Belfrage, Henrik; Rying, Mikael
In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42 df = 1, p suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. 'Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. The group of spouse
Yuvraj Dilip Patil
Full Text Available Sexual assault is a heinous crime. Man com-mits the act to fulfill his sexual urge, to showhis masculinity, to get control of the victim, totake revenge and various other reasons, out ofabnormal mind, out of ignorance of the law ofthe land or out of opportunity. The mental traumasuffered by the victim may linger till end of herlife .Women who wish to pursue a justice againsttheir assailant are usually examined by a doc-tor or in most cases a state-employed districtsurgeon, and obtain a report of their injuries.Expert medical evidence is widely used in sexualassault cases, but its contribution to theprogress of legal cases is unclear.The objectives of the paper are -1. To study the legislative provisions re-lating to medical examination in SexualAssault cases.2. To assess the impact of medico legal evi-dence in sexual assault cases.3. To make suggestions.
Lin-Dyken, D.; Smith, W.L.; Alexander, R.
This paper reports on this study performed to document the imaging findings associated with assaultive child abuse as confirmed by an independent criterion. At least one of the authors acted as a consultant in 105 alleged cases of child abuse owing to physical assault between 1987 and 1989. Seventy-six cases were founded by the Department of Human Services. 57/76 of founded cases had fractures. Most commonly only one fracture was noted (32 cases), but up to seven fractures were present in a patient. The tibia was the most commonly fractured bone (23 cases) followed in frequency by the femur (22), skull (15), and humerus (14). Multiple rib fractures were seen in 10 cases
Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø
OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001......) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... was involved in 60% of the cases. One-third of the victims had experienced a previous sexual assault(s). Women were more likely to report to the police when they were assaulted by a stranger (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-2.6) and sustained a physical injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...
Yedirir, Sabiha; Hamarta, Erdal
This study examines the relationship between spousal support and the ability to express feelings of marital satisfaction, and the extent to which spousal support and the ability to express feelings can predict marital satisfaction. Research was conducted in accordance with general survey models. The study group comprised 195 married couples (N =…
Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P
Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim.
Data on circumstances of sexual assault, survivor specific demographic characteristics and information on complications and interventions provided were collected by trained third year residents in obstetrics and gynecology using pretested questionnaire after respondent consent was taken. The collected data was cleaned, ...
She had indwelling urethral catheter for 21 days with urinary antiseptic and the fistula healed. This approach is a treatment option in young girls with traumatic VVF particularly where limited tissue access will make surgical repair difficult. Key Words: Vesico-Vaginal Fistula, Sexual Assault. [ Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 2004 ...
Bakker, Minne; Creemers, Huub; Schipper, Karen; Beelen, Anita; Grupstra, Hepke; Nollet, Frans; Abma, Tineke
Our objective was to explore the needs and value of case management according to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), their spousal caregivers, and health care professionals in the context of multidisciplinary ALS care. We undertook semi-structured interviews with 10 patients with ALS,
Berger, Sue; Chen, Tiffany; Eldridge, Jenna; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Tickle-Degnen, Linda
Living with and caring for someone with chronic illness can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Past research emphasizes the importance of care partners taking care of themselves physically and emotionally so they can stay healthy to support the care recipient. There is little information regarding how the care partner takes care of their own social lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of social self-management from the perspective of spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease. Twenty spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease were interviewed three times. A grounded theory approach informed data analysis. Findings that emerged from the data focused on balance in activities, support, and emotions and were summarized into three main themes: (1) Activities: Caregiving and beyond; (2) Strategies to support self and spouse; and (3) Emotional impact: Burden and compassion. This research shows that care partners want to retain social participation and provides support for the importance of addressing the socio-emotional needs of care partners of people with a chronic disease. Interventions that guide care partners to take care of their spectrum of needs may lead to healthier, positive relationships. Implications for rehabilitation The focus of rehabilitation is often on the person diagnosed with the chronic condition. Living with and caring for someone with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson's disease, can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Including care partners in the rehabilitation process is key to helping maintain their health and well-being. Learning caregiving and self-management strategies may help care partners support their loved ones while staying socially engaged.
In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence....... Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few...
Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah
Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues.
Amick, Janeice F; Beheim, Chris W
Yellow plastic-like particles were discovered on the clothing and body of a sexual assault victim. These particles were later associated to an athletic jersey with flaking yellow screen-printed numbers and letters, worn by the suspect. Depending on its intended substrate, screen-print ink can vary in color and composition. Particles dislodged from screen-printed garments may exhibit fabric impressions. Screen-printed clothing, commonly encountered in forensic casework, should be viewed as a potential source of trace evidence.
Full Text Available The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime", crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.
..., entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency... ``sexual assault,'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR... assault'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program. It would...
Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F
This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).
Full Text Available Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody. Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis.
... Directive 6495.01, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program, and that many of the offenses addressed.... Background DoD Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment... of ``sexual assault'' as defined in DoD Directive (DoDD) 6495.01, ``Sexual Assault Prevention and...
Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J
Green space and vegetation may play a protective role against urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities was related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted geographic information systems-assisted interviews with boys and men aged 10-24 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including 135 patients who had been shot with a firearm and 274 community controls, during 2008-2011. Each subject reported a step-by-step mapped account of where and with whom they traveled over a full day from waking until being assaulted or going to bed. Geocoded path points were overlaid on mapped layers representing tree locations and place-specific characteristics. Conditional logistic regressions were used to compare case subjects versus controls (case-control) and case subjects at the time of injury versus times earlier that day (case-crossover). When comparing cases at the time of assault to controls matched at the same time of day, being under tree cover was inversely associated with gunshot assault (odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.88), especially in low-income areas (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.87). Case-crossover models confirmed this inverse association overall (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89) and in low-income areas (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.88). Urban greening and tree cover may hold promise as proactive strategies to decrease urban violence. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Maravelias, Constantine; Stefanidou, Maria; Dona, Artemis; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Spiliopoulou, Chara
The number of drug-facilitated sexual assault incidents has lately been increased all over the world leading law enforcement agencies and hospital doctors to constant alert. The drugs involved may be benzodiazepines, hypnotics, other sedatives, anesthetics, drugs of abuse or ethanol. The detection of these agents in biologic fluids is difficult, since most of them are shortly acting, and provoke victim's amnesia which in turn leads the victim to report the allegation late. An unusual case-study of a 35-year-old, married woman who was admitted to the hospital with dizziness and loss of memory for a period of 10 days is here reported. The toxicological analysis of the victim's blood and urine for unknown sedative drugs, achieved by GC-MS, revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentration of zolpidem in blood, 11 hours after the last supposedly intake, was 47 microg/L. After family counseling at the hospital, the victim's husband confessed that he was replacing the contents of Losec capsules of his wife, with Stilnox tablets. This unjust act was committed by the husband in order for him to have sex with his wife, since she was not willing to participate in a sexual intercourse due to her religious restraints for a fasting period of 40 days. The aim of this article is 2-fold. First, to emphasize the fact that a sexual assault can take place not only between 2 strangers, but also within a happily married couple. Second, to remind doctors that any case of sexual assault must be examined toxicologically, for a better and thorough investigation.
... abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
Chiba, Fumiko; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Ishii, Namiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Hoshioka, Yumi; Abe, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Sakuma, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Sayaka; Saito, Hisako; Yajima, Daisuke; Iwase, Hirotaro
Traumatic rhabdomyolysis generally occurs after severe blunt trauma and is acute in onset, associated with severe disease, and potentially lethal. Accordingly, diagnosis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis in patients without massive subcutaneous or intramuscular hemorrhage is difficult, especially in the postmortem period, which is limited in terms of the availability of biochemical examination tools and accurate history of illness. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of death from traumatic rhabdomyolysis among individuals who did not pursue medical consultation. A previously healthy man in his early sixties had been punched and kicked several times in the previous 2months, but he had not gone to a hospital. He suddenly lost consciousness at his workplace approximately 5days after the most recent assault, and cardiopulmonary arrest occurred when the emergency service arrived. He died the same day, and a medicolegal autopsy was performed. Although several sites of minor subcutaneous and muscle hemorrhage were observed, the cause of death was unclear upon macroscopic assessment. Immunohistochemical staining revealed acute renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis. We herein report a rare case of fatal traumatic rhabdomyolysis, seemingly associated with minor and apparently nonlethal muscle injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The article posits that imbalances in gender relations are influencing two distinctive yet connected crises for women in Lesotho: the HIV epidemic and spousal abuse. The overarching premise is that as spousal abuse is increasingly recognised and as HIV infections spread, responses to the phenomenon do not reflect the related risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article underscores the nexus of connections between HIV and spousal abuse in Lesotho, identifying potential areas for pragmatic state-led responses. Applying a rights-based approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each problem at the individual, societal and programmatic levels, noting that there are both direct and underlying factors heightening risks for women. The article asks, what is the value added by a rights-based approach to the subject under discourse? And, how can a rights-based approach be translated into practical tools for planning, monitoring and evaluating projects and programmes aimed at tackling the multifaceted risks and challenges of HIV and spousal abuse confronting women in Lesotho? In response to these questions, the author identifies three trajectories of opportunities for an integrated, comprehensive response. The unmistakable anchor of the article's propositions is the rights-based approach. Although the discussion focuses on Lesotho, the implications for the broader African region cannot be overemphasised in light of commonly shared experiences pertaining to the severe difficulties posed by spousal abuse and HIV.
... without the victim’s knowledge. The drugs can cause memory loss, so victims may not know what happened. ... rape or sexual assault. These drugs have no color, taste, or smell, and they are usually put ...
... lost to follow up. Conclusion: Unintended injuries to the hand can result from arbitration in physical fight which could be life threatening and disabling. Prompt attention from appropriate specialist will curtail the morbidity from such injuries. Keywords: hand injuries, incidental, assault. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol.
Max A Chernesky
Full Text Available Laboratory staff dealing with samples from victims must be aware that such patients have been psychologically traumatized and deserve special care. The help of a sexual assault care team should be sought if available, and appropriate specimens should be collected two to 10 days after an incident, preferably in a single visit. Specimens should be clearly labelled, and the laboratory should be informed. In the laboratory, all procedures need to be clearly documented. There are special requirements for the collection of forensic specimens and associated records, which may later be required for legal proceedings. The laboratory must know what the current legal status is for any test being used in that community. The present article serves as a guideline to more detailed practice standards for the investigation of individual sexually transmitted infections in assault and abuse situations.
Ziglar, Elisa J.
This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…
Methods: Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey.
The prevalence of spousal homicide in Nigeria appears to have been on the increase in recent years, sparking criminological and public health concerns. Meanwhile, research on family violence has vigorously focused on spousal abuse, trends and prevalence of domestic violence, and risk factors, while the most severe of ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights. 1620.23 Section 1620.23... and Judges § 1620.23 Spousal rights. (a) The current spouse of a justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451), or of a Court of Veterans Appeals judge, possesses the rights described...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights. 1655.18 Section 1655.18 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.18 Spousal rights. (a) Spouse of CSRS participant. (1) Before a loan is disbursed to a CSRS participant, the TSP record keeper...
Casey, David G; Domijan, Katarina; MacNeill, Sarah; Rizet, Damien; O'Connell, Declan; Ryan, Jennifer
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time. We show the AP reaction is an unsafe and an unreliable predictor of sperm on intimate swabs. We propose that TSI not AP informs precase assessment and the evaluative approach for sexual assault cases. To help inform an evaluative approach, TSI guidelines are presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Evans, Jonathan; Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael
We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the 'Tarzan' assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids.
Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael
We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the ‘Tarzan’ assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids. PMID:27582974
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene
included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator....... Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims...
Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith
The medico-legal assessment of potentially self-inflicted injuries is an important field of clinical forensic medicine. Compared with sharp force injuries, it is much more difficult to distinguish blunt injuries caused by another party from self-inflicted lesions. We present a case of a young female doctor, who was allegedly attacked by an unknown stranger during her evening walk in the woods. She claimed to have been hit repeatedly on the head and arms with a stone. During the forensic investigation, blunt injuries could be confirmed on her head and forearms. Based on the arrangement and intensity of the injuries, together with the result of a bloodstain pattern analysis of the weapon, the victim's statement could be disproved. After being confronted with the results of the investigation, the woman admitted to have inflicted the injuries herself. This case is an unusual and rare example of self-inflicted blunt injury. It shows that the criteria of self-inflicted injuries can also be applied to blunt trauma. However, due to the small number of cases, a high degree of caution is required from the forensic expert.
In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.
This article is taken from a larger longitudinal study that used caregiver interviews, caregiver surveys, and caregiver statistical information of one community. The interviews were conducted with six spousal caregivers to examine the narratives produced by spouses actively caring for their partners with dementia. The spousal caregivers were…
Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate
High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.
Perry, Samuel L
Religiosity and pornography use are often closely connected. Relatively few studies, however, have examined how this religion-pornography connection plays out within the context of committed romantic relationships. Moreover, virtually all studies of religion and pornography use conceptualize religiosity as a quality intrinsic to the person that typically reduces pornography viewing. Focusing on married Americans, this study shifted the focus to consider whether the religiosity of one's spouse relates to one's own pornography viewing and under what circumstances. Analyses of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (N = 1026) revealed that spousal religiosity was strongly and negatively related to participants viewing pornography, controlling for participants' own religious or sociodemographic characteristics or sexual satisfaction. This relationship held whether spousal religiosity was measured with participants' evaluations of their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self-reported religiosity. The association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was also moderated by participants' religious service attendance, gender, and age. Considering mechanisms, the association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was mediated by frequent participation in religious bonding activities as a couple, suggesting that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one's interest or opportunities to view pornography.
Long, Sharon L.; Ravenscraft, Patricia
The constitutionality of the Missouri abortion statute was challenged by two physicians and Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri in the Danforth case. The Supreme Court reversed a district court decision in part, ruling that parental and spousal consent requirements are unconstitutional. For journal availability see HE 508 875. (LBH)
Cook, R J; Maine, D
In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842
James A. Glanville
Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.
James A. Glanville
Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.
Descriptive statistical analysis and binary logistic regression were ap- plied using stata version 12. Results: Results show that 13.8% of women had ever terminated pregnancy; 19.9% had ever experienced at least one type of spousal violence; and women who had ever terminated pregnancy had higher prevalence of all ...
Engr E. Egbochukwu
become a slave to it. The assumption for its social necessity is rested on the premise that through it, families are established and the family is the fundamental unit .... problems. This research deems it necessary to investigate the Influence of spousal communication on marital stability. This is because divorce is becoming a ...
Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie
Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.
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Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve
This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…
Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.
Kerner, Laura Lynn; Kerner, Jim; Herring, Susan D.
Recent sexual assault scandals have brought public attention to the fact that there is a need for colleges to aggressively address the issues surrounding sexual assaults on their campuses. Studies indicate that one in four women are being sexually assaulted each year, but few women report this. Women suffer major psychological issues when…
Arun, R; Inbakamal, S; Tharyan, Anna; Premkumar, Prasanna S
Schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disorder, can affect one's productivity and psychosocial functioning. In Indian context, the responsibility of caring persons with schizophrenia is increasingly on their spouses. Spousal caregiver experience and its relation with disability in schizophrenia need to be studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 52 outpatients with schizophrenia and their spouses attending a tertiary psychiatric center. The objectives were: (a) to explore spousal caregiver burden in schizophrenia and (b) to assess the relation between disability and spousal caregiver burden. The study adopted recommended ethical principles. Scales such as Burden Assessment Schedule, Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to collect appropriate data. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis were done in SPSS software version 16.0. The mean spousal caregiver burden score was 73.5 (standard deviation: 14.0). In bivariate analysis, disability, duration of schizophrenia, severity of schizophrenia, place of residence, and socioeconomic status had statistically significant relation with spousal caregiver burden. Adjusted for spouses' age, gender, and other significant factors in bivariate analysis, the IDEAS global disability score (2.6, [confidence interval 0.5-3.8, P = 0.013]) retained statistically significant association with spousal caregiver burden. Spouses of persons with schizophrenia experience significant caregiver burden. Disability was found to be the most powerful determinant of spousal caregiver burden in the sample. Focus on disability alleviation in the management of schizophrenia may help reduce spousal caregiver burden.
Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.
This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…
Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin
A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...
Garrett, Linda H
Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174
Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault-validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer.
Holtkötter, Hannah; Dias Filho, Claudemir Rodrigues; Schwender, Kristina; Stadler, Christian; Vennemann, Marielle; Pacheco, Ana Claudia; Roca, Gabriela
Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent. We report the forensic validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows for such discrimination in forensic stains, the SERATEC PMB test, and its performance on real casework samples. The PMB test is a duplex test combining human hemoglobin and D-dimer detection and was developed for the identification of blood and menstrual fluid, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory. The results of this study showed that the duplex D-dimer/hemoglobin assay reliably detects the presence of human hemoglobin and identifies samples containing menstrual fluid by detecting the presence of D-dimers. The method distinguished between menstrual and peripheral blood in a swab from a historical artifact and in real casework samples of alleged sexual assaults. Results show that the development of the new duplex test is a substantial progress towards analyzing and interpreting evidence from sexual assault cases.
T. V. Shipunova
Full Text Available The article deals with spousal violence against women. Criminal and everyday aspects of conjugal violence highlighted. Criminal violence is reflected in the crime statistics. Everyday aspect includes impostored and indifference violence. The author distinguishes four contexts in which spousal violence is unfolding: sociocultural (class structure of society, settings and attitudes towards violence, etc.; family (the modern family structure, family relationships and their dynamics, and others; individual (prescribed cultural understanding of the strengths and weaknesses, self-esteem and self-control, etc.; crisis (means and opportunities to establish and maintain non-conflict situation in the family, reduced resistance to the couple in crisis situations, etc.. The article presents the results of empirical research of problem of spousal violence youth too. The study found gender differences in the perception and evaluation of the problem of conjugal violence, the differences in the assessment methods of spousal violence, etc.
Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K
The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol
Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Gahide, Sophie; Lepresle, Aude; Boraud, Cyril; Mahindhoratep, Tiao S; Chariot, Patrick
The deprivation of liberty in police custody can be associated with violent situations and traumatic injuries. The rare available data did not mention whether alleged assaults occurred at the time of the arrest or during custody. Our objectives were to describe the frequency of recent traumatic injuries observed in detainees at the time of medical examination and to record detainees' self-reports of received physical violence, either before being arrested, at the time of the arrest, or during custody. In 2694 consecutive detainees examined in a suburban area near Paris, we compared persons' characteristics in four groups, according to the existence of alleged assaults or the presence of recent traumatic injuries, or both. Detainees reported to be victims of physical assaults in 25% of cases (686 of 2694): 374 assaults of 686 (55%) occurred at the time of arrest and 87 of 686 (13%) during custody. The opinion of assaulted detainees on custody was worse than non-assaulted detainees. Detainees alleging assaults by the police, whatever the time of the assault, accounted for 396 cases (15%). Three quarters of detainees (547 of 686, 79%) alleging assaults had recent traumatic injuries. When we considered all detainees, medical examination showed recent traumatic injuries in 724 of 2694 (27%). Injured detainees were declared unfit for detention more frequently than non-injured non-assaulted detainees (Pcustody. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alghffar EA; Said AA
Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others . Several other terms have been used to describe the condition, and the condition may overlap with other conditions that involve inflicting pain. It is distinct from situations in which consenting individuals use mild or simulated pain or humiliation for sexual excitement . Sexual sadism disorder has been found to be potentially dangerous if paired w...
Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata
Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions.
Wesseldijk, L. W.; Dieleman, G. C.; Lindauer, R. J. L.; Bartels, M.; Willemsen, G.; Hudziak, J. J.; Boomsma, D. I.; Middeldorp, C. M.
Spouses resemble each other for psychopathology, but data regarding spousal resemblance in externalizing psychopathology, and data regarding spousal resemblance across different syndromes (e.g. anxiety in wives and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] in husbands) are limited. Moreover,
Full Text Available The appropriateness of restorative justice (RJ for gendered violence offences such as domestic violence and sexual assault has always been and still is highly contested. This paper focuses on the appropriateness of RJ measures in addressing sexual assault, primarily with reference to experience of restorative dialogues as practiced at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, and it takes a feminist approach to the application of RJ measures to sexual assault. Within this framework, the paper tackles two issues in particular: the privacy element of RJ versus the public aspect of the criminal justice system (CJS, and the intersection of the CJS and RJ in cases of sexual assault. In relation to the relationship between CJS and RJ, the authors argue that RJ could be used for victims of sexual assault, not primarily as part of diversion programmes, but when offered apart from and/or parallel to the CJS. In relation to the private/public debate, the authors argue that while RJ encounters, by taking place in highly confidential settings, might have a negative impact on efforts by women’s movements to move violence against women out of the private and into the public realm, creating high standard alternatives for individual women who are in need of support and constantly generating public debate about gendered violence is a good feminist response to this complex issue.
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal
The progressive mobilization of spouse caregivers who take care of a person with dementia (PWD) can lead to situations of distress. The current study sought to investigate the influence of the characteristics of the caregiving context on spousal caregiver distress. 125 spousal caregivers participated in this study. The characteristics of the caregiving context were assessed using questionnaires. We examined a moderated-mediator model (Step 1) in which we hypothesized that PWD and caregiver characteristics and dyadic determinants contribute to spousal caregiver distress. This model was compared based on the age at onset of the disease and the gender of the caregiver (Step 2). The model revealed that poor self-rated health and a lack of family support accentuated spousal caregiver distress, whereas the feeling of being prepared and level of confidence decreased spousal caregiver distress. Moreover, the quality of couple adjustment affected spousal caregiver distress, and this effect was mediated by the severity of the PWD's symptoms. Regarding the age at onset of the disease, the path between Couple Adjustment and the Care recipient's impairments was more important for caregivers of person with early-onset dementia (PEOD). Female caregivers who reported poor self-rated health experienced greater distress. It would be interesting to create a support program that would incorporate these three areas of intervention regarding the progression of the disease: first, "preparedness modules"; second, "dyadic modules" (especially for caregivers of PEOD); and third, "family modules". Specific attention should be given to female caregivers who report poor self-rated health.
Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.
This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…
Goldberg, Amy P
After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
La Harpe, Romano; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse
In Geneva, all sexual assault victims are examined both by a gynaecologist and a forensic pathologist with special training in clinical forensic medicine. Between 2006 and 2010, 473 victims were examined following such an assault. Over the years, the number of sexual assaults rose steadily. Most victims were aged between 15 and 30 years. The majority of the assaults occurred at night and on the weekend and often happened at the place where the perpetrator or the victim lived. Usually, the offender acted alone and was known to the victim. Many victims hesitate to present for an examination, which makes it difficult to collect evidence. Penetration was usually vaginal and without the use of a condom. Injuries on the body or genitals were seen in only half of the cases for the first ones and in less than one third for the second ones. Quite often (at least in 42 % of the cases), the victim consumed alcohol before the assault and the use of drugs--especially cannabis--was not uncommon either.
Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David
Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…
Johnson, E E; Nora, R M
Extent of gambling-free periods was compared for 90 compulsive gamblers, 44 with spouses who participated in Gamblers Anonymous and 46 with spouses who did not. Although the results were in the direction of a beneficial effect of spousal participation, the relationship was statistically nonsignificant.
It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...
The study explores the relationship between spousal resources and franchisees' dynamic capabilities using both in-depth interviews and questionnaires from the convenience store franchisees in Taiwan. Franchising is recognized as one of the fastest paths to success for a small business, and many owners of the franchise ...
Background: As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, ...
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
extracted and analysed focussing on age, relationship, lesions, violence, location and alcohol intoxication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women over the age of 12 years were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The median age of the victims was 20 years (range 12-89 years). 75...... involves a higher risk of lesions and the possibility of many lesions. More than half of those exposed to manual strangulation or other kinds of violence against the neck were assaulted by a stranger or an ACQ. Half of the women knew the perpetrator and the perpetrator was an ACQ in 26% of the cases...
Draughon Moret, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Sheridan, Daniel J
Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV following sexual assault may decrease the likelihood of HIV transmission. The purpose of this exploratory chart review study was to examine factors associated with patients accepting post-sexual assault nPEP at three forensic nurse examiner programs in urban settings. Forensic nursing charts of patients presenting for acute sexual assault care were reviewed as part of a mixed-methods study. Patients assaulted by more than one or an unknown number of assailants were over 12 times more likely to accept the offer of nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 12.66, 95% CI [2.77, 57.82]). In cases where no condom was used (aOR = 8.57, 95% CI [1.59, 46.10]) or when any injury to the anus or genitalia was noted (aOR = 4.10, 95% CI [1.57, 10.75]), patients were more likely to accept nPEP. Patients with any injury to the face or head were less likely to initiate nPEP (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.11, 0.97]). This study is an important first step in understanding factors associated with nPEP acceptance after sexual assault.
... 1-02. Emergency. A situation that requires immediate intervention to prevent the loss of life, limb... cases. (c) The Director of the Defense Human Resources Activity (DoDHRA), under the authority, direction... the development of investigative policy in support of sexual assault prevention and response. (f) The...
The paper examined the prevalence of sexual assault and the need for preventive measures in Nigeria. As currently being reported in most national daily newspapers, the incidence of sexual is daily in the increase and many cases are still not reported. As part of the objectives, the study involved the review of literature, ...
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Smith, Tanya
In circumstances in which child sexual abuse/assault is suspected, pediatric guidelines recommend referral to services such as multidisciplinary hospital-based violence treatment centers, for specialized medical treatment, forensic documentation, and counseling. As little is known about how such services are perceived, the objective of this case report was to measure the satisfaction of nonoffending guardians of child sexual abuse/assault victims who presented for care at Ontario's hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers. Of the 1,136 individuals who reported sexual abuse/assault and were enrolled in a province-wide service evaluation, 58 were 11 years old and younger. Thirty-three guardians completed a survey. Ratings of care were overwhelmingly positive, with 97% of respondents indicating that they would recommend these services. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate these pediatric sexual assault services frequently to ensure ongoing optimal, family-centered care.
During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims ar...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault.......During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...... are under the circumstances of trust, safety and interdependence offered care, treatment and medical examination including a standardized forensic examination. From 1999 to 2004 the Center has received 523 victims, 338 (64%) of who were seen by the physician. 349 (67%) victims have reported the case...
Thackeray, Jonathan D; Hornor, Gail; Benzinger, Elizabeth A; Scribano, Philip V
To describe forensic evidence findings and reevaluate previous recommendations with respect to timing of evidence collection in acute child sexual assault and to identify factors associated with yield of DNA. This was a retrospective review of medical and legal records of patients aged 0 to 20 years who required forensic evidence collection. Ninety-seven of 388 (25%) processed evidence-collection kits were positive and 63 (65%) of them produced identifiable DNA. There were 20 positive samples obtained from children younger than 10 years; 17 of these samples were obtained from children seen within 24 hours of the assault. Three children had positive body samples beyond 24 hours after the assault, including 1 child positive for salivary amylase in the underwear and on the thighs 54 hours after the assault. DNA was found in 11 children aged younger than 10 years, including the child seen 54 hours after the assault. Collection of evidence within 24 hours of the assault was identified as an independent predictor of DNA detection. Identifiable DNA was collected from a child's body despite cases in which: evidence collection was performed >24 hours beyond the assault; the child had a normal/nonacute anogenital examination; there was no reported history of ejaculation; and the victim had bathed and/or changed clothes before evidence collection. Failure to conduct evidence collection on prepubertal children beyond 24 hours after the assault will result in rare missed opportunities to identify forensic evidence, including identification of DNA.
... Tool (CSAT) - Probation Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Statistics Data Tool Federal Criminal Case Processing Statistics (FCCPS) NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) API ...
Davis, Linda Lindsey; Gilliss, Catherine L; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Chestnutt, Deborah H; Molloy, Margory
The caregiving literature provides compelling evidence that caregiving burden and depressive symptoms are linked with stressful care relationships, however, relational difficulties around caregiving are seldom described in the literature. This article presents findings from content analysis of baseline interviews with 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) spousal caregivers enrolled in a home care skill-training trial who identified their care relationship as a source of care burden. Disappointment and sadness about the loss of the relationship; tension within the relationship; and care decision conflicts within the relationship were recurrent themes of relational stress in caregiving. These spousal caregivers had relationship quality scores below the mean and burden and depressive symptom scores above the means of other caregivers in the study. These findings provide support for developing dyadic interventions that help spouses manage relational losses, care-related tensions, and care decision-making conflicts.
Daggett, Luann M
Spousal bereavement is one of the most profoundly disturbing events encountered in the human life span. Research has shown that conjugal bereavement has significant physical and psychological consequences for the surviving spouse. In American culture, men and women experience bereavement in different ways. The author used in-depth interviews in the tradition of phenomenology to collect data from 8 men aged 41 to 54 years who had experienced the death of their spouse within the previous 8 months to 6 years. The research revealed the lived experience of spousal bereavement to be a journey from the realization of irreconcilable loss through themes of responding to the loss and living through the loss toward reclamation and reconstruction of a life.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars H?jsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965?1985 (N?=?102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more tha...
Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard
Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Roberts, ed., Encyclopedia of World War II (Santa Barbara: ABC -CLIO, 2004), 67-68; Jean Boulet, History of the Helicopter as Told by Its Pioneers...possesses enough assault helicopters in its inventory to execute air assault operations. Therefore, the aviation organizational structure under...Within an Army-wide ten-CAB construct, the air assault helicopter inventory consists of 300 UH-60s and 120 CH-47s. The Army would consolidate four
Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.
Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.
Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…
Roberts, John M
American spousal homicide rates persistently and substantially vary by racial composition of the married couple. Analyses examined different racial couple types' spousal homicide rates in light of nonspousal homicide victimization and offending rates and couple types' average social, demographic, and economic characteristics. Analyses used 2003 to 2007 spousal homicide data from Supplementary Homicide Reports for which missing data have been multiply imputed. Current Population Survey data provided estimates of the number and average characteristics of different couple types. Log-linear models related couple types' differing spousal homicide rates to different race-sex groups' general rates of homicide victimization and offending and couple types' average characteristics. Among couple types with at least 50,000 couples, annual rates of male-on-female spousal homicide ranged from 0.95 to 8.76 per 100,000 couples; for female-on-male spousal homicide, this range was 0.13 to 2.29. Rates somewhat reflect different race-sex groups' nonspousal homicide activity, but with greater gender disparity and an excess of spousal homicide in some couple types. The association between victim's and offender's race is parsimoniously described by models using couple types' average characteristics (proportion with female's education exceeding the male's, proportion in central cities, and relative frequency). General homicidal-violence reduction strategies may partly apply to spousal homicide, but specifically targeted efforts are required too. Interventions must address different couple types' particular social, economic, and cultural experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the sparse literature on the impact of temporary migration on fertility in origin areas. It examines the case of male labour migration from post-Soviet Tajikistan, a significant and relatively recent phenomenon. Fertility and migration models are solved simultaneously to account for cross-process correlation. There is clear evidence for a short-term disruptive effect of spousal separation, but it is too early to assess the implications for completed fertility. While there is no evidence for unobserved selectivity at the couple level, there is a significant positive correlation between the migration and fertility processes at the community level.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965-1985 (N = 102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage.
McCall, George J.
Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…
Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi
To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Patrizia, Carrieri Maria; Bendiane, Marc Karim; Karim, Bendiane Marc; Moatti, Jean Paul; Paul, Moatti Jean; Rey, Dominique; Dominique, Rey
In France non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is recommended in case of sexual assault and can be prescribed, after risk evaluation, in emergency or AIDS care units. A survey was carried out on retrospective data of individuals being consulted for nPEP in south-eastern France. Of the 915 consultations for sexual exposures, 94 were sexual assaults concerning adults. Most were prescribed nPEP (91.5%), but half were lost to follow-up. During the study period throughout the same region, 623 survivors reported sexual assault to the police. The comparison of these figures shows that the number of victims who have no access to medical consultation for nPEP may be alarmingly high and strongly suggests the urgency to develop strategies for guaranteeing prompt HIV medical assessment for victims of sexual assault and assure adherence to medical follow-up.
Schilling, Samantha; Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Scribano, Philip V; French, Benjamin; Wood, Joanne N
To examine rates of recommended of testing and prophylaxis for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pregnancy in adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault across pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and to determine whether specialized sexual assault pathways and teams are associated with performance of recommended testing and prophylaxis. In this retrospective study of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault at 38 EDs in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database from 2004 to 2013, information regarding routine practice for sexual assault evaluations and presence and year of initiation of specialized ED sexual assault pathways and teams was collected via survey. We examined across-hospital variation and identified patient- and hospital-level factors associated with testing and prophylaxis using logistic regression models, accounting for clustering by hospital. Among 12,687 included cases, 93% were female, 79% were <16 years old, 34% were non-Hispanic white, 38% were non-Hispanic black, 21% were Hispanic, and 52% had public insurance. Overall, 44% of adolescents received recommended testing (chlamydia, gonorrhea, pregnancy) and 35% received recommended prophylaxis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, emergency contraception). Across EDs, unadjusted rates of testing ranged from 6% to 89%, and prophylaxis ranged from 0% to 57%. Presence of a specialized sexual assault pathway was associated with increased rates of prophylaxis even after adjusting for case-mix and temporal trends (odds ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.86). Evaluation and treatment of adolescent sexual assault victims varied widely across pediatric EDs. Adolescents cared for in EDs with specialized sexual assault pathways were more likely to receive recommended prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Dutton, D G
A critical review is made of feminist analyses of wife assault postulating that patriarchy is a direct cause of wife assault. Data are reviewed from a variety of studies indicating that (a) lesbian battering is more frequent than heterosexual battering, (b) no direct relationship exists between power and violence within couples, and (c) no direct relationship exists between structural patriarchy and wife assault. It is concluded that patriarchy must interact with psychological variables in order to account for the great variation in power-violence data. It is suggested that some forms of psychopathology may lead to some men adopting patriarchal ideology to justify and rationalize their own pathology.
Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann
The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.
Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E
This study used a large community sample of women sexual assault survivors to prospectively assess 17 theorized predictors across four types of sexual assault revictimization: unwanted contact, coercion, substance-involved assault (SIA), and force. Results indicated that predictors varied across types of revictimization: Unwanted contact and coercion appeared more common in social contexts more hostile toward survivors, whereas forcible assaults and SIAs occurred in circumstances where survivors were vulnerable to being targeted by perpetrators. Overall, the strongest predictors were social environments hostile to survivors, race, childhood sexual abuse, decreased refusal assertiveness, and having more sexual partners. We discuss implications for intervention and research. © The Author(s) 2016.
Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.
Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health...... outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person......-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes...
Morgan, Louise; Long, Lisa
A gender specific approach to understanding female sex offenders is important for developing prevention and treatment strategies, yet research to date is limited. While it is recognised that females often offend with another person, there has been little attempt to look beyond the two groupings of solo and co-offending and study females who offend in larger groups. Furthermore, very few studies have looked at the victims of these crimes and all of these have focussed on child victims only. The present work describes demographic and assault related characteristics of victims of all ages reporting a sexual assault by a female perpetrator to the Havens sexual assault referral centres in London, UK, in a five year period, with the aim of identifying victim, perpetrator and offence patterns in solo, pair and group sexual assaults. 47 cases were identified, just 0.66% of the total cases seen, and victims ranged from 3 to 59 years of age. Female perpetrators actively participated in the sexual and physical violence in many cases and were often involved in other ways, such as facilitating the offence, procuring the victim and filming the assault. Victims of solo perpetrators were mostly children who reported an assault by a teacher or childminder. Victims of pairs were older and all perpetrators were male/female pairs, usually reportedly in a romantic relationship. Victims of groups were more often strangers to the perpetrators and these assaults were often very violent. These findings are discussed in relation to current knowledge and suggestions are made for further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
perpetrators, was associated with subsequent victimization. Corbin et al., 2001 Female college students 238 Survey Investigate risk factors (alcohol...assault was less of a problem. Corbin , William R., Jeffrey A. Bernat, Karen S. Calhoun, Lily D. McNair, and Kari L. Seals, “The Role of Alcohol...prevention for sexual assault victims. Mohler-Kuo, Meichun, George W. Dowdall, Mary P. Koss, and Henry Wechsler, “Correlates of Rape While Intoxicated
Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre
This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...
Allana M. Krolikowski
Full Text Available Sexual assault is a topic of importance worldwide to health professionals that provide emergency care. Victims of sexual assault include adult men, adult women, and children. The prevalence of sexual assault is likely under-reported. These patients should be offered comprehensive medical care upon arrival to the emergency centre. This includes assessment for acute injuries; medical history; physical examination; and possible collection of evidence. Depending on the patient's situation, he or she may be offered prophylactic and therapeutic management, which includes pregnancy testing and emergency contraception, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. This article addresses the most up-to-date information on this management. Patients should also be offered mental health counselling on-site if appropriate health professionals are available. A number of countries have national protocols for care of the sexual assault patient. Implementing these protocols can be strengthened through such interventions as hiring sexual assault nurse examiners or creating a sexual assault centre within the emergency centre. The patient's immediate and future safety and emotional needs should be evaluated and a plan formulated for safety when the patient is discharged. Medical follow up is recommended and should be strongly encouraged.
Obimakinde, Obitade Sunday; Okoje, Victoria Njedika; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo
Background: Assault, though a major cause of maxillofacial injuries in the developed nations, has not been adequately investigated among Nigerian population. This study aimed to analyze the pattern of maxillofacial injuries caused by assault in our institution. Methods: A descriptive clinical survey of patients with assault-induced oral and maxillofacial injuries presenting to our maxillofacial surgery clinic/emergency ward was carried out. Demographic data and pattern of injuries obtained from patients’ record and department trauma database were analyzed. Results: 156 patients presented with oral and maxillofacial injuries between October 2009 and December 2010. Thirty-four cases were due to assault and male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age of the patients was 21.4±6.26 years (age range 2–48 years). 23.6% (n=8) of the injuries were due to domestic violence between spouses while 35.3% (n=12) resulted from fight. Students unrest and armed robbery attack accounted for six cases each (17.7%, n=6), while there were two cases due to child battering. 64.3% (n=22) of the injuries sustained involved soft tissues while 35.7% involved hard tissues. Contusion was the most common isolated soft tissue injury accounting for 56% (n=10) while dentoalveolar fracture was the most encountered hard tissue injury (62.5%, n=16). Conclusion: There is need for preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of assault-induced maxillofacial injuries. PMID:24027401
Mukhtar, S Aqif; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Kelly, Maire C; Zilkens, Renate R; Semmens, James B
The Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in Perth, Western Australia provides free 24-hour medical, forensic, and counseling services to persons aged over 13 years following sexual assault. The aim of this research was to design a data management system that maintains accurate quality information on all sexual assault cases referred to SARC, facilitating audit and peer-reviewed research. The work to develop SARC Medical Services Clinical Information System (SARC-MSCIS) took place during 2007-2009 as a collaboration between SARC and Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. Patient demographics, assault details, including injury documentation, and counseling sessions were identified as core data sections. A user authentication system was set up for data security. Data quality checks were incorporated to ensure high-quality data. An SARC-MSCIS was developed containing three core data sections having 427 data elements to capture patient's data. Development of the SARC-MSCIS has resulted in comprehensive capacity to support sexual assault research. Four additional projects are underway to explore both the public health and criminal justice considerations in responding to sexual violence. The data showed that 1,933 sexual assault episodes had occurred among 1881 patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. Sexual assault patients knew the assailant as a friend, carer, acquaintance, relative, partner, or ex-partner in 70% of cases, with 16% assailants being a stranger to the patient. This project has resulted in the development of a high-quality data management system to maintain information for medical and forensic services offered by SARC. This system has also proven to be a reliable resource enabling research in the area of sexual violence.
Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra
Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…
Littleton, Heather; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Axsom, Danny
Alcohol is the most common "rape drug," with up to two-thirds of victims consuming alcohol prior to the assault. Surprisingly, little research has examined the assault and postassault experiences of victims who were impaired or incapacitated as a result of substance use, including alcohol, during a rape. Thus, the current study evaluated the assault and postassault experiences of a sample of 340 nonimpaired, impaired, and incapacitated college rape victims. Results supported that these three groups differed in several assault characteristics, including threats by the assailant, resistance by the victim, and relationship with the assailant. In addition, impairment and incapacitation were associated with several postassault factors, including self-blame, stigma, and problematic alcohol use. Results also highlighted similarities in victims' experiences, including levels of postassault distress. Implications of the findings for future research investigating impaired and incapacitated sexual assault victims are discussed.
Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.
This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of internalized homophobia. Client symptomatology was tracked using the PTSD Symptom Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory over the course of 12 sessions and for a 3-month posttermination session. Symptoms were significantly reduced by the end of the 12-week therapy and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. This case highlights the utility of this therapy in targeting both ASD symptoms and internalized homophobia relating to experiencing a hate crime–related assault. The authors elaborate on theoretical and applied issues in adapting a structured cognitive-behavioral intervention to the treatment of ASD symptoms associated with experiencing a hate crime. PMID:17075610
Jozkowski, Kristen N
Sexual assault is prevalent in the United States, particularly among college women. Prevention programs are implemented to combat assault, yet rates have not changed for five decades. A course designed to deconstruct contextualized factors contributing to assault was developed as an alternative prevention initiative. The current study assessed the effectiveness of the course compared with a traditional program via in-depth interviews with students. Findings indicated that students in the course were more likely to acknowledge underlying determinants of sexual assault and articulate how such behaviors could lead to assault. The course could be an effective approach to sexual assault prevention education. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dan Valeriu Voinea
Full Text Available The most debated media story of 2015 in Romania was related to a case of sexual assualt. On the 19th of July 2015 seven teenagers were released from house arrest in the case where they were accused of collectively raping an 18-year-old high school student. The Romania media landscape was quickly overtaken by this story: we had in depth media reports about the alleged assailaints and their home town, scandal regarding a facebook group created by a parent of one of the former mentioned and even a TV appearance from the victim and her mother on live television. The present article will attempt an analysis of the responsabilities that journalists have in protecting victims of sexual assault, according to the European law, Romanian legislation and in the media code of ethics. The questions we are starting from are these: were the Romanian journalists really disgusted by the actions of the seven or was it just a race for larger readership and viewership? What did the journalists do wrong when reporting n this story? What could they and should they have done more in order to protect a victim of sexual assault? And why was this case so widely reported while other cases of rape are constantly ignored by the Romanian media and society?
Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Havermann, Robert; Germerott, Tanja; Fieguth, Armin
As the percentage of elderly people in the population grows, violence against persons of advanced age constitutes an increasing social problem. The findings of the clinical forensic examinations (CE group) and autopsies performed on elderly violence victims (> or = 60 years) between 1999 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In all, the study material comprised 55 victims of the CE group (35 females and 20 males, median age 73.5 years) and 55 autopsies (33 females and 22 males, median age 72.7 years). In most of the autopsy cases, the suspect was a family member or partner. In contrast, the alleged perpetrator was a stranger in most cases of the CE group. Blunt force injuries were most often found in the CE group victims (63.6%). Altogether, 38.2% (CE group) and 20.0% (autopsy cases) of the violent assaults were associated with robbery. In the majority of the CE cases, the victims suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries. In summary, the analysis shows that elderly people frequently become victims of robbery and blunt force injury. In most homicides of old people, the perpetrator is familiar to the victim. In surviving elderly violence victims, the assault is more likely to be reported to the police if the suspect is a stranger.
12 ... Keywords: clinical forensic medicine, community-service doctors, medical training, medico-legal documentation, sexual assault. Introduction. Sexual assault ..... New York: Springer Science & Business Media. 2007. 9. Du Mont J, White D.
Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.
Stieglitz, Jonathan; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Winking, Jeffrey; Tayo, Basilio Vie
We develop and test a conceptual model of factors influencing the likelihood of physical wife abuse. The paternal disinvestment model emphasizes that spousal conflict over resource use results from men's attempts to increase individual fitness at a cost to the family (e.g., through pursuit of extramarital affairs). We propose that men use violence to control women's responses to the diversion of resources away from the family: to quell women's objections to male disinvestment, maintain women's parental investment, and to dissuade women from pursuing relationships with other men. Interviews were conducted among men and women to determine rates of violence and demographic and behavioral covariates. Structural equation modeling and generalized estimating equations analyses were used to test predictions derived from the model. We also collected data on frequent complaints in marriage and women's perceptions of arguments precipitating violence. Over 85% of women experienced physical wife abuse (n = 49). Indicators of paternal disinvestment positively covary with indicators of marital strife and with rates of wife abuse. The wife's age, matrilocal residence, and presence of joint dependent offspring decrease the likelihood of violence through direct and indirect routes. Wife abuse is linked to the importance of paternal investment in human families, and is a means by which men control women's responses to a dual reproductive strategy of familial investment and pursuit of extramarital sexual relationships. This framework is more general than traditional sociological and evolutionary perspectives emphasizing patriarchy and men's sexual jealousy, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka
The present study focused on attitudes related to inhibiting spousal disclosure about stress as an influential factor for the mental health of firefighters. In a pilot study using semi-structured interviews (N = 14), we found that some firefighters usually did not talk about their stresses with their spouses. Some reasons were that they were hiding their weakness, were feeling sure of controlling their stress, out of consideration for their spouse, were giving up on the possibility for improving the situation after spousal disclosure, or hoped to distract themselves. In a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 554), the results showed that attitudes about inhibiting spousal disclosure of stress have an effect on spousal disclosure about stress and the mental health of firefighters. The findings of the present study imply that spousal disclosure about interpersonal stress can be regarded as an effective factor, along with the disclosure to colleagues, for relieving stress. It is necessary to consider the importance of attitudes about inhibiting disclosure for stress as part of stress management for firefighters.
Callan, Judith A; Siegle, Greg J; Abebe, Kaleab; Black, Beverly; Martire, Lynn; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles; Hall, Martica H
Spousal caregivers of patients with dementia are in need of interventions to bolster their quality of life. Computer-based, self-administered cognitive training is an innovative approach to target spousal caregiver distress and coping. We tested the feasibility of administering one such intervention with minimal clinician intervention. Twenty-seven elderly adults (>64 years old), who each were the primary caregiver for a spouse with dementia, were recruited through the Memory Disorders Clinic of the Alzheimer Disease Research Center in Pittsburgh, PA. Spousal caregivers were instructed to use a handheld computer version of the Adaptive Paced Visual Serial Attention Task (APVSAT) at least three times per week for four weeks as part of a larger caregiver intervention trial (P01 AG020677). Feasibility was explored by examining the frequency of APVSAT usage. Results suggest that self-directed cognitive training is feasible for spousal caregivers of dementia patients. The mean usage of the APVSAT was 42 (SD = 28.58). Performance increased from the beginning to the end of the trial, and usage was not affected by stress, worry, or poor sleep quality. Findings suggest the potential utility of cognitive training via handheld computer for spousal caregivers of dementia patients to improve problem solving, coping and adaptation, planning, and persevering with goal-directed tasks.
problems of today, such as gender integration, equality, sexual assault and harassment, and discrimination . Recommendation 5: Clear, consistent message...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY SEXUAL ASSAULT: THE DARK SIDE OF MILITARY HYPERMASCULINITY by Angie Robertson, Lt Col...Department gender integration and sexual assault problems. As a result, the Armed Forces instituted and revamped sensitivity, sexual harassment, and
Munro-Kramer, Michelle L.; Dulin, Alexandra C.; Gaither, Caroline
Objective: Sexual assault is a pervasive crime on our college campuses and many survivors do not seek post-assault resources. This study will explore components of alternative interventions to consider in the development of campus-based interventions for sexual assault survivors. Participants: Three stakeholder groups including survivors (n = 8),…
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C
Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Yeonjung; Zurlo, Karen A
We examine whether spousal caregivers face difficulties in meeting their basic household expenses compared to nonspousal caregivers and whether social support mechanisms ameliorate any financial strain from caregiving responsibilities. We use data for caregivers aged 45 and over drawn from a nationally representative, cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey--Healthy Aging (N = 5,067). Spousal caregiving is associated with a 35% increase in the likelihood of experiencing difficulties in meeting basic expenses compared to other types of caregiving. Each of social support mechanisms (affectionate, emotional/informational, and positive social interaction), singularly and combined, lessens financial strain from caregiving. Our findings suggest that spousal caregivers are particularly vulnerable because they have fewer resources to draw on for support and perform much more intensive care. Our results highlight the importance of developing appropriate policies and programs to support caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Link, Cynthia F
This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse......This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi......, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate...
McMahon, Sarah; Stepleton, Kate; Cusano, Julia; O'Connor, Julia; Gandhi, Khushbu; McGinty, Felicia
The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault identified campus climate surveys as "the first step" for addressing campus sexual violence. Through a process case study, this article presents one model for engaging in a comprehensive, action-focused campus climate assessment process. Rooted in principles of…
Participants expressed their emotions, challenges and police attitudes and behaviours, as well as inconsistencies in guidelines and needs identifi cation. It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault.
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditio...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Charan Kishor Shetty
Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%. The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.
Richer, Laurie A; Fields, Laurie; Bell, Shannon; Heppner, Jennifer; Dodge, Jessica; Boccellari, Alicia; Shumway, Martha
Variation among existing studies in labeling, defining, identifying, and subtyping cases of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) poses challenges to integrating research findings for public health purposes. This descriptive study addressed methodological issues of nomenclature and DFSA operational definitions to improve case identification and was designed to distinguish assault subtypes. We studied a 2-year ethnically diverse cohort of 390 patients who presented acutely to an urban rape treatment center (RTC). We abstracted data from RTC medical and mental health records via chart review. Assault incidence rates; engagement into medical, forensic, and mental health services; injury sustained; and weapon use were calculated separately for assault subtypes and compared. DFSA accounted for over half of the total sexual assault (SA) cases. Involuntary DFSA (in which an incapacitating substance was administered to victims without their knowledge or against their will) increased from 25% to 33% of cases over the 2-year period. DFSA victims presented sooner, and more often attended medical follow-up and psychotherapy than non-DFSA victims. Incidence rates indicated increasing risk for young males. These findings indicate that DFSA continues to be a growing and complex phenomenon and suggest that DFSA victims have greater service needs. The field would benefit from innovations to address symptomatology arising from this novel type of trauma and the unique risks and needs of male victims, as well as underscoring the ongoing need for DFSA-specific prevention efforts for both victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2015.
Breetzke, Gregory D
Interpersonal crimes such as aggravated assault greatly impacts upon an individuals' sense of personal safety and security as the crime results in a physical injury. Understanding where and when aggravated assaults are most likely to occur is therefore vital to minimize the victimization risk associated with this crime. The main aim of this study is to explore the relative importance of space and time in aggravated assault victimization. This was done using national level aggravated assault data (2008-2010) obtained from New Zealand Police and census data from Statistics New Zealand. Both the spatial and temporal distribution of aggravated assault are outlined to examine their association with aggravated assault victimization. Aggravated assault is found to cluster in space but not in time. The relationships between aggravated assault risk in space and time and a suite of social, economic, and lifestyle variables was then examined. A clear socioeconomic gradient was found between aggravated assault risk by space and all neighborhood characteristics with high-risk neighborhoods having greater residential mobility and ethnic/racial diversity, as well as being more deprived, having higher rates of unemployment, and lower median household incomes. No clear pattern emerged between aggravated assault by time and the selected neighborhood characteristics. The policy implications of these findings in terms of policing and diversity conclude.
Olojede, Aco; Gbotolorun, O M; Ogundana, O M; Emeka, I C; Emmanuel, M M; Oluseye, Sab; Runsewe, O
The human face often constitutes the first point of contact in various human interactions and it is frequently the preferred target for blows in assault cases. To analyze the pattern of assault-related maxillofacial injuries treated at the General Hospital, Lagos over a period of one year. This is one year prospective study of assault-related maxillofacial injuries treated at the Department of Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Centre, General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. A face-to-face interviewer-administered structured proforma was used to obtain information from study subjects. Thirty-three patients with maxillofacial injuries met the inclusion criteria for this study. Their age ranged between 16 and 48 years with a mean age of 28.2 ± 7.4 years. There were 25(75.8%) males and 8(24.2%) females with a male/female ratio of 3:1. Majority of the patients, 24(72.7%) did not have any skilled employment while the remaining 9(27.3%) were road transport workers, specifically commercial bus drivers and motorcycle riders. The most frequently seen soft tissue injury was contusion which accounted for 17(51.5%) cases while 13 (39%) of the patients sustained mandibular fracture which was the most common hard tissue injury. Assault-related maxillofacial injuries are most common amongst young adult males who are not skillfully employed; this can be attributed to the increased disposition to violence in males in our environment.
Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period.
Dura, Jason R.; And Others
Compared self- and other-rated depression in spousal caregivers for 23 Alzheimer's patients, 23 Parkinsons' Disease patients, and 23 control subjects. Two caregiver groups were similar in length of time they had been giving care and in caregiver distress and both caregiver groups were more depressed than control subjects. (Author/NB)
Hagedoorn, Mariet; Dagan, Meirav; Puterman, Eli; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W. J. H. Jeroen; DeLongis, Anita; Sanderman, Robbert
Based on attribution theory, this study hypthesized that past spousal supportiveness may act as a moderator of the link between one partner's current support behavior and the other partner's relationship satisfaction. A sample of 88 patients with colorectal cancer and their partners completed
Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V
The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok
This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander
This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…
Reider, Eve E.; And Others
This report presents cross-sectional data on the relationships of alcohol difficulties, antisocial behavior, family conflict, family violence, and, particularly, spousal violence. The data were derived from a large-scale, longitudinal study of causes of alcohol abuse and the development of patterns of family violence. Subjects in the part of the…
Few resources within social science literature provide helpful information related to participant recruitment for research on spousal caregivers of individuals with dementia. Independent researchers with limited resources may not have access to large databases or centers in which access to caregivers is readily available. As a result, these…
Matzek, Amanda E.; Cooney, Teresa M.
Few studies have examined how raising grandchildren influences the marital relationship of grandparent caregivers although half of such caregivers are married. This study used national survey data from Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) to contrast perceptions of spousal support and strain for grandparents who had recently provided…
Prateek S Shrivastava
Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1% followed by physical in 64 (63.4%. Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi-structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants: 16 victims, 16 perpetrators, and eight key informants from rural and urban Ghana. Participants' discursive accounts suggest that husbands have implicit moral right and obligation to punish their wives for disobedience and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate their agency to leave abusive marital relationships. The findings contribute to our understanding of how cultural and social norms of spousal violence are morally constituted, reproduced, and sustained in talk of perpetrators, victims, and other key members of society. © The Author(s) 2015.
Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.
Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…
Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe
Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene. PMID:22787349
Sophie De Roock
Full Text Available Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9 obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure. Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.
Marvelli, E; Grattagliano, I; Aventaggiato, L; Gagliano-Candela, R
The aim of this work was to examine the role of substance use as factor which increase risk of assault. A review of the some of the most important international literature about drug-facilitated crimes is presented here. The whole part of the papers shows a relationship between substance use and risk increase of assault, particularly in family violence and rape. The effects of psychotropic substances use depend on the user's emotional state and on drugs use expectations. This prospective shows that we need to be cautious in interpreting processes of linear causality between abusive behaviour, processes of victimisation, abuses and abnormal sexual behaviours, which are related to the patient's desires, enhanced and validated by drugs.
35 3. Analyzing Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network Website ....35 D. DEVLOPING THEMATIC WEBSITE ANALSIS METRIC (T- WAM...portable document format PLAIN Plain Language Action and Information Network RAINN Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network SARC sexual assault...the literature review. The Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) website (http://www.rainn.org) was used to develop the WAM baseline and
Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra; Matsufuji, Hiromi; Coxon, Kirstie
a substantial number of Nepali women experience spousal violence, which affects their health in many ways, including during and after pregnancy. This study aimed to examine associations between women's experiences of spousal violence and their receipt of skilled maternity care, using two indicators: (1) receiving skilled maternity care across a continuum from pregnancy to the early postnatal period and (2) receiving any skilled maternity care in pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum. data were analysed for married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were included on women who completed an interview on spousal violence as part of the survey and had given birth within the five years preceding the survey (weighted n=1375). Logistic regression models were developed for analyses. the proportion of women who received skilled maternity care across the pregnancy continuum and those who received any skilled maternity care was 24.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that spousal violence was statistically significantly associated with receiving low levels of skilled maternity care, after adjusting for accessibility of health care. However, after controlling for women's sociodemographic backgrounds (age, number of children born, educational level, husband's education level, husband's occupation, region of residence, urban/rural residence, wealth index), these significant associations disappeared. Better-educated women, women whose husbands were professionals or skilled workers and women from well-off households were more likely to receive skilled maternity care either across the pregnancy continuum or at recommended points during or after pregnancy. spousal violence and low uptake of skilled maternity care are deeply embedded in a society in which gender inequality prevails. Factors affecting the receipt of skilled maternity care are multidimensional; simply expanding geographical access to maternity services may
Hornor, Gail; Thackeray, Jonathan; Scribano, Philip; Curran, Sherry; Benzinger, Elizabeth
Although pediatric sexual assault nurse examiners (P-SANEs) have been providing care for over two decades there remain major gaps in the literature describing the quality of P-SANE care and legal outcomes associated with their cases. The purpose of this study was to compare quality indicators of care in a pediatric emergency department (PED) before and after the implementation of a P-SANE program described in terms of trace forensic evidence yield, identification of perpetrator DNA, and judicial outcomes in pediatric acute sexual assault. A retrospective review of medical and legal records of all patients presenting to the PED at Nationwide Children's Hospital with concerns of acute sexual abuse/assault requiring forensic evidence collection from 1/1/04 to 12/31/07 was conducted. Detection and documentation of ano-genital injury, evaluation and documentation of pregnancy status, and testing for N. gonorrhea and C. trachomatis was significantly improved since implementation of the P-SANE Program compared to the historical control. The addition of a P-SANE to the emergency department (ED) provider team improved the quality of care to child/adolescent victims of acute sexual abuse/assault. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Lessenger, J E
Perfumes have been associated with rashes in employees exposed to scented soaps or with allergic conditions, such as rhinitis or asthma, in employees exposed to perfumes or fragrances in the air. Reported here is a case of an anaphylactic reaction and respiratory distress as a result of a deliberate assault with a perfume spray. The medical literature was searched using the key words "fragrances," "respiratory distress," "assault," and "health care workers." A female medical assistant with no history of asthma or reactions to fragrances was assaulted by a patient, who pumped three sprays of a perfume into her face. The employee experienced an acute anaphylactic reaction with shortness of breath, a suffocating sensation, wheezes, and generalized urticaria, and required aggressive medical treatment, a long period of oral bronchodilator therapy, and, finally, weaning from the medications. Perfumes are complex mixtures of more than 4,000 vegetable and animal extracts and organic and nonorganic compounds. Fragrances have been found to cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients, including chest tightening and wheezing, and are a common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. In many work settings the use of fragrances is limited. Assault is becoming more common among workers in the health care setting. Workers should be prepared to take immediate steps should an employee go into anaphylactic shock.
Wilson, Maria C I
This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
Although spouses strongly resemble one another in their risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the causes of this association remain unclear. To examine longitudinally, in first marriages, the association of a first registration for AUD in one spouse with risk of registration in his or her partner and to explore changes in the risk for AUD registration in individuals with multiple marriages as they transition from a spouse with AUD to one without or vice versa. Population-wide Swedish registries were used to identify individuals born in Sweden between 1960 and 1990 who were married before the end of study follow-up on December 31, 2013. The study included 8562 marital pairs with no history of AUD registration prior to their first marriage and an AUD registration in 1 spouse during marriage and 4891 individuals with multiple marriages whose first spouse had no AUD registration and second spouse did or vice versa. Final statistical analyses were conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2017. A spousal onset or history of AUD registration. Alcohol use disorder registration in national medical, criminal, or pharmacy registries. Among the 8562 marital pairs (5883 female probands and 2679 male probands; mean [SD] age at marriage, 29.2 [5.7] years) in first marriages, the hazard ratio of AUD registration in wives immediately after the first AUD registration in their husbands was 13.82, which decreased 2 years later to 3.75. The hazard ratio of AUD registration in husbands after the first AUD registration in their wives was 9.21, which decreased 2 years later to 3.09. Among the 4891 individuals with multiple marriages (1439 women and 3452 men; mean [SD] age at first marriage, 25.5 [4.2] years), when individuals transitioned from a first marriage to a spouse with AUD to a second marriage to a spouse without AUD, the hazard ratio for AUD registration was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.42-0.59) in women and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.44-0.59) in men. After a first marriage to a spouse without AUD, the
Fernando, Tarini; Byard, Roger W
Deaths due to positional asphyxia are most often accidental, associated with alcohol and/or drug intoxication. A 19-year-old male is reported who was assaulted and placed in a head-down position in the back of a car were he was later found dead. Brush abrasions indicated that he had been dragged to the vehicle. The head and right shoulder were wedged into the foot well with the body uppermost. At autopsy, there was marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper chest with conjunctival ecchymoses, bruising of the face and scalp, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage, minor cerebral contusion, and diffuse cerebral swelling with early hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Toxicology was negative. Death was attributed to HIE resulting from the unusual positioning of the body. Cases of positional asphyxia involving others may not always include restraint, and when encountered should initiate a careful evaluation of the possible events and lethal pathophysiological processes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca
Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.
Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace
Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.
I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette
Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…
Johansen, Venke A; Wahl, Astrid K; Weisaeth, Lars
Violence is a negative and depressing part of human relationships, whereas consequences related to interpersonal violence cause a number of health problems in the world. The aim of this paper is to describe socio-demographic characteristics, injury, crime characteristics and emotions during the event in assault victims of nondomestic violence, and further evaluate possible associations between these factors. Data were collected from 149 victims by questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that most of the victims were young men assaulted by unknown attackers in public places. The educational levels and the levels of employment in the present sample are high compared with those of other studies. Seventy-six per cent of the participants suffered injuries to the head, face or eyes. About one-third of the sample had serious injuries that required specialist treatment. Anxiety was the most frequent emotion felt during the assault, followed by aggression. Female victims were more likely to experience shock (p < 0.01) and anxiety (p < 0.01) during the incident than men. Nineteen per cent of the participants reported feeling shocked and frightened simultaneously. About 60% experienced a combination of subjective factors, such as fear of serious injury, being killed during the assault and actual physical injury. It is reasonable to expect a high occurrence of future psychopathology among our participants.
Kruger, Daniel J.; Hutchison, Peter; Monroe, Matthew G.; Reischl, Thomas; Morrel-Samuels, Susan
This study develops an explanatory framework for fear of neighborhood crime based on respondents' social context and local rates of assault injuries. Rates of assault injuries within zip codes are based on hospital discharge records. We find that only four variables have a significant unique contribution to fear of crime: respondent's sex,…
Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio ...
Method: A quantitative cross-sectional comparative study design was used to compare 30 sexually-assaulted women and 30 physically-assaulted women regarding depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder and coping styles three months after the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the ...
Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia
This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…
Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights ...
Results: Most of the respondents were single 349 (87.3%) and in the age range of ... Keywords: Sexual assault, Physical trauma, Psychological trauma,. Maiduguri. ... sexual assault [5-7]. Okoro et al found a high prevalence of 83% in a study done in Benin-city,. Nigeria . This crime crosses all races and spans all ages.
Purpose: Sexual assault is a violent crime against both the individual and society but is largely underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of sexual assault among female students in the University of Maiduguri. Methods: A crossectional descriptive study using a close ended, self ...
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.
We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
... participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop clear guidelines that are applicable to rural and urban South Africa. Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents ...
Full Text Available Background: Assault is a common mechanism of injury among female trauma victims. This paper identifies risk factors for assault in female victims and explores the interplay between identified predictors of assault and their combined contribution to female violent victimization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all female trauma patients was performed using the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry from 1999-2003. Patients with assault listed as their mechanism of injury were compared to patients with other mechanisms of injury. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using STATA statistical software to identify independent risk factors for assault. Finally, interaction affects were studied among these identified risk factors. Results: Female victims of assault were more likely to be African American (OR 1.32, P < 0.001, lack insurance (OR 1.79, P < 0.001, and to have tested positive for drugs (OR 1.32, P < 0.001 than women with other mechanisms of injury. In addition to the independent effects of these variables, patient drug use and lack of insurance demonstrated interaction effects (OR 1.67, P = 0.02. Conclusion: In this study, women of color, the uninsured, and those using drugs were disproportionately represented among assault victims, highlighting further evidence of trauma disparities. Most significantly, this study demonstrates that predictors of assault in women frequently coexist and both independently and in combination may increase the risk for female violent victimization.
Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J
The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.
Tiwari, Sucheta; Gray, Ron; Jenkinson, Crispin; Carson, Claire
Spousal violence against women is a global public health problem. In India, approximately 40% of women report spousal violence. Like physical and sexual violence, emotional violence may be a determinant of women's health. This study explores the association between exposure to spousal emotional abuse and poor reproductive outcomes in Indian women. Data on 60,350 women, collected in the Third Indian National Family Health Survey were analysed to assess the impact of spousal emotional abuse on seven reproductive outcomes: age at first birth, number of children, terminated pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies, access to prenatal and skilled delivery care, and breastfeeding. Spousal emotional abuse was assessed using two overlapping constructs: emotional violence and controlling behaviour. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Spousal emotional violence and controlling behaviour was reported by 16 and 38% of the women, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, spousal emotional violence was associated with all adverse reproductive outcomes, except breastfeeding. Controlling for socio-demographic risk factors attenuated the association, and further adjustment for other forms of violence removed all significant associations. Spousal controlling behaviour was significantly associated with all outcomes, except breastfeeding. The effects remained statistically significant in multivariable regression. Women's experience of violence may be under-reported. When other forms of violence were adjusted for, emotional violence was not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, whereas controlling behaviour remained associated with all but one adverse reproductive outcome. Therefore, spousal controlling behaviour requires further investigation as a determinant of reproductive health.
Chong Huang; Hongbin Li; Pak Wai Liu; Junsen Zhang
In interpreting the positive relationship between spousal education and one's earnings, economists have two major hypotheses: cross-productivity between couples and assortative mating. However, no prior empirical study has been able to separate the two effects. This paper empirically disentangles the two effects by using twins data that we collected from urban China. We have two major innovations: we use twins data to control for the unobserved mating effect in our estimations, and we estimat...
Kerry Anne McGeary
Previous research studying the correlation in smoking behavior between spouses has discounted the role of bargaining or learning. Using the Health and Retirement Study, which contains information on smoking cessation and spouse’s preferences, this paper presents an essential investigation of the impact of spousal bargaining or learning on the decision to cease smoking. We find that, regardless of gender, when one member of a couple ceases smoking this induces the other member to cease smoking...
the definition of child abuse that includes the rape, molestation, prostitution , or other such form of sexual exploitation of a child; or incest...2 and 5 years old. • Of the 201 victims, 166 (83 percent) were female and 35 (17 percent) were male . • Unlike in cases of sexual assaults against...Victim’s Gender Category: Total CID NCIS AFOSI Male 35 18 9 8 Female 166 90 48 28 Table B.38 depicts the subject-to-victim relationship type. Table
Pai, Chih-Wen; Godboldo-Brooks, Ambyr; Edington, Dee W
In this study we examined spousal concordance for two aggregate measures of health risk status and compliance with preventive service recommendations among 9620 pairs of cohabitating, opposite-sex married couples. Health risk appraisals were the primary data source to measure two outcome variables. Health risk status was compiled from 12 health risks and categorized into three levels (low-, medium-, and high-risk status). Overall preventive service compliance status was estimated by seven age-sex specific preventive service recommendations and dichotomized into lower and higher compliance status. For each of the husband and wife populations, we conducted proportional odds models and logistic regression models to assess spousal concordance for the two aggregate measures respectively. All models were adjusted for household income, one's characteristics (age, race, education, disease burden), and the same set of characteristics and the corresponding outcome variable from the spouse. A positive correlation within spousal pairs was statistically significant for both health risk status and compliance status (p education. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Levinger, Miriam; Ronen, Tammie
Family, as the most important human support system, is the major component that clinicians can use to help people in their struggle to cope, adjust, and adapt to society. The ability to form a family and intimate relations with a spouse comprises a central measure of normative adult functioning and a critical stage of adult development. This study examined a personal component (self-esteem), an original family component (differentiation), and the capacity for spousal intimacy among 101 deaf adults (comprising about one fourth of the Israeli deaf population) and 57 normally hearing adults matched to the deaf sample according to age, gender, place of birth, and marital status. As expected, correlations emerged between higher levels of self-esteem, greater emotional differentiation from parents, and higher spousal intimacy within each group. Also, intergroup differences emerged, with deaf participants lower than their hearing peers both in self-esteem and ability for spousal intimacy. Contrary to expectations, differentiation from original family was similar in both groups. Results emphasized the significant contribution of self-esteem to adult functioning. Outcomes pinpoint the need for social workers and other clinicians to increase these clients' self-esteem to improve functioning.
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Francisco Javier Mato Díaz
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.
Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R; Kane, Heidi S
For older adults coping with a spouse's chronic condition, greater marital satisfaction may not be entirely protective for psychological health. We examined marital satisfaction and gender as moderators of the association between perceived spousal suffering and daily emotional contagion. Based on empathy-altruism and interdependent self-construal theories, we hypothesized that high marital satisfaction and being female would heighten daily emotional contagion, or within-person associations between perceived spouse suffering and distress to spouse suffering. Forty-five older adults who had a spouse with a musculoskeletal condition completed daily interviews. Participants reported their marital satisfaction once in the laboratory and then daily perceptions of their spouse's physical suffering and their own distress to spouse suffering via phone at home for 7 days. Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant within-person effects such that highly satisfied wives experienced heightened emotional contagion on days when they perceived higher than average spouse suffering. Unexpectedly, men who were high in marital satisfaction experienced heightened daily distress irrespective of their perceptions of level of spousal suffering. Marital satisfaction can increase daily emotional contagion to spousal suffering among older couples dealing with chronic conditions. Wives' distress may be more dependent on perceiving high levels of partner suffering compared with husbands' distress.
Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte
Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Okour, Abdelhakeem M; Badarneh, Raja
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of spousal violence against pregnant women during their current pregnancy and investigate factors related to violence. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 303 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics in Al-Mafraq, northern desert of Jordan. The prevalence of violence (any type) during pregnancy was 40.9%. Physical violence was the highest (34.7 %), followed by psychologic violence (28.1%) and sexual violence (15.5%). Women who resided in the city (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.79), had six or more pregnancies including the current one (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.45-20.0), had four or more female children (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.3- 11.9) and were under pressure to have a male child (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07- 3.08) were more likely to be exposed to violence during pregnancy. This study attempted to shed light on some of the cultural dimensions behind spousal violence, especially preference for male children. This study is important to the Jordanian and Arab communities in their efforts to protect women's rights and in designing interventions against domestic and spousal violence.
Conclusion: The benefits of urgent reduction in chemical load is intuitively obvious, and by shaving tangentially to bleeding, vital tissue is preserved. Trying to prove benefit in terms of an RCT is however ethically challenging.
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria
Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low-income, and poorly educated households. Our study aims to determine the associations between child marriage and controlling behaviors (CB) and spousal violence by husbands against adolescent and young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. We analyzed data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, of currently married women aged 15-24 years who had participated in the domestic violence module (n = 589, 22.5% [589/2,615] of the subsample aged 15-24 years) to identify differences in CB and spousal violence experiences between early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and CB and spousal violence by husband were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AOR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, and rural residence), spousal age gap, and husband's education. Overall, 47.8% of currently married women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. About one third of women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan reported experiencing CB (31.8%) and spousal violence (31.1%) by their husbands. Compared with adult marriage, child marriage was significantly associated with CB (AOR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.042-2.157), any form of spousal violence (physical or emotional) (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.392-2.969), emotional violence (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.254-2.767), and physical violence (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.582-3.760), including severe physical violence (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.122-5.872). Effective interventions are needed to prevent child marriages and raise awareness about their negative consequences, with special reference to spousal violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B
The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships.
Ranney, Megan; Newton, Manya; Woodhull, Whitney; Zimmerman, Marc; Walton, Maureen A.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize youth seeking care for assault injuries, the context of violence, and previous emergency department (ED) service utilization to inform ED-based injury prevention. METHODS: A consecutive sample of youth (14–24) presenting to an urban ED with an assault injury completed a survey of partner violence, gun/knife victimization, gang membership, and context of the fight. RESULTS: A total of 925 youth entered the ED with an assault injury; 718 completed the survey (15.4% refused); 730 comparison youth were sampled. The fights leading to the ED visit occurred at home (37.6%) or on streets (30.4%), and were commonly with a known person (68.3%). Fights were caused by issues of territory (23.3%) and retaliation (8.9%); 20.8% of youth reported substance use before the fight. The assault-injured group reported more peer/partner violence and more gun experiences. Assault-injured youth reported higher past ED utilization for assault (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16) or mental health reasons (OR: 7.98). Regression analysis found the assault-injured youth had more frequent weapon use (OR: 1.25) and substance misuse (OR: 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Assault-injured youth seeking ED care report higher levels of previous violence, weapon experience, and substance use compared with a comparison group seeking care for other complaints. Almost 10% of assault-injured youth had another fight-related ED visit in the previous year, and ∼5% had an ED visit for mental health. Most fights were with people known to them and for well-defined reasons, and were therefore likely preventable. The ED is a critical time to interact with youth to prevent future morbidity. PMID:24323994
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Holmes, Melisa M
In this review, we examine the most recent literature on adolescent sexual assault, and summarize new findings regarding prevalence, risk factors, sequelae, cultural factors, genital injury, legal issues and practice implications. Child and adolescent sexual-assault victims are at risk for a range of negative outcomes, including comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive episode, comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse, eating disorders, delinquency, and revictimization. Cultural factors and severity levels of trauma may serve as risk factors to such outcomes in adolescent sexual-assault victims. Compared with adults, adolescent sexual-assault victims have a greater frequency of rape-related anogenital injuries, but data on healing of injuries in this population are lacking. Factors related to a child sexual-assault victim's demeanor and intelligence can influence the perceived credibility of the child as a witness to the abuse. Recent studies investigating prevalence, risk factors, and sequelae of child and adolescent sexual assault highlight the need for educational programs and primary prevention interventions to educate pre-pubescent children and adolescents about sexuality, including sexual assault. In addition, further research is warranted in the area of statutory rape reporting to determine its effects on adolescent health-service-seeking behaviors and outcomes. Although most adolescent sexual assault victims do not seek acute post-rape medical care, forensic nurse examiners are often the first clinicians to encounter the adolescent sexual assault victim. Nursing protocols that standardize evidence collection as well as psychological support are important in the comprehensive care of these traumatized teens.
Syeda Kanwal Aslam
Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such
Koper, Christopher S; Johnson, William D; Nichols, Jordan L; Ayers, Ambrozine; Mullins, Natalie
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health.
Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R
This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...
Full Text Available When women are banished from their communities following sexual assault, this rejection should be considered an act of forced migration by the administrators of truth commission reparations programmes.
Forensic medical examinations conducted on complainants of sexual assault in the Forensic Medicine Institute, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, between 2006 and 2013
Full Text Available A total of 46 cases of alleged sexual assault were analysed from the years 2006–2013 where forensic medical examinations were conducted. The material was compared with data from literature. All the victims were female. In 9 cases (20% a sexual assault by sexual touching was alleged, 67% of complainants (31 cases had alleged non-consensual sexual intercourse, 6 complainants (13% had no recollection of events. Genital area injuries were reported in 26% of sexual assault victims. Injuries of other parts of the body were found in 73% of victims. None of the subjects were positive for severe injuries such as fractures, wounds, and head trauma with loss of consciousness. The majority of complainants (29 cases, 63% were examined within 24 hours after the incident and 6 examinees (13% were assessed between 24 and 48 hours after the alleged sexual assault. Eleven forensic medical examinations (24% were conducted after the lapse of more than 48 hours since the alleged incident. Twenty nine complainants admitted that they had washed their genital area after the sexual assault. Forensic swabs were taken during all forensic medical examinations.
Ikechukwu Udo Madukwe
Full Text Available Background: The emergency department of any given tertiary hospital setting provides an opportunity to deal with the outcomes of violence. The head and neck region is the most affected, especially in assault cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective medical forensic auditing of a non-confidential cumulative record of assault cases from December 1, 2001 to December 1 st 2002 was carried out at the Nigerian Police Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Result: There was a total of 1051 victims of which females were 52% and males 48% respectively. Almost 90% of the victims were of low socio-economic background. The most affected age-range was 21-30 years and the most commonly used assault weapon was a blunt object 23.5% head and neck region was affected 56.9% of the time. Conclusion: We concluded that this study might sensitize the general practitioners, the oral surgeons, and the maxillofacial surgeons in collaborative management and research on head and neck assault.
local law enforcement the following: rape, spousal rape, sodomy, oral copulation, sexual penetration, sexual banerv~ Incest , procurtng any female to...DoD) http://www.sapro.mil SAPR Website (USMC) www.manpower.usmc.mil/SAPR Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network http://www.rainn.org Office...Against Women: http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/sexassault.htm National Sexual Violence Resources Center http://www.nsvrc.org Rape Abuse Incest
think that the climate at the Academy has improved drastically due to the measures being taken to remedy the sexual harrassment/ assualt issues. I...Service Academy Sexual Assault and Leadership Survey March 4, 2005 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...AND SUBTITLE Report on the Service Academy Sexual Assault and Leadership Survey 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Pablo A. Fernandez
Full Text Available Sexual Assault (SA is a major public health and pervasive social problem that transcends socio-cultural bounds; with myriad bio-psychosocial effects on victims/survivors and the wider community. Indeed, survivors of SA suffer the effects of assault for a lifetime. A key aspect for practitioners working with individuals, families and communities affected by SA is to understand the background, nature and extent of the problem; as well as important medicolegal considerations and support services.
Rafaella Queiroga Souto; Francisco Kleiton Carvalho Dantas de Araújo; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti
Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE) at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL) in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL) in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was ...
Musah, Rabi A; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Vuong, Angela L; Shepard, Jason R E
Sexual assault crimes are vastly underreported and suffer from alarmingly low prosecution and conviction rates. The key scientific method to aid in prosecution of such cases is forensic DNA analysis, where biological evidence such as semen collected using a rape test kit is used to determine a suspect's DNA profile. However, the growing awareness by criminals of the importance of DNA in the prosecution of sexual assaults has resulted in increased condom use by assailants as a means to avoid leaving behind their DNA. Thus, other types of trace evidence are important to help corroborate victims' accounts, exonerate the innocent, link suspects to the crime, or confirm penetration. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed for the comprehensive characterization of non-DNA trace evidence associated with sexual assault. The ambient ionization method associated with DART-MS is extremely rapid and samples are processed instantaneously, without the need for extraction, sample preparation, or other means that might compromise forensic evidence for future analyses. In a single assay, we demonstrated the ability to identify lubricant formulations associated with sexual assault, such as the spermicide nonoxynol-9, compounds used in condom manufacture, and numerous other trace components as probative evidence. In addition, the method can also serve to identify compounds within trace biological residues, such as fatty acids commonly identified in latent fingerprints. Characterization of lubricant residues as probative evidence serves to establish a connection between the victim and the perpetrator, and the availability of these details may lead to higher rates of prosecution and conviction, as well as more severe penalties. The methodology described here opens the way for the adoption of a comprehensive, rapid, and sensitive analysis for use in crime labs, while providing knowledge that can inform and guide criminal justice policy and practice
Rizwan, S A; Kant, S; Goswami, K; Rai, S K; Misra, P
Migrant workers constitute an important risk group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome transmission in India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India. A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to the current location after 15 years of age,had worked in the current factory for at least 1 year, who were willing to participate and were able to give written, informed consent were included in the study. A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of 162 participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was 59.3%, and 78.4% of the men reported having consumed alcohol in the last 1 year. About 48.1% of men reported having consumed alcohol before their last non-spousal sexual encounter. Men who consumed alcohol were three times more likely to not use a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4). This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers. An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies.
Augustine Vincent Umoh
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736
Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C
Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Brotman, Shari; Drummond, Jennifer; Silverman, Marjorie; Sussman, Tamara; Orzeck, Pam; Barylak, Lucy; Wallach, Isabelle; Billette, Veronique
This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining service provider perceptions and experiences of addressing sexuality and intimacy with women spousal caregivers. The caregiver-provider encounter is examined, and challenges faced by service providers in addressing sexuality are considered. Themes identified include ambivalence and discomfort, personal and institutional barriers, meanings attributed to sexuality and intimacy, and lack of opportunities to discuss experiences. Strategies to overcome silence and invisibility on the part of service providers in the health and social services system are considered. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.
Levine, Ethan Czuy
The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.
Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G
There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal.
Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens. Copyright © 2010 Central Police University.
Pharris, Magaret Dexheimer; Nafstad, Sarah Stoddard
Healing responses for adolescents who have been sexually assaulted involve nursing care centered on establishing safety, helping adolescents reconstruct the story of the assault, and restoring connection with the community and themselves . Nurses partner with parents, school personnel, and other meaningful people in the lives of adolescents who have been sexually assaulted to create a physically and emotionally safe environment for the adolescent in the days, weeks, and months after an assault. Recovery involves being able to tell the story over and over again in a safe environment until it is clear that the assailant holds the blame for the assault, which was not sex but rather a crime of domination, and that the adolescent did what she or he needed to do to survive. In discerning ways to cope with the trauma of the assault, strengths are identified, appreciated, and nurtured. Nursing advocacy involves educating the adolescent and those around her or him on common reactions to sexual assault and what is needed in the recovery process. Nurses advocate for accommodations so that healing can occur and so that the well-being of the adolescent is not sacrificed for the prosecution of the offender. The major emphasis of nursing care is weaving together an understanding and caring community to surround the adolescent with nurturance and love. It is in the context of meaningful relationships that healing is maximized. Crisis brings with it the opportunity for immense growth. A caring nursing relationship creates the space in which adolescents can discover sources of spiritual and emotional strength that they can draw upon throughout their lives.
Davies, Helen D; Newkirk, Lori A; Pitts, Christiane B; Coughlin, Christine A; Sridhar, Sneha B; Zeiss, L McKenzie; Zeiss, Antonette M
Sexuality and intimacy in couples in which one partner is affected by dementia has been widely researched. Few studies have explored these issues in couples where one partner is affected by mild memory impairment (MMI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and contrast issues of intimacy and sexuality that spousal caregivers of persons with MMI and dementia may experience, and (2) identify future lines of research in this population. Fourteen dementia and nine MMI spousal caregivers participated in focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the Stanford/VA Alzheimer's Research Center. Content analyses were conducted to identify themes. Five themes emerged: communication, marital cohesion, affectional expression, caregiver burden, and ambiguity concerning the future of the relationship. Dementia caregivers reported more difficulties with communication, cohesion, and perceptions of increased burden than their MMI counterparts. Both groups indicated reduced sexual expression due to physical limitations; substitute activities including hand-holding, massaging, and hugging were noted. Both groups reported difficulty anticipating the future of the relationship due to present stressors. While dementia caregivers could consider future romantic relationships with others, MMI caregivers were primarily able to consider future relationships only for companionship and emotional intimacy. Early therapeutic interventions may assist couples in modifying activities, behaviors, and expectations about the future of the relationship. Such modifications may help maintain relationship satisfaction, decrease burden, preserve quality of life, and delay time-to-placement. Extending time-to-placement could have cost savings implications for families and the healthcare system.
Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo
Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.
Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692
Monin, Joan K; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C
To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, both AD individuals' and caregivers' compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers' compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' burden as well as the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers' compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Results suggest that AD individuals' compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers' and AD individuals' feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners' compassionate love may benefit caregivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…
Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.
Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…
Zhou, Eric S; Kim, Youngmee; Rasheed, Mikal; Benedict, Catherine; Bustillo, Natalie E; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R; Penedo, Frank J
Coping with the physical and mental side effects of diagnosis and treatment for advanced prostate cancer (APC) is a challenge for both survivors and their spousal caregivers. There is a gap in our current understanding of the dyadic adjustment process on marital satisfaction in this population. The current study sought to: (1) document levels of physical and mental health, and marital satisfaction, and (2) evaluate the relationship between physical and mental health with marital satisfaction in this understudied population. APC survivors who had undergone androgen deprivation therapy within the past year and their spousal caregiver participated in the study (N = 29 dyads). Physical and mental health was assessed using the MOS SF-36 Health Survey and marital satisfaction was evaluated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed strong relations between physical and mental health with marital satisfaction for both survivor and caregiver (actor effects). Furthermore, caregiver physical and mental health was related with the survivor's marital satisfaction (partner effect). Levels of mental health and marital satisfaction were comparable to community-based and prostate cancer samples, while physical health was higher. Marital satisfaction between APC survivors and their spousal caregivers may be influenced by both physical and mental health functioning. In particular, APC survivor functioning may affect his marital satisfaction as well as his spousal caregiver's. This has implications for psychosocial interventions for APC dyads. Further evaluation of the complex nature of survivor/caregiver dyadic adjustment in dealing with APC is necessary. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Gerstorf, Denis; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner
Development does not take place in isolation and is often interrelated with close others such as marital partners. To examine interrelations in spousal happiness across midlife and old age, we used 35-year longitudinal data from both members of 178 married couples in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Latent growth curve models revealed sizeable…
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine factors influencing the caregiver burden in adult-child and spousal caregivers of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Baseline data from the 18-month, prospective, observational GERAS study of 1,497 patients with AD in France, Germany, and the UK were used. Analyses were performed on two groups of caregivers: spouses (n = 985 and adult children (n = 405. General linear models estimated patient and caregiver factors associated with subjective caregiver burden assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results: The caregiver burden increased with AD severity. Adult-child caregivers experienced a higher burden than spousal caregivers despite spending less time caring. Worse patient functional ability and more caregiver distress were independently associated with a greater burden in both adult-child and spousal caregivers. Additional factors were differentially associated with a greater caregiver burden in both groups. In adult-child caregivers these were: living with the patient, patient living in an urban location, and patient with a fall in the past 3 months; in spouses the factors were: caregiver gender (female and age (younger, and more years of patient education. Conclusion: The perceived burden differed between adult-child and spousal caregivers, and specific patient and caregiver factors were differentially associated with this burden.
Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Wimo, Anders; Argimon, Josep Maria; Bruno, Giuseppe; Dodel, Richard; Haro, Josep Maria; Jones, Roy W.; Vellas, Bruno
Background/Aims To examine factors influencing the caregiver burden in adult-child and spousal caregivers of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Baseline data from the 18-month, prospective, observational GERAS study of 1,497 patients with AD in France, Germany, and the UK were used. Analyses were performed on two groups of caregivers: spouses (n = 985) and adult children (n = 405). General linear models estimated patient and caregiver factors associated with subjective caregiver burden assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results The caregiver burden increased with AD severity. Adult-child caregivers experienced a higher burden than spousal caregivers despite spending less time caring. Worse patient functional ability and more caregiver distress were independently associated with a greater burden in both adult-child and spousal caregivers. Additional factors were differentially associated with a greater caregiver burden in both groups. In adult-child caregivers these were: living with the patient, patient living in an urban location, and patient with a fall in the past 3 months; in spouses the factors were: caregiver gender (female) and age (younger), and more years of patient education. Conclusion The perceived burden differed between adult-child and spousal caregivers, and specific patient and caregiver factors were differentially associated with this burden. PMID:24711814
Wijngaart, M.A.G. van den; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Felling, A.J.A.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the main and mediating influences of stressors, a caregiver's appraisal, coping, personal conditions and social resources on the burden of dementia caregivers. Method: The study sample consisted of 95 spousal caregivers of non-institutionalized
Full Text Available Background: Spousal violence has wide-ranging effects on the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. There are few longitudinal studies that describe this association in developing countries. Aim: To test the hypothesis that spousal violence is an independent risk factor for a broad range of adverse health outcomes in women. Setting and Design: A population-based cohort study of women living in the catchment area of a primary health center in north Goa. Two thousand four hundred and ninety-four of 3000 randomly selected women were recruited of whom 1750 married women were included for this paper. Materials and Methods: Each participant was assessed at baseline with a structured interview for the assessment of exposure to spousal violence (verbal, physical, sexual over two time periods (lifetime; recent in the past three months. The interview collected data on gynecological complaints and the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the diagnosis of depressive disorder. Laboratory tests for anemia and sexually transmitted infections (STI were carried out. Longitudinal data was collected after six and 12 months on these outcomes. In addition, baseline measures for nutritional status and menstrual health were also obtained. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analyses were carried out on the cross-sectional and longitudinal data to assess the association between each type of spousal violence and each health outcome. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, literacy, household per capita income. Logistic regression was used for all analyses in Stata (Version 10. Results: Lifetime spousal violence was reported by 290 (16.6%, 95%CI=14.9-18.4 women; recent violence was reported by 230 (13.0%, 95%CI=11.6-14.8. The cross-sectional data showed an association between violence and a range of self-reported gynecological complaints, low Body Mass Index, depressive disorder and attempted suicide. The longitudinal analyses
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is prevalent in Western society. There is a significant degree of confusion regarding the definition and prevalence of DFSA. It is a subject with medical, scientific and legal aspects. These facets are explored in this review through a detailed examination of published data. The legal issues are defined in the context of the Irish judicial system. Several key case-law studies are presented to aid in understanding unresolved difficulties that persist in this complex field of forensics. The aim of this paper is to aid individuals from disparate disciplines to increase their evidence base in the complex and evolving issue of DFSA.
Westring, Christian Gustav; Wiuf, Morten; Nielsen, S Jock
Accurate microscopic identification of human spermatozoa is important in sexual assault cases. We have compared the results of examinations with (1) a fluorescent microscopy method, SPERM HY-LITER™, and (2) Baecchi's method for identification of human spermatozoa. In 35 artificial, forensic type...... was non-selective. Data from forensic casework samples in Copenhagen from two years (2008 and 2009) are presented. The samples from 2008 were investigated using Baecchi's method, while those from 2009 were investigated using SPERM HY-LITER™. The frequencies of positive results were similar between the two...
Full Text Available In keeping within the theme of CU Expo 2013, ‘Engaging Shared Worlds’, this case study examines and reflects on a complex community-university partnership which developed to conceptualise, design, conduct and communicate evaluation research on one community’s sexual assault and domestic violence protocol. As community-university partners coming together for the first time, we reflect on the purpose of our engagement, the characteristics and principles which define our partnership and our potential to teach graduate students how to undertake community-engaged scholarship. Keywords: Community-engaged research, evaluation research, complex community-university partnerships, scholarship of engagement, practice research
Abbey, Antonia; McAuslan, Pam
Self-administered surveys were completed by 197 men in college at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Men who committed sexual assault at multiple time points (repeat assaulters) had the most extreme scores on measures of hostility toward women, past sexual experiences, drinking in sexual situations, and adolescent delinquency. Nonassaulters had the least extreme scores and men who committed sexual assault at only 1 time point had scores that tended to fall in between. Repeat assaulters also expressed significantly less remorse when they described their sexual assault at Time 1 than did past assaulters who committed sexual assault only at the initial time point. These findings demonstrate the importance of initiating prevention and treatment programs in early adolescence, before longstanding attitudes and behaviors tolerant of sexual assault are established. PMID:15482033
Ranjbar, Vania; Speer, Susan A
Twenty-seven adult females' responses from an online qualitative questionnaire were analyzed to explore their views on being recovered from an experience of sexual assault, and identify aspects of their postassault health service encounters that facilitated or impeded their recovery process. Being recovered involved accepting the experience, being freed from negative states, regaining control and trust, and receiving help from and being believed by others. Participants predominantly reported negative experiences with health services. Factors perceived as impeding the recovery process include health professionals' inexperience in dealing with survivors of sexual assault, adhering to rape myths and stereotypes, and disrespectful or inconsiderate treatment of survivors. We argue that these postassault negative experiences revictimized survivors. Addressing these factors may reduce revictimization, facilitate recovery, and decrease assaulted women's long-term use of health services.
Ho, Justin; Ralston, D Christopher; McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H
This Open Forum commentary reviews the ethical considerations relevant to the question of prosecuting assaultive psychiatric patients, with particular attention to the significance that should be attached to the arguments generated by those considerations. A comprehensive literature search was conducted incorporating the terms "assaultive patients," "ethics," "psychiatric inpatients," and "law." The literature of professional medical ethics was applied to identify relevant domains of ethical argument. Five domains were identified: fiduciary obligations of physicians to assaultive and other patients; obligations to staff members; professional virtues of compassion, self-sacrifice, and self-effacement; retributive justice; and the patient's right to confidentiality. The content of each domain is explained, and guidance is provided on how to assess the relative strengths of ethical argument within each domain. All five domains must be explicitly addressed in order to make ethically disciplined judgments about whether to seek prosecution. A distinctive feature of this ethical analysis is the central importance of the professional virtues.
Anderson, C L
The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.
Sanjuan, Pilar M.; Langenbucher, James W.; Labouvie, Erich
Many women with sexual assault histories receive care in alcohol and other drug treatment programs. Affected women frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction, leading investigators to suggest self-medication may be one path to alcohol and other drug use disorders and relapse. This preliminary study examined sexual dysfunction and sexual assault in 71 women receiving treatment for addiction. Women with prior sexual assault scored higher than non-assaulted women on sexual dysfunction overall, a ...
Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Odimegwu, Clifford
Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries -Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether household-poverty necessarily serves to
Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia
This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…
Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean
Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…
... fund services such as forensic sexual assault examinations and compensation claims for both adult and... Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs and multi-disciplinary Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART). The Violence... to helping victims, offenders must be held accountable for their crimes. Sexual assault forensic...
Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison
In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 20-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a closed left forearm deformity and 10/10 pain after being assaulted. The patient reported that two males struck his left arm with a skateboard and punched him in the jaw. The pain in his arm was sharp in nature, did not radiate, and was worse with movement or palpation. The patient was unable to move the hand and wrist secondary to pain. Sensation and circulation in the affected limb were intact. The patient also reported pain in his right arm, the back of his head, and to his jaw. Left upper limb radiographs (shown indicated a fracture of the ulna shaft and dislocation of the radial head consistent with a Monteggia fracture. Subsequently, the patient was admitted by orthopedics for reduction of the radial head and open reduction internal fixation (ORIF of the ulna. Significant findings: On the axial elbow x-ray, the radial head (red arrow is dislocated anteriorly from the humerus; the humeroulnar articulation is intact. On the AP forearm x-ray, there is a closed, displaced, comminuted fracture of the ulna (blue arrow. Discussion: A Monteggia fracture is a traumatic ulnar fracture combined with a dislocation of the proximal radioulnar joint. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious; however, the radial head dislocation can be easily overlooked; it is estimated that 33% of Monteggia fractures are missed during initial presentation.1 Monteggia fractures are classified using the Bado radiographic classification system, which is based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and angular apex of the ulnar deformity.2 The above patient’s injury is a Type I Monteggia fracture, which comprise 14.5% to 30% of all Monteggia fractures and are often the result of high-energy mechanisms.3 Closed reduction can be sufficient for Monteggia fractures in which the involved ulnar fracture is plastic, greenstick, or transverse. Oblique or comminuted fractures should be
Zion, M M; Tracy, E; Abell, N
The present investigation focused on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members in Ohio to ascertain whether or not spousal participation in Gam-Anon, the companion support group, decreased the gambler's relapse into gambling behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 43 GA members was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. While no significant difference was found in the relapse of those gamblers with or without a spouse in Gam-Anon, the degree to which the gambler had engaged in other addictive-like behaviors in the past did appear to be related to relapse. Those gamblers who had not relapsed reported significantly more engagement in past addictive-like behaviors (excessive overeating, drinking, and using drugs) than those who had relapsed. Additionally, their spouses had also engaged in addictive-like behaviors in the past. Discussion suggests possible explanations for the findings. Implications are drawn for both outcome measures and research with self-help groups.
von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor
This article examines the longitudinal relation between positive affect (PA) and sleep in 126 spousal Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Caregivers underwent 4 yearly assessments for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and actigraphy to objectify nighttime total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and percentage of sleep. Increased levels of PA and a greater positivity (i.e., positive-to-negative affect) ratio were significantly associated with better subjective sleep over the entire study period. Yearly increases in PA-even when controlling for negative affect (NA)-and in the positivity ratio were also associated with better subjective sleep. PA and actigraphy measures showed no significant relations. Increased PA is longitudinally associated with better sleep in dementia caregivers largely independent of NA.
Ascher, Elizabeth A; Sturm, Virginia E; Seider, Benjamin H; Holley, Sarah R; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W
We studied the impact of 2 types of dementia on marital satisfaction and on the emotional language that spouses use during conflictive marital interactions. Fifteen frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 16 Alzheimer disease (AD) patient-caregiver couples, and 21 control couples, discussed a relationship problem in a laboratory setting. Marital satisfaction was assessed through questionnaire, and emotion language was quantified using text analysis. FTD couples reported lower marital satisfaction than AD and control couples. During the interactions, FTD and AD caregivers used significantly more negative emotion words than their patient spouses (no spousal differences were found in control couples). FTD caregivers also used more negative words than AD caregivers and controls. We interpret these findings as reflecting challenges that the behavioral changes in FTD create for maintaining a healthy marital bond.
Alsheikh Ali A
Full Text Available Ahmad Alsheikh Ali,1 Fawzi Shaker Daoud2 1Counseling Psychology Program, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Hashemite University, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study examined several dimensions of early father–daughter relationship as predictors of marital satisfaction among 494 respondents. Descriptive comparative approach was used in result analysis. The Father Presence Questionnaire and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire were used, in addition to a number of demographic variables. Results showed that only physical relationship with the father, and perceptions of father’s influence, had a positive significant impact on wives’ marital satisfaction. Of all domains, only positive feelings about the father had a negative impact on the husband's marital satisfaction. Most demographic variables had statistically significant effect on marital satisfaction. Sociocultural implications for marital satisfaction for wives and husbands are discussed. Keywords: early father–daughter relationship, demographic, spousal marital satisfaction
Springer, Kristen W; Lee, Chioun; Carr, Deborah
Wives increasingly outearn their husbands, and gender relations theory suggests this arrangement may undermine men's well-being. We explore how long-term histories of spousal breadwinning may be associated with older men's self-rated mental and physical health, and risk of nine health diagnoses. Using 30 years of couple-level income data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 1,095 couples), we use latent class analyses to identify six classes that differ with respect to the timing and level of wife breadwinning. We link these classes to older husbands' later-life health. Classes that transitioned from husband breadwinning to wife breadwinning in early or later adulthood were associated with husbands' poorer overall physical health and risk of cardiometabolic and stress-related diseases. Patterns persist net of sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and adolescent health. Violating cultural expectations, such as the masculinity ideal of male breadwinning, is associated with older men's poorer health.
Eldoseri, Halah M; Sharps, Phyllis
This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV. A multisectoral approach should be implemented with focus on providers' training, women's safety, and involvement of men in violence prevention and intervention programs.
Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna L
Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse is a member of a genetic disease registry. The results were analyzed with dyadic analysis, including multilevel modeling. The findings showed that registered members and their spouses were not statistically different in their mean levels of perceived genetic stigma, negative feelings about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), conversations with each other about the AATD test results, and their perceived stress. The findings also showed that their intracouple consistencies were not high, and their intrapersonal and interpersonal influences on communication and stress differed. The social implications of genetic research at the interpersonal level are discussed.
Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S
Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this
Ankuda, Claire K; Maust, Donovan T; Kabeto, Mohammed U; McCammon, Ryan J; Langa, Kenneth M; Levine, Deborah A
To measure the association between spousal depression, general health, fatigue and sleep, and future care recipient healthcare expenditures and emergency department (ED) use. Prospective cohort study. Health and Retirement Study. Home-dwelling spousal dyads in which one individual (care recipient) was aged 65 and older and had one or more activity of daily living or instrumental activity of daily living disabilities and was enrolled in Medicare Part B (N = 3,101). Caregiver sleep (Jenkins Sleep Scale), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-8 Scale), and self-reported general health measures. Primary outcome was care recipient Medicare expenditures. Secondary outcome was care recipient ED use. Follow-up was 6 months. Caregiver depressive symptoms score and six of 17 caregiver well-being measures were prospectively associated with higher care recipient expenditures after minimal adjustment (P care recipient expenditures remained significantly associated with caregiver fatigue (cost increase, $1,937, 95% confidence interval (CI) = $770-3,105) and caregiver sadness (cost increase, $1,323, 95% CI = $228-2,419) after full adjustment. Four of 17 caregiver well-being measures, including severe fatigue, were significantly associated with care recipient ED use after minimal adjustment (P care recipient ED use remained significantly associated with caregiver fatigue (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.52) and caregiver fair to poor health (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04-1.45) after full adjustment. Caregiver total sleep score was not associated with care recipient outcomes. Poor caregiver well-being, particularly severe fatigue, is independently and prospectively associated with higher care recipient Medicare expenditures and ED use. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Yang, Lei; Martikainen, Pekka; Silventoinen, Karri
The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring's education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65-105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011). Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring's education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.
Maurer, Trent W
This investigation explored college students' victim-blaming behaviors in perceptions of incapacitated rape. Participants received a vignette about a man who had sexual intercourse with a woman who had lost consciousness due to alcohol, with the conditions varied across the vignettes: the relationship between the parties, the alcohol use of the man, and the post-assault sleeping arrangements. Results revealed that when the man was a stranger, participants attributed less responsibility for the incident to him, but were more likely to label the incident as "rape." Neither the alcohol use of the man nor the post-assault sleeping arrangements significantly influenced participants' perceptions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31....
Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M; Wilcox, Holly C; Forman, Julie L; Krogh, Jesper; Shear, M Katherine; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates
Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner's suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general population. Compared with spouses bereaved by other manners of death, those bereaved by
Starzynski, Laura L; Ullman, Sarah E
A diverse sample of more than 365 adult sexual assault survivors, recruited from college and community sources, was surveyed about sexual assault experiences, post-assault factors, and perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Older age, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater control over recovery, and more emotional support reactions were associated with positive perceptions of mental health professionals. Stranger offenders, greater resistance during assault, high victim post-assault upset, and blaming social reactions from others were associated with negative perceptions of mental health professionals.
Blando, James D; McGreevy, Katharine; O'Hagan, Emily; Worthington, Karen; Valiante, David; Nocera, Maryalice; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Violence against health care workers is a serious occupational health hazard, especially for emergency department (ED) employees. A significant degree of variability in security programs among hospital EDs is present in part due to the absence of federal legislation requiring baseline security features. Nationally, only voluntary guidelines from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the protection of health care workers exist. The purpose of this study was to examine ED security programs and employee assault rates among EDs with different financial resources, size, and background community crime rates. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among large and small hospitals located in communities with low or high rates of community crime. Hospital financial data were collected through the state health department, and employee assault data were abstracted from hospital OSHA logs. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared or Wilcoxon test. Small hospitals located in towns with low community crime rates implemented the fewest security program features despite having the second highest rate of assault-related OSHA-recordable injuries among ED employees (0.66 per 100,000 staff hours). Due to the highly stressful workplace characteristics of EDs, the risk of employee assault is universal among all hospital sizes in all types of communities. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zijlstra, J.E.; Esselink, G.; Moors, M.L.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of
Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie
How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…
Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura
Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…
rape her). Perhaps we proffer the reason for the rape as tied to the place she was raped, or the time of the day, or the clothes she was wearing, or the fact that .... cultural factors. I have no doubt that such specialized efforts will yield much dividend in the prevention of sexual assaults among the very vulnerable groups. It.
Yassen, Janet; Glass, Lois
Presents a model for a sexual assault survivors' group (SASG), which posits that the aftermath of the sexual assualt can be resolved. Describes issues for leaders, selection of members, setting, format and themes, and group development issues such as bonding, establishing closeness, and letting-go. (LLL)
Background: Sexual assault against women is common all over the world. However, reliable data on the subject in developing countries including Nigeria is not available. Objective: To review the patterns of sexual violence against women treated at the hospital over a 7‑year period. Materials and Methods: Review of ...
Sep 22, 2011 ... The United Nation defines violence against women as any act of sexual assault that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty whether occurring in public or private life.[1,2] Following.
.... Ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and d. Ways to... consent. There is no consent where the person is sleeping or incapacitated, such as due to age, alcohol or... information about a sexual assault comes to the commander's or law enforcement official's attention from a...
influence mental health impact. Early studies form the US show how negative social reactions following a sexual assault increase psychological symptoms.6. These negative reactions and judgments from others largely follow myths about where it took place, severity of the attack, and pre- attack behaviours (alcohol intake), ...
... objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 323 women 10 years and above. Data was collected by trained female interviewers using structured questionnaire and entered into computer, ...
Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.
Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…
Dept of Population and Family Health
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is increasingly being recognized as important human rights, development and health issue however it is difficult to know its magnitude in. Ethiopia. The objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A ...
Neilson, Elizabeth C; Gilmore, Amanda K; Pinsky, Hanna T; Shepard, Molly E; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H
Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants' sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene; Skovlund, Charlotte W
INTRODUCTION: Sexual assault is a public health issue with many potential short- and long-term consequences for the victims. We aimed to investigate somatic health of women before and after sexual assault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 2501 women who attended the Centre for Victims of Sexual...... and after the assault. RESULTS: The incidence of several somatic disorders was found to be significantly higher for the exposed women than for controls, both before and after the assault. Rate ratios of main disorders before and after the assault were respectively: disease of circulatory and respiratory...... significantly after sexual assault. Likewise, the number of visits to a general practitioner was significantly higher in exposed women both before and after the assault (16 vs. 10/year). Complications associated with childbirth were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results...
Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.
A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138
Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Raaj Kishore Biswas
Full Text Available Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years, other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.
Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.
Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and impact of serious assault warranting in-patient care over six years and its impact on ED attendances in a large teaching hospital in Dublin over 2 years. There were 16,079 emergency assault-related inpatient hospital discharges reducing from 60.1 per 100,000 population in 2005 to 50.6 per 100,000 population in 2010. The median length of stay was 1 day (1-466) representing 49,870 bed days. The majority were young males (13,921, 86.6%; median age 26 years). Overall crime figures showed a similar reduction. However, knife crimes did not reduce over this period. Data on ED attendances confirmed the age and gender profile and also showed an increase at weekends. Alcohol misuse was recorded in 2,292\\/16079 (14%) of in-patient cases and 242\\/2484 (10%) in ED attendances. An inter-sectoral preventative approach specifically targeting knife crime is required to reduce this burden on health services.
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Full Text Available Background:Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives:To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by survivors of physical assault by their intimate partners. Method:A quantitative cross-sectional comparative study design was used to compare 30 sexually-assaulted women and 30 physically-assaulted women regarding depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder and coping styles three months after the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the survivors of both types of assault and the Beck Depression Inventory posttraumatic stress disorder checklist and Brief COPE Inventory were administered in order to obtain quantitative data. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results:A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021. The majority of sexually- (90% and physically- (86% assaulted women were likely to recall the incident. Sexually-assaulted women had a significantly-higher mean for avoidance/numbness (p 0.051. About 41%of sexually-assaulted participants reported severe depression. Findings confirmed that sexual assault is more personal whilst physical assault is more interpersonal. If physically-assaulted women were removed from the perpetrators they recovered faster than sexually-assaulted women. Their stay with the perpetrators may perpetuate the violence. Conclusion:The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was recommended. All stakeholders should be educated to provide support to survivors of both traumas.
Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel
Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.
Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul
The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.
program, the Marine Corps have begun developing the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) to replace the 42-year-old Assault Amphibian Vehicle (AAV). Because...the ACV will not be fielded until 2022, the AAV is being modified to improve its survivability. Upgrades to the AAV will make it heavier and...rear cargo hatches had the best chance of survival. This thesis provides baseline results for future emergency egress studies on the AAV and the new ACV
Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425
Polenick, Courtney A; Kales, Helen C; Birditt, Kira S
Greater feelings of purpose in life are associated with better health and may reduce the negative impact of chronic stress. Yet little is known about how purpose in life may buffer the negative effects of caregiving, a common chronic stressor in middle and later life. This cross-sectional study utilized a U.S. sample of 315 spousal caregivers and their partners with functional disability drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving to examine how both parties' perceptions of purpose in life are associated with caregivers' emotional and physical caregiving difficulties. We also evaluated whether care recipients' purpose in life moderates the association between caregivers' purpose in life and care-related difficulties. Finally, we considered whether these links differed by caregiver gender. Models controlled for caregivers' sociodemographics, care tasks, support resources, valued activity participation, and each care partner's health conditions. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly linked to fewer physical caregiving difficulties. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly associated with fewer emotional care-related difficulties among caregiving wives and when care recipients' purpose in life was low. Although the associations between purpose in life and care-related difficulties are likely bidirectional, purpose in life may represent an important resource for combating the adverse consequences of caregiving. This study highlights the value of considering personal resources and their implications for caregivers' well-being within a dyadic context.
Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L
To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Leonard, Michelle T; Issner, Jaclyn Heller; Cano, Annmarie; Williams, Amy M
This study explored correlates of spousal ability to infer the thoughts and feelings of individuals with chronic pain (ICPs). Participant couples (N=57), who consisted of at least 1 couple member with chronic pain, engaged in a videotaped discussion about pain, after which they completed an empathic accuracy procedure where spouses of ICP were asked to infer thoughts/feelings of ICPs. Overall levels of partner empathic accuracy were similar to other studies of couples. Several characteristics of the pain experience and the marital relationship correlated with empathic accuracy for thoughts and feelings. Specifically, partner catastrophizing about the ICP's pain was associated with less empathic accuracy for thoughts, whereas ICP pain severity was related to a greater empathic accuracy for feelings. Several significant interactions were also found, with marital satisfaction and partner's own pain experience acting as moderators. These findings provide support for models of empathy that argue that characteristics of the pain condition and characteristics of the observer are important contributors to observers' understanding of pain. In addition, the findings support previous research that suggests there are different processes for understanding the emotional versus the cognitive experience of others.
Roche, Lauren; MacCann, Carolyn; Croot, Karen
An understanding of spousal dementia caregivers' coping strategies and their predictive factors is imperative for caregivers' well-being. Although several reviews have explored the relationship between coping strategies and outcomes, no review has investigated factors that predict caregivers' use of one type of coping strategy over another. The current review aimed to identify factors that predict caregivers' coping strategies. Within this, we attempted to identify caregivers who are more likely to adopt dysfunctional coping strategies and be at risk of adverse outcomes. Several electronic databases were systematically searched. Twenty-one studies were eligible for review, describing 18 caregiver and care-recipient factors related to the 3 coping strategies. No factors were classified "predictive," however, 16 factors were "potentially predictive." Younger, more highly educated caregivers with greater emotional supports and knowledge of dementia were associated with solution-focused coping. Younger, less educated caregivers were associated with emotional support/acceptance-based coping strategies. Whereas nonwhite caregivers with less emotional supports caregiving for persons with more behavioral problems were associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy, knowledge of dementia, improving social supports, linking to support groups, managing behavioral problems, as well as coaching adaptive coping strategies while flagging caregivers at risk for dysfunctional coping may improve outcomes for caregivers.
Hall, Janet; Goodall, Edward A; Moore, Tara
Alleged sexual assault cases, identified from the forensic science Northern Ireland (FSNI) database, which had toxicology assays carried out on either blood or urine samples, were examined for the years 1999 up to and including 2005. In 1999 there were 30 toxicology requests while in 2005 there were 51, representing a 70% increase. The percentage of cases containing alcohol, drugs or both increased from 66% in 1999 to 78% in 2005. The estimated average blood alcohol concentration remained broadly similar throughout the spread of years. It was found to be 218mg% (milligrams per 100 millilitres) in 1999 and 217mg% in 2005. The actual number of cases studied within the 12h cut-off time rose from 9 in 1999 to 22 in 2005. The relationship between negative toxicology results and time delay between the alleged assault and forensic sampling was examined. This showed that between 44% and 74% of cases were found to have a time delay of >12h. Some of these cases may therefore represent false negative results. The presence of drugs, either alone or in combination with other drugs, doubled between 1999 and 2005. Increased identification was found with antidepressants, recreational drugs, benzodiazepines and analgesics, some of which were also associated with alcohol consumption. The findings are sufficient to cause alarm for the health and safety of certain individuals and their increased vulnerability to sexual assault in some social settings. Additionally, the legal implications of what constitutes valid consent needs to be considered further in the light of these findings, if attrition rates are to improve.
Morrison, Christopher N; Ukert, Benjamin; Palumbo, Aimee; Dong, Beidi; Jacoby, Sara F; Wiebe, Douglas J
This study investigates whether assault frequency increased on days and in cities where candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton held campaign rallies prior to the 2016 US Presidential election. We calculated city-level counts of police-reported assaults for 31 rallies for Donald Trump and 38 rallies for Hillary Clinton. Negative binomial models estimated the assault incidence on rally days (Day 0) relative to that on 8 control days for the same city (Days -28, -21, -14, -7, +7, +14, +21, and +28). Cities experienced an increase in assaults (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=1.12, 95%CI: 1.03-1.22) on the days of Donald Trump's rallies, and no change in assaults on the days of Hillary Clinton's rallies (IRR=1.00, 95%CI: 0.94-1.06). Assaults increased on days when cities hosted Donald Trump's rallies during the 2016 Presidential election campaign.
Objective This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students’ sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim or both. Method Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol’s effects on aggressive and sexual behavior. Results Research suggests that alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and/or the victim increases the likelihood of acquaintance sexual assault occurring through multiple pathways. Alcohol’s psychological, cognitive and motor effects contribute to sexual assault. Conclusions Although existing research addresses some important questions, there are many gaps. Methodological limitations of past research are noted, and suggestions are made for future research. In addition, recommendations are made for college prevention programs and policy initiatives. PMID:12022717
Gage, Anastasia J
This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Al-Sarraj, Safa; Fegan-Earl, Ashley; Ugbade, Antonia; Bodi, Istvan; Chapman, Rob; Poole, Simon; Swift, Ben; Jerreat, Peter; Cary, Nat
Brainstem haemorrhage is common in cases of head injury when it is associated with space-occupying lesion and increases in the intracranial pressure (duret haemorrhage), in cases of diffuse axonal injury (in dorso-lateral quadrant) and diffuses vascular injury (in the periventricular tissue). However focal traumatic brainstem injury is rare. We identified 12 cases of focal traumatic brainstem injury from review of 319 case of head injury. The head trauma had been caused by different mechanisms of complex fall from height and assault. 10/12 are associated with skull fracture, 11/12 with contre coup contusions in the frontal and temporal lobes, 5/12 direct contusions to cerebellum, 5/12 haemorrhage in corpus callosum and 2/11 have gliding contusions. None of the cases had pathological evidence of increase in the intracranial pressure. The bleeding in the pons was at the edge in 2/12 and cross the section in 10/12. The majority of patients were unconscious immediately after the incident (10/12) and 9/12 died within one day. Focal traumatic brainstem injury occurs most likely due to direct impact at the back of the head or stretching forces affecting the brainstem in cases of complex fall from height and after assault, particularly those associated with kicks. It is a serious and commonly fatal brain damage, which needed to be differentiated from other causes of brainstem haemorrhages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
education so SARCs and VAs can maximize the tools they have for supporting male survivors of sexual assault. Familiarity with SAPRO Resources...an area where ongoing education about the value of the SVC/VLC program may ultimately bolster support options for survivors of sexual assault...Lower Response SARCs Demonstrate awareness of the impact of sexual assault on survivors 85 83 87 81 91 Facilitate education and training 82 81 77
American planner’s minds after the Germans successfully employed the concept in Holland and Greece and the Russians employed it in Romania. According to...conceptual manual, Field Manual (FM) 31-30, Tactics and Techniques of Airborne Troops, just a year after the German assault in Greece . Operations...during World War II employed the largest airborne assaults in history , not only in terms of numbers of assaults but also in their sizes. Operation Varsity
Goyal, Monika K; Mollen, Cynthia J; Hayes, Katie L; Molnar, Jennifer; Christian, Cindy W; Scribano, Philip V; Lavelle, Jane
The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of a novel pediatric sexual assault response team (SART) program in the first 3 years of implementation and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. This was a retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (ED) who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with sex, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. One hundred eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 (SD, 4.6) years. The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among girls (P < 0.01), but not by sex. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical examination was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal girls were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (P < 0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, and HIV prophylaxis (P < 0.01). In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on examination. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault.
This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.
Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E.
This study used a large community sample of women sexual assault survivors to prospectively assess 17 theorized predictors across four types of sexual assault revictimization: unwanted contact, coercion, substance-involved assault (SIA), and force. Results indicated that predictors varied across types of revictimization: Unwanted contact and coercion appeared more common in social contexts more hostile toward survivors, whereas forcible assaults and SIAs occurred in circumstances where survivors were vulnerable to being targeted by perpetrators. Overall, the strongest predictors were social environments hostile to survivors, race, childhood sexual abuse, decreased refusal assertiveness, and having more sexual partners. We discuss implications for intervention and research. PMID:27555596
Ahlin, Eileen M
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles. This article seeks to determine if extrapolating data from the substantial prison literature is appropriate by assessing the parallels between risk factors of sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody and those identified for adult inmates. This study uses data of 8,659 youth from the second administration of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC-2) to assess correlates of sexual assault and victimization during periods of detention. Study findings show that experiences with assault and victimization prior to the present period of detention were stronger indicators of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than youth characteristics and demographics and other experiences with assault and victimization. Further, there are differences in risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody compared to adult inmates, which emphasizes the risk of prior sexual assault and victimization in the community and prior custodial settings.
Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E
Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dir, Allyson L; Riley, Elizabeth N; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T
Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester). Among 332 undergraduate women (M(SD)age = 19.15(1.69), 76.9% Caucasian), sexting (T2) predicted sexual assault (T3; b = 3.98, p = .05), controlling for baseline sexual assault (b = 0.82, p sexting (T2) mediated the relationship between problem drinking (T1) and sexual assault (T3) (b = 0.04, CI[.004,.12]). Findings suggest that sexting is one mechanism through which drinking increases the risk of college women being targeted for sexual assault.
von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Mills, Paul J.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Roepke, Susan K.; Chattillion, Elizabeth A.; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor
Study Objectives: Findings on sleep disturbances in family dementia caregivers are conflicting. We studied the longitudinal effects of dementia caregiving and major transitions in the caregiving situation on caregivers' sleep and the effect of moderating variables. Design and Setting: Community-based longitudinal study with assessments about once a year for up to three years. Participants: A sample of 109 elderly spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 48 non-caregiving age- and gender-matched controls. Measurements and Results: Random regression models with fixed and time-variant effects for covariates known to affect sleep were used to evaluate changes in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in four actigraphy measures over time in relation to caregiving status and transitions (i.e., nursing home placement or death of the Alzheimer disease spouse). Multivariate-adjusted sleep characteristics did not significantly differ between caregivers and non-caregivers over time. Spousal death increased caregivers' nighttime wake after sleep onset (WASO) by 23 min (P = 0.002) and daytime total sleep time (TST) by 29 min (P = 0.003), while nighttime sleep percent decreased by 3.2% (P = 0.009) and nighttime TST did not change. Placement of the spouse had no significant effect on caregivers' sleep. Older age, male gender, role overload, depressive symptoms, and proinflammatory cytokines variously emerged as significant moderators of the relationships between caregiving and transitions with poor subjective and objective sleep. Conclusions: Alzheimer caregivers and non-caregiving controls had similar trajectories of sleep. However, there may be subgroups of caregivers who are vulnerable to develop sleep disturbances, including those whose spouses have died. Citation: von Känel R; Mausbach BT; Ancoli-Israel S; Dimsdale JE; Mills PJ; Patterson TL; Ziegler MG; Roepke SK; Chattillion EA; Allison M; Grant I. Sleep in spousal alzheimer caregivers: a longitudinal study with a focus
Claude A Mellins
Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across
O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.
following the death of a loved one. The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between change in high levels of PGS and PTSS during the first four years following old age spousal loss. Methods: Participants were 237 Danes (40% male; mean age = 73 years, SD = 4.4; range 65-81) who...... bereavement to a greater extent than vice versa. Conclusions: The findings in the present study indicate that changes in PGS may precede and potentially directly impact changes in PTSS following bereavement. This tentative conclusion points to the potential value of targeting PGS in psychological...
Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace
As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.
Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gonzalez, Alicia; Pollak, Kathryn I
Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males' smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at 4 time points throughout the intervention. Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male partners' self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners' level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners' outcomes. These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed at increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.
Zijlstra, E; Esselink, G; Moors, M L; LoFoWong, S; Hutschemaekers, G; Lagro-Janssen, A
Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of the population that presented to the Centre in order to customize care to their needs. File analysis was conducted of victims who attended the CSFV between 2013 and 2016. Data were analyzed in SPSS. A total of 121 victims entered the Centre, 93% of them being female. Forty-two per cent were adult victims of sexual violence, 28% minor victims of sexual violence and 30% adult victims of family violence. One-third of sexual and two-third of family violence victims had experienced prior abuse. Current use of psychosocial services and psychiatric medication was high, and a cognitive disability was present in 18% of the sexual violence victims. Half the victims reported, but when the perpetrator was a recent contact, e.g., someone met at a party, reporting rates went down. Sexual and family violence victims share characteristics that indicate vulnerability, suggesting that care for both groups might best be combined in one single assault centre. In this way, victims can make use of the same services and knowledge of gender-based violence. One of the major aims of assault centres is to provide psychosocial follow-up care and facilities for reporting. The victims' needs in these matters deserve further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…
Background: Child sexual assault presents a major challenge to the society that is supposed to be protective. This has both short and long-term health implications for the child. Objectives: This is to highlight the presence of child sexual assault in our society, its associated complications and to proffer ways of preventing its ...
Introduction: sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. However there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods: a retrospective study of sexual ...
Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa
Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…
Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan
Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…
Erbe, Ryan G.; Kearns, Katherine D.
The present pilot study examines the use of story structure for lesson design to promote student engagement in a lesson focusing on sexual assault prevention. The effect of the story-based lesson on undergraduates' knowledge and perceptions of sexual assault was studied using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design. Results of the study…
Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.
to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant...
Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Street, Gordon P.; Riggs, David S.; Foa, Edna B.
This study examined the hypothesis that variables such as history of prior trauma, assault severity, and type of assault, previously found to be associated with natural recovery, would also predict treatment outcome. Trauma-related variables were examined as predictors of posttreatment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in a sample of…
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
Bicanic, I.; Snetselaar, H.; de Jongh, A.; van de Putte, E.
Background: Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide
Objective. Assaults by burning occur infrequently and are related to the social circumstances and demographics of each population. We aimed to explore the mechanisms, complications, morbidity and mortality associated with assault burn injuries admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of Merheim University Hospital in ...
Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda
Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…
Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe
We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…
Taylor, Zachary W.
Longitudinal research has suggested that sexual assault on college campuses is widespread and grossly underreported. To date, scholars have not examined a seemingly commonsense aspect of sexual assault reporting: the readability of the reporting instructions themselves; therefore, in this study the author examined the readability--using four…
12 Figure 7: The USAF Advertised a Sexual Assault Hotline... Advertised a Sexual Assault Hotline Resource and Promoted the ―Hurts One. Affects All.‖ Campaign Message on Coffee Cup Sleeves. FISCAL YEAR 2010...Summary-of-Findings.aspx. 115 Cone Inc. (2006). The 2006 Cone Millennial Cause Study. The Millennial Generation: Pro-Social And Empowered to Change
Hamby, Sherry L; Sugarman, David B.
Male and female undergraduates completed the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales to assess whether specific acts of psychological aggression are more closely associated with physical assault than others. Results indicated that all psychological items were associated with physical assault. Only certain items reflected malicious intent and some…
Thompson-Miller, Ruth; Picca, Leslie H
Using data from 92 interviews, this article examines the narratives of African Americans' experiences as children and young adults during Jim Crow in the Southeast and Southwest. It gives voice to the realities of sexual assaults committed by ordinary White men who systematically terrorized African American families with impunity after the post-Reconstruction south until the 1960s. The interviewees discuss the short- and long-term impact of physical, mental, emotional, and sexual assaults in their communities. We discuss the top four prevalent themes that emerged related to sexual assault, specifically (a) the normalization of sexual assaults, (b) protective measures to avoid White violence, (c) the morality of African American women, and (d) the long-term consequences of assaults on children. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gökdoğan, M R; Bafra, J
Sexual offences are recognized to be one of the most critical of crimes throughout the world. In Turkey, forcible rapes show, in the sexual crime rates, an increase of approximately 3% every year. It becomes even more critical, when realizing that less than half of all rapes, which are believed to occur, are reported to law enforcement, and of those few assailants who are arrested even fewer are convicted of rape. Often, little or no knowledge of the correct methods of locating, recovering, packaging, and preserving evidence specimens are the causes for compromising the forensic examination in court. This problem occurs when medical personnel are not adequately trained or properly advised in the evidentiary aspects and medical features of treating a victim. The current survey is aimed to increase the awareness of the need of an initial and continuing education by health care policies to cope with increasing professional demands for forensic practice sexual assault cases, to take judicial and social precautions, and medico-legal evidence. To determine the likelihood of obtaining corroborating evidence this paper presents the results of a study referring to this problem. An updated questionnaire has been applied at random to medical personnel, a total of 543 participants, throughout Turkey. Taking certain criteria into consideration the findings revealed a significant deficiency of knowledge regarding medical-legal examination. In comparison, a one-semester course of basic forensic sciences proved to be sufficient to recognize the amount of knowledge required to work as a forensic professional. Based on the results, recommendations are presented in the form of a sexual assault evidence collection kit (SAECK). A kit, which takes into consideration the needs of crime laboratories, law enforcement agencies, medical personnel, and above all the victim. This is the first step in building a responsible and successful evidence collection program that will survive the rigors
Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes chemical injuries, which presented to us and were managed at a burn unit in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the etiologies of these injuries, the extent of the injuries as well as to suggest possible ways to prevent chemical injuries in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of chemical burns treated at our center. Our sources of information were the burn unit admission registers, case notes of the patients and operation registers. The results were collated and then analyzed. Results: Twenty eight patients presented with chemical burn injuries during the study period between January 2000 and December 2003, constituting 5.7% of all patients with burns treated within that period. Seventeen (60.7% of the patients were males while 11 (29.3% were females with a mean age of 20.6 years. The injuries were sustained from assault in 21 (75%, armed robbery attacks in five (17.8% and suicide attempts in two (7.1%. The agents were usually unknown. Late presentation was observed in all the patients. Raw eggs, palm oil, gentian violet and engine oil were the substances applied immediately after the injuries. Complications observed included septicemia, respiratory distress, blindness, renal failure, mentosternal contractures, ectropion, axillary contractures, hypertrophic scars, keloids and skin depigmentation. Conclusion: Chemical burn injuries are mainly due to assaults in Nigeria and are usually extensive and presented late. Education of the people and penalty for any offender will reduce the current spate of such injuries.
...-2012-0003] RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in... regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and assault in DHS confinement... Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities.'' 77 FR 75300. The NPRM required commenters to submit...
approach to counting service members who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination , providing DoD with unprecedented... discrimination . If service members who chose not to participate in the survey had different sexual assault or sexual harassment experiences from...of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination . Service members with characteristics associated with a higher risk of sexual
Guerette, Sarah M.; Caron, Sandra L.
This is a study consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 women who were victims/survivors of acquaintance rape while attending a university in the Northeast. The interviews focused on research questions concerning actions taken by the victim/survivor after the assault, reactions to her disclosure of the assault, and the impact of assault. It was…
Larabi, Islam Amine; Martin, Marie; Etting, Isabelle; Penot, Pauline; Fabresse, Nicolas; Alvarez, Jean Claude
Recently, the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to their wide use among clubbers and men who have sex with men (MSM) for their stimulant effects. However, their use in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has rarely been described. Herein we report a case of a 44 years-old man who was assaulted after a party. Due to late reporting of the offense, only hair (black) was sampled 15 days later and a segmental analysis was achieved to look for most DFSA agents and NPS. Twenty mg of each segment (A:0-1cm, B:1-3cm and C:3-5cm) were incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0. After alkaline liquid extraction and chromatographic separation on 1.9 μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column, compounds were detected by a TSQ Vantage mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization in positive mode with MRM acquisition. 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and doxylamine were found in proximal segment at very low concentrations (3, 5 and 9 pg/mg, respectively) which is in agreement with a single exposure in the previous month corresponding to the alleged facts. These substances were not detected in segments B and C showing a lack of repetitive exposure before the alleged event. Thus, the results do not contradict the patient's claim of being assaulted. Doxylamine has already been encountered in such cases but no publications referring to 4-MEC or MDPV use have ever been documented. Our case reports the unusual administration of cathinones to achieve a sexual assault and stresses the interest of seeking for designer drugs when dealing with DFSA cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S
The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.
Ferentzy, Peter; Skinner, Wayne; Antze, Paul
This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed.
Godwin, Kyler M; Swank, Paul R; Vaeth, Patrice; Ostwald, Sharon K
Functional impairment resulting from a stroke frequently requires the care of a family caregiver, often the spouse. This change in the relationship can be stressful for the couple. Thus, this study examined the longitudinal, dyadic relationship between caregivers' and stroke survivors' mutuality and caregivers' and stroke survivors' perceived stress. This secondary data analysis of 159 stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers utilized a cross-lagged, mixed models analysis with the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the dyadic relationship between mutuality and perceived stress over the first year post-discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Caregivers' mutuality showed an actor effect (β = -3.82, p perceived stress but not the stroke survivors' perceived stress. Stroke survivors' perceived stress showed a partner effect and affected caregivers' perceived stress (β = 0.13, p = 0.047). Caregivers' perceived stress did not show a partner effect and did not significantly affect stroke survivors' perceived stress. These findings highlight the interpersonal nature of stress in the context of caregiving for a spouse. Caregivers are especially influenced by perceived stress in the spousal relationship. Couples should be encouraged to focus on positive aspects of the caregiving relationship to mitigate stress.
Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C.
Purpose of the Study: To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Design and Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. Results: As hypothesized, both AD individuals’ and caregivers’ compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers’ compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ burden as well as the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers’ compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Implications: Results suggest that AD individuals’ compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers’ and AD individuals’ feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners’ compassionate love may benefit caregivers. PMID:24534607
Laakkonen, Hanne; Taskinen, Sara; Rönnholm, Kai; Holmberg, Christer; Sandberg, Seija
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) leads to the need for dialysis and renal transplantation (Tx). Peritoneal dialysis (PD) of young children is normally performed at home by the parents and affects the whole family. We studied the coping of families with a young child with ESRD by interviewing the parents of 19 children. The spousal and parent-child relationships were assessed by using the Psychosocial Assessment of Childhood Experiences (PACE) and the Brief Measure of Expressed Emotion, respectively. A control group of 22 families with a healthy child was used for the parent-child relationship evaluation. The spousal relationship at the start of PD was good or fairly good in most of the families and remained good in half of the families following renal Tx. Lack of support from close relatives and renal Tx were associated with a poorer relationship quality. Almost all parents expressed much or fairly much emotional warmth towards the child throughout the study, but there was a trend towards increased criticism over time. No differences in the degree of expressed warmth or criticism were noted between the index parents and controls. Overall, the study families appeared to cope well despite the serious illness of their child and the demands of the treatments.
Coulter, Robert W S; Rankin, Susan R
Sexual- and gender-minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) undergraduate students are at greater risk for sexual assault victimization than their cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) heterosexual peers. However, few studies have examined how social environments affect sexual assault victimization among sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students. Nevertheless, this research area was identified as a priority by the Institute of Medicine as well as President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault. Therefore, we tested the association between college campuses' inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and experiences of sexual assault victimization. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students ( N = 1,925) from higher education institutions in all 50 U.S. states in 2010. Our dependent variable was experiencing sexual assault victimization at college. Our primary independent variable was campus climate, measured with items assessing perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and witnessing sexual- or gender-minority harassment. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (accounting for the clustering of students within schools) to estimate the association between campus climate and experiencing sexual assault victimization. Overall, 5.2% of the sample reported ever being victims of sexual assault at college. Controlling for sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, and year in school, greater perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people on campus was associated with significantly lower odds of experiencing sexual assault victimization. Our study suggests that improving campus climate for sexual- and gender-minority individuals may reduce their prevalence of college sexual assault, which has potential implications for college practitioners and administrators as well as sexual assault
Ullman, Sarah E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet revictimization may mediate risk of symptoms over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data from a 3-wave panel design with a large (N=1012), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to examine whether repeated sexual victimization related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking at both 1 and 2year follow-ups. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term or vice versa, although they were correlated at each timepoint. Revictimization during the study predicted survivors' prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms inconsistently. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Robel, Erika; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A
Among women and gay and bisexual men, sexual assault is associated with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and negative sexual health outcomes. Although the mechanisms of these effects are potentially myriad, the current analyses examine the role of perceived partner pressure for condomless sex in mediating the association between adult sexual assault (ASA) and recent anal or vaginal sex without a condom. In a sample of 205 young adult women and gay and bisexual men, ASA was indirectly associated with condomless anal and/or vaginal sex via perceptions of partner pressure for condomless sex, χ 2 (1) = 5.66, p = .02, after controlling for race, age, gender and sexual identity, and relationship status. The elucidation of this relational mechanism points to several potential intervention and prevention strategies that may reduce actual and perceived pressure for sex without a condom, including strategies designed to facilitate the prioritization of health and safety over relational goals and the improvement of partner selection and perceptions of partner pressure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence (DV against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Methods Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15–49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women. In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Results Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.89 and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87 DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group. Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39–0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55–0.63. The model’s goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.152. Conclusions Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be
Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander
Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be
Full Text Available The worldwide shortage of organs available for transplantation has led to the use of living-unrelated kidney donors. In this context, spouses represent an important source of organ donors. We compared the allograft outcomes of spousal donor transplantation (SDT with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction therapy and living related donor transplantation (LRDT with triple immonosuppression and basiliximab, in addition. Among the 335 living and deceased donor kidney transplantations performed between April 2001 and June 2010, there were 274 living donor kidney transplantations including 34 SDT and 240 LRDT. The minimum follow-up period was 36 months. All recipients of SDT received ATG (1.5 mg/kg induction therapy, which was stopped five to seven days after surgery. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus (TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone. LRDT recipients received triple immunosuppressive protocol consisting of cyclosporine or TAC, MMF and prednisolone, in addition to basiliximab. There was a significant difference between the two groups in recipient age, while pre-operative duration on dialysis, recipient sex and donor age and sex were not significantly different. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in the number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of SDT were 94.1%, 88.2% and 79.4%, respectively, and the frequency of acute rejection episodes was 5.8% (two cases. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of LRDT were 95.8%, 91.6% and 83.3%, respectively, with the frequency of acute rejection being 16.2%. The graft survival rates of SDT were as good as LRDT, while the acute rejection rates in SDT were lower than in LRDT, although the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.13.
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J
Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sorenson, Susan B; Joshi, Manisha; Sivitz, Elizabeth
Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess whether participants knew a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault. Findings indicate that students begin college with considerable personal knowledge of sexual assault victimization and perpetration. Nearly two thirds (64.5%) reported that they know one or more women who were a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault, and over half (52.4%) reported that they know one or more men who perpetrated any of the types of sexual assault. Most students reported knowing victims and perpetrators of multiple types of assault. Knowledge varied substantially by gender and ethnicity. Students' preexisting personal knowledge should be included in assessments of program effectiveness and, ideally, in program design.
Pekurinen, Virve Maaret; Välimäki, Maritta; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
This study tested the hypothesis that poor organizational justice and collaboration among nurses are associated with increased stress among nurses, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of violent assaults by patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses in 90 psychiatric inpatient wards in five hospital districts and one regional hospital in Finland. A total of 758 nurses (registered nurses or enrolled/mental health nurses) responded to the survey. Self-administered postal questionnaires were used to assess organizational justice, collaboration, nurses' stress, and violent assaults by patients. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in model testing. SEM did not support a role for stress in mediating between organizational justice, collaboration between nurses, and violent assaults by patients, given that stress levels were not dependent to a significant degree on organizational justice, nor were patients' assaults dependent on stress levels. However, low organizational justice and poor collaboration between nurses were associated with increased reports of violent assaults by patients in psychiatric inpatient settings (porganizational justice, collaboration between staff members, and violent assaults by patients are linked in psychiatric inpatient settings. Evaluating a variety of factors, including issues related to organizational justice and collaboration among nurses, may be useful to minimize assaults by patients in psychiatric settings.
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the aftermath of rape and other sexual assault, but the risk factors leading to PTSD following rape have been shown to differ from those related to PTSD following nonsexual assault. This prospective study examined risk factors for PTSD severity in 148 female help-seeking victims of sexual assault. Approximately 70% of the victims experienced significant levels of traumatization, with 45% reporting symptoms consistent with a probable PTSD diagnosis. Regression analyses showed that relationship with the assailant, number of assailants, the nature of the assault, perceived positive social support, support satisfaction, feeling let down by others, and prior exposure to sexual trauma did not significantly predict PTSD severity at the final level of analysis. In accordance with suggestions by Dancu, Riggs, Hearst-Ikeda, and Shoyer (1996), it is suggested that this is partly caused by a very high degree of traumatization in the sample. Instead, previous nonsexual traumatic experiences and negative affectivity accounted for 30% of the variance in PTSD severity. Although more research is needed on risk factors of assault-related PTSD, these findings suggest that although sexual assault is associated with a high degree of PTSD severity, prior nonsexual victimization and high levels of negative affectivity appear to further increase the vulnerability toward developing symptoms of assault-related PTSD.
Kano, N; Nakamura, Y; Sakurayama, T; Kataoka, Y; Shitaya, E; Shinohara, S; Otake, M; Makino, M
The purpose of the study is to clarify the present situation of medical care for victims of sexual assault and violence. Medical facilities in two wards in Tokyo were studied in order to know what problems regarding medical care exist and how to support female victims. In April 1998, we distributed questionnaires to 338 medical facilities covering all the clinics and hospitals, that had more than only otorhinolaryngology and ophthalmology, in Kouto-ku and Sumida-ku, Tokyo. The questionnaire included questions about individual experience of consulting with sexual assault and violence against women, the number of victims in the last year, and their understandings for victims. 1) 76 of the respondents completed the answer sheet by themselves. The mean age of the subjects was 57.4 years old, 16.3% of them had seen sexual assault victims, and about 36.8% had cared for victims of violence. 2) 67 victims of sexual assault and violence were reported in the previous year. 36% of victims of sexual assault were reported by facilities related to obstetrics, and 85% of victims of violence were reported by general medical facilities. 3) As for understandings for victims, those who thought the victims were responsible for the sexual assault also regarded violence as caused by carelessness of victims. Medical facilities may be an important place to care for victims of sexual assault and violence against women. There are few data available as to how many women suffer from sexual violence. This study showed for the first time the reality of sexual assault and violence from the viewpoints of medical facilities in Japan, although it had some limitations. It is necessary for more discussion about roles of medical care for female victims of sexual assault and violence.
Nielsen, Jannie; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R
In the UK, more than one million people have undiagnosed diabetes and an additional five million are at high risk of developing the disease. Given that early identification of these people is key for both primary and secondary prevention, new screening approaches are needed. Since spouses resemble each other in cardiometabolic risk factors related to type 2 diabetes, we aimed to investigate whether diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in one spouse can be used as an indicator of incident type 2 diabetes in the other spouse. We analysed data from 3649 men and 3478 women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing with information on their own and their spouse's diabetes status and cardiometabolic risk factors. We modelled incidence rates and incidence rate ratios with Poisson regression, using spousal diabetes status or cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic BP, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols) as exposures and type 2 diabetes incidence in the index individual as the outcome. Models were adjusted for two nested sets of covariates. Spousal BMI and waist circumference were associated with incident type 2 diabetes, but with different patterns for men and women. A man's risk of type 2 diabetes increased more steeply with his wife's obesity level, and the association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the man's own obesity level. Having a wife with a 5 kg/m 2 higher BMI (30 kg/m 2 vs 25 kg/m 2 ) was associated with a 21% (95% CI 11%, 33%) increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the association between incident type 2 diabetes in a woman and her husband's BMI was attenuated after adjusting for the woman's own obesity level. Findings for waist circumference were similar to those for BMI. Regarding other risk factors, we found a statistically significant association only between the risk of type 2 diabetes in women and their husbands' triacylglycerol levels. The main
Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange
A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....
Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Full Text Available The assailants of sexuel assault to serve this purpose to the victims of many different drug can use. These drugs can be applied together with alcohol, soft drinks, water and other drinks can be given together. Most of these drugs tasteless and odorless. In a few minutes after ingestion chemical effect of drugs can start. Victims the conscious reduction and limitation of the physical move occur. Drug drinking from the pass the time until impact memory loss can occur. For this purpose the main benzodiazepines (Diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc., hypnotics (Zopiclone, zolpidem, anesthetics (Gama-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, amphetamines (Metylendioxymetamphetamine=ecstasy, opiats (Cocaine, cannabis=marihuana and alcohols such as ethanol substances used. However in study frequently encountered in the literature; cocaine, cannabis, metylendioxymetamphetamine, zolpidem, ketamine hydrochloride, zopiclone, gamma hydroxybutirate, diazepam, flunitrazepam and the effects of these substances after oral ingestion were evaluated and the approach to victims.
Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin
The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.
Hansen, Ole Ingemann
at the emergency department, open 24-hours a day and no referral is needed nor police notification. The victim can talk to specially trained nurses and get a medical examination with collection of forensic evidence performed by a specially trained physician. The day after the acute treatment and crisis care......November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located...... - the others were taken care of by the nurses and/or the psychologist. 256 victims examined by the physicians were reported to the police (78%). The Aarhus Center is now well established, and there is an excellent cooperation in the region between the Center and the affiliated partners: the police...
Evaluation of the Separation of Service Members Who Made a Report of Sexual Assault M A Y 9 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-088 Mission Our mission is to... Sexual Assault Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective In accordance with House Report 114-102 to accompany Public Law 114-92, “National Defense...Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016,” we evaluated the separations of service members who made unrestricted reports of sexual assault. We evaluated
Masters, W H
Three men have been treated for sexual dysfunction and disorder that developed subsequent to sexual assault by women. Although the men were able to respond effectively sexually during the actual assault experience, they were unable to interact with a female partner of choice in all subsequent sexual opportunities over more than a 2-year period. In treatment, more difficulties were encountered in returning to each man his sense of personal dignity and confidence in his masculinity than in reversal of openly expressed anxieties about sexual performance and neutralization of spectator roles. When possible, parallels were drawn to reactive similarities between male victims of sexual assault and female rape victims.
Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A
Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.
Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giorgi, G; Leon Perez, J M; Montani, F; Courcy, F; Arcangeli, G
External/intrusive violence at work can result in psychological distress and can be an important risk to employee health and safety. However, the vast majority of workplace violence studies have employed cross-sectional and correlational research, designed to examine immediate reactions after being assaulted at work. To explore whether exposure to robbery as a traumatic event may contribute to the onset of typical symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety depression, dysphoria and loss of confidence) and job dissatisfaction over time. We collected data by using a two-wave panel design, in which employees working the days of bank robberies, in an Italian bank, filled in a questionnaire between 48h and 1 week after the robbery (T1) and 2 months after the robbery (T2). We performed structural equation models to evaluate the fit of different models to our data. There were 513 participants at T1 (58% women) and 175 (34%) participants at T2 (62% women). There was a simultaneous association in which psychological distress leads to job dissatisfaction both following robbery and 2 months later. Our findings support a synchronous effects model and suggest that interventions after suffering physical assaults, apart from helping employees to recover their health, should consider restoring their trust and confidence in the organization. This study contributes to understanding the dynamic relationships between a robbery at work and its outcomes over time, by addressing several methodological deficiencies in previous longitudinal studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Descripción de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias de un centro hospitalario de referencia Description of sexual assaults treated in the emergency department of a referral hospital
Jaume Grau Cano
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores relacionados con las agresiones sexuales que se atienden en el hospital de referencia de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de base individual de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias entre los años 2005 y 2008. Resultados: Se atendieron 712 pacientes, con predominio femenino (95,5%. Las mujeres agredidas y atendidas presentan una edad mediana de 25 años, realizaron denuncia el 87,5% de los casos y fueron agredidas por un único agresor el 84,5%. El perfil de la agredida (pObjective: To describe the factors related to adult sexual assaults attended in a referral hospital in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We carried out an individual-based cross-sectional study of sexual assaults treated in the emergency department between 2005 and 2008. Results: A total of 712 patients (95.5% female were treated. The median age of assaulted women was 25 years. Complaints were made in 87.5% of cases and assaults were made by a single attacker in 84.5%. When the perpetrator was known, the profile of the victim (p<0.05 was as follows: the victim was assaulted at home (81.5%, the perpetrator acted alone (94.2%, the mechanism of aggression was penetration (89.3% and the attack took place during the week (63.3%. Conclusions: Analysis of sexual assaults allows for different risk groups to be established, which facilitates the development of specific protocols and guidelines for effective aid and full treatment.
Anthony C. Akpanta
Full Text Available The act of violence against wife is condemnable and attracts various legal penalties, globally. This article attempts to find a link between spousal age difference and violence (Emotional, Physical and Sexual against wives in Nigeria. The result show that wives who are older than their partners are more likely to experience sexual and emotional violence; also, wives who are same age as their husbands are more likely to experience sexual violence; whereas wives who are 1-4 years younger than their husbands are more likely to experience physical violence; while wives 5 years or more younger than their husbands are generally less likely to experience any form of violence.
Rafferty, Katherine A; Cramer, Emily M; Priddis, DeAnne
A significant number of Americans die in ways that do not reflect their preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. For married individuals, the spouse often has the legal authority to make decisions at EOL. Many factors, most notably open preemptive communication about care preferences and dying wishes, determine whether such communication is viable and a partner's wishes are respected. We used a mixed method approach, involving a content analysis of spouses' reasons for seeking and avoiding conversations regarding their partners' EOL care preferences, and examined whether certain demographic factors (eg, income, gender, age) more likely contributed to the initiation of EOL conversations. We situate our findings within the broader cultural discourse about death and dying and highlight the influence of uncertainty in spousal EOL communication. © The Author(s) 2014.
Qiao, Zhen; Powell, Joseph E; Evans, David M
Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications), and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice.
Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.
von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mills, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Ziegler, Michael G; Roepke, Susan K; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor
Findings on sleep disturbances in family dementia caregivers are conflicting. We studied the longitudinal effects of dementia caregiving and major transitions in the caregiving situation on caregivers' sleep and the effect of moderating variables. Community-based longitudinal study with assessments about once a year for up to three years. A sample of 109 elderly spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 48 non-caregiving age- and gender-matched controls. Random regression models with fixed and time-variant effects for covariates known to affect sleep were used to evaluate changes in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in four actigraphy measures over time in relation to caregiving status and transitions (i.e., nursing home placement or death of the Alzheimer disease spouse). Multivariate-adjusted sleep characteristics did not significantly differ between caregivers and non-caregivers over time. Spousal death increased caregivers' nighttime wake after sleep onset (WASO) by 23 min (P = 0.002) and daytime total sleep time (TST) by 29 min (P = 0.003), while nighttime sleep percent decreased by 3.2% (P = 0.009) and nighttime TST did not change. Placement of the spouse had no significant effect on caregivers' sleep. Older age, male gender, role overload, depressive symptoms, and proinflammatory cytokines variously emerged as significant moderators of the relationships between caregiving and transitions with poor subjective and objective sleep. Alzheimer caregivers and non-caregiving controls had similar trajectories of sleep. However, there may be subgroups of caregivers who are vulnerable to develop sleep disturbances, including those whose spouses have died.
Full Text Available Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS. First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications, and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice.
Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott
The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…
Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia
Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn
Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services.
Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T; Holder, Norah
Hospital-based partner assault clinics are a relatively recent addition to the community response to partner violence. In this study, 66% of 111 women attending hospital clinics for partner assault were physically injured and 43% reported death threats. Few concurrently used other services (shelters or police) and most relied on female friends and relatives for help. Many participants who currently lived with the perpetrator were contemplating leaving but only a third had made plans to do so. Participants faced an unusually high risk of future assault, according to both victim interview using the ODARA actuarial risk assessment and their own perceptions. Findings imply an important role for partner assault clinics and the feasibility of the victim service sector's using the same actuarial risk assessments as the criminal justice system.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microgravity alters the immune response to in vitro LPS assault engineered in spaceflight: A multi-omics study Microgravity can facilitate creation of a potent...
... even today, too many women, men, and children suffer alone or in silence, burdened by shame or unsure... of sexual assault during college. For some groups, the rates of violence are even higher--Native...
Jeanette M. Sebaeng
Conclusion: Women who experience sexual assault are left with devastating effects such as physical and psychological harm and social victimisation. There is also a need for safety and support towards the recovery of these women. This study recommends that professional practitioners involved in the management of sexual assault be sensitised regarding the ordeal experienced by women and stop perceiving survivors as crime scene ‘clients’ from whom only medico-legal evidence has to be collected. Professional practitioners and family members must be supportive, non-judgemental and considerate of the dignity of survivors. The establishment of sexual assault response teams (SART is also recommended. There should also be inter-professional education for better coordination of services rendered to sexually assaulted women.
Art. 125 Pending Civilian victim alleged that while in sexual relationship with subject, subject became angry at her alleged infidelity and raped her...Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military Fiscal Year 2012...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. Fiscal Year 2012
Jeanette M. Sebaeng
Full Text Available Background: Sexual assault poses a serious health problem to both the survivor and the health system. Experiencing sexual assault requires women to seek medical and psychological assistance as part of their journey towards recovery. This study examined the experiences of women who received post-sexual assault services from a specialised care centre within a provincial hospital.Methods: A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design was used to explore and describe experiences of women. Data were obtained through individual in-depth interviews from a total of 18 women aged between 18 and 55 years. Interviews were supplemented by the researcher’s field notes and audiotape recordings.Results: Findings yielded two main themes: Women expressed their lived experiences of sexual assault characterised by different forms of trauma. The second theme was an expression of a need for safety and support.Conclusion: Women who experience sexual assault are left with devastating effects such as physical and psychological harm and social victimisation. There is also a need for safety and support towards the recovery of these women. This study recommends that professional practitioners involved in the management of sexual assault be sensitised regarding the ordeal experienced by women and stop perceiving survivors as crime scene ‘clients’ from whom only medico-legal evidence has to be collected. Professional practitioners and family members must be supportive, non-judgemental and considerate of the dignity of survivors. The establishment of sexual assault response teams (SART is also recommended. There should also be inter-professional education for better coordination of services rendered to sexually assaulted women.
performing some types of amphibious landings without a Mistral. However, the majority of the troops assaulted the beachhead via hovercraft (which were...or for amphibious vehicles to drive off their ramps into the sea. The Ivan Rogov could carry landing craft and assault hovercrafts in its well deck...deck to deploy landing craft, hovercraft or amphibious vehicles. The only option available potentially to the Ivan Gren would be to carry LCU/LCM on
In South Africa, rape protocols mostly consist of obtaining the history .... influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time of their assault, and most of them ... Friend's home. 8.5. 18. Open veld. 10.3. 22. Bus/train station. 3.8. 8. Party. 7.5. 16. Total. 100.0. 213. Although sexual assault is considered an act of violence, visible injuries.
Kaysen, Debra L.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Lee, Christine M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Fossos, Nicole; Atkins, David C.
Although alcohol use has been associated with increased risk of victimization, little is known about how victim substance use at the time of assault may affect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom development. The present study is a longitudinal examination of substance use on PTSD symptom severity and course. A community sample of female crime victims (n = 60) were assessed within 5 weeks of sexual or physical assault with 3 and 6 month postassault follow-ups. Twenty-three participan...
processes, and resolving ethical conflicts . The Judge Advocate General’s School incorporated the child training into the Special Victims’ Counsel...likely than women to describe their sexual assault as “hazing.” Some male victims who experience such hazing/ bullying incidents may not even... bullying incidents may not consider making a report because they may not identify the incident as a sexual assault. In addition, men are more likely
Hollywood , “Creating a True Army of One: Four Proposals to Combat Sexual Harassment in Today’s Army,” www.law.harvard.edu (accessed January 2, 2012). 10...outlined the Department’s policy concerning sexual harassment , and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) prescribed how to handle sexual assault...tolerance for sexual assault,” the offenders received sentences ranging from prison time to dishonorable discharges. 13 Dana Michael Hollywood , 168. 7
Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Nocera, Maryalice; Smith, Jamie B; Blando, James; Goldmacher, Suzi; O'Hagan, Emily; Valiante, David; Harrison, Robert
This study examines changes in violent event rates to hospital employees before and after enactment of the California Hospital Safety and Security Act in 1995. We compared pre- and post-initiative employee assault rates in California (n = 116) emergency departments and psychiatric units with those in New Jersey (n = 50), where statewide workplace violence initiatives do not exist. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare assault rates between a 3-year pre-enactment period (1993-1995) and a 6-year post-enactment period (1996-2001) using New Jersey hospitals as a temporal control. Assault rates among emergency department employees decreased 48% in California post-enactment, compared with emergency department employee assault rates in New Jersey (rate ratio [RR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31, 0.90). Emergency department employee assault rates decreased in smaller facilities (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.96) and for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.79) post-enactment. Among psychiatric units, for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.85) and hospitals located in smaller communities (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.92) experienced decreased assault rates post-enactment. Policy may be an effective method to increase safety to health care workers.
Jiang, Yongwen; Ranney, Megan L; Seaberry, Jordan; Shea, Lynne-Marie; Sullivan, Brian; Viner-Brown, Samara
Community violence, including assault and homicide, is a public health problem. We provide a profile of assault-related injury and homicide death in Rhode Island to better understand assault/homicide. The 2014 emergency department (ED) visit data, hospital discharge (HD) data, and 2004-2014 Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) data were used for this study. Most assault injuries and homicide deaths were among persons who were 25-44 years old, male, black and Hispanic, living in urban regions, self-pay or public insurance user, and never married. Almost 63% of the homicide decedents tested positive for some illicit substance. Precipitating circumstances include a preceding argument or a conflict, another crime, intimate partner violence, and drug involvement. RIVDRS did not provide an estimate for mental illness related homicides (e.g. command hallucinations). ED, HD, and RIVDRS data can provide a profile of assault injury and homicide death for public health authorities in RI. Interventions need to focus on high-risk populations and areas to effectively prevent assault-related injury and homicide. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-04.asp].
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Watkins, Daphne C; Wharton, Tracy; Mitchell, Jamie A; Matusko, Niki; Kales, Helen
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of non-spousal family support on mental health among older, church-going African American men. The mixed methods objective was to employ a design that used existing qualitative and quantitative data to explore the interpretive context within which social and cultural experiences occur. Qualitative data (n=21) were used to build a conceptual model that was tested using quantitative data (n= 401). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an inverse association between non-spousal family support and distress. The comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis fit index, and root mean square error of approximation indicated good model fit. This study offers unique methodological approaches to using existing, complementary data sources to understand the health of African American men.
Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women’s perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women’s attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women. PMID:29161277
Johnson, Matthew D; Anderson, Jared R; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C
The current study sought to explore the indirect association of spousal overprotection on patient dietary adherence through the mechanism of diabetes distress and whether the link between overprotection and diabetes distress was moderated by spouse active engagement. Participants were 117 married couples in which one member had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were recruited from a patient registry at a Midwestern (USA) medical centre. Data were gathered from spouses and patients through a self-report survey instrument. The research questions were answered with structural equation modelling using the latent moderated structural equations (LMS) approach and dyadic data analytic procedures. Overprotection was associated with reduced dietary adherence indirectly via increased diabetes distress only at low levels of active engagement. The proposed model also proved superior when compared to two plausible alternatives. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the nuanced associations among the different ways spouses cope with illness to achieve better diabetes outcomes and the mechanisms responsible for linking coping and dietary adherence. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Spousal coping behaviour can influence dietary adherence among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, positively and negatively. Spouses simultaneously engage in different ways of coping with partner illness, but little is known about the interactive nature of coping styles or possible mechanisms that might link coping with illness outcomes. What does this study add? Spousal overprotection is only associated with reduced patient dietary adherence when spouses are also engaging in low levels of active engagement. Diabetes distress is an important mechanism linking spousal coping with patient dietary adherence. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Klein, Sonja B; Buoncristiani, Martin R
Analysis of sexual assault evidence, often a mixture of spermatozoa and victim epithelial cells, represents a significant portion of a forensic DNA laboratory's case load. Successful genotyping of sperm DNA from these mixed cell samples, particularly with low amounts of sperm, depends on maximizing sperm DNA recovery and minimizing non-sperm DNA carryover. For evaluating the efficacy of the differential extraction, we present a method which uses a Separation Potential Ratio (SPRED) to consider both sperm DNA recovery and non-sperm DNA removal as variables for determining separation efficiency. In addition, we describe how the ratio of male-to-female DNA in the sperm fraction may be estimated by using the SPRED of the differential extraction method in conjunction with the estimated ratio of male-to-female DNA initially present on the mixed swab. This approach may be useful for evaluating or modifying differential extraction methods, as we demonstrate by comparing experimental results obtained from the traditional differential extraction and the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC © ) procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Merkel, Reinhard; Putzke, Holm
Non-therapeutic circumcision violates boys' right to bodily integrity as well as to self-determination. There is neither any verifiable medical advantage connected with the intervention nor is it painless nor without significant risks. Possible negative consequences for the psychosexual development of circumcised boys (due to substantial loss of highly erogenous tissue) have not yet been sufficiently explored, but appear to ensue in a significant number of cases. According to standard legal criteria, these considerations would normally entail that the operation be deemed an 'impermissible risk'-neither justifiable on grounds of parental rights nor of religious liberty: as with any other freedom right, these end where another person's body begins. Nevertheless, after a resounding decision by a Cologne district court that non-therapeutic circumcision constitutes bodily assault, the German legislature responded by enacting a new statute expressly designed to permit male circumcision even outside of medical settings. We first criticise the normative foundations upon which such a legal concession seems to rest, and then analyse two major flaws in the new German law which we consider emblematic of the difficulty that any legal attempt to protect medically irrelevant genital cutting is bound to face.
harassment and sexual assault. 17 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I describe the data used for the empirical analysis and the construction...THE MILITARY: AN ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING by William C. Souder, III March 2017 Thesis Advisor...ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William C. Souder, III 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND
mission readiness, and raises financial costs. DOD data show that reported sexual assaults involving servicemembers more than doubled from about 2,800...fiscal year 2014.1 However, recent data suggest that these reports represent a fraction of the sexual assault incidents that are actually occurring...Corporation, Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 2. Estimates for Department of Defense Service Members from the 2014
Berry, Kate M; Rutledge, Carolyn M
To examine women's experiences with sexual assault screening by health care professionals and identify factors that influence women to disclose their sexual assault history to providers. Cross-sectional descriptive survey with correlational analysis. On-line survey distributed nationally. One hundred forty-three women. Participants were recruited through social media; the authors e-mailed organizations across the nation and asked them to share links to a Facebook page connected to the survey. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's rho, and contingency tables were calculated, and qualitative content analysis was performed by thematic analysis. Most (n = 103, 72.5%) participants reported that they felt comfortable with being asked about sexual assault, but only 41 (28.7%) participants were screened for sexual assault by health care professionals. Positive attitude and increased comfort level with screening were associated with increased intention to disclose past assault (p sexual assault to a provider if asked, whereas only 35 (24.6%) women would voluntarily disclose. Women identified prevention of medical and physical consequences as main facilitators to disclosure, and provider attitude and demeanor as the main barriers. Sixty-nine (48.9%) participants were victims of sexual assault. Women with a history of sexual assault were no more likely than women not victimized to have been screened for sexual assault. Study findings suggest that women are often not screened for sexual assault despite being receptive to inquiry. Health care professionals often do not identify those who have been sexually assaulted because they do not ask. Thus, many victims do not receive needed sexual assault resources and support. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2014-2016 DoD Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy? e. Education and Training 1. Not at all 2. Small extent 3. Moderate extent 4. Large extent 5...challenges in implementing the elements of the DoD Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy? f. Not enough continuing education opportunities to enhance...continuing education credits for the Defense Sexual Assault Advocate Certification Program (D-SAACP). 43. Are you familiar with SAPR Connect
Williamson, C.L.; Iams, Z.L.
Rigid polyurethane foam utilizes a variety of mechanisms to mitigate the thermal assault of a ''regulatory burn''. Polymer specific heat and foam k-factor are of limited usefulness in predicting payload protection. Properly formulated rigid polyurethane foam provides additional safeguards by employing ablative mechanisms which are effective even when the foam has been crushed or fractured as a result of trauma. The dissociative transitions from polymer to gas and char, and the gas transport of heat from inside the package out into the environment are also thermal mitigators. Additionally, the in-situ production of an intumescent, insulative, carbonaceous char, confers thermal protection even when a package's outer steel skin has been breached. In this test program, 19 liter, ''Five gallon'' steel pails are exposed on one end to the flame of an ''Oil Burner'' as described in the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ''Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook''. When burning 2 diesel at a nominal rate of 8.39 kg (18.5 pounds)/hr, the burner generates a high emissivity flame that impinges on the pail face with the thermal intensity of a full scale pool-fire environment. Results of these tests, TGA and MDSC analysis on the subject foams are reported, and their relevance to full size packages and pool fires are discussed
Välimäki, Tarja H; Martikainen, Janne A; Hallikainen, Ilona T; Väätäinen, Saku T; Koivisto, Anne M
To explore family caregiver (FC) long-term psychological distress after Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis in a family member. FC (n = 236) and patients with AD were prospectively followed up to 36 months after AD diagnosis. FC psychological distress was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Furthermore, caregiver depressive symptoms and sense of coherence, along with AD patient measurements, were measured at baseline and annually. Generalized estimating equation models were applied to study associations of these baseline factors to caregiver GHQ. After 36 months of follow-up, spousal caregivers (SCs) GHQ was significantly higher (P caregivers (NSCs). The difference in GHQ scores was associated by depressive symptoms (P caregiving, spousal and depressed caregivers of patients with AD report higher and increasing psychological stress than nonspousal and nondepressed caregivers. Spousal relationship, caregivers' depressive symptoms, and the severity of patients' neuropsychological symptoms at the time of AD diagnosis predict the trajectory of psychological distress. The current study highlights the need for evaluating AD caregiver mental health and level of coping. © The Author(s) 2015.
Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann
This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…
Wiemann, C M; Agurcia, C A; Berenson, A B; Volk, R J; Rickert, V I
To better understand the experiences and behaviors of battered pregnant adolescents and the characteristics of their intimate partners. As part of a longitudinal multiracial/ethnic study of drug use among pregnant and parenting adolescents, 724 adolescents mothers reported on demographic characteristics, social support and peer contact, level of substance use before and during pregnancy, nonconforming behaviors, and both lifetime and concurrent exposure to violence. Information about the father of her baby included his level of substance use, gang and police involvement, and intimate partner violence. Chi-square and Student's t tests were used to identify victim, partner, and relationship characteristics associated with being assaulted by the father of her baby during the preceding year. Eighty-six (11.9%) adolescents reported being physically assaulted by the fathers of their babies. Assaulted adolescents were significantly more likely than nonassaulted adolescents to have been exposed to other forms of violence over the same 12-month period, including verbal abuse, assault by family members, being in a fight where someone was badly hurt, reporting fear of being hurt by other teens, witnessing violence perpetrated on others, and carrying a weapon for protection. A history of nonconforming behavior and frequent or recent substance use was more common among both battered adolescents and their perpetrator partners. The age and race/ethnicity of the pregnant adolescent and the length of her relationship with the father of her baby were not associated with assault status. Pregnant adolescents who are assaulted by intimate partners appear to live in violence-prone environments and to have partners who engage in substance use and other nonconforming behaviors. Comprehensive assessments are critical for all adolescent females at risk of assault, and direct questions about specific behaviors or situations must be used.
Stark, C; Paterson, B; Devlin, B
The media is an important source of public information on mental ill-health. A man with a serious psychiatric illness attacked a minister with a knife at a Remembrance Sunday service in a remote, rural part of the Highlands, inflicting a severe facial wound. We aimed to identify lessons for the National Health Service (NHS) from the media coverage of the incident and of a subsequent court case and NHS Highland inquiry and in addition to explore how newspaper reporters approached reporting such incidents. We searched local and regional, national Scottish, and the Scottish editions of three UK newspapers for relevant coverage. We also conducted structured telephone interviews with eight reporters who had attended the inquiry press conference. Most of the media coverage was associated with the assault and the court case, rather than the inquiry results. Only three of 10 inquiry recommendations were mentioned in any reports. Coverage largely dealt with identified shortfalls, rather than proposed solutions. The NHS had made little comment in advance of the announcement of the inquiry results. Most of the newspaper coverage had already occurred. The NHS therefore limited its opportunity to influence newspaper coverage. The interpretation of the results is limited by the size of the study, but the coverage of such events forms part of the discourse on mental health in the media episodes and may have some affect on public perception of mental health issues. We conclude that, without providing confidential information, the NHS should take a more active stance in providing information on the nature and treatment of mental illness in such instances, even in advance of court cases.
Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen; Paul, Sheila
A one year audit was undertaken of the mental health (MH) status of adult attendees to the Thames Valley Sexual Assault Centres (SARC). There were 301 relevant referrals over the twelve month period of whom 126 (42%) either fully or partially completed the mental health assessments. 38% (n = 66) of the population did not consent to the research. Participation in the study was felt inappropriate by the case clinician in the rest of the cases. To summarise the findings: 36% were moderately or severely depressed; 30% experienced moderate to severe anxiety; 28% were drinking at hazardous/harmful levels; and 12% had a drug problem that was moderate to severe. Self harm affected 45% of the sample with the greater majority cutting themselves and self-harming before the age of 17. Admission to a psychiatric in-patient unit was not uncommon and 19% had been admitted an average of three times each. The figure of 19% admitted to a psychiatric hospital is 90 times higher than for the general female population. 42% of the total sample were being prescribed medication for their mental health problem. The paper concludes that: there should be agreement nationally on the use of a standardised set of mental health outcome measures which are used in all assessments; there should be a move towards the commissioning of expert psychological support that is offered in a SARC and the pathways for specialist mental health care out of the SARCs. Finally, forensic physicians and general practitioners needs a greater awareness of the mental health sequalae of sexual assault and they then need to make prompt referrals to the appropriate services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Garrity, Stacy E
An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Fedina, Lisa; Holmes, Jennifer Lynne; Backes, Bethany L
Sexual assault is a pervasive problem on university and college campuses in the United States that has garnered growing national attention, particularly in the past year. This is the first study to systematically review and synthesize prevalence findings from studies on campus sexual assault (CSA) published since 2000 (n = 34). The range of prevalence findings for specific forms of sexual victimization on college campuses (i.e., forcible rape, unwanted sexual contact, incapacitated rape, sexual coercion, and studies' broad definitions of CSA/rape) is provided, and methodological strengths and limitations in the empirical body of research on CSA are discussed. Prevalence findings, research design, methodology, sampling techniques, and measures, including the forms of sexual victimization measured, are presented and evaluated across studies. Findings suggest that unwanted sexual contact appears to be most prevalent on college campuses, including sexual coercion, followed by incapacitated rape, and completed or attempted forcible rape. Additionally, several studies measured broad constructs of sexual assault that typically include combined forms of college-based sexual victimization (i.e., forcible completed or attempted rape, unwanted sexual contact, and/or sexual coercion). Extensive variability exists within findings for each type of sexual victimization measured, including those that broadly measure sexual assault, which is largely explained by differences in sampling strategies and overall study designs as well as measures of sexual assault used in studies. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research on the prevalence of college-based sexual victimization are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.
Strunk, Judith L
Sexual assault has been identified as a major public health problem in the United States, yet little research has been done regarding nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sexual assault. Lack of knowledge, or victim-blaming attitudes held by healthcare providers can be problematic for the care of the sexual assault victim, leaving them feeling upset and distressed after the healthcare encounter. Prenursing and nursing students were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sexual assault. A knowledge test, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale, and the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims scale were utilized in the survey; 297 students completed the survey. Results indicate that rape myth acceptance is lower for nursing students in their last semester of college than in the prenursing group; and that last-semester nursing students held less victim-blaming attitudes toward rape victims than prenursing students. The knowledge test highlights problem areas that need to be addressed by nursing education to improve the care of sexual assault patients.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: ‘What is the journey o f recovery that is undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault?’ Another question that developed during data collection and data analysis was ‘What is the meaning that women attach to recovery?’ The findings are discussed under the eight concepts or categories and the context and the intervening conditions that influence the journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma. Refer to part 1 article. These are complemented with abstracts of data from the participants’ voices and the related discussions. The developed theory highlights the process and the interconnectedness of the different stages of what the women experience in their journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma.
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.
Sexual minorities and racial minorities experience greater negative impact following sexual assault. We examined recovery from sexual assault among women who identified as heterosexual and bisexual across racial groups. A community sample of women (N = 905) completed three yearly surveys about sexual victimization, recovery outcomes, race group, and sexual minority status. Bisexual women and Black women reported greater recovery problems. However, Black women improved more quickly on depression symptoms than non-Black women. Finally, repeated adult victimization uniquely undermined survivors’ recovery, even when controlling for child sexual abuse. Sexual minority and race status variables and their intersections with revictimization play roles in recovery and should be considered in treatment protocols for sexual assault survivors. PMID:27713597
This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.
Potter, Sharyn; Howard, Rebecca; Murphy, Sharon; Moynihan, Mary M
To examine the well-documented mental and physical health problems suffered by undergraduate women sexually assaulted while on campus with an exploration of how the trauma impacts a survivor's lifetime education trajectory and career attainment. In November and December 2015, researchers recruited US participants using an online crowdsourcing tool and a Listserv for sexual violence prevention and response professionals. Of 316 women who completed initial screening, 89 qualified to complete a Qualtrics survey. Eighty-one participants completed the online survey, and 32 participated in phone interviews. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported health problems related to the assault that they attributed to difficulties they faced in their attainment of their education and career goals. The findings suggest the importance of simultaneously examining the effects of human capital losses and mental and physical health problems attributed to the costly public health problem of campus sexual assault.
R C Jiloha
Full Text Available Sexual assault in various forms has been recognized as a crime by almost all religions and cultures throughout the recorded history. It is a crime against basic human rights of an individual and a most common crime against women in India. In India, "rape laws" began with the enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments, and the main issue of focus remained the definition of rape which has been recently broadened to include a wide range of sexual activities. The inclusion of "marital rape" in the ambit of rape remains a matter of debate. With a long history, the sexual offence in the form of sexual assault has been discussed from legal and mental health perspective in this presentation. Social and psychological impact of sexual assault on the victim has also been discussed.
Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.
Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…
Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko
Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…
Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L
This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.
Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…
Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.
Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…
Sweeney, Brian N.
Although sexual assault has long been recognized as a problem among college students, little attention has been paid to why first-year women are the most likely to be assaulted. In this article the author drew on two studies of college students to analyze peer culture and the organization of gender and sexuality within a college party scene.…
Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine
Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…
Kahn, Arnold S.; Jackson, Jennifer; Kully, Christine; Badger, Kelly; Halvorsen, Jessica
Past research had found that one-half or more of all women who have had an experience that might meet the definition of rape do not label themselves rape victims. The present study examined the actual rape experiences of 33 women who labeled their assault experience as rape and 56 women who did not label their assault experience as rape through…
Scott, K. M.; Koenen, K. C.; King, A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Bunting, B.; de Jonge, P.; Haro, J. M.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Sampson, N. A.; Shahly, V.; Stein, D. J.; Torres, Y.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background. Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors
Full Text Available Background: Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide 24/7 coordinated and integrated services (i.e., medical, forensic, and psychological in one location. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to describe demographic, background, and assault characteristics of victims seen at the centre within one week post-assault, and their use of post-assault services in order to improve current services. Method: From January 2012 to September 2013, prospective data of 108 patients were collected. To describe the population included, frequency counts and proportions were generated for categorical variables. Results: The mean age was 21.3 years (SD=9.8. Most victims were female (91.7%. A large proportion of victims reported background characteristics known to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and revictimisation such as prior sexual abuse (32.4%, pre-existing use of mental health services (45.4%, and not living with both biological parents (61.7%. Most patients (88.9% consulted the centre within 72 hours post-assault. The uptake of services was high: 82.4% received emergency medical care, 61.7% underwent a forensic–medical exam, 34% reported to the police, and 82.4% utilised psychological services. Conclusion: To prevent revictimisation and PTSD, current psychological services could be improved with immediate trauma-focused treatments. Current forensic services may be improved with the use of standard top to toe forensic–medical examinations for both children and adults.
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual......, typically one. Anal penetration or attempted anal penetration is increasing. This will often cause genito-anal LE. This finding stresses the importance that these examinations take place where both forensic and health-care expertise are offered. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....
Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A
Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.
Walter S DeKeseredy
Full Text Available Recent analyses of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS data show that male-to-female separation/divorce assault varies across geographic regions in the United States, with rural rates of such woman abuse being higher than those for suburban and urban areas. Using the same data set, the main objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into whether characteristics of female victims of separation/divorce assault also differ across urban, suburban, and rural communities.
Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Irons, Daniel E; Iacono, William G
We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh discipline for any phenotype or a significant interaction between MAOA and childhood sexual assault for substance problems. We found evidence that childhood sexual assault interacted with MAOA genotype to predict antisocial behavior and conduct disorder symptoms. Individuals with the low MAOA activity genotype who reported childhood sexual assault had more symptoms than individuals with either the high MAOA activity genotype and/or no history of childhood sexual assault. These findings suggest that the previously reported interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment may be specific to the antisocial subset of externalizing disorders.
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.
Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…
Tapesana, Stanley; Chirundu, Daniel; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Juru, Tsitsi Patience; Mufuta, Tshimanga
Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted. Epi. Info 7 software was used to analyse data and generate frequencies, measures of central tendency and proportions. We analysed 474 medical affidavits completed between January 2014 and July 2016. Thirty percent of the victims sought care within 72 h of the sexual assault. Baseline HIV testing was done in 23 (22%) and follow-up HIV test done in 2 (2%) of the victims. Post Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV was administered to 18 (51%), emergency contraception 9 (69%) and forensic evidence gathered in six (5%) of victims presenting within the prescribed 72 h of the sexual assault. Prophylactic antibiotics were given to 156 (33%). There were no documented counselling sessions for all victims whilst follow up care was given to 47 (10%) victims. Suboptimal clinical care was given to victims of sexual assault during the period 2014-2016. These findings suggest possible delayed presentation by victims of sexual assault as well as suboptimal administration of prophylaxis by health care workers. We recommend adherence to guidelines in managing sexual assault. Further research to determine factors for delayed presentation among sexual assault victims and quality of care provided to them is recommended.
Alboebadi, F; Afshari, P; Jamshidi, F; Poor, Rm; Cheraghi, M
We aimed to study the relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and the general health of the victims referred to forensics in Ahvaz city (Iran). It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that was designed by two groups as case and control which has done on 128 subjects. Sixty-four rape victims who were referred to the forensic center, considered as case group and in control group, 64 people who were being referred to health clinics in Ahvaz city. The data were collected through Rogers's standard self-concept and general health questionnaires. Questionnaires were filled in self-completion way. Data had entered and analyzed by using SPSS software (version 22). A level of significance was less than 0.05. The average score of self-concept in the case group was 14.97 ±4.78 and in control group was 6.08 ±2.9. Average score of general health of the case and control groups, respectively, were 51.09 ±18.07 and 16.92 ±12.79. A significant statistical difference between the average score of self-concept, social functioning, physical and general health components in the groups was observed. More negative self-concept and vulnerable general health was observed in the rape victims group than in the control group. Providing counseling and health services and family and social support of these victims can be effective in their general health promotion.
Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen
In England, people who have been raped can attend a national network of Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) for physical examination, the collection of evidence and sign-posting onto other appropriate services. The impact of rape on mental health is not always assessed comprehensively in SARCs despite national policy guidance. To highlight the relationship between mental health and rape; thereby increasing SARCs staff and NHS commissioners awareness of the issue and the potential for longer-term risks to mental health. A secondary analysis was carried out using the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 in England. Sexual abuse was categorised as 'rape', 'touched in a sexual way' or 'talked to in a sexual way' versus 'none'. Bivariate analysis describes the prevalence of various mental health indicators and service use measures by different 'levels' of sexual abuse. Multiple logistic regression was applied to determine independent risk factors for sexual abuse. There was a consistent increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and in the use of mental health services as the severity of sexual abuse increased. For individuals who had been raped, the prevalence of need was highest in those raped both before and after the age of 16 years. Multivariate logistic regression identified that sex and age were the only demographic risk factors remaining significant. After controlling for these, individuals who had been raped were over 2.5 times more likely to have a history of a neurotic disorder than individuals experiencing no sexual abuse. In addition, rape victims were also significantly more likely to be dependent on drugs and alcohol, admitted to a mental health ward and at risk of suicide. Rape is likely to have a considerable impact on the use of mental health services, self-harm and alcohol/drug dependency. Full mental health assessments should be undertaken in SARCs and commissioners should ensure accessible pathways into mental health services
Ranney, Megan L; Whiteside, Lauren; Walton, Maureen A; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M
Adolescents with a history of peer assault are known to report high rates of other risky behaviors. The characteristics of adolescents seeking care in the ED for acute assault-related injury are less well established. This knowledge deficit is particularly noticeable for adolescent female victims of peer assault. This study's objectives were: 1) to characterize the demographics and risk behaviors of youths presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute assault-related injury and 2) to compare assaulted youths' demographic characteristics, past experiences with violence, and other risk behaviors by sex. A systematic sample of adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years) presenting to an urban ED with acute assault-related injury (excluding dating violence, sexual assault, and child abuse) was recruited. Consenting participants self-administered a computerized survey about demographics, history of peer and dating aggression, and theoretical correlates of violence (e.g., alcohol and other drug use, depressive symptoms, weapon carriage). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that were differentially associated with presentation to the ED for acute assault-related injury for females versus males. Of 3,338 adolescents completing a screening survey during the 36-month study period, 197 had presented to the ED with acute assault-related injuries; seven of these were excluded from this study due to being victims of dating violence. Most (n = 179, 94.2%) of these 190 acutely assaulted participants were discharged home. The majority reported a history of past-year peer aggression (n = 160, 84.2%) and past-year violent injury (n = 106, 55.8%). Similar rates of past-year peer aggression, past-year violent injury, alcohol use, and weapon carriage were observed for adolescent males and females presenting with acute assault-related injury. Males and females also reported similar age, race, socioeconomic status, and education levels. Compared to males
Objective. To investigate the precipitants of non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women using a gender-based comparison. Design. A retrospective analysis of case records. Data were analysed using chi-square tests of significance. Subjects. One hundred men and 100 women admitted for non-fatal suicidal behaviour at a ...
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping
Oksuzyan, Anna; Jacobsen, Rune; Glaser, Karen
Background. The study aimed to examine sex differences in healthcare use before and after widowhood to investigate whether reduced healthcare use among widowers compared with widows may partially explain excess mortality and more adverse health outcomes among men than women after spousal loss...... use and the average annual number of visits to general physicians (GPs). Results. The average daily use of all-cause and major system-specific medications, as well as the number of GP visits increased over the period from 1 year before and up to 5 years after a spouse's death, but there were no sex...
Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J.; Bilheimer, Alecia; Gonzalez, Alecia; Pollak, Kathryn I.
Objective Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Methods Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males’ smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at four time points throughout the intervention. Results Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male’s partners’ self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners’ level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners’ outcomes. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. PMID:25844907
Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown
A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…
Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris
Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…
Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…
... victims, and hold offenders accountable. The Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women is... Proclamation Our Nation must continue to confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime... Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, we recommit to building a society where no woman, man, or child...
Katz, Jennifer; DuBois, Melinda
To begin to address the problem of campus sexual assault, we conducted a Teach In, an educational forum used to explore complex social problems. All students, faculty, and staff at our small liberal arts college were invited to participate. This paper summarizes our Teach In program, goals, and methods. By engaging in constructive, informed…
Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha
Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…
Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.
factors include gender discrimination , sexual harassment, and other problems that degrade or devalue individuals and their contributions in the... prevention , discrimination , and other problems that influence unit readiness and climate. As detailed earlier in this section, there are a number of items...12 Sexual Assault Prevention
Background: This six-month study at Odi Hospital in the district of Mabopane in the North-West Province was undertaken to gain insight into the way in which alleged sexual assault victims experienced the treatment they received from doctors, nurses and others and how the quality of the care they received can be improved.
Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary
Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…
Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa
Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.
Wang, Can; Wein, Lawrence M
Motivated by the debate over how to deal with the huge backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the U.S.A., we construct and analyze a mathematical model that predicts the expected number of hits (i.e., a new DNA profile matches a DNA sample in the criminal database) as a function of both the proportion of the backlog that is tested and whether the victim-offender relationship is used to prioritize the kits that are tested. Refining the results in Ref. (Criminol Public Policy, 2016, 15, 555), we use data from Detroit, where government funding was used to process ≈15% of their backlog, to predict that prioritizing stranger kits over nonstranger kits leads to only a small improvement in performance (a 0.034 increase in the normalized area under the curve of the hits vs. proportion of backlog tested curve). Two rough but conservative cost-benefit analyses-one for testing the entire backlog and a marginal one for testing kits from nonstranger assaults-suggest that testing all sexual assault kits in the backlog is quite cost-effective: for example, spending ≈$1641 to test a kit averts sexual assaults costing ≈$133,484 on average. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Anderson, Timothy; Fende Guajardo, Jennifer; Luthra, Rohini; Edwards, Katie M.
This study assessed the effects of clinician-assisted emotional disclosure (CAED), an integration of emotion focused therapy (Greenberg, Rice, & Elliott, 1993) and emotional disclosure, in ameliorating distress experienced by survivors of sexual assault. A total of 670 female university students were screened for both histories of sexual…
The etiology of maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another and even within the same country depending on the prevailing socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors.[1-4] Road traffic crashes (RTC), assaults, sports, falls occupational hazards are documented causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia
Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in the U.S. military, especially against women. Bystander intervention is increasingly promoted as important for reducing sexual violence, and it may be particularly helpful in contexts with high rates of sexual violence. Bystander training encourages and enables people to intervene safely and stop sexual violence. In this study, we drew from an ecological model to investigate intrapersonal, microsystem, and exosystem factors that predicted Service members' assumption of personal responsibility to intervene in an alcohol-involved sexual assault. Moreover, we examined how these predictors played a role in decisions about how to intervene: confronting the perpetrator, assisting the victim, or finding someone to help. We analyzed data from 24,610 active duty personnel collected by the Department of Defense. Several factors significantly related to Service members' bystander intentions: gender, rank, morale, attitudes about sexual assault, training, and trust in the military sexual assault system predicted the likelihood and method of bystander intervention. These findings help identify how and why people intervene (or fail to intervene) when they witness situations that could develop into sexual violence. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn
Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…
Bohner, G.; Danner, U.; Siebler, F.; Samson, G.B.
Processing strategies in risk assessment were studied in an Internet experiment. Women (N = 399) who were either low or high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) were asked to recall either two or six behaviors that either increase or decrease the risk of being sexually assaulted. Later they judged their
Obimakinde, et al.: Oral and maxillofacial injuries due to assault in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. 90. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jul-Dec 2012 | Volume 18 | Issue 2. Table 2: Etiology and pattern of injury. Etiology. Soft tissue. Dentoalveolar#. Mandibular#. Tooth avulsion. Nasal#. Student unrest. 3. 1. 1. 1. 0. Domestic violence. 4. 3. 0.
South African Family Practice ... In South Africa, violence plays a detrimental role in our daily lives, affecting almost everybody, directly or indirectly. ... From 29th October 1999 to 1st May 2000, the patients who attended for injuries due to alleged assault (interpersonal violence) and met the inclusion criteria were included in ...
Draughon, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Rotolo, Sue; Austin, Kim Wieczorek; Sheridan, Daniel J
Nonoccupational, postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is offered inconsistently to patients who have been sexually assaulted. This may be due to Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) programs utilizing diverse nPEP protocols and HIV risk assessment algorithms. This study examines factors associated with FNEs offering nPEP to patients following sexual assault at two FNE programs in urban settings. Offering nPEP is mostly driven by site-specific protocol. At Site 1, in addition to open anal or open genital wounds, the presence of injury to the head or face was associated with FNEs offering nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 64.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 1942.37]). At Site 2, patients assaulted by someone of Other race/ethnicity (non-White, non-African American) were 86% less likely to be offered nPEP (AOR 0.14, 95% CI = [.03, .72]) than patients assaulted by Whites. In addition to following site-specific protocols, future research should further explore the mechanisms influencing clinician decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.
Terrell, Nathanial Eugene
Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…
Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.
A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Maier, Shana L.
While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…
Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa M; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W
Patient assault is a serious issue for the well-being of staff in psychiatric hospitals. To guide workplace responses to patient assault, more information is needed about social support from different sources and whether those supports are associated with staff well-being. The present study examines social support after patient assault from work-based and nonwork-based sources, and whether inpatient psychiatric staff desires support from them and perceive the support received as being effective. Received support across sources was examined in relations to staff well-being (physical health, mental health, anger, sleep quality) and perceptions of safety. Survey data was collected from 348 clinical staff in a large public forensic mental hospital. Among the 242 staff who reported an assault in the last year, 71% wanted support and 72% found effective support from at least one source. Generally, effective support from supervisors, coworkers, and their combination was associated with better well-being. Support from nonwork sources was related to less concerns about safety, but not to other well-being measures. However, 28% of staff did not receive effective support from any source postassault. Gaps in support as reported in this study and as found by other investigators call for systematic programming by hospital organizations to enhance the well-being of clinical staff, which in turn has implications for patient care.
Mar 2, 2004 ... Collection of underwear. The kit contains the following: A brown paper bag for the panties (or panties and/or pad) worn during or immediately after the assault. NB: sanitary pads attached to panties should be left attached. Procedure: The instructions request: □ Collection of the patient's panties and/or ...
Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.
Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…
Edwards, Katie M.; Kearns, Megan C.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories.…
Hassija, Christina; Gray, Matt J
Although evidence-based treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been available for some time, many treatment-seeking trauma survivors are unable to access such services. This is especially the case in remote and rural areas where access to specialists is an exception rather than a rule. Advances in videoconferencing-based technologies are improving rural residents' access to specialized psychological services. However, at present, little is known about the viability and efficacy of providing psychological interventions via distal technologies to individuals who present at rural domestic violence and rape crisis centers. The present study attempts to partially address this void by evaluating, in the context of an uncontrolled trial, the effectiveness and feasibility of providing evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment via videoconferencing to rural survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. Participants in the present study were clients referred to the Wyoming Trauma Telehealth Treatment Clinic (WTTTC) for psychological services via videoconferencing from distal domestic violence and rape crisis centers located in the state of Wyoming. Fifteen female victims of assaultive violence who received at least four sessions of trauma-focused treatment via videoconferencing-based technology at distal rape and domestic violence crisis centers were included in the present study. Participants completed measures of PTSD and depression symptom severity and client satisfaction. Participants evidenced large reductions on measures of PTSD (d = 1.17) and depression (d = 1.24) symptom severity following treatment via videoconferencing. Additionally, participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with videoconferencing-administered services. Results provide evidence in support of videoconferencing as an effective means to provide psychological services to rural domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Clinical implications and avenues
Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally
Altinbaş, Kürşat; Altinbaş, Gülçin; Türkcan, Ahmet; Oral, E Timuçin; Walters, James
Assaults on health professionals have been an area of burgeoning clinical and political interest in recent years. There is now a body of literature suggesting that violence towards psychiatrists is more common than to other doctors. Thus far the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in Western European and North American clinical settings. For the first time, this study examines this issue in the context of Turkish psychiatric settings. (i) The study aims to detect the prevalence of verbal and physical assaults towards psychiatrists in Turkey. (ii) It aims to compare the experience of verbal and physical assaults according to the gender and training experience of psychiatrists. (iii) The paper intends to investigate how psychiatrists reacted to and appraised the experience of violence. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate violence towards psychiatrists (adapted from the Overt Agression Scale). The questionaire was administered to psychiatric specialists and residents working in state hospitals, research and training hospitals, mental health hospitals and university psychiatry clinics. A response rate of 93% was achieved with 186 out of 200 psychiatrsits approached completing the study questionnaire. Of all the psychiatrists who responded, 71% reported having experienced verbal or physical assaults during their professional life (verbal assaults only (19.9%), physical assaults only (2.7%) and both (48.4%)). Of these, 26% suffered injury to at least a mild degree. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gender and workplace. In spite of the extremely high rates of aggression and violence towards psychiatrists, roughly 50% perceived these acts a normal part of their job and only 5% formally reported the violent incident. The majority of psychiatrists described having been victims of verbal and physical assaults although half perceived aggression and violence as a normal part of their job. Levels of reporting of violence
Thun, M; Henley, J; Apicella, L
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies of the association of ischemic heart disease risk and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure from a spouse who smokes. Seventeen studies (nine cohort, eight case-control) comprising more than 485,000 lifelong nonsmokers and 7,345 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were included in a meta-analysis. Together, these studies include 36% more CHD events and 58% more study subjects than were available for review by the U. S. Occupational Safety an...
Chivers-Wilson, Kaitlin A
Sexual assault occurs with alarming frequency in Canada. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in assault survivors is drastically higher than the national prevalence of the disorder, which is a strong indication that the current therapies for sexual-assault-related PTSD are in need of improvement. Increasing knowledge and understanding of the pathologies associated with rape trauma in biological, psychological and sociological domains will help to develop more effective treatments for survivors. A dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in survivors of sexual assault and this may be a fundamental cause of the structural and functional abnormalities contributing to PTSD symptoms. Pharmacotherapies are available to treat PTSD; however, they are often inadequate or unwanted by the survivor. Psychological health is compromised following interpersonal trauma and many psychological therapies are available, but with varying efficacy. A person's cognitions have a dramatic effect on the onset, severity, and progress of PTSD following sexual assault. Sociological impacts of assault influence the development of PTSD through victim-blaming attitudes and the perpetuation of rape myths. Perceived positive regard and early social support is shown to be important to successful recovery. Education is vital in rape prevention and to foster a supportive environment for survivors. The biological, psychological and sociological impacts and treatments should not remain mutually exclusive. A better appreciation of the biopsychosocial repercussions of sexual assault will aid in developing a more holistic and individualized therapy to help alleviate the physical and emotional pain following the trauma of rape.
Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M
Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.
Molinatti, Florencia; Acosta, Laura Débora
Describe the trend in deaths by assault in women in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico between 2001 and 2011. Descriptive study. Mortality from assaults and undetermined intentional acts was calculated, adjusted for age, using the direct method and the World Health Organization's standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify statistically significant changes. The male:female mortality ratio was compared and trends in the rates were calculated and adjusted for each of the two causes of death and the specific rates of mortality by assault in women by age group. The highest rates of assault of women were reported in Brazil, followed by Colombia, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile. Between 2001 and 2011, decreases were reported from Argentina and Colombia; in Brazil and Mexico the rates increased; and in Chile they remained stable. The highest specific rates were found in young women (15-29 years) and adults (30-44 and 45-59 years). In Colombia the rates declined in all groups, while in Mexico they increased in women aged 15 to 59 years. Only Colombia showed a decrease in mortality from undetermined intentional acts; in Argentina and Mexico there was a decrease at the beginning of the period with a later increase; in Brazil no variations were observed. Mortality from assaults on women in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico between 2001 and 2011 was higher than the world average and the Latin American average; rates were lower in Argentina and Chile, with minor differences between the sexes. Progress must be made in terms of understanding the power relationships that underlie femicide, which should be included in national criminal legislation.
Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Batty, G David; Tuisku, Katinka; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika
Patient overcrowding and violent assaults by patients are two major problems in psychiatric healthcare. However, evidence of an association between overcrowding and aggressive behaviour among patients is mixed and limited to small-scale studies. This study examined the association between ward overcrowding and violent physical assaults in acute-care psychiatric in-patient hospital wards. Longitudinal study using ward-level monthly records of bed occupancy and staff reports of the timing of violent acts during a 5-month period in 90 in-patient wards in 13 acute psychiatric hospitals in Finland. In total 1098 employees (physicians, ward head nurses, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses) participated in the study. The outcome measure was staff reports of the timing of physical assaults on both themselves and ward property. We found that 46% of hospital staff were working in overcrowded wards, as indicated by >10 percentage units of excess bed occupancy, whereas only 30% of hospital personnel were working in a ward with no excess occupancy. An excess bed occupancy rate of >10 percentage units at the time of an event was associated with violent assaults towards employees (odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.80; OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.51-6.13 in adult wards) after adjustment for confounding factors. No association was found with assaults on ward property (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.75-1.50). These findings suggest that patient overcrowding is highly prevalent in psychiatric hospitals and, importantly, may increase the risk of violence directed at staff.
Scott, K M; Koenen, K C; King, A; Petukhova, M V; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; de Jonge, P; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Lee, S; Medina-Mora, M E; Navarro-Mateu, F; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Kessler, R C
Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have reduced the ability to develop accurate prediction models for early identification of high-risk sexual assault survivors. Data come from 12 face-to-face, cross-sectional surveys of community-dwelling adults conducted in 11 countries. Analysis was based on the data from the 411 women from these surveys for whom sexual assault was the randomly selected lifetime traumatic event (TE). Seven classes of predictors were assessed: socio-demographics, characteristics of the assault, the respondent's retrospective perception that she could have prevented the assault, other prior lifetime TEs, exposure to childhood family adversities and prior mental disorders. Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) PTSD associated with randomly selected sexual assaults was 20.2%. PTSD was more common for repeated than single-occurrence victimization and positively associated with prior TEs and childhood adversities. Respondent's perception that she could have prevented the assault interacted with history of mental disorder such that it reduced odds of PTSD, but only among women without prior disorders (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.9). The final model estimated that 40.3% of women with PTSD would be found among the 10% with the highest predicted risk. Whether counterfactual preventability cognitions are adaptive may depend on mental health history. Predictive modelling may be useful in targeting high-risk women for preventive interventions.
Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.
de Heer, Brooke
Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.
Maier, Shana L
Although research has indicated that counselors, advocates and social workers who assist rape victims experience vicarious trauma or psychological consequences as a result of their exposure to victims' traumatic experiences, little is known about Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' (SANEs') experiences. This qualitative research explores SANEs' experiences of vicarious trauma and burnout as a result of treating rape victims, and the coping strategies they implement to reduce both. Data from interviews with 39 SANEs reveal that when asked about their difficulties as a SANE and the hardest part of their job, the majority (67%) discussed vicarious trauma, the emotional demands associated with the job, worrying about victims after they leave the hospital, and burnout. More than half (51%) of SANEs interviewed specifically indicated that they have experienced vicarious trauma as a result of treating rape victims, and 46% indicated they have experienced burnout at least to some degree. All SANEs, regardless of whether they believe they have experienced vicarious trauma or burnout, have ways to cope after hard cases. These coping mechanisms include talking to family members, calling or reaching out to other SANEs, program coordinators or rape victim advocates and detectives, participating in meetings with other SANEs where the focus is on problems after difficult cases, and finding relaxing activities. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Draughon, Jessica E.; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Hansen, Bryan R.; Sheridan, Daniel J.
This cross-sectional study describes Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)/Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) program practices related to HIV testing, non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), and common barriers to offering HIV testing and nPEP. A convenience sample of 174 SANE/FNE programs in the United States and Canada was drawn from the International Association of Forensic Nurses database, and program coordinators completed web-based surveys. Three quarters of programs had nPEP poli...
Rafaella Queiroga Souto; Francisco Kleiton Carvalho Dantas de Araújo; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti
Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE) at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL) in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL) in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument w...
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military. The resulting study, the RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS), invited close to...military to attempt to coerce sexual behavior in exchange for a workplace benefit gender discrimination , which captures incidents in which service...takes a new approach to counting individuals in the military who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the
The Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) in the CA group were significantly higher than in the non-CA group (p<0.001), with a median (interquartile range) ISS of 3 (2 - 6) in CA cases v. 1 (1 - 2) in non-CA cases. Comparison between the CA v. non-CA groups showed that a Glasgow Coma Scale <15 (20.1% v. 5.4%, respectively) ...
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.
Mancini, Christina; Pickett, Justin T; Call, Corey; McDougle, Robyn Diehl; Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Brownstein, Henry H
Highly publicized college sex crimes have recently captured public and policy attention. In response, greater discussion has turned to institutional accountability and controversial reforms such as mandatory reporting (MR). No study to date has measured public perceptions of campus sex assault procedures, however. This omission is notable because public opinion can directly and indirectly shape crime policy and because the topic has become increasingly politicized. Drawing on a 2015 poll of Virginia residents, this study evaluates views about campus sexual assault policy. Results indicate that two thirds of the public feel universities can effectively respond to sex crime and a large majority favors MR. Some differences in public opinion are evident. Research and policy implications are discussed.
Staples, Jennifer M; Eakins, Danielle; Neilson, Elizabeth C; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette
Previous research has demonstrated that a history of adult sexual assault (ASA) is associated with negative outcomes, including trauma symptomatology and fear of sexual intimacy. Disclosing sexual assault might be protective against such negative outcomes. To examine the indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the association between disclosing ASA and current sexual functioning. Participants included 652 women 21 to 30 years old with a history of ASA recruited from the community. Participants completed self-report measurements on a computer. Separate models were performed, with sexual functioning divided into sexual desire, orgasm, and pain during sex. ASA disclosure was indirectly associated with sexual orgasm and pain during sex by trauma symptomatology. However, there was no indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the relation between ASA disclosure and sexual desire. Disclosing experiences of ASA could serve a protective function by lessening trauma symptomatology, thereby mitigating impacts on aspects of sexual functioning, such as orgasm and pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D
The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP. © The Author(s) 2014.
Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.
BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808
Goyal, MK; Mollen, CJ; Hayes, KL; Molnar, J; Christian, CW; Scribano, PV; Lavelle, J
Objective Describe the experience of a novel pediatric Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) program in the first three years of implementation, and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. Methods Retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric ED who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with gender, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. Results One hundred and eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 years (+/− 4.6 years). The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among females (p<0.01), but not by gender. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical exam was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal females were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy (p<0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, STI, and HIV prophylaxis (p<0.01). Conclusions In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on exam. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault. PMID:23974714
Ullman, Sarah E; Najdowski, Cynthia J
Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Objective: Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Method: Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). Results: The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate. PMID:19118390
Ekbia, Hamid R.
Abstract Objective: Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of “Campus Craft,” a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. Materials and Methods: The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Results: Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of “Campus Craft” contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students. PMID:26181803
McDaniel, M Colleen; Rodriguez, Dario N
Acquaintance rape is distressingly common on college campuses. Differing models of the perpetration of sexual assault make diverging predictions regarding the degree to which individual differences may distinguish among such sexual offenders and nonoffenders. Much research investigating these issues has primarily sampled students from large, commuter colleges. Such data may not generalize to students in other university settings (e.g., private schools, students in university housing). The present study sought to examine the rate of self-reported sexual assault among college men at a private school at which most students live in university housing. Furthermore, we examined whether individual difference characteristics-namely, endorsement of masculine gender norms and endorsement of modern myths about sexual assault-predicted participants' perceptions of acquaintance rape. A total of 219 college men completed a survey consisting of the Male Role Norm Inventory (MRNI), followed by the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression (AMMSA) and the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES). They then read a hypothetical acquaintance rape scenario and provided several ratings regarding their attributions of blame. Approximately, 4.6% of men self-reported having committed sexual assault. A Bayesian analysis indicated that self-reported offenders did not score differently on MRNI and AMMSA than self-reported nonoffenders, nor did they view the hypothetical scenario differently. Overall, men who endorsed male role norms tended to accept modern myths about rape and tended to attribute more blame to the victim and less blame to the perpetrator in the acquaintance rape scenario. We discuss methodological difficulties in conducting this type of research and identify several directions for future research.
Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J
Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the
Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Ooshige, Narumi; Goto, Tomoko; Shimazaki, Azusa
This study examined factors related to sexual assault among early adolescents in Japan. During a 6-month period, an anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to 1,246 students ages 13-15 years at eight junior high schools. Consent to participation in this study was obtained from a total of 1,125 (90.3%) students. It was found that the…
Draughon, JE; Anderson, JC; Hansen, BR; Sheridan, DJ
This cross-sectional study describes sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE)/forensic nurse examiner (FNE) program practices related to HIV testing, nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), and common barriers to offering HIV testing and nPEP. A convenience sample of 174 SANE/FNE programs in the United States and Canada was drawn from the International Association of ForensicNurses database, and program coordinators completed Web-based surveys. Three fourths of programs had nPEP policies...
Eliasziw, Misha; Hobden, Karen L.; Newby-Clark, Ian R.; Barata, Paula C.; Radtke, H. Lorraine; Thurston, Wilfreda E.
We report the secondary outcomes and longevity of efficacy from a randomized controlled trial that evaluated a novel sexual assault resistance program designed for first-year women university students. Participants (N = 893) were randomly assigned to receive the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) program or a selection of brochures (control). Perception of personal risk, self-defense self-efficacy, and rape myth acceptance was assessed at baseline; 1-week postintervention; and 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month postrandomization. Risk detection was assessed at 1 week, 6 months, and 12 months. Sexual assault experience and knowledge of effective resistance strategies were assessed at all follow-ups. The EAAA program produced significant increases in women’s perception of personal risk, self-defense self-efficacy, and knowledge of effective (forceful verbal and physical) resistance strategies; the program also produced decreases in general rape myth acceptance and woman blaming over the entire 24-month follow-up period. Risk detection was significantly improved for the intervention group at post-test. The program significantly reduced the risk of completed and attempted rape, attempted coercion, and nonconsensual sexual contact over the entire follow-up period, yielding reductions between 30% and 64% at 2 years. The EAAA program produces long-lasting changes in secondary outcomes and in the incidence of sexual assault experienced by women students. Universities can reduce the harm and the negative health consequences that young women experience as a result of campus sexual assault by implementing this program. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index. PMID:29503496
can lead to confusion over sex roles as well as sexual orientation for heterosexual males and to feelings of self-blame and self-loathing in...collaboration call for organizations to leverage each others’ resources and thereby obtain additional benefits that would not have been available if they...Their Sexuality. Providers also told us that, following an assault, heterosexual male victims may face questions about their sexuality. For example
Walton, Maureen A.; Newton, Manya F.; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. METHODS: Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. RESULTS: Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention. PMID:23837181
Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Fávero, Juliana Lopes; Santos, Andréia Soprani Dos; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César
This study aimed to analyze time trend of female mortality due to assault in Brazil, regions and states from 2002 to 2012. This is an ecological times series study with secondary data from women aged 20-59 years who died due to assault. Mortality rates were analyzed by simple linear regression and stratified by region, Gini Index and Human Development Index (HDI). The trend of female rate of mortality due to assault was stable in the country, with differences between states and regions. The Midwest had the highest rates and stagnation trend. There was an increased trend in the North, Northeast and South and a decreased trend in the Southeast. The states of the tertile with the highest HDI evidenced a declining trend and stabilization in the first and second tertiles. An increased mortality rate was recorded in states with greater social inequality. Notwithstanding the national stabilization behavior, results point to the need for social policies appropriate to the specificities of states and regions.
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C
Sexual assault survivors receive various positive and negative social reactions to assault disclosures, yet little is known about the directionality of associations of social reactions to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine how negative and positive reactions relate to PTSD symptoms over 3 years and to test the hypothesis that the relationship between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms is reciprocal. We found that, as predicted, social reactions predicted subsequent PTSD symptoms, and in turn PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent social reactions. We also investigated the role of sexual revictimization by comparing women who suffered (vs. not) additional sexual victimization during the course of our study. Revictimized women had greater PTSD symptoms and more negative social reactions, but associations of social reactions with PTSD symptoms did not vary according to revictimization status. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Peter-Hagene, Liana C.
Sexual assault survivors receive various positive and negative social reactions to assault disclosures, yet little is known about the directionality of associations of social reactions to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine how negative and positive reactions relate to PTSD symptoms over 3 years and to test the hypothesis that the relationship between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms is reciprocal. We found that, as predicted, social reactions predicted subsequent PTSD symptoms, and in turn PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent social reactions. We also investigated the role of sexual revictimization by comparing women who suffered (versus not) additional sexual victimization during the course of our study. Revictimized women had greater PTSD symptoms and more negative social reactions, but associations of social reactions with PTSD symptoms did not vary according to revictimization status. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25538120
Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos
To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=−1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. PMID:26303670