charles C; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J
The associations between stressful military experiences and tobacco use and alcohol misuse among Service members are well documented. However, little is known about whether stressful military experiences are associated with tobacco use and alcohol misuse among military spouses. Using 9872 Service member-spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we employed logistic regression to estimate the odds of self-reported cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking among spouses by Service member deployment status, communication regarding deployment, and stress associated with military-related experiences, while adjusting for demographic, mental health, military experiences, and Service member military characteristics. Current cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking were reported by 17.2%, 36.3%, and 7.3% of military spouses, respectively. Current deployment was not found to be associated with spousal smoking or drinking behaviors. Communication about deployment experiences with spouses was associated with lower odds of smoking, but not with risky or problem drinking. Spouses bothered by communicated deployment experiences and those who reported feeling very stressed by a combat-related deployment or duty assignment had consistently higher odds of both risky and problem drinking. Our findings suggest that contextual characteristics about the deployment experience, as well as the perceived stress of those experiences, may be more impactful than the simple fact of Service member deployment itself. These results suggest that considering the impact of deployment experiences on military spouses reveals important dimensions of military community adaptation and risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian
OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and
Alexander, M J; Higgins, E T
Why do some people suffer from becoming a parent, whereas others do not? New parents' actual selves were related to their own hopes for themselves (ideal self) and to their spouse's sense of their responsibilities (ought self). Prebirth actual-ideal discrepancies predicted increased sadness or dejection after birth (especially for couples in longer marriages), whereas prebirth actual-ought discrepancies predicted decreased nervousness or agitation after birth (especially for mothers and couples with a less "easy" child). Becoming a parent introduces new demands that both interfere with attaining one's own hopes (increasing dejection in parents high in ideal [own] discrepancy) and shift attention to the new parenting role (decreasing agitation in parents high in ought [spouse] discrepancy).
Tuinman, Marrit A; Fleer, Joke; Hoekstra, Harald J; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses completed the Dutch version of the MOS Short Form (SF)-36 and the Impact of Event Scale. QoL data from a reference group of women were used for comparison. Spouses who had relationship with the testicular cancer survivor before the diagnosis (spouses during testicular cancer) had better functioning scores than the reference group, especially with respect to the physical QoL domains. Spouses who had started a relationship after treatment (spouses after testicular cancer) experienced more problems with psychological QoL domains than spouses during testicular cancer and than the reference group. The stress response of spouses during testicular cancer was related to that of the testicular cancer survivors and to the extent of treatment they had received. Although stress response levels were low, spouses during testicular cancer reported more stress response than the testicular cancer survivors. Time since completion of treatment did not affect QoL or stress response. This study showed that spouses during testicular cancer had a good QoL and little stress response. Functioning of spouses after testicular cancer was poorer with respect to various QoL domains, particularly the psychological measures.
test a behavioral caregiving intervention that has been used successfully for dementia and SCI/D caregivers to provide services to stressed and...Telephone Support Groups ) –Telephone support groups provided. Completed May, 2014. Task 7: Intervention 2 (Online Education/Webinar Sessions) – Webinar...parents, have contacted us to request assistance while their children are deployed and after deployment. Interventions for Parent Caregivers of
Lucy Pujasari Supratman
Full Text Available The development of social networking has revealed new opportunities for all varieties of internet sites that offer online dating services/online dating . One of them is the site of rumahtaaruf.com. During the process of matchmaking in rumahtaaruf.com., each candidate areis accompanied by a mediator who acts as an intermediary for both parties. Their role are job of mediator is to regulate and monitor the way of taaruf based on Islamic shari'a. This study focuses on the motive that underlying the attitudes of women and men who chosen spouses under the site services of rumahtaaruf.com. This study used a qualitative method with phenomenological approach. The data were obtained through interviews and observations. The informants were couples who have been married once brought together by Rrumahtaaruf.com administrator. The results showed that the motive prospective couples to choose rumahtaaruf.com was based on education, age, occupation , physical attraction, response of family and culture.
Successful recruiting and retention of the active duty force relies in large part on the extent to which service members and their spouses experience both job satisfaction and contentment with life in the military...
Conclusion: Sex education increased the sexual satisfaction among the tested group. Therefore, it is suggested to include programs in order to prepare nurses in terms of sex education of patients and their spouses in cardiac intensive wards.
... entitlement to this increase shall be made in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. (d) Alternative... the deceased veteran (including a child not in the surviving spouse's actual or constructive custody...
Studies on health effects of unemployment usually neglect spillover effects on spouses. This study specifically investigates the effect of an individual's unemployment on the mental health of their spouse. In order to allow for causal interpretation of the estimates, it focuses on plant closure as entry into unemployment, and combines difference-in-difference and matching based on entropy balancing to provide robustness against observable and time-invariant unobservable heterogeneity. Using German Socio-Economic Panel Study data the paper reveals that unemployment decreases the mental health of spouses almost as much as for the directly affected individuals. The findings highlight that previous studies underestimate the public health costs of unemployment as they do not account for the potential consequences for spouses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Levy, Becca R; Keene, Danya E; Monin, Joan K
To determine how older adult spouses react to their partners' interpersonal suffering. Spouses of individuals with musculoskeletal pain were recorded describing their partners' suffering while their blood pressure (BP) was monitored. After the account, spouses described their distress. Speeches were transcribed and analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and coded for interpersonal content. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with interpersonal content variables predicting BP and distress. Exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti to explore mechanisms behind quantitative results. Describing partners' suffering as interpersonal and using social (family) words were associated with higher systolic BP reactivity. Husbands were more likely to describe partners' suffering as interpersonal. Qualitative results suggested shared stressors and bereavement-related distress as potential mechanisms for heightened reactivity to interpersonal suffering. Spouses' interpersonal suffering may negatively affect both men and women's cardiovascular health, and older husbands may be particularly affected. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ahmad, S; Mehmood, J; Awan, A B; Zafar, S T; Khoshnood, K; Khan, A A
An estimated 21% of injection drug users (IDUs) in Pakistan are HIV-positive and data suggest that the spouses of IDUs may be a critical component of the HIV transmission chain. This study interviewed 101 spouses of male IDUs about their sexual practices and drug use. We found that 43% had been sexually active with their partners in the past month but only 4% reported selling sex. Almost a quarter (23%) used drugs and 19% injected drugs, usually a combination of diazepam and pheniramine. Although sex work was infrequent among spouses of IDUs, their risk of contracting HIV and transmitting it to others was high because they received injection drugs, sometimes along with their IDU husbands, from the same health centres that provided therapeutic injections to the rest of the community. IDU spouses may thus serve as a bridge group via therapeutic injections, rather than via sex work.
... payment is a life annuity, and the amount of the monthly benefit for the life annuity can be determined..., for a woman claiming benefits as a divorced spouse, marriage for at least 20 years to the insured...
Full Text Available Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve. Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320 ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities.
Bathelt, Joe; Dale, Naomi; de Haan, Michelle
Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare
IMPORTANCE Family studies of centenarians and long-lived persons have found substantial familial aggregation of survival to extreme ages; however, the extent to which such familial longevity is characterized by cognitively intact survival is not established. OBJECTIVE To determine whether families...... of probands had significantly lower rates than spouse controls. Results suggest a delayed onset of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity, but assessment of age-specific incidence rates is required to confirm this hypothesis....... with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S.; Verey, A.; Greenberg, N.; Fear, N. T.
Aim Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel.Methods Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were ...
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a personal history of drug use, an elevated anxiety score, and depression and exposure to physical abuse by their spouse may act as predictors of suicidal ideation or attempt in women with a drug user spouse. These findings may serve to benefit and support healthcare systems, associated with ongoing efforts to develop preventive programs for suicidal behavior in this population.
Full Text Available Asymmetrical fitness benefits between parents and offspring result in the ideal spouse not being the ideal in-law. This enables parents to attempt to control the mating behavior of their children, and when they succeed, parental choice becomes a primary sexual selection force. A number of studies indicate that parental choice is dominant in contemporary pre-industrial societies. This paper presents evidence from the historical record which indicates that parental choice was also dominant during the later stages of human evolution. More specifically, 40 variables have been coded for a sample of 16 historical societies. Consistent with the model of parental choice, it is found that mating is controlled by parents, male parents exercise more control over marriage arrangements than females, and more control is exercised over female than male offspring. Finally, the specific qualities that parents desire in an in-law and offspring desire in a spouse have also been identified. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for understanding functioning and disability of persons with a health condition. WHO refers to "third party disability" as the study of the life functioning of family members when faced with a health condition of their significant others. The spouses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) have been referred to as the "hidden victims" of aphasia. Traditionally, rehabilitation and societal efforts have been directed solely at the person who has the overt disability. Although it has been long acknowledged that the spouses of PWAs can also have significant difficulties, the focus and resources of therapy are usually not provided to address spouses' problems directly. In addition, PWAs depend on their communicative environments to maintain and develop the skills learned in therapy. The long-term outcomes of aphasia therapy are greatly influenced by being in a facilitative environment. Thus, understanding and providing appropriate intervention and support services for spouses may help not only the spouses but also the PWAs to have positive long-term outcomes. This article examines whether the ICF framework can be used to study third party disability of the spouses of PWAs and how the ICF could be used to develop clinically applicable research in this crucial area.
Badr, Hoda; Herbert, Krista; Reckson, Batya; Rainey, Hope; Sallam, Aminah; Gupta, Vishal
In head and neck cancer (HNC), couple-based interventions may be useful for facilitating treatment completion, patient rehabilitation, and improving both partners' quality of life. With the goal of identifying targets for future interventions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand patient and spouse unmet needs and relationship challenges during curative radiotherapy for HNC. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six HNC patients (83% male) and six spouses (83% female) within 6 months of completing treatment. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed using grounded theory analysis. Patients and spouses identified several unmet needs including better preparation regarding the severity of physical side effects, a clearer timeline for recovery, and strategies for dealing with their own and each other's emotional reactions. Caregiver's unmet needs included balancing competing roles/responsibilities, making time for self-care, and finding effective strategies for encouraging patient's self-care. Eighty-three percent of spouses and all patients reported increased conflict during treatment. Other relationship challenges included changes in intimacy and social/leisure activities. Findings suggest that couple-based interventions that emphasize the importance of managing physical and psychological symptoms through the regular practice of self-care routines may be beneficial for both patients and spouses. Likewise, programs that teach spouses ways to effectively motivate and encourage patients' self-care may help minimize conflict and help couples navigate HNC treatment and recovery together as a team.
Chan, Jessie S M; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ho, Rainbow T H; Ng, Siu-Man; Yuen, L P; Chan, Celia H Y
Patients with cancer and their spouses usually both suffer, but the dyadic effects have not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the dyadic effects of psychological distress on sleep disturbance in Chinese couples affected by cancer. Patients with cancer and their spouses (N = 135) participated in this study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to measure anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. There were significant patient-spouse associations on anxiety (r = 0.48, P sleep disturbance (r = 0.30, P sleep disturbance in both patients and their spouses, but depression had both actor and partner effects. In addition to providing evidence for the concordance in distress and sleep disturbance in patients with cancer and their spouses, the findings indicate a mutual influence of depression on sleep disturbance among the couples. Clinicians and health care providers are suggested to integrate depression management as a component of sleep therapies and involve both patients and their spouses in treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...
Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy
The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.
Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva
investigation of parenting practices and child behavioral repertoire is essential for finding effective interventions for these children. This study aims to: (a compare the positive and negative repertoire of mothers and children with hearing impairments (HI and language disorder (LD; (b compare each of the disabilities to a non-clinical population, (c correlate behaviors for each of the disabilities. Seventy two mothers whose children presented HI (n = 27, LD (n = 19, or composed a non-clinic population (n = 26 participated in this study. The instrument used was the Roadmap Interview Social Skills for parenting, which assesses the occurrence of social skills applicable to educational practice. The results showed positive association between practices and social skills, as well as between negative practices and behavior problems. The LD group did not present more problems than non-clinical children, suggesting the involvement of preventive intervention that facilitates social inclusion. On the other hand, children with HI presented few social skills, and their mothers, likewise, presented few social educational skills. Aiming to enhance educational programs that promote positive parental repertoire including the goals of speech-language and hearing loss therapy, this study highlights the importance of the methodology that was employed in rehabilitating children with communication disorders, particularly for those with HI.
Gender differences in Veterans Health Administration mental health service use: Effects of age and psychiatric diagnosis. Women’s Health Issues, 19(3...psychological health (Green, Nurius & Lester, 2013). Deployment effects on the military spouse include increased loneliness , anxiety, depression...ongoing education webinars. At baseline there were no statistically significant differences among the three randomization arms. On average, participants
Wang, Qing; Yamashita, Takashi; Xu, Jin; Shen, Jay J; Neishi, Scott; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue
There has been a growing interest in understanding relationships between educational attainment of an individual and his or her spouse's health. However, the issue has not been extensively studied, particularly in East Asian nations. We investigated the relation between individuals' specific dietary behaviors and their spouses' educational attainment in China. A total of 2071 individuals were surveyed in the 2012 Zhuzhou Healthy City Project, in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to model two specific individual dietary behaviors (i.e., oil intake and salt intake) as a function of own and their spouses' educational attainment. The models were also constructed by gender. Spouses' education was positively associated both with individuals' oil intake and salt intake after adjusting for the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and health knowledge. Also, females (i.e., wives) were more likely to benefit from her spouse's education in terms of healthy dietary behaviors. When his or her spouse's level of education were greater, an individual was more likely to meet the dietary guidelines of salt and oil intakes. This Chinese study supports the male dominance hypothesis (i.e., males are more influential on female's health behavior) and the highest status dominance hypothesis (i.e., individuals with higher socioeconomic status are more influential on those with lower status). In terms of the social cognitive theory, married couples exchange health knowledge and share health behaviors. Spouses' educational attainment and health knowledge should be incorporated into the design of health promotion programs targeting married couples in China. Finally, additional theoretical explanations and implications are evaluated in this article.
Gauthier, Nathalie; Thibault, Pascal; Sullivan, Michael J L
This study aims to investigate correlates of pain-related empathic accuracy in spouses of chronic pain patients. Specifically, analyses addressed: (1) the correlates of pain-related empathic accuracy, (2) the relation between pain-related empathic accuracy, and patient and spouse adaptational outcomes, and (3) the relation between pain-related empathic accuracy and relational outcomes. Fifty-eight chronic pain patients (28 women and 30 men) were filmed while participating in a simulated occupational lifting task. Patients were asked to report their level of pain while lifting canisters partially filled with sand. Spouses were later asked to view the video record of their partner's performance and to estimate their partner's level of pain. Empathic accuracy was defined in terms of the overall discrepancy between patients' pain ratings and spouses' pain estimates, and by the degree of covariation between patients' pain ratings and spouses' pain estimates across trials. Analysis revealed that patients' pain severity, catastrophizing, fear of pain, and level of disability were significant correlates of empathic accuracy. Higher levels of pain-related empathic accuracy were associated to negative adaptational outcomes for chronic pain patients. With regard to the spouse, empathic accuracy was associated with the spouses' perceiving that they express less punitive responses when the patient is in pain. Empathic accuracy was not significantly related to relational outcomes. The results of this study suggest that empathic accuracy is associated with negative outcomes for the patient, and might not be an important correlate of marital satisfaction in couples in which one of the partners is suffering from chronic pain.
TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKFORCE AND WORKPLACE The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit...security, alter a child’s level of responsibility, increase a child’s level of loneliness , increase a fear of death of the parent, and increase
Duggleby, Wendy; Doell, Heather; Cooper, Dan; Thomas, Roanne; Ghosh, Sunita
The quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer may determine the support they are able to give their wives. Little is known about the factors associated with their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer with the following factors: (a) demographic variables of male spouses and their partners, (b) levels of hope of male spouses and their partners, (c) self-efficacy and loss and grief of male spouses, and (d) quality of life of partners with breast cancer. Six hundred surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer (stage 1-3) and their male spouses. A total of 110 surveys were completed. With the use of generalized linear modeling, participating male spouses with higher quality of life scores: (a) were older (P = .01), (b) had higher hope scores (P = .01), (c) had lower feelings of guilt scores (P life scores (P Hope, self-efficacy, feelings of guilt, age, and their partners' quality of life were significantly related to quality of life of the male spouses of women with breast cancer. The findings underscore the importance of assessing for and fostering hope and self-efficacy as well as decreasing guilt in male spouses of women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life.
Jiang, Hong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Qian; Liu, De-xiang; Ding, Juan; Lei, Zhen; Lu, Qian; Pan, Fang
A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of marital quality among patients undergoing medical procedures. The aim of the study was to expand the literature by examining the relationships between stress, social support and family and marriage life among hemodialysis patients. A total of 114 participants, including 38 patients and their spouses and 38 healthy controls, completed a survey package assessing social support, stress, family functioning and marital satisfaction and quality. We found that hemodialysis patients and spouses were less flexible in family adaptability compared with the healthy controls. Patients and spouses had more stress and instrumental social support compared with healthy people. Stress was negatively associated with marital satisfaction. Instrumental support was not associated with family or marital outcomes. The association between marital quality and support outside of family was positive in healthy individuals but was negative in patients and their spouses. Family adaptability was positively associated with support within family as perceived by patients and positively associated with emotional support as perceived by spouses. In conclusion, findings suggest that social support may promote adjustment depending on the source and type. Future research should pay more attention to the types and sources of social support in studying married couples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Sung-Tse; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Kuo, Yung-Ting; Shen, Ein-Yiao; Tsai, Pei-Chieh; Ho, Che-Sheng; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Juei-Chao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) implantation. Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7%) were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43 ± 3.59 years, mean ± SD). After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1 ± 38.0 to 272.4 ± 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.A.; van de Wiel, H.B.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
Background: This article focuses on possible relationships between functioning of adolescents with a parent diagnosed with cancer 1-5 years earlier and family environment. Patients and methods: In all, 138 patients, 114 spouses and 221 adolescents completed the Family Environment Scale.
Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua
This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…
Full Text Available Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the modelling of different processes that could account for the link between psychopathology,cognitive social and demographic risk factors and enacting assault by husband. Method: This article reports a test using data on 230 males who participated in a family violence survey study.The sample was selected by a multiclustral sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. All participants completed Conflict Tactic Scales, Personal and Relationship Profile, Marital Attitude Survey Questionnaire, Symptoms Checklist Inventory, Social and Demographic Measure. Logistics regression was used to estimate spouse abuse model for men. Results: The findings were consistent with the theoretical model.The path from social- demographic,cognitive and psychopathological risk factors to enacting spouse abuse was demonstrated.Conclusion:The implications of the findings for understanding spouse assaults,cognitive, psychopathological,social and demographic differences in male population are discussed.
Allen, S M; Goldscheider, F; Ciambrone, D A
Using data from a sample of married men and women undergoing treatment for cancer, we tested two potential hypotheses for the unequal representation of husbands and wives as spousal caregivers, including societal gender role norms and emotional closeness in the marital relationship. Multivariate analyses support both hypotheses; wives are only one third as likely as husbands to select their spouses as caregivers, and spouses who name their mates as confidants are three times more likely than those who do not to also name them as caregivers. We conclude that although gender role norms are key to caregiver selection, the intimacy inherent in the caregiving role renders an emotionally close marriage an important criterion to the selection of spouse as caregiver.
Kianpoor, Mohsen; Rahmanian, Parisa; Mojahed, Azizollah; Amouchie, Ramin
Secondary traumatic stress is a disorder which occurs in spouses and people with close relation to someone with posttraumatic stress disorder. Like PTSD, it seems that STS also occurs with other psychiatric problems like somatization and dissociation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between STS and somatization and dissociation symptoms. This cross-sectional study was done in 2015 and lasted for one year. Self-report questionnaires assessing secondary traumatic stress symptoms, dissociation symptoms and somatization symptoms were distributed among spouses of veterans with PTSD in Zahedan, Iran. The relationship between STS symptoms and somatization symptoms and also between STS symptoms and dissociation symptoms were determined by Pearson correlation test. SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis. Occurrence of secondary traumatic stress symptoms were correlated with dissociation symptoms and also with somatization symptoms. As the rate of secondary traumatic stress rose, the rate of somatization and dissociation symptoms in spouses of veterans increased.
Kwon, Hyuk Ju; Ahn, Tae Kwan; Lee, Jung Ah; Sunwoo, Sung; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Byung-Soo; Jeon, Tae Hee; Yu, Byung Yeon; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Park, Kyung-Chae; Ok, Sun Wha
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects not only an individual's health but also their family. This study was conducted to examine effects of a spouse's AUD on family functioning and family communication. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 890 participants (445 couples) in a Korean family cohort in primary care. Participants with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in Korea scores of 8 or greater were classified into an AUD group. Family functioning was classified into three groups (balanced, midrange, and extreme) using the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale (FACES)-III questionnaire, and then reclassified into two groups (appropriate and extreme groups) for binominal analyses. Family communication was classified into three groups (high, moderate, and low) using the Family Communication Scale, FACES-IV, and also reclassified into two groups (good and poor). There was no significant difference in adaptability and cohesion between both male and female participants with a spouse with AUD and participants with a spouse without AUD. Using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, there was no significant difference in family type and communication between the two groups in males. However, there was a significant decrease in family communication (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.58) in females with a spouse with AUD compared to females with a spouse without AUD, even after adjusting for the participant's own AUD. In females, family communication is significantly worse when spouses have AUD. This suggests that a husband's alcohol consumption has negative effects on his wife's family communication.
Polenick, Courtney A; Fredman, Steffany J; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H
Relationships with parents have significant implications for well-being throughout the lifespan. At midlife, these ties are situated within both developmental and family contexts that often involve the adult offspring's spouse. Yet, it is not known how ties with aging parents are related to psychological well-being within middle-aged couples. This study examined how middle-aged wives' and husbands' views of the current quality of relationships with their own parents (positive and negative) are linked to their own and their partner's psychological well-being. Using a sample of 132 middle-aged couples from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we estimated actor-partner interdependence models to evaluate these dyadic associations while controlling for each spouse's marital satisfaction. Both actor and partner effects were observed. With respect to actor effects, wives who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had elevated depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction. Husbands who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had lower life satisfaction. In terms of partner effects, husbands had lower depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction when wives reported more positive relationship quality with their own parents. Finally, the link between wives' positive ties with parents and husbands' lower depressive symptoms was intensified when husbands had less positive relationships with their own parents. Findings suggest that relationship quality with wives' aging parents has implications for both spouses' well-being and may serve as a critical social resource for husbands. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Posey, Sheena M; Ricciardi, Richard; Agazio, Janice G
The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the health promoting behaviors (HPBs) of military spouses. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework guiding this study. One hundred twelve female spouses were surveyed regarding their perceived health status, perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and participation in HPBs. Perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, and HPBs were positively related, whereas perceived stress was negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed perceived stress and social support to be predictive of an overall health promoting lifestyle (HPLPII), with the full model explaining 49.7% of the variance.
Wawrziczny, Emilie; Pasquier, Florence; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal
The aim of this study was to explore the needs of spouse caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) and then to compare them based on the PWD's age at disease onset. This data could be used to adapt support programmes to address differences between the two groups. Thirty-eight spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia and 40 spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) agreed to participate in the study. The mean ± SD age of the PEOD was 57.6 ± 4.0 years, whereas it was 80.9 ± 5.3 years for the persons with late-onset dementia. Interviews were conducted in the spouse caregivers' homes with only the spouse caregiver. The semi-structured interviews were based on the French version of the Carers Outcome Agreement Tool. The interviews were analyzed in two steps. The first step was qualitative to identify needs. The data were thematically analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. The second step was quantitative to compare the needs depending on the PWD's age at onset. The comparison between the two groups was performed using the χ 2 test. The results demonstrated that the majority of needs are the same for the two groups of spouse caregivers. All caregivers need to unwind, to stimulate and pay attention to the PWD, to break the isolation, and to be more prepared and confident. However, some differences emerge, with the spouse caregivers of PEOD expressing a greater number of needs. The caregivers of PEOD seem to have a greater need to interact and maintain contacts with other people (P = 0.001), have more general care-related needs (P = 0.005), require more appropriate care structures (P = 0.037), and need greater assistance with administrative procedures (P = 0.004). To improve spouse caregivers' well-being and sense of efficiency, it would be interesting to develop a support programme with a common framework and specific modules depending on the PWD's age at disease onset. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Olika, Ruth Erin Liselott
The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...
Campbell, Kimeka; Prins, Esther
Nearly one quarter of international graduate students in the USA and Canada are accompanied by their spouse, typically highly educated, professional women. Because they are not students, accompanying spouses' distinctive needs and experiences are often invisible. This article focuses on an overlooked population of adult learners: accompanying…
Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses
Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W
The relationship with a former spouse and its impact on marital satisfaction were examined in a sample of 290 remarried individuals. There was little continued attachment and friendship with the former spouse; although infrequent, feelings of hostility were still more common than either friendship
... annuity equal to the amount that the former spouse would have received if the marriage were never... be equal to a prorate share. The marriage began on [insert date].” ¶ 704Award of a fixed monthly... of the former spouse survivor annuity will be equal to a prorata share. The marriage to [former...
... spouse. (a) Filing the petition—(1) General procedures. Within the 90-day period immediately preceding the second anniversary of the date on which the alien obtained permanent residence, the alien and the alien's spouse who filed the original immigrant visa petition or fiance/fiancee petition through which...
... resident status for alien spouse. (a) Filing the petition—(1) General procedures. Within the 90-day period immediately preceding the second anniversary of the date on which the alien obtained permanent residence, the alien and the alien's spouse who filed the original immigrant visa petition or fiance/fiancee petition...
Tooth, Leigh; McKenna, Kryss; Maas, Frikkie; McEniery, Paul
The effect of a precoronary angioplasty education and counseling program on knowledge and psychological status of patients and on knowledge and quality of life/coping status of their spouses was evaluated. Knowledge, psychological status, and coping status of patients (N=40), their spouses, and controls were assessed. Results show that education…
Parents experience burdensome emotions and impaired social and occupational functioning. Health care practitioners need to take note of the challenges inherent to parenting a child with ADHD in order to provide multi-disciplinary interventions aimed at empowering and supporting parents. Keywords: ADHD, parenting ...
Duprez, Christelle; Vanlemmens, Laurence; Untas, Aurélie; Antoine, Pascal; Lesur, Anne; Loustalot, Catherine; Guillemet, Cécile; Leclercq, Monelle; Segura, Carine; Carlier, Damien; Lefeuvre-Plesse, Claudia; Simon, Hélène; Frenel, Jean Sébastien; Christophe, Véronique
Evaluate the influence of emotional distress of young women with breast cancer and their spouses on their daily subjective experience of the disease, through application of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. A total of 112 women under 45 years of age were diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer and their spouses answered self-reported measures of anxiety, depression and subjective experience of the disease and its treatment. The patient's emotional distress influenced more the subjective experience of her spouse than the spouse's emotional distress influenced the patient. The spouse's difficulties depended as much on his own distress level as on the patient's distress level. These data confirm the importance of implementing couple-focused interventions.
... annuity rate under the overall minimum. A spouse's inclusion in the computation of the overall minimum... spouse's care, attains age 16 and is not disabled, or, if disabled, recovers from being disabled; or (d...
been first admitted with a psychiatric disorder after 31 December two years earlier was 6.9 (95% CI 3.6 to 13.0), whereas their male counterpart experienced a risk of 3.9 (2.7 to 5.6); p value gender difference = 0.39. Men who had lost their partner by suicide or other causes of death experienced......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe gender specific suicide rates associated with partner's psychiatric disorder, loss of a spouse, or child by suicide or other causes, being a parent, and marital status. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital...... status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 9011 people aged 25-60 years who committed suicide; 180 220 age-gender matched controls; 111 172 marital partners; 174 672 children. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide risk in women whose partner had...
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM
Goal: To compare marital and sexual satisfaction of men who survived testicular cancer (TC) and their spouses to a reference group, and to compare marital and sexual satisfaction of couples who had a relationship at time of diagnosis (couples during TC) to couples who developed a relationship after
Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac
... income for the calendar year; and (5) No portion of such earned income is transferred (directly or... section. (c) Transferred income. For purposes of this section, transferred income does not include a de minimis amount of earned income that is transferred between the spouses. In addition, any amount of earned...
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2003, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are : - more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- - more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- - more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- - more than 130'000 CHF: 468.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare as soon as possible a change in the annual income of his spouse in order that the contribution is adjusted w...
Schoeneman, S Z; Reznikoff, M; Bacon, S J
Identified systematically those spouses of male VA hemodialysis patients who are at risk for experiencing difficulties in adapting to their husband's chronic kidney failure and hemodialysis treatment. To this end, an exploration was made of personality variables that might enhance a spouse's ability to cope with the unique stress of living with chronic illness. Fifty-six wives of VA dialysis patients were administered the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E), the Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale (MLC), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Significant relationships were found between I-E scores and all measures of emotional adjustment (state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression) for the entire sample of spouses in general, and also for a subgroup of home dialysis spouses who were analyzed separately. Results were discussed in terms of the role that locus of control orientation plays in mediating the stress of living with chronic illness, as well as the failure to find relationships between adjustment and the MLC or the area-specific MHLC.
Human Resources Division
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the affiliation of the spouse to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2002, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual income of his/her spouse as soon as possible in order to adjust contributions with the m...
Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bakker, A. H.; Janssen, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.
To determine whether physical disability, pain, depressive mood, and criticism by the spouse are differentially related to intrusiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on sexuality in male and female patients. Physical and psychological aspects of health were assessed in 102 male and 118 female RA
We aim to determine whether men can be of help in the early detection of lumps in their spouses' breast. 230 questionnaires were administered to married men. The responses were accepted as “yes” or “no. 217 men (94.35%) responded. 195 (89.86%) were aware of breast cancer. 212 ( 97.7%) were either Christians or ...
...) Is not entitled to an old-age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal to or higher than... (or age 50 if he or she is a disabled surviving divorced spouse), such marriage shall be deemed not to...
Mittelman, Mary S.; And Others
Randomly assigned spouse-caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients to treatment group (individual and family counseling, support group participation, and ad hoc consultation) or control group (only routine support). Treatment group had less than half as many nursing home placements as control group. Placement also was affected by patient's need…
... residence was terminated through death. (B) Documentation. The petitioner should submit documents which... date will be accorded only to a son or daughter previously eligible as a derivative beneficiary under a... at the time of death.) (ii) The petition is filed within two years of the death of the citizen spouse...
...; Present Value Conversion Factors for Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees AGENCY: Office of Personnel... Appendix A to subpart C of part 843 to make the annuity actuarially equivalent to the present value of the... Subpart C of Part 843--Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...
This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…
Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen
Knowledge about the ways in which race affects decision-making at the end of life is minimal, yet this information is critical for providing culturally sensitive care at the end of life. Data matching socio-demographic characteristics of 34 black and 34 white patients with end-stage renal disease and their spouses reveal that there are no…
Kees, Michelle; Rosenblum, Katherine
The decade long conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have placed considerable strain on military families. Given robust data showing high rates of deployment-related psychological health problems in spouses and children, and the near absence of evidence-based psychological health programs for military families in the community, interventions are urgently needed to support and strengthen spouses as they adjust to deployment transitions and military life experiences. This Phase 1 pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a resiliency intervention for military spouses in civilian communities (HomeFront Strong; HFS), and generated preliminary efficacy data regarding impacts on psychological health and adjustment. Through two group cohorts, 14 women completed the intervention, with 10 women providing pre- and postgroup assessment data. Findings support feasibility of the intervention and high rates of program satisfaction. Participants reported learning new strategies and feeling more knowledgeable in their ability to use effective coping skills for managing deployment and military-related stressors. Participation in HFS was also associated with reduction in levels of anxiety and perceived stress, and improvements in life satisfaction and life engagement. HFS is a promising community-based intervention for military spouses designed to enhance resiliency, reduce negative psychological health symptoms, and improve coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Self-management post-stroke is challenging for many persons after a stroke. In this thesis is explored how stroke survivors, spouses and professionals perceived self-management post-stroke and how the process of self-management post-stroke evolved over time. The following studies are conducted: a
Rabkin, Judith; Goetz, Raymond; Murphy, Jennifer Mary; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi
To evaluate relationships among cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric/psychosocial measures assessed in a multicenter cohort of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently diagnosed patients with definite or probable ALS diagnosis were administered 7 standardized psychiatric/psychosocial measures, including the Patient Health Questionnaire for diagnosis of depression and elicitation of wish to die. The Cognitive Behavioral Screen was used to classify both cognitive and behavioral impairment (emotional-interpersonal function). An ALS version of the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and Mini-Mental State Examination were also administered. Of 247 patients included, 79 patients (32%) had neither cognitive nor behavioral impairment, 100 (40%) had cognitive impairment, 23 (9%) had behavioral impairment, and 45 (18%) had comorbid cognitive and behavioral decline. Cognitive impairment, when present, was in the mild range for 90% and severe for 10%. Thirty-one patients (12%) had a major or minor depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Cognitive impairment was unrelated to all psychiatric/psychosocial measures. In contrast, patients with behavioral impairment reported more depressive symptoms, greater hopelessness, negative mood, and more negative feedback from spouse or caregiver. A wish to die was unrelated to either cognitive or behavioral impairment. While we found no association between cognitive impairment and depression or any measure of distress, behavioral impairment was strongly associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses although seldom addressed by clinicians. Thoughts about ending life were unrelated to either cognitive or behavioral changes, a finding useful to consider in the context of policy debate about physician-assisted death. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Roper, Susanne Olsen; Yorgason, Jeremy B.
Using daily diary data from 28 later life couples where one spouse had diabetes and osteoarthritis, we examined crossover effects of target spouses' daily activity limitations and their partners' daily mood. On days when target spouses' daily activity limitations were higher than average, partners' positive mood decreased and negative mood…
Shahida, S.; Khurshid, S.
To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)
Sehlo, Mohammad G; Alzahrani, Owiss H; Alzahrani, Hasan A
(1) To assess the prevalence of depressive disorders in a sample of diabetic patients with their first superficial diabetic foot ulcer. (2) To evaluate the association between illness invalidation from spouse, family, and depressive disorders in those patients. Depressive disorders and severity were diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis Ι disorders, clinical version, and the spouse and family scales of the Illness Invalidation Inventory, respectively (3*I). Physical functioning was also assessed using the Physical Component of The Short Form 36 item health-related quality of life questionnaire. The prevalence of depressive disorders was 27.50% (22/80). There was a significant decrease in physical health component summary mean score and a significant increase in ulcer size, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, spouse discounting, spouse lack of understanding, and family discounting mean scores in the depressed group compared to the non-depressed group. Higher levels of spouse discounting, spouse understanding, and family discounting were significant predictors of diagnosis of depressive disorders and were strongly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms in diabetic patients with first superficial diabetic foot ulcers. Poor physical functioning was associated with increased depressive symptom severity. This study demonstrated that illness invalidation from spouse and family is associated with diagnosis of depressive disorders and increased severity of depressive symptoms in diabetic patients with first superficial diabetic foot ulcers. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa
Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.
Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...
... working-parent families are no longer exceptional. The Impact of Working When both parents are occupied with ... and perform a relaxation exercise. Or during your coffee breaks, forgo coffee and doughnuts and take a ...
Heinrich, Carolyn J
Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.
Full Text Available Kerstin Kühl1, Wolfgang Schürmann2, Winfried Rief11Philipps University Marburg, Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Gutenbergstraße 18, D – 35032 Marburg, Germany; 2Private pulmonary practice, Bahnhofstraße 30, D – 35037 Marburg, GermanyAbstract: In the current study, the prevalence of the most common psychological disorders in COPD patients and their spouses was assessed cross-sectionally. The influence of COPD patients’ and their spouses’ psychopathology on patient health-related quality of life was also examined. The following measurements were employed: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second expressed in percentage predicted (FEV1%, Shuttle-Walking-Test (SWT, International Diagnostic Checklists for ICD-10 (IDCL, questionnaires on generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, European Quality of Life Questionnaire (EuroQol, a modified version of a Disability-Index (CDI, and a screening questionnaire for a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology (Symptom-Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. One hundred and forty-three stable COPD outpatients with a severity grade between 2 and 4 (according to the GOLD criteria as well as 105 spouses took part in the study. The prevalence of anxiety and depression diagnoses was increased both in COPD patients and their spouses. In contrast, substance-related disorders were explicitly more frequent in COPD patients. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that depression (SCL-90-R, walking distance (SWT, somatization (SCL-90-R, male gender, FEV1%, and heart disease were independent predictors of COPD patients’ health-related quality of life. After including anxiousness of the spouses in the regression, medical variables (FEV1% and heart disease no longer explained disability, thus highlighting the relevance of spouses’ well-being. The results underline the importance of depression
Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Plowman, Elizabeth J; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George
Long-term homelessness is associated with other psychosocial risk factors (e.g., adult mental illness, substance abuse, and exposure to violence). All of these factors are associated with impairments in parenting effectiveness and child adjustment, but there are very limited data investigating parenting among families who are homeless and highly mobile. In particular, there is no literature examining the relationships among observed parenting, parental mental health, and child adjustment in a supportive housing sample. Data are reported from a multimethod study of 200 children in 127 families residing in supportive housing agencies in a large metro area. Observed parenting and parents' mental health symptoms directly affected children's adjustment. The influence of parenting self-efficacy on children's adjustment was mediated through its impact on observed parenting. However, observed parenting did not mediate the relationship between parental mental health and child adjustment. Implications for research and practice with homeless populations are offered.
Goodman, Sabrina J.; Glenwick, David S.
This study explored the relationship between parents' perceptions of their child's attachment to them and parents' own affective attachment to their child, as well the relationship of these constructs to parenting stress, parent-rated child functional impairment, and parenting sense of competence. Mothers (n = 76) and fathers (n = 30) of children…
Burns, John W; Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Keefe, Francis J; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen
Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospective design. Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their spouses (N = 105 couples) reported on perceived spouse behavior and patient pain 5 times/day for 14 days using Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Concurrent and lagged within-couple associations between patient's perceptions of spouse criticism/hostility and patient self-reported pain and spouses' observations of patient pain behaviors revealed that (1) patient perceived spouse criticism and hostility were correlated significantly with pain intensity, and spouse observed patient pain behavior was related significantly with patient perceived hostility at the same time point; (2) patient perceived spouse hostility significantly predicted patient pain intensity 3 hours later, and spouse observed pain behaviors significantly predicted patient perceived spouse hostility 3 hours later. Results support both EE and interpersonal models, and imply that a comprehensive model would combine these conceptualizations to fully illustrate how spouse criticism/hostility and patient pain interact to produce a negative spiral. Given that marital interactions are amenable to clinical intervention, improved insight into how spouse behavior and patient pain are tightly linked will encourage productive translational efforts to target this neglected area. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.
Full Text Available We investigate whether declines in the age difference between spouses has influenced widowhood and nursing home demand. We first use life-table methods to simulate the impact of the declining age gap on the risk of widowhood. We then use the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and the Census Public Use Microdata Samples to estimate the impact of widowhood, and other characteristics, on the probability of nursing home entrance. These help us estimate the impact of the declining age gap on nursing home use. We estimate that the decline in the difference in ages between spouses that took place between the birth cohorts of 1900 and 1955 may raise women's annual nursing home expenditures by about $1.4 billion, but lower men's expenditures by about $600 million.
Knuiman, M W; Divitini, M L; Bartholomew, H C; Welborn, T A
Spouse correlations in cardiovascular risk factors were investigated using data on 2,836 spouse pairs collected in the Busselton Population Health Surveys over the period 1966-1981. The risk factors considered were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, triceps fatfold, cholesterol, and forced expiratory volume (1 second). Statistically significant positive correlations (p marriage duration (trend p forced expiratory volume (p = 0.16) also decreased with marriage duration, and correlations for cholesterol (p = 0.61) and triceps fatfold (p = 0.99) increased with marriage duration. These results suggest that there is spousal concordance in cardiovascular risk factors. The lack of consistent increasing trends in the correlations with marriage duration suggests that assortative mating may be a more likely explanation than the sharing of a common environment.
Gleason, Jessica L; Beck, Kenneth H
The purpose of this study was to determine how frequent permanent change of station moves and turnover in primary care providers are associated with continuity of care and patient satisfaction in military spouses. These domains have been studied extensively in civilian populations, but this study seeks to begin filling a gap in the literature surrounding military spouses and their experiences with the military health system. Spouses were recruited via social media to complete a brief online questionnaire to examine factors related to continuity of care and satisfaction with military health care. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and χ 2 tests, and through logistic regression. Continuity of care scores were significantly lower as the number of moves and providers increased. Patient satisfaction was also significantly associated with continuity. In logistic regression analyses, patient-provider relationship and health status were the only significant predictors across two measures of patient satisfaction. Respondents with higher relationship scores were nearly two times more likely to report being satisfied than those with lower scores. Qualitative results indicated that the majority of dissatisfied spouses were unhappy with their military providers, which supported quantitative findings related to patient-provider relationship. No studies have previously been conducted to determine why military health system beneficiaries are less satisfied with care than their civilian counterparts. Discontinuous care is an ongoing issue for military families, which can impact satisfaction and potentially lead to poorer health outcomes. Although the military culture may not allow for fewer relocations, these results indicate that taking steps to promote enduring, trusting relationships with primary care providers may improve patient satisfaction. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Kruithof, Willeke J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M
Studies into caregivers usually have been focused on negative caregiving experiences. This study is based on the hypotheses that positive caregiving experiences (i.e., self-esteem derived from caregiving) of spouses of stroke patients also need to be taken into account, and that these are related to life satisfaction in 2 ways: first, by a direct association with life satisfaction, and second, indirectly by way of a buffer effect (i.e., by compensating for the impact of negative caregiving experiences on life satisfaction). In this cross-sectional study (n = 121) 3 years poststroke, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment was used to assess caregiver burden (Burden) and self-esteem derived from caregiving (Self-esteem scale). Life satisfaction was measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9). Spearman correlations and regression analyses were performed. Both Self-esteem and Burden scores were associated with life satisfaction (correlation coefficients 0.35 and -0.74, respectively). An interaction effect was also found (P = .006); spouses who perceived both high Burden and high Self-esteem reported significantly higher life satisfaction scores (mean 4.2, standard deviation [SD] 0.5) than spouses who perceived high Burden but low Self-esteem (mean 3.6, SD 0.7). Positive caregiving experiences are related to spouses' life satisfaction 3 years poststroke and mediate the impact of burden on life satisfaction. Positive caregiving experiences should get more attention in rehabilitation research and practice. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
have a surplus of posi- tions available for teachers of English as a Second Language because the federal government changed the national immigration...mycaa/Career/Search.aspx Swan, Gerry, “Tools for Data-Driven Decision Making in Teacher Education ,” Journal of Computing in Teacher Education , Vol...The Military Spouse Education and Career Opportunities Program Recommendations for an Internal Monitoring System Gabriella C. Gonzalez, Laura L
Frieman, Barry B.
Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)
Gibbs, Deborah A
...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...
... and at one, six and twelve month post-initiation of treatment: 1) does illness uncertainty and perceptions of control predict patient and spouse supportive and non-supportive behavior, QOL and psychological well-being/distress? 2...
... and at one, six and twelve month post-initiation of treatment: 1) does illness uncertainty and perceptions of control predict patient and spouse supportive and non-supportive behavior, QOL and psychological well-being/distress? 2...
Wisnoski, Steven T
... 9 months and 4 years of active duty service. Logistic regression is utilized to measure the influence of various demographic, military, and attitudinal variables on spouse's desire that the significant other stay on active duty...
van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.
Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period.
Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark
This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner's coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping's relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse's surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner's surgery. Folkman and Lazarus' ways of coping (WCQ) scales yielded two factors in this sample-reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses' surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses.
Human Resources Division
Staff Members and Fellows are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the affiliation of the spouse to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In the latter case, it is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare such a change as soon as possible in order that the contribution is adjusted with a minimum of backdating. To notify a change, staff members and fellows are required to fill in the form 'confidential declaration of family situation' and to send it to Mrs. Patricia Cattan (HR-SOC), indicating the effective date of the change. This form is available from divisional secretariats or from the web at the following address:...
Human Resources Department
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. Changes to the rules and simplification to the system are currently being prepared and should be operational by mid-2005. Meanwhile from 1.1.2005, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 459.- It is in the member o...
Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in the spouse or registered partner's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse or registered partner's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse or registered partner. From 1.1.2007, for the following monthly income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 2'500 CHF and up to 4'250 CHF: 134.- more than 4'250 CHF and up to 7'500 CHF: 234.- more than 7'500 CHF and up to 10'000 CHF: 369.- more than 10'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual ...
Isaac, Carol; Petrashek, Kara; Steiner, Megan; Manwell, Linda Baier; Byars-Winston, Angela; Carnes, Molly
As the numbers of female physicians continue to grow, fewer medical marriages are comprised of the traditional dyad of male physician and stay-at-home wife. The "two-career family" is an increasingly frequent state for both male and female physicians' families, and dual-doctor marriages are on the rise. This qualitative study explored the contemporary medical marriage from the perspective of male spouses of female physicians. In 2010, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with nine spouses of internal medicine resident and faculty physicians. Interviewers queried work-home balance, career choices, and support networks. We used an interpretive, inductive, iterative approach to thematically analyze interview transcripts and develop broad, consensus-derived themes. A conceptual framework based on three major themes emerged: "A time for us? Really?", "Supporting and protecting her, sometimes at my expense,'" and "Hers is a career, mine is a job." This framework described the inflexibility of physicians' time and its impact on spousal time, career development, and choices. Having a set time for synchronizing schedules, frequent verbal support, and shared decision-making were seen as important by the husbands of female, full-time physicians. This exploratory study examined the contemporary medical marriage from the male spouse's perspective and highlights specific strategies for success.
Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi; Mojtabai, Ramin
Entering entrepreneurship (i.e. becoming an entrepreneur) is known to be a demanding activity with increased workload, financial uncertainty and increased levels of stress. However, there are no systematic studies on how entering entrepreneurship affects the people involved. The authors investigated prescriptions of psychotropics for 6,221 first-time entrepreneurs from 2001-2004 and their 2,381 spouses in the first two years after becoming entrepreneurs in a matched case-control study using linked data from three Danish national registries: The Danish database for Labor Market Research, the Danish Entrepreneurship database and the Danish Prescription database. Entrepreneurs were more likely to fill prescriptions at pharmacies for sedatives/hypnotics (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.45 [95% CI: 1.26-1.66], p entrepreneurs were also more likely to fill prescriptions for sedatives/hypnotics (AOR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.10-1.67], p = 0.005). No difference in prescription of antidepressants was found for spouses. This study showed that there was a significant relation between entering entrepreneurship and receiving prescriptions for sedative/ hypnotics both among the entrepreneurs themselves and their spouses, suggesting that entering entrepreneurship may be associated with increased stress for both the entrepreneurs and their families.
emerged, including the spouse unemployment rate, desire to work and educational enrollment among unemployed spouses, and spouses’ use of financial...the two surveys. The 2015 ADSS included unique response options for child care/development, animal services, skilled trades, and communications and...reported that they were unemployed by choice (an additional 21% were unsure) (p. 34). Unemployment and Education : The 2015 ADSS found that nearly
Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else; Lomborg, Kirsten
To explore the challenges and caring activities of spouses of intensive care unit survivors during the first year of patient recovery. Every year, millions of people globally are discharged from an intensive care unit after critical illness to continue treatment, care and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study. Participants were spouses of intensive care unit survivors. The study was undertaken in Denmark in 2009-2010. Data consisted of 35 semi-structured dyad interviews at 3 and 12 months post-intensive care unit discharge, two group interviews with patients and two with spouses. 'Shifting their role from spouse to caregiver and back' was identified as the core category of the study. The role shifts progressed in a dynamic process involving four elements: (1) committing to caregiving; (2) acquiring caregiving skills; (3) negotiating level of caregiving and (4) gradually leaving the caregiver role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare intensive care unit patients' families for the time following intensive care unit and hospital discharge. Hospital staff, rehabilitation experts and primary care professionals must acknowledge spouses' important contribution from intensive care unit admission throughout recovery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The study found that before participation in the activities, significantly more subjects in the experimental group who participated in happy Muslim family activities had violent behaviors against their spouses than those in the control group who participated in normal community activities. However, after participating in the happy Muslim family activities, those in the experimental group used significantly less domestic violence against their spouses when compared with those in the control group.
Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Merrick, Melissa T
Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Earlier research also shows that children raised by harsh parents are more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study evaluated nurturing and supportive behaviors of spouses or cohabiting romantic partners hypothesized to strengthen co-parent relationships and help break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from the Family Transitions Project, a 22-year, 3-generation study of a cohort of over 500 early adolescents (G2) grown to adulthood. During adolescence, observers rated G1 (parent of G2) harsh parenting to G2. Several years later, observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (G3). In addition, G2's romantic partner (spouse or cohabiting partner) was rated by observers on a range of behaviors expected to affect G2 harsh parenting. Romantic partner warmth and positive communication with G2 were associated with less G2 harsh parenting toward G3 (a compensatory or main effect) and when these partner behaviors were high, there was no evidence of intergenerational continuity from G1 to G2 harsh parenting (a moderating or protective effect). G1 harsh parenting slightly decreased the likelihood that G2 would select a supportive spouse or romantic partner (evidence of cumulative continuity). Romantic partner warmth and positive communication appear to disrupt continuity in harsh and abusive parenting. As appropriate, preventive interventions designed to reduce risk for child maltreatment should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National dataset consisting of a snapshot of 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters combined with Impaired Waters with TMDLs whose parent cause is Nutrients, Sediments, and...
Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac disease. We identified individuals with celiac disease by searching computerized duodenal and jejunal biopsies, collected from 1969 through 2008, at 28 pathology departments in Sweden. Celiac disease was identified based on biopsy reports of villous atrophy (equal to Marsh grade 3; n = 29,096). Individuals with celiac disease were matched with up to 5 controls (people without celiac disease) for sex, age, county, and calendar year (total, 144,522 controls). Through Swedish health care registries, we identified all first-degree relatives (fathers, mothers, siblings, and offspring) and spouses of individuals with celiac disease (n = 84,648) and controls (n = 430,942). We used Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for nonceliac autoimmune disease (Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or ulcerative colitis) in these groups. During the follow-up period (median, 10.8 y), 3333 of the first-degree relatives of patients with celiac disease (3.9%) and 12,860 relatives of controls (3.0%) had an autoimmune disease other than celiac disease. First-degree relatives of people with celiac disease were at increased risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease, compared with controls (HR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.33), as were spouses (HR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.35). Risk estimates for nonceliac autoimmune disease did not differ between first-degree relatives and spouses of individuals with celiac disease (interaction test: P = .11). HRs for nonceliac autoimmune disease were highest in the first 2 years of follow-up evaluation. First-degree relatives and
Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes
Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.
Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
T. Paul de Cock
Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.
Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1) ...
Many variables must be considered during the evaluation and rehabilitation of children for cochlear implantation, one of which is parental influence (for the duration of this report the parents, caregivers and guardians of children with cochlear implants and / or hearing impairments will be referred to as 'parents'). The aim of ...
Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun
The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....
Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan
Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...
Carlson, Dawn S; Thompson, Merideth J; Crawford, Wayne S; Boswell, Wendy R; Whitten, Dwayne
The use of mobile technology for work purposes during family time has been found to affect employees' work and family lives. Using a matched sample of 344 job incumbents and their spouses, we examined the role of mobile device (MD) use for work during family time in the job incumbent-spouse relationship and how this MD use crosses over to affect the spouse's work life. Integrating the work-home resources model with family systems theory, we found that as job incumbents engage in MD use for work during family time, work-to-family conflict increases, as does the combined experience of relationship tension between job incumbents and spouses. This tension serves as a crossover mechanism, which then contributes to spouses' experience of family-to-work conflict and, subsequently, family spills over to work outcomes for the spouse in the form of reduced job satisfaction and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This paper is based on a morning session at a pedagogical training course for a group of teachers at a small Danish public school. Using role-play, these teachers, under the guidance of a consultant and an actor, were practicing ‘the difficult conversation' with parents. I had been given permission...... and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation? My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...... to the teachers' description, and the teachers' authority is very easily threatened by parents who suppose that their experiences are relevant. The training situation in itself confirms that the parents are the opponents, and that the teachers should take care.The training course had been developed by the school...
The purpose of this study was to describe the common stress factors and coping strategies of parents whose children had been treated by hemodialysis. This study was conducted by using focus group interviews. The sample was composed of 31 parents. Five focus groups were made up from these parents. Data were analyzed by using the manifest content analysis method. According to the results, common stress factors of parents included financial and bureaucratic problems, growth and development of ill children, fluid-diet restriction and educational problems of children, lack of social support, and anxiety about losing their children at any moment. Coping strategies of parents were to give their attention to the positive side of matters, to share their feelings with their spouse or other parents, to cry, or pray. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Visser-Meily, A; Post, M; van de Port, [No Value; Maas, C; Lindeman, E
Background and Purpose - The purpose of this research was to describe the clinical course of children's functioning (depression, behavioral problems, and health status) during the first year after parental stroke and to determine which patient-, spouse-, or child-related factors at the start of
Burns, John W.; Peterson, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Keefe, Francis J.; Porter, Laura S.; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen
Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospecti...
Schölzel-Dorenbos, Carla J M; Draskovic, Irena; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M
The objective of the study was to explore, in a sample of spouses of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease patients, predictors of quality of life (QoL) by rating QoL and burden. The authors assessed 97 spouses in a cross-sectional study with the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL), Self-Rated Burden scale (SRB), self-perceived stress scale (EDIZ; Ervaren Druk door Informele Zorg/Self-Perceived Pressure from Informal Care), and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Patient cognition was rated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Factors best predicting QoL were analyzed with multiple regression analysis. Eighty-seven (53% male, mean 72 y) fulfilled the SEIQoL internal reliability criteria, and had a mean SEIQoL score of 68.6+/-14.8. Most important QoL domains were condition of patient (31%) and marriage (26%). Caregiver burden scores on SRB, Ervaren Druk door Informele, Zorg, and ZBI were 44.1+/-23.5 (n=67), 4.9+/-2.2 (n=53), and 13.1+/-6.2 (n=53), respectively. Mean patient MMSE score (0 to 30) was 20.3+/-4.2. Spouses experienced lower QoL than Alzheimer disease patients and healthy elderly (historical controls), and perceived moderate levels of burden. Patient cognition is a significant predictor of caregiver QoL. Burden, measured by ZBI, is significantly negatively correlated with SEIQoL. The results underline the importance of implementing health services known to improve QoL and alleviate burden, and to explore new effective interventions.
Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan
There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xiaonan Yu, Nancy; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Cecilia L W; Zhang, Jianxin; Stewart, Sunita M
Stigma towards people with HIV (PHIV) can affect their family members. In this study of 68 HIV seronegative participants in China whose spouse died of AIDS, 35.3% reported prolonged grief. Stigma beliefs towards PHIV (i.e., belief that PHIV's death leaves the deceased, the family and society better off) predicted grief symptoms. Social campaigns to combat stigma and grief therapy to reconstruct the meaning of HIV-related death may be helpful to reduce suffering in HIV bereaved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper investigates the determinants of older workers’ early retirement behavior in Denmark. Instead of considering dual retirement we recognize the importance of the spouse in the early retirement decision by assessing the effect of a rich number of spousal variables. Given the grouped nature...... of the data we set up a semi-parametric single risk grouped duration proportional hazard model accounting for right censoring and allows for time-varying covariates, a nonparametric baseline and unobserved heterogeneity. We find that spousal characteristics do influence the retirement decision and significant...
Empirically, self-employed persons often operate with the support of their partners or other household members as co-workers in the firm. The formal or informal employment of the marriage partner in particular seems to have a lot of advantages, such as fiscal benefits and low wage costs. But from a theoretical point of view, these advantages are jeopardized by serious cooperation problems: If the spouse of the self-employed decides to work in the jointly-run business, former qualifications...
Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.
Kayser, Lars; Hansen-Nord, Nete S; Osborne, Richard H
BACKGROUND: Early stage prostate cancer patients may be allocated to active surveillance, where the condition is observed over time with no intervention. Living with a cancer diagnosis may impose stress on both the men and their spouses. In this study we explore whether the scores of and verbal...... responses to a Health Literacy Questionnaire can be used to identify individuals in need of information and support and to reveal differences in perception and understanding in health related situations within couples. METHODS: We used the nine-domain Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) as a framework...
... the household in which you live; (8) Tax refunds on income, real property, or food purchased by the... under title II of the Act; (25) Interest earned on excluded burial funds and appreciation in the value...
Rossen, Sine; Hansen-Nord, Nete Sloth; Kayser, Lars
to examine how spouses react and handle their husband's prostate cancer diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how the prostate cancer diagnosis and the participation in their partners' behavioral lifestyle intervention program influenced the spouses' life, their relationship...... with their partner, and how they handle the situation. METHODS: Interviews were recorded with 8 spouses of potential low-risk prostate cancer patients on active surveillance as part of a clinical self-management lifestyle trial. RESULTS: We identified 3 phases that the spouses went through: feeling insecure about...
Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun
The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...
O'Rourke, Norm; Claxton, Amy; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas
In this study of 125 older couples married for an average of 34 years, multilevel models were computed to simultaneously examine intra-couple personality trait averages and between-spouse trait similarity as predictors of marital satisfaction. Our findings suggest that higher intra-couple levels of extraversion predict marital satisfaction, both husbands and wives. In addition, between-spouse similarity in openness to experience appears associated with higher levels of marital satisfaction as reported by husbands; concomitantly, between-spouse similarity in agreeableness predicts wives' marital satisfaction. With respect to openness (husbands) and agreeableness (wives), it did not matter which spouse within couples reported higher or lower trait levels. The most notable finding to emerge from this study is that neuroticism is not associated with marital satisfaction, neither husbands nor wives. This result stands in contrast to previously reported findings--the vast majority of prior research conducted with dating and newlywed couples. Conflicting results may reflect the degree to which neuroticism determines divorce within the first years of married life, adaptation to the foibles of one's spouse over time, overreliance on younger samples in marriage and family research, or some combination of these alternate explanations.
Nouri Sanchuli, Hajar; Rahnama, Mozhgan; Shahdadi, Hossein; Poudineh Moghaddam, Mahdieh
Background and Objective: Breast cancer and its treatment processes not only involve the patients but also their spouses and can impact on mutual relationships. Spouses of women with breast cancer may experience devastating consequences of the disease in their marital and sexual relationships. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate individual experiences of women with breast cancer in their relationships with their spouses. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study with a conventional approach to content analysis. A purposive sampling method was used to select 12 patients with breast cancer visiting the Chemotherapy Clinic in Zabol in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were employed for data collection. Data trustworthiness was checked and data were analyzed based on the steps proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. Ethical issues were considered. Results: Three main categories and ten sub-categories were extracted. The three main categories were surrounded by misery, from emotional to practical companionship and influencebeing imposed upon someone else. Conclusion: The findings showed paradoxical experiences of the women under study ranging from love and fidelity to infidelity. This indicates that some spouses do not adequately support for their sick wives. Therefore, health professionals should provide support, guidance and training for couples, including sex therapy and counseling services, so that spouses can better support their wives. Creative Commons Attribution License
Willinger, Ulrike; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriela; Willnauer, Ruth; Jörgl, Gudrun; Hager, Veronika
Attachment experiences are thought to be important because of their implications for later development. The authors' aim with the questionnaire-based study was to investigate the differences between recalled parental bonding regarding 4 types of maternal and paternal bonding with respect to experienced parenting stress caused by child characteristics, parent attributes, and life events under the consideration of the child's gender and age. The authors gathered parental bonding behavior data with the German version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The authors assessed parenting stress with their German version of the "Parenting Stress Index (PSI)." They found significant differences among 120 mothers grouped in the 4 maternal and the 4 paternal bonding types regarding parenting stress caused by child, maternal bonding: F(5, 113) = 4.13, p = .002, paternal bonding: F(5, 111) = 8.50, p mothers who themselves recalled the "optimal parental bonding type" with respect to the child and parental domain. The authors did not find any significant differences between the 4 maternal, F(5, 113) = 1.25, p = .29, and the 4 paternal, F(5, 111) = 1.87, p = .106, bonding types with respect to the life stress. According to the authors' findings, the representation of attachment relationships seems to have a special impact on the adult's capacity to cope with challenges and stress, either directly or indirectly as an internal working model of attachment. For the clinical practice, these findings seem to recommend the combination of both the PSI and PBI regarding the diagnostic of stressful mother-child system to plan an optimal intervention program.
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Parents Page Content Article Body A girl who ... prenatal vitamins and iron is so important. Preparing Teens For Parenthood Fears about the future are common ...
Riley, Gerard A; Evans, Laura; Oyebode, Jan R
Qualitative research has suggested that spousal experiences of discontinuity in their relationship with a person who has dementia (i.e. the relationship is experienced as radically changed) may contribute to heightened feelings of burden, entrapment, isolation, guilt and intolerance of behaviours that challenge. By contrast, continuity in the relationship may contribute to a greater sense of achievement and gratification from providing care. The present study served as a quantitative test of these suggestions. A convenience sample of 71 spouses of people with dementia completed three questionnaires - the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the Positive Aspects of Caregiving measure (PAC) and the Birmingham Relationship Continuity Measure (BRCM). In accordance with the hypotheses, the experience of greater relationship continuity (higher BRCM scores) was correlated with fewer negative emotional reactions to caregiving (lower ZBI scores; rho = -.795) and more positive emotional reactions (higher PAC scores; rho = .764). The study provided some quantitative support for suggestions arising from qualitative research about how perceptions of continuity/discontinuity in the relationship may impact on the caregiving spouse's emotional well-being. Helping couples to maintain a sense of continuity and couplehood may assist their emotional adjustment to dementia.
Pachucki, Mark A; Jacques, Paul F; Christakis, Nicholas A
We investigated whether eating behaviors were concordant among diverse sets of social ties. We analyzed the socioeconomic and demographic distribution of eating among 3418 members of the Framingham Heart Study observed from 1991 to 2001. We used a data-classification procedure to simplify choices into 7 nonoverlapping patterns that we matched with information on social network ties. We used correlation analysis to examine eating associations among 4 types of peers (spouses, friends, brothers, and sisters). Longitudinal multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate evidence for peer influences on eating. Of all peer types, spouses showed the strongest concordances in eating patterns over time after adjustment for social contextual factors. Across all peers, the eating pattern most likely to be shared by socially connected individuals was "alcohol and snacks." Models estimating one's current eating pattern on the basis of a peer's prior eating provided supportive evidence of a social influence process. Certain eating patterns appeared to be socially transmissible across different kinds of relationships. These findings represent an important step in specifying the relevant social environment in the study of health behaviors to include eating.
Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy C; Light, Kathleen C
Although the quality of one's own social relationships has been related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, whether a partner's social network quality can similarly influence one's cardiovascular risk is unknown. In this study we tested whether the quality of a partner's social networks influenced one's own ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). The quality of 94 couples' social networks was determined using a comprehensive model of relationships that separates out social ties that are sources of positivity(supportive), negativity (aversive), and both positivity and negativity (ambivalent). We then utilized statistical models (actor-partner analyses) that allowed us to separate out the links between one's own social network quality on ABP (actor influences), a partner's social network quality on ABP (partner influences), and a couple's network quality combined on ABP (actor X partner interactions). Independent of one's own relationship quality, results showed that an individual's ABP was lower if their spouse had more supportive ties, and higher if a spouse had more aversive and ambivalent ties. In addition, couples' networks in combination were associated with higher ABP but only if both had a low number of supportive ties, or a high number of aversive or ambivalent ties. These data suggest that the social ties of those we have close relationships with may influence our cardiovascular risk and opens new opportunities to capitalize on untapped social resources or to mitigate hidden sources of social strain.
Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that they must notify CERN of any change in their marital status and any change in the income or health insurance cover of their spouse or registered partner, in writing and within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2009 onwards, the following indexed monthly supplementary contributions, expressed in Swiss francs, are payable for the various monthly income brackets: •\tmore than 2’500 CHF and up to 4’250 CHF: 134.- •\tmore than 4’250 CHF and up to 7’500 CHF: 234.- •\tmore than 7’500 CHF and up to 10’000 CHF: 369.- •\tmore than 10’000 CHF: 485.- It is in the member of...
Joolaee, Soodabeh; Fereidooni, Zhila; Fatemi, Naeemeh Seyed; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan; Mirlashri, Jila
Addiction is one of the majore problems that affect everyone in the society especially the spouses of addicted men who have to face a large number of problems which are the consequences of their husband’s addiction. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the needs and expectations of women who are living with their addicted husband in Iran. Twenty-four spouses of addicted men participated in this study. The participants were interviewed and each interview was analyzed via the content analysis method. The results of this study showed that the women’s difficulties were related to their approach to the treatment, or their husbands’ response to the treatment, financial constraints and emotional and informational needs. Moreover, these Iranian women expected more stringent control by the government on the phenomenon of addiction and drug trafficking with a view of having a drug-free country. The needs and expectations of the wives of addicted men are context-based and should be assessed separately between individuals, families, and communities. In addition to the addicted person, it is vitally important that the health of the family members of drug addicts be taken into account and for whom supportive services be provided. PMID:25169001
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to monitor the cases identified as hepatitis B carriers during premarital tests, to vaccinate their prospective spouses with a rapid vaccination scheme, and to compare the anti-HBs responses with the traditional vaccination scheme. Methods. Blood samples of 1250 couple spouses were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs. HBsAg positive cases' fiancées which were found HBV negative were administered a rapid three-dose vaccination scheme on days 0, 7, and 21. Forty controls with similar age and gender were also were administered three doses of the same vaccine. Results. Out of 1250 cases (625 couples, 46 (3.6% were HBsAg positive, and 40 of them aged between 18 and 39 were admitted to the rapid vaccination program. Conclusion. Upon determination of HBsAg positivity in premarital tests, a rapid vaccination program provides early protection, but the 6th and 12th month vaccinations are also required. Anti-HBs response should be monitored.
Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Fekete, Erin M; Franks, Melissa M; Rook, Karen S; Druley, Jennifer Ann; Greene, Kenneth
The authors investigated health-related effects of social control (influence) that spouses exert in relation to osteoarthritis patients' medical adherence after total knee replacement surgery. Patients' behavioral and emotional responses to control were examined as mediators of associations between spouses' use of two control strategies (pressure, persuasion) and patients' physical and psychological recovery. The authors used a three-wave panel design with assessments at one month before surgery, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. Data were collected during in-person interviews with 70 married, older adult patients. Recovery outcomes were assessed as improvement in knee limitations and depressive symptoms at the 3 month follow-up. Spousal pressure and persuasion at one month postsurgery were indirectly associated with patients' recovery outcomes through patients' positive emotional responses to control. Although there are often immediate behavioral benefits in response to partners' use of both pressure and persuasion, the long-term health effects of these strategies seem to be accounted for by their opposing links to positive emotions. Findings further refine theory on health-related social control in marriage. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico
With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...
van de Weijer, Steve G A; Beaver, Kevin M
There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and examines spousal similarity on criminal offending behaviors. Moreover, we also examine the potential factors that might account for spousal similarity. This study analyzed data drawn from two generations of Dutch spouses. The analyses revealed statistically significant associations between mates on criminal offending prior to marriage, a finding that is directly in line with an assortative mating explanation of spousal similarity. In addition, the analyses also revealed that criminal offending between spouses becomes even more similar after marriage, a finding that is line with a behavioral contagion explanation of spousal similarity. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the study along with the implications that these findings have for criminological research.
Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W.
Narcissism is an important and consequential aspect of personality, yet we know little about its developmental origins. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families, we examined cross-lagged relations between parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, monitoring) and narcissism (superiority, exploitativeness). Parental hostility at age 12 was associated with higher levels of exploitativeness at age 14, whereas parental monitoring at age 12 was associated with lower levels of exploitativeness at age 14. These effects replicated across three different parenting measures: child reports, spouse reports, and behavioral coding of parent-child interactions. None of the parenting dimensions was related to superiority, suggesting that parenting practices are more strongly related to the maladaptive than the adaptive component of narcissism. PMID:28042186
ten Hoedt, A.E.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Boelen, C.C.A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; van Spronsen, F.J.; Wijburg, F.A.; Bosch, A.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.
Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the
ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Boelen, Carolien C. A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the
Skapinsky, Kaley F; Persky, Susan; Lewis, Megan; Goergen, Andrea; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D; Hadley, Donald; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M
Family health history is an accessible, clinically-recommended genomic tool that improves health risk evaluation. It captures both genetic and modifiable risk factors that cluster within families. Thus, families represent a salient context for family health history-based interventions that motivate engagement in risk-reducing behaviors. While previous research has explored how individuals respond to their personal risk information, we extend this inquiry to consider how individuals respond to their spouse's risk information among a sample of Mexican-Americans. One hundred and sixty spouse-dyads within Mexican-heritage households received a pedigree or a pedigree and personalized risk assessments, with or without behavioral recommendations. Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to assess the relationship between risk feedback, both personal and spouse, and self-reported physical activity levels at 3-month and 10-month assessments, controlling for baseline levels. The effect of being identified as an encourager of spouse's healthy weight was also evaluated. Personal feedback had no effect on participants' physical activity at either 3- or 10-month assessments. However, husbands' risk information was associated with wives' physical activity levels at 3-month assessment, with women whose husbands received both increased risk feedback and behavioral recommendations engaging in significantly higher physical activity levels than all other women. At 10-month follow-up, physical activity levels for both husbands and wives differed depending on whether they encouraged their spouse's healthy weight. Spousal risk information may be a stronger source of motivation to improve physical activity patterns than personal risk information, particularly for women. Interventions that activate interpersonal encouragement among spouses may more successfully extend intervention effects. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.
... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...
... Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment ...
Powell, Robyn M.; Parish, Susan L.; Akobirshoev, Ilhom
Background: While the United States has seen increased attention by policymakers on the rights of parents with disabilities, there is limited understanding of the health and economic well-being of parents with intellectual impairments. This study compares the health and economic well-being of mothers with and without intellectual impairments.…
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang
This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The increasing number of dysfunctional families causes an increase in the number of civil litigation on the education of the child, where the relationship between the persons are highly conflictual. The actual task is study the one of components in the structure of the psychological relationship - emotional and semantic constructs underlying semantic perception of each other and the child's parents. Examination of 42 testees (parents from harmonious families and 54 testees (parents during the forensic psychological and psychiatric examination (regarding the definition of child`s residence or the order of meetings for the child and the parent who don`t live with it by methods "Geometric test of relations" and "Semantic Differential" showed that in families where is highly conflictual relationship, there is positive assessments of herself and her child, while assessment of the spouse (wife characterized inversion. This negative attitude toward the spouse (wife is not the other parent's negative characteristics. It is the ignoring the other parent's positive characteristics. The positive acceptance of all family members was revealed in harmonious families.
Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.
Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…
do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; de Souza, Sandra Regina; Carmona, Elenice Valentim
To identify nursing diagnoses in the reports of parents obtained during parent support group meetings in a neonatal intensive care unit. An explorative descriptive study using records obtained during 29 meetings over a period of 11 months with parents and family members. Six NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses were identified from parent group data: fear, risk for impaired parent/infant attachment, parental role conflict, risk for ineffective breastfeeding, impaired home maintenance, and risk for caregiver role strain. Diagnoses were not validated with parents. Support groups helped the parents express their thoughts and feelings and provided nurses with opportunities to identify nursing diagnoses and interventions. The identification of nursing diagnoses showed that nursing interventions that are focused on improved parent outcomes should be implemented for parents and other family members. Nursing care in neonatal units should focus on interventions for parents and other family members in addition to providing the necessary care of newborns.
... annuity, the retiree must deposit an amount equal to the sum of the monthly differences between the self... marriage to that former spouse) a reduced annuity to provide a current spouse annuity, must deposit an amount equal to the sum of the monthly differences between the self-only annuity and the amount of...
Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.
The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I am a former spouse receiving an apportionment of annuity? 894.305 Section 894.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.305 Am I eligible to enroll if I am a former spouse receiving an...
Førsund, Linn Hege; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Kiik, Riina; Ytrehus, Siri
To explore and describe spouses' experiences of losing couplehood with their dementia-afflicted partner living in institutional care. Despite the losses and experiences of discontinuity due to the cognitive decline caused by dementia, the feelings of belonging and reciprocity in close relationships are still crucial to many couples. However, these experiences of spouses with partners living in institutional care are not well documented and are thus the focus of this study. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to capture the relational processes described by the spouses. Conversational interviews were conducted with n = 10 spouses of dementia-afflicted persons living in institutional care. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. The spouses' experiences of losing couplehood were primarily connected to separation from the partner and the sense of being alone. They were also related to the loss of the shared past and future. However, these experiences did not seem to be constant; short glimpses of connectedness, reciprocity and interdependence contributed to a feeling of couplehood, although these were only momentary. The spouses' experiences of losing couplehood were dynamic and were related to the couple's entire life. The spouses wavered between senses of loss and belonging to couplehood, depending on the conditions characterising the moment. Healthcare personnel must recognise the severity of some spouses' experiences of losing couplehood and be aware of how these experiences can fluctuate and be situation dependent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Intervenção com pais de crianças deficientes auditivas: elaboração e avaliação de um programa de orientação não presencial Intervention with parents of hearing impaired children: elaboration and evaluation of an orientation program not requiring attendance
Telma Flores Genaro Motti
presented in order to avoid insecurity, anxiety, unreal expectations or inadequate reactions on the part of the parents. Orientation is offered at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up, though the parents may present financial difficulties and little time to enroll in ongoing support programs. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an orientation program for parents of children between two and six years with severe and profound deafness who were unable to attend the treatment center. The program was structured in four units and was applied with 30 parents who initially were enrolled at the University of São Paulo Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais, in Bauru/SP. The units were prepared based on content that specialists from various fields divulge during diagnosis of hearing impairments, considering the interests and difficulties parents express. Their level of understanding was identified as to assessment, follow-up, opinions about achievement as well as the child's needs, their own and their family's needs. In order to evaluate the program, parents' answers to a questionnaire on each unit were analyzed, and final interviews were conducted. The analysis revealed that the program offered clear information and suggestions of activities that were adequate to the family context, and that the program contributed to the children's development. Some parents had difficulty expressing themselves in writing and in developing some of the activities, nevertheless, this did not undermine their understanding and their participation in the program.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence who applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. Methods: This study is a descriptive survey in order to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women who applied because of violence. This study was made on women who exposed to spouse/partner violence applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center in the west of Turkey. In these dates 137 women applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. We reached 51% of universe. In the study, demographic information was collected through the survey method face to face interviews consisted of questions which identify the causes of violence and victimization perception. Results: 31.4% of the women participating in the study exposed to violence for 1-5 years, 21.4% of them exposed for 11-15 years. 74.3% of women share violence with others, women who didn't share with others because of they didn't know what to do and where to apply. Children have witnessed domestic violence, 51.4% were exposed to the violence. causes of violence were determined as economic problems, spouse / partner's alcohol / substance abuse, women are responding to partner, he does not want his wife, and has been identified as not prompted by his partner's family. 91.4% of women don't participate in the idea of violence was sometimes necessary, 81.4% don't think not so much violence against women can be seen joining excused. 62.9% of them think people who experience violence would behave similarly. Most of the women exposed to violence think if there is violence when women-man arguing the bond of love will be extinction, 84.3% think violence is not a solution, and 14.3% stated that it might be a solution. Conclusion: Health personnel are the group that can identify the violence, can be found in initiatives and can lead women to cope. Steps to be taken to
Full Text Available Matrimonial regime is the synthesis of all the rights and obligations of spouses pecuniary valence, having its origins in the institution of marriage, leaving outside their regulatory and other economic issues that may arise property relationships between spouses, as: maintenance obligation, Liberties rights of inheritance. matrimonial regime, considering that it is the synthesis of all the rights and obligations of spouses pecuniary valence, having its origins in the institution of marriage, leaving outside their regulatory and other economic issues that may arise property relationships between spouses, such as: the obligation maintenance, Liberties, rights of Inheritance. Under company law, spouses are not forbidden to own a company, whether it one partnerships, or that they have an association with unlimited in a limited partnership or limited by shares or a company is limited or become shareholders in a joint stock company.
Köhler, Anita Kärner; Nilsson, Staffan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Tingström, Pia
Spousal concordance on risk factors and lifestyle habits exists and can partly be explained by patients' and spouses' health beliefs and underuse of cardiac rehabilitation. However, there have been very few qualitative comparisons of health beliefs between patients and spouses after a cardiac event. To examine and qualitatively compare the health beliefs of patients with coronary heart disease and their spouses about lifestyle habits, 1 year after the cardiac event. Explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with patients (n = 14) 1 year after a cardiac event, as well as individual interviews with spouses (n = 8). The transcriptions underwent a deductive qualitative content analysis, within the framework of the Health Belief Model. Patients' and spouses' health beliefs about lifestyle habits qualitatively differed in most predetermined main analytical categories of the Health Belief Model. The patients relied more on their own capacity and the healthcare system than on collaboration with their spouses who instead emphasised the importance of mutual activities to establish lifestyle habits. The spouses therefore experienced problems with different family preferences compared to the patients' wishes. Moreover, only patients believed supervised exercise was beneficial for risk reduction of coronary heart disease and they related barriers for medication to a self-healing body and a meaningless life without relatives and old habits. Patients and spouses agreed that despite the severity of illness, life was captured and that normalisation to a life as usual was possible. The patients' and spouses' qualitatively different health beliefs regarding health-related behaviours imply a new approach. Nurses and associated professionals need to follow-up patients' and spouses' in primary health care to support them in a tailored way, for example in problem-based sessions. Recognition and understanding of their different views and otherness
Claudia Feio da Maia Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the transitions experienced, and the conditions and expected response patterns to changes in sexuality of the spouse-caregiver of the elderly, during progression of the dementia process. Method: A qualitative research study, conducted at the neurogeriatric clinic between May of 2014 and May of 2015. An intensive, individual interview was administered to 12 elderly caregivers. Thematic content analysis was applied, using the theoretical model of Transition Theory. Results: Seven categories emerged, involving relationship and conjugal sexuality; disease repercussions; care and professional approach; attitudes, beliefs and social imagery of sexuality and care; family relationship and redefining of sexuality. Final considerations: Family development and marital life, the aspects of formation and development of sexuality, the specifics that involved living and caring for the other were understood, with successive events and changes influenced by old age, dementia, beliefs and social imagery.
I explored the ways in which Korean international students' spouses perceived and coped with the challenges associated with the adaptation process. I used in-depth interviews to examine how they dealt with life challenges, barriers, and coping strategies associated with acculturative stress. Three themes were identified: challenging life experiences and barriers as immigrants, the experience of emotional and psychological distress and stress, and new identified family structures. Two coping strategies used with acculturative stress were addressed: the recognition of personal strength and involvement in meaningful activities. I found that purposeful and meaningful activities associated with volunteerism, as well as cultural values and beliefs, played important roles in coping with stress. Further investigation into the role of meaningful activities for immigrants is necessary to have a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.
This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-focused spouse involvement and behavioral couples therapy (BCT) in group drinking reduction treatment for male problem drinkers. Sixty-four male clients and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: treatment for problem drinkers only (PDO), couples alcohol-focused treatment, or…
... death, and was eligible to retire at the time of death), is entitled, after the death of the retiree... death, and was eligible to retire at the time of death), is entitled, after the death of the retiree... spouse to certify under the penalty provided by section 1001 of title 18, United States Code, that he or...
Small, Jeff A.; Perry, JoAnn
This study examined the types of questions caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended questions and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and…
Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…
... appoint the corpus. Since the power in the son could become exercisable only after the death of the donee... shares at the time of S's death is not necessarily a power to appoint the entire interest that the 100... spouse the trustee should pay her all of the income from the trust. Upon her death, all of Blackacre, a...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we deem income to you and your eligible child from your ineligible spouse. 416.1166 Section 416.1166 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1166...
Kraaimaat, F. W.; van Dam-Baggen, R. M.; Bijlsma, J. W.
To determine if social support and the reaction of the spouse to the patient's pain are contributing factors to psychological distress in male and female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Physical, social, and psychological aspects of health were assessed in 97 male and 132 female patients
O'Connor, Mary Ann; Bodine, George E.
Alcohol abuse results in a variety of problems including employment difficulties and family problems. This study integrates a family systems model of alcoholism with a family crisis model for recovery to study spouses of alcoholics and their perceptions of family stress, coping styles, and quality of marriage. Participants (N=60) were husbands or…
Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee
Self-esteem is considered a significant factor affecting both the emotional and functional outcomes of stroke survivors; however, research on self-esteem in this group is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender-specific effects of income status and the presence of a spouse on the self-esteem of stroke survivors using data from a population-based study in Korea. The Korea Welfare Panel Study was used to investigate the gender-specific effects of income and the presence of a spouse on the self-esteem of stroke survivors. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Males in the general income category had higher self-esteem than males in the low-income category. However, no differences were found in the self-esteem of females by income category. The self-esteem of females without a spouse or partner was lower than the males without a spouse. Self-management interventions to enhance self-esteem should focus on gender to facilitate patients' adjustment and rehabilitation after a stroke.
... of diagnosis and at one, six, and 12 month post-initiation of treatment: (1) do to illness uncertainty and perceptions of control predict patient and spouse supportive and non-supportive behavior, QOL and psychological-well-being/distress? (2...
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Yang, Xiao; Xiaojun, Jin; Yixuan, Zhou; Hui, Liu
We assessed the genetic rules for the dermatoglyphics of human fingertips. We also evaluated the correlation between spouse selection with the number of whorls on fingertips. Data were collected for the number of whorls from 118 families (couples and their children). Distribution of whorls was analyzed further to investigate the relationship between heredity and spouse selection. Through multiple regression analysis, we found that the number of whorls on fingertips was affected considerably by genetic factors. In a married couple with a moderate number of whorls, the probability of their children having a high number of whorls was 26.5 %, and the probability of their children having a low number of whorls was 23.5. These values were close to the theoretical value (25 %). A significant correlation between whorl count between spouses was observed. These data suggest that whorls are inherited from a single gene or a group of closely linked genes. Our findings provide an initial insight on the potential contribution of biologic characteristics on spouse selection.
Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan
Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)
Full Text Available The role of parents-in-law according to Erik Erikson’s theory, has been analyzed in this paper. Erikson claims that a man develops throughout his whole life, solving subsequently appearing crises. The proper solution of these crises enables the achievement of integration. The results of research, carried out by Menelaos Apostolou, regarding the influence of parents on the choice of a son or daughter-in-law have been presented in this paper. These results show that the marital choices of offspring most often lack their parents’ approval, and they often also lead parents to use manipulation techniques. Such regularity is often the basis of difficult spouse-parent-in-law relationships. The role of parents-in-law takes place in the period of middle adulthood in which an individual faces the productivity-stagnation process. It has been assumed that the role of parents-in-law is embedded in this crisis. According to Erikson, the crisis in the period of middle adulthood, as well as in any other period, is the friction of two opposing pursuits: progression and regression, where in case of middle adulthood, the progression stage is called productivity and regression – stagnation. Moreover, social and individual factors (including biological and psychological levels activating regressive and progressive states in parents-in-law have been submitted for analysis. It is stressed, in this paper, that the parents’ virtue, which is care, is not limited only and exclusively to their own biological offspring – the process of upbringing should also include a broad understanding of the notion of providing welfare to future generations.
Sherief, Laila M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abdalrahman, Hadel M; Youssef, Doaa M; Abd Alhady, Mohamed A; Ali, Adel S A; Abd Elbasset, Maha Aly; Hashim, Hiatham M
To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents.The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients.The study revealed significant low level of self-esteem in 84.83% of patients. Their parents had significant psychological stress. PSI was significantly associated with parents' low sense of competence, negative attachment to their children, feeling of high restriction, high depression, poor relation to spouse, high social isolation variables of parent's domains. It was significantly associated with low distraction, negative parents' reinforcement, low acceptability, and high demanding variables of child's domains. Long duration of disease was the most detrimental factor among demographic data of the patients.Chemotherapy for ALL has a significant impact on the psychological status of both patients and their parents with high prevalence of low self-esteem in children and high degree of stress in their parents.
Parents play a critical role in the literacy development of their children. The current case study explores the reading patterns that parents have with their children with hearing impairment. First, the home reading patterns of parents with their children were investigated. Then, the home reading patterns preferred by children were addressed along…
Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda
We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...
Quintana, Hedley Knewjen; Vikström, Max; Andersson, Tomas; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin
The validity of exposure data collected from proxy respondents of myocardial infarction patients has scarcely been studied. We assessed the level of disagreement between myocardial infarction patients and their spouses with respect to the reporting of the patient´s cardiovascular risk exposures. Within the frame of the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), a case-control study of risk factors of myocardial infarction performed in Stockholm county 1992-1994, a subset of 327 first time myocardial infarction cases aged 45-70 who survived >28 days after the event and who co-habited with a spouse or common-law spouse (proxy) were identified between 1993-04-05 and 1993-12-31. Among these, 243 cases participated along with their respective proxy in the present study. Control individuals, matched to cases by age, sex and residential area were also included (n = 243). Data were collected using questionnaires. Using conditional logistic regression we calculated for each of 82 exposures the odds ratio based on information collected from 1) myocardial infarction cases and controls [odds ratio A] and 2) proxies and the same set of controls [odds ratio B]. Disagreement was measured by calculating the ratio between odds ratio B and odds ratio A with 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using resampling bootstrap. For the vast majority of the exposures considered including diet, smoking, education, work-related stress, and family history of CVD, there was no statistically significant disagreement between myocardial infarction patients and proxies (n = 243 pairs). However, leisure time physical inactivity (proxy bias = 1.59, 95% CI 1.05-3.57) was overestimated by spouses compared to myocardial infarction patients. A few other exposures including some sleep-related problems and work-related issues also showed disagreement. Myocardial infarction patients and their spouses similarly reported data on a wide range of exposures including the majority of the traditional
Wawrziczny, Emilie; Pasquier, Florence; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal
To explore spouse caregivers' means of coping with the disease and compare them based on the age of onset of the disease in order to adapt support programs. Interviews were conducted with 38 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) and 40 spouse caregivers of persons with early onset dementia (PEOD). The first step in the analysis was qualitative, using QSR N'Vivo 10 to identify the coping strategies. The second step was quantitative, comparing the coping strategies based on the age of onset of the disease with a χ2 test. An inventory of 26 strategies used by all caregivers was established and consolidated into two groups: acceptance strategies and avoidance strategies. The statistical results show that some strategies were used by the two groups of caregivers. However, when differences emerged, the "Planning" strategy was used by spouse caregivers of PEOD, whereas the "Re-arranging", "Humor" and "Getting away from the entourage" strategies were used by spouse caregivers of PLOD. It would be interesting to develop a support program with a common framework and specific modules depending on the age of onset of the disease. Common modules would permit developing and strengthening acceptance strategies. Specific modules for caregivers of PEOD would guide them in the acquisition of more adaptability and flexibility in the assistance provided to the PWD, which can sometimes be too rigid and controlled. Specific modules for caregivers of PLOD would help them to develop the ability to request help and identify the intervention limits of the entourage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Parents are obliged to take care of their children’s future, especially by rendering sufficient education. Children are believed to bring about happiness every now and then, who generate family’s pride up to the almighty judication. Some people are save and some are not in that court, where children will give sigificant contribution in it. That’s why the children’s well being has become the parents obligation. To bring about children’s well being, parents should also render the good treatments during the life cycle of their children. The main duties of parents for their children are giving them the good names, sending them to the good schools where they can learn religion, and marry them to their good spouses. Psychologically, when children are sent to school for the first time, they will feel that they are put apart from parents’ care, so that may of them have to go difficult phase of adjustment. The adjustment includes that of education so as to run as naturally as possible. To get the naturality of the education delegation, teachers and educators are obliged to be able to nurture any value to students as naturally as possible. Parenting model of teaching serves the requirements of teaching children just the way the parrents do, so that it is assumptively effective in teaching elementary students by taking consideration on the psychologial aspect of children. Key words: Parenting Model of teaching, children education optimalization
Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar
Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive
Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan
Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert
We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.
... and services designed for military families. Understanding Your Child’s Development April 27, 2018 @ 4:37 PM | 3 Min ... service member, spouse or survivor you know the importance of being a good guardian — of country, ... of factors that can impact your child’s well-being – even into adulthood – is mission-critical. ...
Harju, Eeva; Rantanen, Anja; Helminen, Mika; Kaunonen, Marja; Isotalo, Taina; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi
The aim of this study was to examine changes in the marital relationship six months after the diagnosis and the effects of these changes on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. There is limited knowledge on the impact of a diagnosis of prostate cancer on the marital relationship and HRQoL of patients and their spouses. Survey with longitudinal descriptive and comparative elements. Of 350 recruited couples (N = 700), 186 couples (n = 372) completed the Marital Questionnaire and RAND-36-Item Health Survey at the two measurement points: time of diagnosis and six months later. Changes in the marital relationship were analysed statistically using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. The influence of changes in the marital relationship on HRQoL was evaluated using linear regression analyses. The patients and their spouses reported lower marital satisfaction six months after the diagnosis than at the time of the diagnosis. The summary score for marital satisfaction of the spouses significantly decreased during the follow-up period. In contrast, decreasing changes in the marital relationship of the patients were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the marital relationship of the patients and their spouses was not statistically significantly associated with changes in the HRQoL of the patients and their spouses within six months. The results of this study add to current knowledge of the marital relationship of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. The spouses reported that their marital relationship had suffered, whereas the patients reported that the marital relationship remained unchanged. These findings may be useful when counselling of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article explores whether or not the gender of parents of children with hearing impairments has a part to play in their preference for sources of counseling. Discussions on sources of counseling and implications for counselors and the counseling field are provided. Out of a population of all parents of identified school ...
Wai, Kyi Mar; Shibanuma, Akira; Oo, Nwe Nwe; Fillman, Toki Jennifer; Saw, Yu Mon; Jimba, Masamine
Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods. A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband's involvement as well as their spouses' utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8%) and postnatal care (68.5%). Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%), delivery place (83.6%), and money saving (81.7%) before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5%) and a safe delivery kit (21.1%). In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband's involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services was found
Kyi Mar Wai
Full Text Available Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods.A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband's involvement as well as their spouses' utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models.Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8% and postnatal care (68.5%. Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%, delivery place (83.6%, and money saving (81.7% before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5% and a safe delivery kit (21.1%. In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband's involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...
Ashley, Julia R.; Cates, Dennis L.
A survey of teachers of the visually impaired and adults with albinism or parents of children with albinism (total responses=144) found no use of Braille by the adults or children with albinism, awareness of the condition by almost all teachers, support for mainstreaming by all, and specific teaching suggestions from teachers. (DB)
Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.
Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288
Parks, Christine G; Hoppin, Jane A; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Costenbader, Karen H; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P
Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728-1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129.
Smetana, Judith G.
Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…
Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsaousis, Ioannis
Little is known about the ways that personality is related to patient health, although there is some evidence that illness self-regulation as well as partner personality play a significant role. The aim of the two present studies was to examine the intra-personal (i.e., through illness representations) and the inter-personal (i.e., partner) effects of personality on cardiac patients' subjective health. One hundred fifteen patients participated in study 1; 75 patients and their spouses participated in study 2. The representations of illness consequences, personal control, and the attribution of illness to emotional causes mediated the relation of personality to health (first study). The relations of patients' extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness to their health were statistically significant at the higher levels (+1 SD) of spouse corresponding traits (second study). Personality affects patients' health through illness representations (intrapersonal level), as well as by interacting with partner personality (interpersonal level).
Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Lühmann, D; Eisele, M; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Weeg, D; Heser, K; Jessen, F; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H
To investigate how visual impairment affects social ties in late life longitudinally. Population-based prospective cohort study. Individuals in old age were recruited via general practitioners' offices (at six study centers) in Germany. They were interviewed every 18 months. Individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline. Follow-up wave 2 (36 months after baseline, n=2,443) and wave 4 (72 months after baseline, n=1,618) were used for the analyses presented here. Social ties were assessed using the 14-item form of the questionnaire for social support (F-SozU K-14). Visual impairment was self-rated on a three level Likert scale (no impairment, mild visual impairment, or severe/profound visual impairment). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, hearing impairment and comorbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of mild visual impairment decreased the social support score, in particular the emotional support score. Additionally, the onset of mild hearing impairment decreased the social support score in men. Moreover, increasing age decreased the social support score in the total sample and in both sexes. Loss of spouse and increasing comorbidity did not affect the social support score. Our results highlight the importance of visual impairment for social ties in late life. Consequently, appropriate strategies in order to delay visual impairment might help to maintain social ties in old age.
Full Text Available Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health and can be influenced by parental lifestyle habits and beliefs. Taking the above into account we aimed at locating predictors of parental induced exposure to SHS in the house and family car among 614 children who visited the emergency department of two large pediatric hospitals in Athens, Greece. The multivariate analysis revealed that the factors found to mediate household exposure to paternal SHS were the number of cigarettes smoked per day (O.R 1.13, p<0.001 while, having a non-smoking spouse had a protective effect (O.R 0.44, p=0.026. Maternally induced household SHS exposure was related to cigarette consumption. For both parents, child exposure to SHS in the family car was related to higher numbers of cigarettes smoked (p<0.001, and for fathers was also more often found in larger families. Additionally, lower educated fathers were more likely to have a spouse that exposes their children to SHS inside the family car (O.R 1.38 95%C.I: 1.04-1.84, p=0.026. Conclusively, efforts must be made to educate parents on the effects of home and household car exposure to SHS, where smoke free legislation may be difficult to apply.
Tullis, Jillian A
The death of a loved one is an emotional-laden experience, and while grief and mourning rituals are less formal today in many communities, there remain some social norms for individuals to process loss. The death of an ex-family member, such as a former spouse, is more complicated and expectations for how to respond are fraught with uncertainty. While grief has been studied and is primarily understood as an individual cognitive process, scholars in sociology and communication are considering the ways in which grief and mourning are social and take place in dialogue with others. This manuscript explores Kenneth Doka's concept of disenfranchised grief, which is "grief that is experienced when loss cannot be openly acknowledged, socially sanctioned, or publicly mourned" through the author's experience of the death of her ex-husband. The narrative will recount how the author learned about her ex-husband's death (via text message), and will challenge definitions of family and family communication about death and grief, particularly the communication strategies used to cope with this unique type of loss.
Full Text Available This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner’s coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping’s relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse’s surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner’s surgery. Folkman and Lazarus’ ways of coping (WCQ scales yielded two factors in this sample—reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses’ surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses.
Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahelma, Eero; Viken, Richard J; Rose, Richard J
Assortative mating by body height and weight is well established in various populations, but its causal mechanisms remain poorly understood. We analyzed the effect of phenotypic assortment and social homogamy on spousal correlations for body height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). Our data derived from a questionnaire administered to the adult Finnish Twin Cohort in 1990 (response rate 77%) yielding results from 922 monozygotic and 1697 dizygotic adult twin pairs who reported information about their body height and weight and that of their spouses. Assortative mating was evident for body height and BMI. For body height, the effects of social homogamy (0.24 in men and 0.29 in women) and phenotypic assortment (0.27 and 0.28, respectively) were about the same. For BMI, the effect of social homogamy was stronger (0.31 in men and 0.28 in women) than the effect of phenotypic assortment (0.13 in both men and women). When assortative mating was taken into account, shared environmental factors had no effect on phenotypic variation in body height or BMI. Our results show that assortative mating needs to be considered in population genetic studies of body height and weight. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Torgé, Cristina Joy
This article explores mutual caregiving between older spouses aging with physical disabilities. Nine older couples, where both partners had lived long lives with physical disabilities, were interviewed as dyads about mutual caregiving. The couples not only had access to different kinds and degrees of formal support but also provided mutual care to each other in a variety of ways. Interview coding using grounded theory led to two overarching categories from which motivation for mutual caregiving could be understood. These categories were Mutual care as freedom and Mutual care as imperative. The results extend understanding about how older couples with disabilities attached meaning to their mutual caregiving, and why mutual care was sometimes preferable, despite the availability of other sources of help and despite practical difficulties of providing this help. These findings suggest that health care professionals need to be sensitive to the dynamics of the couple relationship and carefully explore the couple's preferences for how formal support can best be provided in ways that honor and sustain the integrity of the couple relationship.
Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis B (CHB, hepatitis D virus (HDV superinfection can lead to acute liver failure. The incidence of HDV superinfection is unknown, but is often detected in immigrants from HDV endemic countries. In this report, we characterize long-term clinical and virological outcomes in a hepatitis B virus (HBV infected carrier before and after HDV superinfection, acquired from their spouse having HBV/HDV co-infection. A 38 year-old Mongolian male with CHB on anti-HBV therapy developed acute liver failure following HDV superinfection. Although he recovered, avoiding the need for liver transplant, HDV serological and molecular markers of infection persisted for the subsequent 16-month follow-up period, suggesting the development of CHB/HDV co-infection. The source of his HDV was from his wife of 10 years, a 34-year old Mongolian female known to have inactive CHB/HDV co-infection but who was not on anti-HBV therapy. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete HDV genome from the couple showed >99% similarity, with post-transmission longitudinal sequence revealing specific nucleotide substitutions between both spouse’s HDV genome sequences. This study highlights the ongoing risk of HDV superinfection due to long-term co-habitation or sexual transmission in CHB patients. The fact that transmission occurred after almost a decade of marriage may be due to host immune or environmental factors that created a more favorable condition for transmission.
Tranvåg, Oscar; Kristoffersen, Kjell
The aim of the study was to identify and describe spouses'/cohabitants' experiences of living with a partner with bipolar affective disorder over time. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with eight spouses/cohabitants. Transcribed interviews were analysed structurally based on Ricoeur's phenomenological hermeneutics as described by Lindseth and Norberg. The participants' shared lives ranged from 6 to 51 years, and the study found three major aspects that characterized their experience along this time-dimension; experience formed part of a cumulative process containing up to 14 experiences. Each experience created a preunderstanding that affected how subsequent experiences were perceived, and mastered. These three major aspects had a reciprocal influence on the following 14 experiences over time: Fear and the incomprehensible. Accusations. Self-doubt and doubt about own powers of judgement. Care and information vs. being overlooked or turned away by health personnel. Stigmatization and loss of social network. Uncertainty, powerlessness and hope. Loneliness. Anger and despair. The persistent threat. Own health problems. Grief over loss. Dawning acceptance. Reconciliation. New hope. A theoretical understanding using gestalt therapy theory suggests that burdensome experience can be seen as an inner imbalance in the spouse/cohabitant when she/he cannot find meaning in their experiences. When only parts of the whole are perceived, an incomplete gestalt is formed in the person's lived-experience that counteracts the equilibrium of the organism. Insight and meaning can protect them against burdensome experiences and nurses can empower them through care, health-promoting education and guidance. Nursing research should develop methods of education and guidance sensitive enough to help each spouse/cohabitant, regardless of where they are in their cumulative process.
Conclusion: A case-spouse control study, as an alternative design, is valid and feasible in utilizing information from population-based, retrospective mortality survey data for an analytical epidemiological study of disease etiology.
Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…
Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J; Pope, Mark T; Huston, Ted L; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
We examined the interplay between husbands' and wives' positive and negative nonsexual interpersonal behaviors, frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual satisfaction, and feelings of marital satisfaction. To do this, we conducted an in-depth face-to-face interview and completed a series of telephone diaries with 105 couples during their second, third, and fourteenth years of marriage. Consistent with the argument that women's sexual response is tied to intimacy (Basson, 2000), multilevel analyses revealed that husbands' positive interpersonal behaviors directed toward their wives-but not wives' positivity nor spouses' negative behaviors (regardless of gender)-predicted the frequency with which couples engaged in intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and interpersonal negativity predicted both husbands' and wives' sexual satisfaction; wives' positive behaviors were also tied to husbands' sexual satisfaction. When spouses' interpersonal behaviors, frequency of sexual intercourse, and sexual satisfaction were considered in tandem, all but the frequency of sexual intercourse were associated with marital satisfaction. When it comes to feelings of marital satisfaction, therefore, a satisfying sex life and a warm interpersonal climate appear to matter more than does a greater frequency of sexual intercourse. Collectively, these findings shed much-needed light on the interplay between the nonsexual interpersonal climate of marriage and spouses' sexual relationships.
Skomorovsky, Alla; LeBlanc, Manon Mireille
Unique military demands can have a significant impact upon family life. Although most Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) families are able to cope effectively with the stressors of military life, some may experience marital conflicts, contributing to spousal violence. Moreover, there is evidence that certain personal resources can buffer the impact of spousal violence on psychological distress. The present study examined the roles of spousal violence and personal resources, including coping, mastery, and social support, in the psychological distress of CAF members' spouses (N = 1,892). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that violence significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses of CAF members; although physical violence was no longer significant, emotional violence remained a unique predictor. Coping, mastery, and perceived social support, entered together, significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses, over and above the role of violence. Specifically, emotion-focused coping, mastery, and social support remained unique predictors of distress. Furthermore, perceived social support buffered the negative impact of emotional violence on psychological distress. The study has important organizational implications, illuminating the risks related to the spousal violence in the military and the psychological consequences of such violence. These results can be used to improve treatment and prevention programs, enhancing the well-being of military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira
The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and
Carter, Lyndal; Black, Deborah; Bundy, Anita; Williams, Warwick
The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of parents of adolescent children (with, and without, hearing impairment), with the following objectives: (1) compare perceptions of the parent groups regarding the risk of leisure-noise-related hearing injury; and (2) investigate how comfortable parents felt endorsing their child's…
Pipp-Siegel, Sandra; Sedey, Allison L.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine
A study using three domains of the short form of the Parental Stress Index examined parental stress in 184 hearing mothers of young children with hearing impairments. Mothers demonstrated significantly less parental distress than a normative, hearing group. Predictors of stress included frequency of hassles, social support, annual family income,…
Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.
The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…
Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.
Purpose Harsh, abusive and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Earlier research also shows that children raised by harsh parents are more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study sought to identify behaviors of romantic partners that might help break this intergenerational cycle of child mistreatment. Methods Data come from the Family Transitions Project, a 22-year, 3-generation study of a cohort of over 500 early adolescents (G2) grown to adulthood. During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (G3). In addition, G2's romantic partner (spouse or cohabiting) was rated by observers on a range of behaviors expected to affect G2 harsh parenting. Results Romantic partner warmth and positive communication with G2 were associated with less G2 harsh parenting toward G3 (a direct effect) and when these partner behaviors were high, there was no evidence of intergenerational continuity from G1 to G2 harsh parenting. When the partner was low on warmth and communication, intergenerational continuity in harsh parenting significantly increased. G1 harsh parenting slightly decreased the likelihood that G2 would select a positive spouse. Conclusions Romantic partner warmth, support and positive communication appear to provide interpersonal nurturance that disrupts continuity in parental mistreatment of children. As appropriate, preventive interventions should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. PMID:24059934
Anderson, Jared R; Novak, Joshua R; Johnson, Matthew D; Deitz, Sharon L; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C
Using dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a number of specific patient and spouse stressors (chronic life stress, diabetes-specific stress, and physical health stress in the form of the number of comorbidities) were associated with Type 2 diabetes patients' dietary and exercise adherence through two potentially modifiable patient and spouse factors-depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. We found that patient and spouse stressors, particularly patient and spouse diabetes stress and the number of patient comorbidities, were related to patient dietary and exercise adherence through patient depression symptoms and both patient and spouse diabetes self-efficacy. These conclusions were strengthened by incorporating a number of relevant control variables in our models and by testing four alternative models which supported our proposed model. These results are important because they provide further evidence of the significant role spouses' play in managing diabetes and they provide diabetes educators and clinicians with specific targets for intervention programming.
Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie
In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…
Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta
A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons
Hile, Sarah; Erickson, Sarah J; Agee, Brittany; Annett, Robert D
Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for long-term neurocognitive and psychosocial morbidities. Research has seldom examined the relationship between these morbidities; thus, little empirical evidence exists concerning overall salience and how morbidities converge to impair day-to-day functioning. An increased understanding of functional impairment resulting from the pediatric cancer experience can inform early risk identification as well as sources for intervention. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency/severity of functional impairment and identify significant neurocognitive and psychosocial determinants of functional impairment. Fifty child-parent dyads were enrolled. Children were aged 7-19 years who were at least 2 years postdiagnosis with leukemia/lymphoma and were recruited through a pediatric oncology late effects clinic. Parents completed questionnaires, rating their own adjustment to their child's illness as well as their child's level of functional impairment, while a brief neuropsychological exam was administered to children. Twenty-six percent of the sample evidenced clinically significant functional impairment. Regression analyses indicated that neurocognitive deficits did not predict functional impairment, whereas parental stress was a significant predictor. Although children demonstrated both neurocognitive deficits and functional impairments, results favor psychosocial factors, such as parental stress, as a predictor of overall functional impairment. The implications of this study suggest that late effects aggregate to impact day-to-day functioning in pediatric cancer survivor populations and parental stress may serve as a marker for heightened risk. The results suggest that broader functional domains, especially school and self-care domains, should be evaluated and considered when identifying potential targets for psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004
Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn
This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.
Louvanto, Karolina; Sarkola, Marja; Rintala, Marjut; Syrjänen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina
Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA has been detected in breast milk, but its origin has remained obscure. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence and persistence of HPV in breast milk in the Finnish Family HPV cohort study. The association of breast milk HPV positivity with the family members' oral HPV status was evaluated. We included 308 families to the study where the mother was breast feeding her offspring. Mothers collected the milk samples manually at day 3, and at months 2, 6 and 12. Cervical and/or oral samples were collected from all family members. HPV testing was performed using nested polymerase chain reaction and Luminex-based Multimetrix kit. Breast milk HPV DNA was found in 10.1% (31/308), 20.1% (39/194) and 28.8% (17/59) of samples at day 3, months 2 and 6, respectively. The following HPV genotypes were detected: 6, 16, 18, 33, 45, 53, 56, 59, 66 and 82. Breast milk HPV persisted among 5.5% (9/164) of the lactating mothers. No significant associations were detected between the persistent breast milk HPV and the offspring's oral incident HPV infection. Breast milk HPV positivity showed a strong association with the fathers' oral HPV positivity at baseline, as well as at 6- and 12-month follow-up visits, with odds ratio (OR) = 3.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-10.12], OR = 6.34 (95% CI: 1.84-21.89) and OR = 14.25 (95% CI: 1.16-174.80), respectively. HPV in breast milk is prevalent among the lactating mothers and HPV can also persist in breast milk. The breast milk is a potential vehicle for HPV transmission to oral mucosa of the spouse but not of the offspring.
Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the presence of multiple nonmotor symptoms (NMS in relation to Parkinson disease (PD. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations between individual and multiple NMS and PD in the Agricultural Health Study.20,473 male farmers and 16,259 female spouses provided information on six NMS (reduced sense of smell, dream-enacting behavior, daytime sleepiness, infrequent bowel movement, depression, and anxiety in the cohort's 2013-2015 follow-up survey. 191 men and 68 women reported physician-diagnosed PD. We estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using multivariable logistic regression models separately by sex.NMS were each associated with PD, with the strongest association for reduced sense of smell in men and dream-enacting behavior in women. The number of NMS showed a strong dose-response relationship with PD, particularly in men. ORs were 5.5 (95% CI 3.4-8.8 for one, 17 (95% CI 10.4-28.0 for two, and 53.4 (95% CI 33.2-86.1 for three or more NMS in men; the corresponding ORs were 4.6 (95% CI 2.3-9.5, 6.7 (95% CI 2.9-15.6, and 23.6 (95% CI 10.7-52.4 in women (PNMS-interaction-with-sex = 0.07.The number of NMS was associated with PD in a dose-response manner and the association appeared stronger in men than in women. These findings should be further investigated in population-based prospective studies.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.
Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne
This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…
Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207 and low risk (n = 167 for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.
Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T; Mason, Dana M; Gary, Faye A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson
This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents' psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.
[Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...
[Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...
[Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...
Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...
Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom
This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar
Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H
Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the
Logan, Deirdre E; Simons, Laura E; Stein, Michelle J; Chastain, Laura
The purpose of this study was to assess and describe school functioning among adolescents presenting for evaluation in a tertiary care pediatric chronic pain clinic. Adolescents (n = 220, aged 12-17) and their parents participated in the study, providing self-reported data on school attendance, school performance, and perceived academic competence. Participants' schools provided official attendance records, descriptions of accommodations implemented to address the student's pain problems in the school setting, and teacher ratings of academic competence. Results show that many adolescents with chronic pain miss a significant amount of school, experience a decline in grades, and perceive pain to interfere with their school success. Various indicators of school impairment are highly intercorrelated, suggesting that impairment or success in 1 domain is typically associated with similar patterns in other domains of school functioning. However, as a group, adolescents with pain are viewed by themselves and their teachers as academically competent. Strong correlations emerged between different reporters of school functioning indicators such as attendance, suggesting that reliance on parent or adolescent reporting may be sufficient when assessing these domains. Findings underscore the importance of broadly assessing school functioning in adolescents with chronic pain. This study extends our understanding of school functioning among adolescents with chronic pain. It highlights the need to assess both school attendance and performance in this population as well as how schools respond to pain problems. Devising summary indicators of school impairment can be useful in both clinical and research contexts.
Full Text Available Objective & aim: Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts. Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected. Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses. At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996. Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively. The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression. Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.
Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G
Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Zubery, Eynat; Mankovski, Esty; Steiner, Evelyne; Lock, James D
The children of mothers with eating disorders are at high risk of feeding and eating problems and broader developmental difficulties. The Parent-Based Prevention (PBP) of eating disorders targets risk factors and facilitates behavioral change in parents to mitigate potentially negative outcomes of their children. This pre/post uncontrolled study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of PBP. PBP was found to be a feasible intervention for mothers with eating disorders and their spouses, with satisfactory retention rates. A total of 16 intact families were assessed at three measurement points for parents' feeding practices, child outcomes, and maternal functioning. Both parents reported improved feeding practices as well as more positive perceptions of their children in comparison to baseline. These pilot findings suggest that PBP is linked with decreased risk of eating and mental problems among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders.
The value of genetic counseling for prospective parents with visual impairments is discussed. Work in genetic counseling is reviewed and the types of monitoring services available are explored. The development of genetics, and the kinds of genetic disorders, as well as the importance of genetic counseling, are described. (PHR)
Lima, Claudia Feio da Maia; Caldas, Célia Pereira; Santos, Iraci Dos; Trotte, Liana Amorim Correa; Silva, Bárbara Martins Corrêa da
To understand the transitions experienced, and the conditions and expected response patterns to changes in sexuality of the spouse-caregiver of the elderly, during progression of the dementia process. A qualitative research study, conducted at the neurogeriatric clinic between May of 2014 and May of 2015. An intensive, individual interview was administered to 12 elderly caregivers. Thematic content analysis was applied, using the theoretical model of Transition Theory. Seven categories emerged, involving relationship and conjugal sexuality; disease repercussions; care and professional approach; attitudes, beliefs and social imagery of sexuality and care; family relationship and redefining of sexuality. Family development and marital life, the aspects of formation and development of sexuality, the specifics that involved living and caring for the other were understood, with successive events and changes influenced by old age, dementia, beliefs and social imagery. compreender as transições vivenciadas, suas condições e os padrões de resposta esperados a mudanças na sexualidade do cônjuge-cuidador do idoso em processo demencial. pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada no ambulatório de neurogeriatria, entre maio de 2014 e maio de 2015. Aplicou-se a entrevista individual e intensiva a 12 cônjuges-cuidadores de idosos. Fez-se a análise de conteúdo temática, com aplicação do modelo teórico da Teoria das Transições. emergiram sete categorias, que envolveram relação e sexualidade conjugal; repercussões da doença; o cuidado e a abordagem profissional; atitudes, crenças e imaginário social de sexualidade e cuidado; relação familiar e ressignificação de sexualidade. compreendeu-se a construção de vida familiar e conjugal; os aspectos de formação e desenvolvimento da sexualidade; as especificidades que envolvem viver e cuidar do outro, com sucessivos acontecimentos e mudanças influenciados pela velhice, por processo demencial, crenças e
Khan, Javaid Arif; Shafquat, Azam; Kundi, Asadullah
To assess the knowledge of basic cardiac life support (BCLS) before and after the institution of training among first degree relatives and spouses of patients with coronary disease. Quasi-experimental study. National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from April 2007 to May 2008. A total of 300 relatives of patients with coronary heart disease undertook a one day CPR course. Questionnaire assessing knowledge of CPR was administered before and after the course. Patients were studied in groups of 10-20 at a time. Proportion of correct knowledge was compared using chi-square test with significance at p educational levels (p educational groups showed equal learning abilities.
Evans, Ray B.
Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)