Belfrage, Henrik; Rying, Mikael
In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42 df = 1, p suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. 'Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. The group of spouse
Lin-Dyken, D.; Smith, W.L.; Alexander, R.
This paper reports on this study performed to document the imaging findings associated with assaultive child abuse as confirmed by an independent criterion. At least one of the authors acted as a consultant in 105 alleged cases of child abuse owing to physical assault between 1987 and 1989. Seventy-six cases were founded by the Department of Human Services. 57/76 of founded cases had fractures. Most commonly only one fracture was noted (32 cases), but up to seven fractures were present in a patient. The tibia was the most commonly fractured bone (23 cases) followed in frequency by the femur (22), skull (15), and humerus (14). Multiple rib fractures were seen in 10 cases
.... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases...
... Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency Operations,'' dated April 16, 2010... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY... employees accompanying U.S. Armed Forces are made aware of the DoD definition of sexual assault as defined...
... Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense..., to ensure contractor employees are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in Do...
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah
Most sexual assaults are never reported to law enforcement, and even among reported cases, most will never be successfully prosecuted. This reality has been a long-standing source of frustration for survivors, victim advocates, as well as members of the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary response interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase reporting and prosecution rates. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, whereby specially trained nurses (rather than hospital emergency department [ED] physicians) provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault victims. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adult sexual assault cases were more likely to be investigated and prosecuted after the implementation of a SANE program within a large Midwestern county. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare criminal justice system case progression pre-SANE to post-SANE. Results from longitudinal multilevel ordinal regression modeling revealed that case progression through the criminal justice system significantly increased pre- to post-SANE: more cases reached the "final" stages of prosecution (i.e., conviction at trial and/or guilty plea bargains) post-SANE. These findings are robust after accounting for changes in operation at the focal county prosecutors' office and seasonal variation in rape reporting. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Yedirir, Sabiha; Hamarta, Erdal
This study examines the relationship between spousal support and the ability to express feelings of marital satisfaction, and the extent to which spousal support and the ability to express feelings can predict marital satisfaction. Research was conducted in accordance with general survey models. The study group comprised 195 married couples (N =…
Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø
) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...
Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P
Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim.
Venema, Rachel M
While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. © The Author(s) 2014.
She had indwelling urethral catheter for 21 days with urinary antiseptic and the fistula healed. This approach is a treatment option in young girls with traumatic VVF particularly where limited tissue access will make surgical repair difficult. Key Words: Vesico-Vaginal Fistula, Sexual Assault. [ Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 2004 ...
Ilene A. Claudius
Full Text Available Introduction: Violence against healthcare workers in the medical setting is common and associated with both physical and psychological adversity. The objective of this study was to identify features associated with assailants to allow early identification of patients at risk for committing an assault in the healthcare setting. Methods: We used the hospital database for reporting assaults to identify cases from July 2011 through June 2013. Medical records were reviewed for the assailant’s (patient’s past medical and social history, primary medical complaints, ED diagnoses, medications prescribed, presence of an involuntary psychiatric hold, prior assaultive behavior, history of reported illicit drug use, and frequency of visits to same hospital requesting prescription for pain medications. We selected matched controls at random for comparison. The primary outcome measure(s reported are features of patients committing an assault while undergoing medical or psychiatric treatment within the medical center. Results: We identified 92 novel visits associated with an assault. History of an involuntary psychiatric hold was noted in 52%, history of psychosis in 49%, a history of violence in the ED on a prior visit in 45%, aggression at index visit noted in the ED chart in 64%, an involuntary hold (or consideration of for danger to others in 61%, repeat visits for pain medication in 9%, and history of illicit drug use in 33%. Compared with matched controls, all these factors were significantly different. Conclusion: Patients with obvious risk factors for assault, such as history of assault, psychosis, and involuntary psychiatric holds, have a substantially greater chance of committing an assault in the healthcare setting. These risk factors can easily be identified and greater security attention given to the patient.
Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…
Amick, Janeice F; Beheim, Chris W
Yellow plastic-like particles were discovered on the clothing and body of a sexual assault victim. These particles were later associated to an athletic jersey with flaking yellow screen-printed numbers and letters, worn by the suspect. Depending on its intended substrate, screen-print ink can vary in color and composition. Particles dislodged from screen-printed garments may exhibit fabric impressions. Screen-printed clothing, commonly encountered in forensic casework, should be viewed as a potential source of trace evidence.
... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...
Berger, Sue; Chen, Tiffany; Eldridge, Jenna; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Tickle-Degnen, Linda
Living with and caring for someone with chronic illness can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Past research emphasizes the importance of care partners taking care of themselves physically and emotionally so they can stay healthy to support the care recipient. There is little information regarding how the care partner takes care of their own social lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of social self-management from the perspective of spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease. Twenty spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease were interviewed three times. A grounded theory approach informed data analysis. Findings that emerged from the data focused on balance in activities, support, and emotions and were summarized into three main themes: (1) Activities: Caregiving and beyond; (2) Strategies to support self and spouse; and (3) Emotional impact: Burden and compassion. This research shows that care partners want to retain social participation and provides support for the importance of addressing the socio-emotional needs of care partners of people with a chronic disease. Interventions that guide care partners to take care of their spectrum of needs may lead to healthier, positive relationships. Implications for rehabilitation The focus of rehabilitation is often on the person diagnosed with the chronic condition. Living with and caring for someone with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson's disease, can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Including care partners in the rehabilitation process is key to helping maintain their health and well-being. Learning caregiving and self-management strategies may help care partners support their loved ones while staying socially engaged.
Background. An increase in autopsied community assault (CA) fatalities was observed at the Tygerberg Forensic Pathology Services (FPS), Cape Town, South Africa (SA). There is a paucity of information on the incidence and prevalence of these cases in SA. Objectives. To determine the patterns and trends of injuries ...
Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia
Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F
This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).
Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Silva, Benedita; Corte-Real, Francisco; Nuno Vieira, Duarte
Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis. PMID:26587562
Full Text Available Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody. Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis.
Campbell, Rebecca; Bybee, Deborah; Townsend, Stephanie M; Shaw, Jessica; Karim, Nidal; Markowitz, Jenifer
To address the underreporting and underprosecution of adult sexual assaults, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve postassault care for victims and the criminal justice system response. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program, whereby specially trained nurses provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault. In this study, we conducted a multisite evaluation of six SANE programs (two rural programs, two serving midsized communities, two urban) to assess how implementation of SANE programs affects adult sexual assault prosecution rates. At each site, most sexual assaults reported to law enforcement were never referred by police to prosecutors or were not charged by the prosecutor's office (80%-89%). Individually, none of the sites had a statistically significant increase in prosecution rates pre-SANE to post-SANE. However, when the data were aggregated across sites, thereby increasing statistical power, there was a significant effect such that cases were more likely to be prosecuted post-SANE as compared with pre-SANE. These findings suggest that the SANE intervention model does have a positive impact on sexual assault case progression in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, there is still a pressing need for improvement as the vast majority of both pre-SANE and post-SANE resulted in nonreferral/no charges filed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J
Green space and vegetation may play a protective role against urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities was related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted geographic information systems-assisted interviews with boys and men aged 10-24 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including 135 patients who had been shot with a firearm and 274 community controls, during 2008-2011. Each subject reported a step-by-step mapped account of where and with whom they traveled over a full day from waking until being assaulted or going to bed. Geocoded path points were overlaid on mapped layers representing tree locations and place-specific characteristics. Conditional logistic regressions were used to compare case subjects versus controls (case-control) and case subjects at the time of injury versus times earlier that day (case-crossover). When comparing cases at the time of assault to controls matched at the same time of day, being under tree cover was inversely associated with gunshot assault (odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.88), especially in low-income areas (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.87). Case-crossover models confirmed this inverse association overall (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89) and in low-income areas (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.88). Urban greening and tree cover may hold promise as proactive strategies to decrease urban violence. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Pica, Emily; Sheahan, Chelsea; Pozzulo, Joanna
There have been several recent, high-profile cases in the media that have shed light on the perceived leniency in sentencing defendants in sexual assault cases. In a number of these cases, the defendant was well known within their community (e.g., Brock Turner; People v. Turner) or nationally (e.g., Ghomeshi; R v. Ghomeshi). The purpose of this study was to examine how the social status of the defendant (low vs. high), victim social status (low vs. high), victim gender (male vs. female), and the reason the victim was unconscious during the assault (consuming alcohol vs. consuming cold medicine) influenced mock jurors' decisions in a sexual assault case. Mock jurors ( N = 489) read a mock trial transcript depicting an alleged sexual assault. Mock jurors were asked to render a dichotomous verdict, continuous guilt rating, and rate their perceptions of the victim and defendant. There was no influence of the variables on mock jurors' dichotomous verdicts; however, social status influenced guilt ratings. There also was a combined influence of the defendant's social status and the reason the victim was unconscious such that when the defendant was described as low status, and the victim was unconscious due to alcohol consumption, the defendant received higher guilt ratings compared with when the victim was unconscious due to cold medicine. Moreover, the victim was perceived as having more control over the situation when the defendant was the star quarterback (i.e., high status), the victim was female, and she was unconscious due to alcohol consumption compared with cold medicine. These results suggest that victims may be blamed based on their perceived social status and other factors that may have influenced their control over the sexual assault, such as alcohol consumption.
Sokol, Blair J
The Mobile Assault Company (MAC) concept--the technique of employing the Marine Infantry Battalion's Weapons Company as a fourth maneuver element--is currently being employed successfully during counterinsurgency and Stability...
Purps, Josephine; Geppert, Maria; Nagy, Marion; Roewer, Lutz
DNA testing is an established part of the investigation and prosecution of sexual assault. The primary purpose of DNA evidence is to identify a suspect and/or to demonstrate sexual contact. However, due to highly uneven proportions of female and male DNA in typical stains, routine autosomal analysis often fails to detect the DNA of the assailant. To evaluate the forensic efficiency of the combined application of autosomal and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers, we present a large retrospective casework study of probative evidence collected in sexual-assault cases. We investigated up to 39 STR markers by testing combinations of the 16-locus NGMSElect kit with both the 23-locus PowerPlex Y23 and the 17-locus Yfiler kit. Using this dual approach we analyzed DNA extracts from 2077 biological stains collected in 287 cases over 30 months. To assess the outcome of the combined approach in comparison to stand-alone autosomal analysis we evaluated informative DNA profiles. Our investigation revealed that Y-STR analysis added up to 21% additional, highly informative (complete, single-source) profiles to the set of reportable autosomal STR profiles for typical stains collected in sexual-assault cases. Detection of multiple male contributors was approximately three times more likely with Y-chromosomal profiling than with autosomal STR profiling. In summary, 1/10 cases would have remained inconclusive (and could have been dismissed) if Y-STR analysis had been omitted from DNA profiling in sexual-assault cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chiba, Fumiko; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Ishii, Namiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Hoshioka, Yumi; Abe, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Sakuma, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Sayaka; Saito, Hisako; Yajima, Daisuke; Iwase, Hirotaro
Traumatic rhabdomyolysis generally occurs after severe blunt trauma and is acute in onset, associated with severe disease, and potentially lethal. Accordingly, diagnosis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis in patients without massive subcutaneous or intramuscular hemorrhage is difficult, especially in the postmortem period, which is limited in terms of the availability of biochemical examination tools and accurate history of illness. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of death from traumatic rhabdomyolysis among individuals who did not pursue medical consultation. A previously healthy man in his early sixties had been punched and kicked several times in the previous 2months, but he had not gone to a hospital. He suddenly lost consciousness at his workplace approximately 5days after the most recent assault, and cardiopulmonary arrest occurred when the emergency service arrived. He died the same day, and a medicolegal autopsy was performed. Although several sites of minor subcutaneous and muscle hemorrhage were observed, the cause of death was unclear upon macroscopic assessment. Immunohistochemical staining revealed acute renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis. We herein report a rare case of fatal traumatic rhabdomyolysis, seemingly associated with minor and apparently nonlethal muscle injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Max A Chernesky
Full Text Available Laboratory staff dealing with samples from victims must be aware that such patients have been psychologically traumatized and deserve special care. The help of a sexual assault care team should be sought if available, and appropriate specimens should be collected two to 10 days after an incident, preferably in a single visit. Specimens should be clearly labelled, and the laboratory should be informed. In the laboratory, all procedures need to be clearly documented. There are special requirements for the collection of forensic specimens and associated records, which may later be required for legal proceedings. The laboratory must know what the current legal status is for any test being used in that community. The present article serves as a guideline to more detailed practice standards for the investigation of individual sexually transmitted infections in assault and abuse situations.
In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence...... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...
Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas
Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...
Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas; Therese S. Richmond; Douglas J. Wiebe
Green space and vegetation may play a protective role against urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities was related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted geographic information systemsâassisted interviews with boys andmen aged 10â24 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including 135 patients who had been shot...
Casey, David G; Domijan, Katarina; MacNeill, Sarah; Rizet, Damien; O'Connell, Declan; Ryan, Jennifer
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time. We show the AP reaction is an unsafe and an unreliable predictor of sperm on intimate swabs. We propose that TSI not AP informs precase assessment and the evaluative approach for sexual assault cases. To help inform an evaluative approach, TSI guidelines are presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Background Profiling sperm DNA present on vaginal swabs taken from rape victims often contributes to identifying and incarcerating rapists. Large amounts of the victim’s epithelial cells contaminate the sperm present on swabs, however, and complicate this process. The standard method for obtaining relatively pure sperm DNA from a vaginal swab is to digest the epithelial cells with Proteinase K in order to solubilize the victim’s DNA, and to then physically separate the soluble DNA from the intact sperm by pelleting the sperm, removing the victim’s fraction, and repeatedly washing the sperm pellet. An alternative approach that does not require washing steps is to digest with Proteinase K, pellet the sperm, remove the victim’s fraction, and then digest the residual victim’s DNA with a nuclease. Methods The nuclease approach has been commercialized in a product, the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC Labs, Columbia, MO, USA), and five crime laboratories have tested it on semen-spiked female buccal swabs in a direct comparison with their standard methods. Comparisons have also been performed on timed post-coital vaginal swabs and evidence collected from sexual assault cases. Results For the semen-spiked buccal swabs, Erase outperformed the standard methods in all five laboratories and in most cases was able to provide a clean male profile from buccal swabs spiked with only 1,500 sperm. The vaginal swabs taken after consensual sex and the evidence collected from rape victims showed a similar pattern of Erase providing superior profiles. Conclusions In all samples tested, STR profiles of the male DNA fractions obtained with Erase were as good as or better than those obtained using the standard methods. PMID:23211019
Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith
The medico-legal assessment of potentially self-inflicted injuries is an important field of clinical forensic medicine. Compared with sharp force injuries, it is much more difficult to distinguish blunt injuries caused by another party from self-inflicted lesions. We present a case of a young female doctor, who was allegedly attacked by an unknown stranger during her evening walk in the woods. She claimed to have been hit repeatedly on the head and arms with a stone. During the forensic investigation, blunt injuries could be confirmed on her head and forearms. Based on the arrangement and intensity of the injuries, together with the result of a bloodstain pattern analysis of the weapon, the victim's statement could be disproved. After being confronted with the results of the investigation, the woman admitted to have inflicted the injuries herself. This case is an unusual and rare example of self-inflicted blunt injury. It shows that the criteria of self-inflicted injuries can also be applied to blunt trauma. However, due to the small number of cases, a high degree of caution is required from the forensic expert.
In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.
spousal sexual violence, and 19% had experienced spou- sal emotional violence7. ... ment of women's fundamental human rights and sexual ..... Gender Issues and National Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. ... tation.pdf , August 25, 2013. 16.
James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer
This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...
Buckles, Brian K.
This thesis examined the evolution of the Direct Reporting Program Manager- Advanced Amphibious Assault's test and evaluation strategy from Milestone 0 to the present. The research effort involved reviewing the evolution of amphibious doctrine and amphibious vehicles, reviewing the DoD Acquisition Process and the role of T&E in that Acquisition Process, and analyzing three DRPM-AAA Test and Evaluation Master Plans. Interviews were conducted with personnel from the DRPM-AAA office and General ...
Justice (NIJ), scholars at the Research Triangle Institute, International (RTI) disclosed 58% of college women experienced sexual assault while...fuels the debate on whether jurisprudence should rest with the civilian or military courts to prosecute sexual assault cases. DoD came under fire last...prevention efforts, notably on whether civilian law or military should have jurisprudence over CA. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-N.Y.) sponsored the
Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate
High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.
Luvuyo G. Sifo
Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of spousal violence on children. Spousal violence in the home affects children negatively and its impact goes beyond their childhood years into adulthood. Some children become dysfunctional in life as a result of their exposure to violence between their parents. These children may exhibit symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD later on in life. A case study of a family exposed to violence was undertaken. Findings from this case scenario were measured against existing literature. A pastoral care method of responding to the victims is proposed in order for them to be healed.
Perry, Samuel L
Religiosity and pornography use are often closely connected. Relatively few studies, however, have examined how this religion-pornography connection plays out within the context of committed romantic relationships. Moreover, virtually all studies of religion and pornography use conceptualize religiosity as a quality intrinsic to the person that typically reduces pornography viewing. Focusing on married Americans, this study shifted the focus to consider whether the religiosity of one's spouse relates to one's own pornography viewing and under what circumstances. Analyses of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (N = 1026) revealed that spousal religiosity was strongly and negatively related to participants viewing pornography, controlling for participants' own religious or sociodemographic characteristics or sexual satisfaction. This relationship held whether spousal religiosity was measured with participants' evaluations of their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self-reported religiosity. The association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was also moderated by participants' religious service attendance, gender, and age. Considering mechanisms, the association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was mediated by frequent participation in religious bonding activities as a couple, suggesting that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one's interest or opportunities to view pornography.
... to want to participate in social activities. Many women report difficulty trusting others after the assault, so it can be difficult to develop new relationships. Performance at work and school can also be affected. Sexual problems ...
... PDF 73K) | Appendix H: Data Tables for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Perpetration (PDF 79K) | Appendix I: Data Tables for School Connectedness and Campus Climate (PDF 140K) | Appendix J: ...
James A. Glanville
Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.
Men's Knowledge, Spousal Communication about Family Planning ... 1Department of Health Education and Promotion, Public Health Faculty, Jimma ... male involvement in reproductive health services 1. The ... are likely to be more effective for women when men are ..... more equitable gender roles; discussion between.
James A. Glanville
Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.
Joel G Ray
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36% involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48% arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.26. The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33, youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.46, and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired
Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin
A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...
Garrett, Linda H
Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Pittman, Joe F.; Orthner, Dennis K.
Examined antecedents of spousal support of husbands' work commitment from perspective of wives. Found spousal support influenced directly only by satisfaction with quality of life made possible by local work organization and length of involvement with organization. Marital and social adjustment, and perceptions of husband's work environment…
Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.
This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…
Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault-validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer.
Holtkötter, Hannah; Dias Filho, Claudemir Rodrigues; Schwender, Kristina; Stadler, Christian; Vennemann, Marielle; Pacheco, Ana Claudia; Roca, Gabriela
Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent. We report the forensic validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows for such discrimination in forensic stains, the SERATEC PMB test, and its performance on real casework samples. The PMB test is a duplex test combining human hemoglobin and D-dimer detection and was developed for the identification of blood and menstrual fluid, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory. The results of this study showed that the duplex D-dimer/hemoglobin assay reliably detects the presence of human hemoglobin and identifies samples containing menstrual fluid by detecting the presence of D-dimers. The method distinguished between menstrual and peripheral blood in a swab from a historical artifact and in real casework samples of alleged sexual assaults. Results show that the development of the new duplex test is a substantial progress towards analyzing and interpreting evidence from sexual assault cases.
Level and type of spousal shared work has been oversimplified in past research. This research proposes that being similar to a spouse, in the case of paid work, differs depending on whether spouses share workplace, occupation, or both. And this level and type of similarity can influence the level and qualitative characteristics of work-related…
AJRH Managing Editor
Couples'-Communication and Abortion in Nigeria ... The quality of spousal relationship may influence the acceptance of the status of pregnancies and the decision to .... partner, parity, age-difference among couples, ..... Public health, 2009.
Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri-Urban Nigeria. ... Communication was the only dimension of relationship quality that showed significant association with history of induced ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K
The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol
Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Has Processes for Operating and Managing Its Sexual Assault Incident Database Report to...to DSAID’s system speed and ease of use; interfaces with MCIO databases ; utility as a case management tool; and users’ ability to query data and... Managing Its Sexual Assault Incident Database What GAO Found As of October 2013, the Department of Defense’s (DOD) Defense Sexual Assault Incident
Alghffar EA; Said AA
Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others . Several other terms have been used to describe the condition, and the condition may overlap with other conditions that involve inflicting pain. It is distinct from situations in which consenting individuals use mild or simulated pain or humiliation for sexual excitement . Sexual sadism disorder has been found to be potentially dangerous if paired w...
Full Text Available The appropriateness of restorative justice (RJ for gendered violence offences such as domestic violence and sexual assault has always been and still is highly contested. This paper focuses on the appropriateness of RJ measures in addressing sexual assault, primarily with reference to experience of restorative dialogues as practiced at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, and it takes a feminist approach to the application of RJ measures to sexual assault. Within this framework, the paper tackles two issues in particular: the privacy element of RJ versus the public aspect of the criminal justice system (CJS, and the intersection of the CJS and RJ in cases of sexual assault. In relation to the relationship between CJS and RJ, the authors argue that RJ could be used for victims of sexual assault, not primarily as part of diversion programmes, but when offered apart from and/or parallel to the CJS. In relation to the private/public debate, the authors argue that while RJ encounters, by taking place in highly confidential settings, might have a negative impact on efforts by women’s movements to move violence against women out of the private and into the public realm, creating high standard alternatives for individual women who are in need of support and constantly generating public debate about gendered violence is a good feminist response to this complex issue.
Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.
Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)
Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Goldberg, Amy P
After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Draughon Moret, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Sheridan, Daniel J
Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV following sexual assault may decrease the likelihood of HIV transmission. The purpose of this exploratory chart review study was to examine factors associated with patients accepting post-sexual assault nPEP at three forensic nurse examiner programs in urban settings. Forensic nursing charts of patients presenting for acute sexual assault care were reviewed as part of a mixed-methods study. Patients assaulted by more than one or an unknown number of assailants were over 12 times more likely to accept the offer of nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 12.66, 95% CI [2.77, 57.82]). In cases where no condom was used (aOR = 8.57, 95% CI [1.59, 46.10]) or when any injury to the anus or genitalia was noted (aOR = 4.10, 95% CI [1.57, 10.75]), patients were more likely to accept nPEP. Patients with any injury to the face or head were less likely to initiate nPEP (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.11, 0.97]). This study is an important first step in understanding factors associated with nPEP acceptance after sexual assault.
Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, A; Chraïbi, S
The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults. Secondly, we examined the issue of sexual and physical assaults between patients receiving treatment in a psychiatric ward. In this context, we studied possible occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder associated with exposure to assaults of this kind. In certain cases, potentially traumatic exposure to violence was unknown to the medical staff or not taken into consideration. This would induce a risk of later development of posttraumatic stress disorder that would not be treated during the stay in psychiatry. To date, few scientific studies have focused on the proportion of patients assaulted by other patients during treatment in a psychiatric ward and the subsequent development of peritraumatic reactions and/or posttraumatic stress disorder associated with these assaults. We know that an insufficient number of public and private health institutions report the existence of such facts to the competent authorities. Also, a minority of clinicians and caregivers are trained in screening and management of trauma victims. Yet, these issues are particularly relevant in the scope of public health and health promotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Results: A response rate of 59.3% was achieved. ... on how to manage alleged rape or sexual assault cases, only 11.4% of the participants had hands-on exposure to an ..... atrocious crimes, constituting a huge human rights violation and.
Johnson, E E; Nora, R M
Extent of gambling-free periods was compared for 90 compulsive gamblers, 44 with spouses who participated in Gamblers Anonymous and 46 with spouses who did not. Although the results were in the direction of a beneficial effect of spousal participation, the relationship was statistically nonsignificant.
It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...
Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.
Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…
Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David
Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of spousal consent requirement. 831.618 Section 831.618 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... locate the spouse; and (ii) Documentary corroboration such as tax returns filed separately or newspaper...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of spousal consent requirement. 842.607 Section 842.607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... locate the spouse; and (ii) Documentary corroboration such as tax returns filed separately or newspaper...
Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...
5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Smith, Tanya
In circumstances in which child sexual abuse/assault is suspected, pediatric guidelines recommend referral to services such as multidisciplinary hospital-based violence treatment centers, for specialized medical treatment, forensic documentation, and counseling. As little is known about how such services are perceived, the objective of this case report was to measure the satisfaction of nonoffending guardians of child sexual abuse/assault victims who presented for care at Ontario's hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers. Of the 1,136 individuals who reported sexual abuse/assault and were enrolled in a province-wide service evaluation, 58 were 11 years old and younger. Thirty-three guardians completed a survey. Ratings of care were overwhelmingly positive, with 97% of respondents indicating that they would recommend these services. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate these pediatric sexual assault services frequently to ensure ongoing optimal, family-centered care.
Thackeray, Jonathan D; Hornor, Gail; Benzinger, Elizabeth A; Scribano, Philip V
To describe forensic evidence findings and reevaluate previous recommendations with respect to timing of evidence collection in acute child sexual assault and to identify factors associated with yield of DNA. This was a retrospective review of medical and legal records of patients aged 0 to 20 years who required forensic evidence collection. Ninety-seven of 388 (25%) processed evidence-collection kits were positive and 63 (65%) of them produced identifiable DNA. There were 20 positive samples obtained from children younger than 10 years; 17 of these samples were obtained from children seen within 24 hours of the assault. Three children had positive body samples beyond 24 hours after the assault, including 1 child positive for salivary amylase in the underwear and on the thighs 54 hours after the assault. DNA was found in 11 children aged younger than 10 years, including the child seen 54 hours after the assault. Collection of evidence within 24 hours of the assault was identified as an independent predictor of DNA detection. Identifiable DNA was collected from a child's body despite cases in which: evidence collection was performed >24 hours beyond the assault; the child had a normal/nonacute anogenital examination; there was no reported history of ejaculation; and the victim had bathed and/or changed clothes before evidence collection. Failure to conduct evidence collection on prepubertal children beyond 24 hours after the assault will result in rare missed opportunities to identify forensic evidence, including identification of DNA.
... Tool (CSAT) - Probation Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Statistics Data Tool Federal Criminal Case Processing Statistics (FCCPS) NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) API ...
Daggett, Luann M
Spousal bereavement is one of the most profoundly disturbing events encountered in the human life span. Research has shown that conjugal bereavement has significant physical and psychological consequences for the surviving spouse. In American culture, men and women experience bereavement in different ways. The author used in-depth interviews in the tradition of phenomenology to collect data from 8 men aged 41 to 54 years who had experienced the death of their spouse within the previous 8 months to 6 years. The research revealed the lived experience of spousal bereavement to be a journey from the realization of irreconcilable loss through themes of responding to the loss and living through the loss toward reclamation and reconstruction of a life.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles.
Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard
Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
mature, responsible, and trustworthy personnel to serve as unit SARCs and SAPR VAs. The Department created the D-SAACP Commander’s Guide107 to... trustworthy means to access support while maintaining confidentiality. Summary: Reports of sexual assault increased by 8% from FY13 to FY14. Report to...occurrences during FY14. Case 1 Continental United States: Victim reported being sexually assaulted by Subject after a night of celebrating with her
Experiences of healthcare providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 2: Discussion of results and literature control. ... It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual crimes represent various forms of contact of perpetrator’s genitals, lips, tongue, and fingers with genitals, lips and/or anus of the victim, in order to achieve sexual satisfaction, without victim’s consent. Objective: The aim of this work was to analyze the type of medical institution in which victims of sexual assaults are being examined in Belgrade area, to assess the quality of these examinations and medical records, as well as to control whether standardized protocols are followed. Method: Data were obtained through analysis of 113 cases of sexual assaults prosecuted in the District Court of Belgrade. Results: All victims were females with mean age of 24.1 years. The majority of victims (85% were examined in one medical institution, most often in the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, and only by one medical doctor (81.4%. Gynecologists were most frequently included in examination, while specialists of forensic medicine were engaged in only 9 cases (7.9%. In 84% of victims, the examination was performed during the first three days after the assault, and in 52% of cases on the first day. Standard techniques of clinical and gynecological examinations were applied only, without following any protocols, so the reports were made exclusively on individual basis. In no case an informed consent by victim was obtained before examination. Anamnestic data were collected in only 15.9% of cases, and they were generally incomplete. Conclusion: The results of investigation show that the quality of examination of sexual assault victims in Belgrade area is not adequate. Therefore, such negative practice should be changed in future through introduction of standardized protocols for examination of victims, as well as development of clinical forensic medicine.
Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi
To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Patel, C J; Beekhan, A; Paruk, Z; Ramgoon, S
In recognising the highly stressful nature of the nursing profession, the added burden of hospital staff shortages, and patient overload, the present study explored the impact of work on family functioning, its relationship to job satisfaction and the role of spousal support in a group of 80 female nurses working in a government hospital. Using a descriptive, correlational design, the relationships among job satisfaction, work-family conflict (WFC) and spousal/partner support were explored. The hypotheses that job satisfaction and WFC would be negatively correlated, that job satisfaction and spousal support would be positively correlated, and that WFC and spousal support would be negatively correlated, were tested using correlation techniques. All hypotheses were confirmed. The role of spousal support in the relationship between job satisfaction and work -family conflict was highlighted.
Mamdouh, H M; Ismail, H M; Kharboush, I F; Tawfik, M M; El Sharkawy, O G; Abdel-Baky, M; Sallam, H N
We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of, and factors affecting, spousal violence among 3271 ever-married women attending 12 randomly selected family health centres in Alexandria Governorate. More than three-quarters of the participants (77%) reported experiencing spousal violence during their marital life. Emotional violence was the most common type reported (71.0%), followed by physical (50.3%), economic (40.8%) and sexual (37.1%) violence. The study confirms the high prevalence of spousal violence across all socioeconomic strata. Logistic regression analysis indicated large family size, divorce or separation, low educational attainment of husband, smoking habit and drug use in husband, husband's psychological status and history of exposure to physical violence during adolescence were associated with spousal violence. This high rate of spousal violence highlights the urgent need for government and civil society to address the issue, which hinders progress toward Egypt's development goals.
Full Text Available In recognising the highly stressful nature of the nursing profession, the added burden of hospital staff shortages, and patient overload, the present study explored the impact of work on family functioning, its relationship to job satisfaction and the role of spousal support in a group of 80 female nurses working in a government hospital. Using a descriptive, correlational design, the relationships among job satisfaction, work-family conflict (WFC and spousal/partner support were explored. The hypotheses that job satisfaction and WFC would be negatively correlated, that job satisfaction and spousal support would be positively correlated, and that WFC and spousal support would be negatively correlated, were tested using correlation techniques. All hypotheses were confirmed. The role of spousal support in the relationship between job satisfaction and work -family conflict was highlighted.
Schilling, Samantha; Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Scribano, Philip V; French, Benjamin; Wood, Joanne N
To examine rates of recommended of testing and prophylaxis for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pregnancy in adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault across pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and to determine whether specialized sexual assault pathways and teams are associated with performance of recommended testing and prophylaxis. In this retrospective study of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault at 38 EDs in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database from 2004 to 2013, information regarding routine practice for sexual assault evaluations and presence and year of initiation of specialized ED sexual assault pathways and teams was collected via survey. We examined across-hospital variation and identified patient- and hospital-level factors associated with testing and prophylaxis using logistic regression models, accounting for clustering by hospital. Among 12,687 included cases, 93% were female, 79% were <16 years old, 34% were non-Hispanic white, 38% were non-Hispanic black, 21% were Hispanic, and 52% had public insurance. Overall, 44% of adolescents received recommended testing (chlamydia, gonorrhea, pregnancy) and 35% received recommended prophylaxis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, emergency contraception). Across EDs, unadjusted rates of testing ranged from 6% to 89%, and prophylaxis ranged from 0% to 57%. Presence of a specialized sexual assault pathway was associated with increased rates of prophylaxis even after adjusting for case-mix and temporal trends (odds ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.86). Evaluation and treatment of adolescent sexual assault victims varied widely across pediatric EDs. Adolescents cared for in EDs with specialized sexual assault pathways were more likely to receive recommended prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; And Others
Assault victims exhibit a variety of emotional responses including fear, depression, and sexual impairment. For most assault victims, these responses decline over time. This study examined the pattern of post-assault responses during the first 12 weeks and compared the pattern of responses following rape with non-sexual criminal assault reactions.…
Dutton, D G
A critical review is made of feminist analyses of wife assault postulating that patriarchy is a direct cause of wife assault. Data are reviewed from a variety of studies indicating that (a) lesbian battering is more frequent than heterosexual battering, (b) no direct relationship exists between power and violence within couples, and (c) no direct relationship exists between structural patriarchy and wife assault. It is concluded that patriarchy must interact with psychological variables in order to account for the great variation in power-violence data. It is suggested that some forms of psychopathology may lead to some men adopting patriarchal ideology to justify and rationalize their own pathology.
Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann
The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene
This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data...... by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make...
O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J
Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.
Campaign Plan McHugh Speaks at 59th CASA Conference Installations to Open SHARP Resource Centers 7th CSC Assault Prevention and Response SecArmy McHugh Discusses Strategic Capabilities With U.S. Army Europe New
resulted more in bites involving females than males. Contusion (47.6%) ... homicides, sexual assault and also in attempted suicide1. It may be found in ... original work is properly cited. ... deployed for determining tests of statistical significance;.
Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.
... (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and provides guidance on how... cases; (g) Establish the SAFE Helpline is established as the sole DoD hotline for crisis intervention... Kit collection and preservation. 105.13 Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault...
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa
The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.
Hansen, Ole Ingemann
November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located at the em......November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located...... - the others were taken care of by the nurses and/or the psychologist. 256 victims examined by the physicians were reported to the police (78%). The Aarhus Center is now well established, and there is an excellent cooperation in the region between the Center and the affiliated partners: the police......, the forensic scientists, the department of gynaecology, the county’s general practitioners and the university institutes of psychology and forensic medicine. The prevention of sexual assault is a difficult issue, but the fact that half the cases happens in privacy or at work, and that only 25...
Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra
Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…
Mukhtar, S Aqif; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Kelly, Maire C; Zilkens, Renate R; Semmens, James B
The Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in Perth, Western Australia provides free 24-hour medical, forensic, and counseling services to persons aged over 13 years following sexual assault. The aim of this research was to design a data management system that maintains accurate quality information on all sexual assault cases referred to SARC, facilitating audit and peer-reviewed research. The work to develop SARC Medical Services Clinical Information System (SARC-MSCIS) took place during 2007-2009 as a collaboration between SARC and Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. Patient demographics, assault details, including injury documentation, and counseling sessions were identified as core data sections. A user authentication system was set up for data security. Data quality checks were incorporated to ensure high-quality data. An SARC-MSCIS was developed containing three core data sections having 427 data elements to capture patient's data. Development of the SARC-MSCIS has resulted in comprehensive capacity to support sexual assault research. Four additional projects are underway to explore both the public health and criminal justice considerations in responding to sexual violence. The data showed that 1,933 sexual assault episodes had occurred among 1881 patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. Sexual assault patients knew the assailant as a friend, carer, acquaintance, relative, partner, or ex-partner in 70% of cases, with 16% assailants being a stranger to the patient. This project has resulted in the development of a high-quality data management system to maintain information for medical and forensic services offered by SARC. This system has also proven to be a reliable resource enabling research in the area of sexual violence.
Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.
Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health......-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes...... and Measures: Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc...
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women’s identities and agency are expressed in the context...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...
Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre
This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...
Jun 20, 2014 ... Conclusion: The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was .... comparison of sexually- and physically-assaulted individuals ..... assault groups revealed no significant difference with regard.
Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Havermann, Robert; Germerott, Tanja; Fieguth, Armin
As the percentage of elderly people in the population grows, violence against persons of advanced age constitutes an increasing social problem. The findings of the clinical forensic examinations (CE group) and autopsies performed on elderly violence victims (> or = 60 years) between 1999 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In all, the study material comprised 55 victims of the CE group (35 females and 20 males, median age 73.5 years) and 55 autopsies (33 females and 22 males, median age 72.7 years). In most of the autopsy cases, the suspect was a family member or partner. In contrast, the alleged perpetrator was a stranger in most cases of the CE group. Blunt force injuries were most often found in the CE group victims (63.6%). Altogether, 38.2% (CE group) and 20.0% (autopsy cases) of the violent assaults were associated with robbery. In the majority of the CE cases, the victims suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries. In summary, the analysis shows that elderly people frequently become victims of robbery and blunt force injury. In most homicides of old people, the perpetrator is familiar to the victim. In surviving elderly violence victims, the assault is more likely to be reported to the police if the suspect is a stranger.
Dan Valeriu Voinea
Full Text Available The most debated media story of 2015 in Romania was related to a case of sexual assualt. On the 19th of July 2015 seven teenagers were released from house arrest in the case where they were accused of collectively raping an 18-year-old high school student. The Romania media landscape was quickly overtaken by this story: we had in depth media reports about the alleged assailaints and their home town, scandal regarding a facebook group created by a parent of one of the former mentioned and even a TV appearance from the victim and her mother on live television. The present article will attempt an analysis of the responsabilities that journalists have in protecting victims of sexual assault, according to the European law, Romanian legislation and in the media code of ethics. The questions we are starting from are these: were the Romanian journalists really disgusted by the actions of the seven or was it just a race for larger readership and viewership? What did the journalists do wrong when reporting n this story? What could they and should they have done more in order to protect a victim of sexual assault? And why was this case so widely reported while other cases of rape are constantly ignored by the Romanian media and society?
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were...... extracted and analysed focussing on age, relationship, lesions, violence, location and alcohol intoxication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women over the age of 12 years were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The median age of the victims was 20 years (range 12-89 years). 75.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...
Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.
Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca; Cain, Debi
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change. The study revealed that the likelihood of a case referral to the prosecutor increased with each additional investigative step completed; of the different types of justifications provided by police for a less-than-thorough investigative response and stalled case, blaming the victim for the poor police investigation proved to be the most damaging to case progression; and the type of explanation provided by police was impacted by specific case variables. As suggested by social dominance theory, the study demonstrates that police rely on several different mechanisms to justify their response to sexual assault; implementing criminal justice system policies that target and interrupt these mechanisms has the potential to improve this response, regardless of specific case factors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...
Eni, U E; Na'aya, H U; Musa, A M; Lawan, M A; Chinda, J Y
Violent assault injuries are a frequent occurrence in the native communities of the North Eastern Nigeria. The injuries are mostly unreported, and therefore no policy towards prevention. We hope to highlight the common causes and pattern of such injuries, as well as suggest control measures in order to reduce the incidence. A retrospective review of 208 assault injury cases seen at the Accident and Emergency department of the Federal Medical Center, Nguru, between January 2002 and December 2006. All but 12 were males, giving a male to female ratio of 16:1. Most of the patients are illiterate herdsmen and farmers. The age ranged from 12 to 70 years, with a mean of 30.9 +/- 11.2 years. The peak age incidence was 30-40 years. Fighting was the most common cause, accounting for 124 (59.6%), followed by armed robbery assaults, which accounted for 75 (36.1%). Domestic abuse was the cause in 9 cases (4.3%). Arrow shot was the commonest form of assault injury in 55 (26.4%) cases, followed by matchet in 49 (23.6%), gunshot in 37 (17.8%), club/stick in 32 (15.4%) and stab wounds in 26 (12.5 %). Quarrel over farmlands used for grazing by herdsmen was the leading cause of fighting resulting in assault injuries (87), followed by quarrel over women (32)! Assault injuries are a common occurrence in the native communities of the North Eastern Nigeria. Addressing the root causes such as mapping out grazing lands in the region, community policing as well as mandatory reporting of all assault injuries to the police for appropriate legal action, will help reduce the incidence of assault injuries.
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah
This article reviews current epistemological and design issues in the mixed methods literature and then examines the application of one specific design, a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, in an evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve postassault care for sexual assault survivors. Guided by a pragmatist epistemological framework, this study collected quantitative and qualitative data to understand how the implementation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program affected prosecution rates of adult sexual assault cases in a large midwestern community. Quantitative results indicated that the program was successful in affecting legal systems change and the qualitative data revealed the mediating mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness. Challenges of implementing this design are discussed, including epistemological and practical difficulties that developed from blending methodologies into a single project. © The Author(s) 2011.
When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…
Resick, Patricia A.; Schnicke, Monica K.
Nineteen sexual assault survivors received cognitive processing therapy in group format to help deal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following rape. Compared to 20-subject waiting list control group, participants improved significantly from pre- to posttreatment on PTSD and depression measures and maintained their improvement for 6…
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Sisson, V. Shamim; Todd, Sybil R.
Describes policies and procedures for using mediation as one alternative for adjudicating sexual assault cases, and examines factors to consider for implementation. Mediation gives survivors an opportunity to confront accused in a safe environment and to regain a feeling of control in life. Provides recommendations based on experiences at the…
McMahon, Sarah; Stepleton, Kate; Cusano, Julia; O'Connor, Julia; Gandhi, Khushbu; McGinty, Felicia
The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault identified campus climate surveys as "the first step" for addressing campus sexual violence. Through a process case study, this article presents one model for engaging in a comprehensive, action-focused campus climate assessment process. Rooted in principles of…
Westring, Christian Gustav; Wiuf, Morten; Nielsen, S Jock
Accurate microscopic identification of human spermatozoa is important in sexual assault cases. We have compared the results of examinations with (1) a fluorescent microscopy method, SPERM HY-LITER™, and (2) Baecchi's method for identification of human spermatozoa. In 35 artificial, forensic type...
Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya
Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…
Shechory-Bitton, Mally; Cohen-Louck, Keren
The present study focuses on spousal differences in reaction to ongoing exposure to terror and security threats. Sixty-eight married couples with children living in a region exposed to ongoing security threats were evaluated. All participants completed questionnaires on objective exposure (number of incidents) and subjective exposure (sense of fear) to terrorism and security threats, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and their coping strategies with this ongoing exposure. Mothers reported higher levels of fear and PTSD symptoms, although their objective levels of exposure did not differ from those of their husbands. Similarities were found in coping strategies adopted by mothers and fathers to cope with life in the shadow of terrorism. Both mothers and fathers integrated emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies, with greater use of the latter. These similarities partially contradict research findings suggesting gender differences in coping with exposure to security threats. The results support the need for further research into investigating the role of dyadic coping in the context of prolonged exposure to security threats.
Ye, Lichuan; Malhotra, Atul; Kayser, Karen; Willis, Danny G.; Horowitz, June; Aloia, Mark; Weaver, Terri E.
Summary Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is associated with substantial health care costs, morbidity and mortality, and has been a leading obstacle in the effective management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Successful interventions to improve CPAP adherence may ultimately include a variety of components. For patients living with spouses (refers to all domestic partners), the spouse will likely be an integral component to any successful intervention. Developing understanding of the role of spouses in adherence to CPAP has been identified to be a critical research need. This review expands the investigation of CPAP adherence to a broader context, from an exclusive focus on individual patients to a dyadic perspective encompassing both patients and their spouses. A conceptual framework based on social support and social control theories is proposed to understand spousal involvement in CPAP adherence. Methodologies for future investigations are discussed, along with implications for developing interventions that engage both patients and their spouses to improve CPAP use. PMID:24906222
Culyba, Alison J; Miller, Elizabeth; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Branas, Charles C; Guo, Wensheng; Fein, Joel A; Richmond, Therese S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L; Wiebe, Douglas J
Strengths-based strategies to reduce youth violence in low-resource urban communities are urgently needed. Supportive adolescent-adult relationships may confer protection, but studies have been limited by self-reported composite outcomes. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 10- to 24-year-old males in low-resource neighborhoods to examine associations between supportive adult connection and severe assault injury. Cases were victims of gunshot assault injury (n = 143) and non-gun assault injury (n = 206) from two level I trauma centers. Age- and race-matched controls (n = 283) were recruited using random digit dial from the same catchment. Adolescent-adult connections were defined by: (1) brief survey questions and (2) detailed family genograms. Analysis used conditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations between positive adult connection, as defined by brief survey questions, and either gunshot or non-gun assault injury among adolescents with high prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 2.46, 95% CI 0.81-7.49; non-gun OR = 1.59, 95% CI 0.54-4.67) or low prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.34-2.44; non-gun OR = 1.96, 95% CI 0.73-5.28). In contrast, among adolescents with high levels of prior violence involvement, reporting at least one supportive adult family member in the family genogram was associated with higher odds of gunshot assault injury (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.36-11.80) and non-gun assault injury (OR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.48-12.04). We were thus unable to demonstrate that positive adult connections protected adolescent males from severe assault injury in this highly under-resourced environment. However, at the time of injury, assault-injured adolescents, particularly those with high prior violence involvement, reported high levels of family support. The post-injury period may provide opportunities to intervene to enhance and leverage family connections to explore how to
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C
Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Charan Kishor Shetty
Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%. The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.
Dagan, Meirav; Sanderman, Robbert; Schokker, Marike C; Wiggers, Theo; Baas, Peter C; van Haastert, Michiel; Hagedoorn, Mariët
This longitudinal study has examined the associations between perceived supportive and unsupportive spousal behavior and changes in distress in couples coping with cancer. We tested whether people relatively low in their sense of personal control were more responsive to spousal supportive and
Yoon, Hye Eun; Song, Joon Chang; Hyoung, Bok Jin; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, So Young; Jeon, Youn Joo; Park, Sun Cheol; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Yong Soo; Moon, In Sung; Yang, Chul Woo
The greater use of living unrelated donors (LUDs) as kidney donors is a worldwide trend in the current era of organ shortage, and spouses are an important source of LUDs. This study was to compare the long-term outcomes of spousal donor grafts with other LUD grafts. Among 445 LUD grafts, 77 were spouses and 368 were other LUDs. The clinical characteristics and long-term survival rates for spousal transplants were compared with those for other LUD transplants, and risk factors affecting graft survival were assessed. Spousal donors had a significantly higher average number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (4.2 vs. 3.4, p HLA mismatching, the spousal donor type or donor age did not affect the graft survival. Renal transplants from spousal donors show similar long-term outcomes to those from better HLA-matched and younger LUDs. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....
Link, Cynthia F
This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.
Memarian, Azadeh; Ameri, Maryam; Shakeri, Mozhgan; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh
In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife's pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband's methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient's health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as "osr-o-haraj" or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband's consent.
Full Text Available In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV. We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife’s pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband’s methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient’s health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as “osr-o-haraj” or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband’s consent.
18.104.22.168. Sexual Assault Examination Process (see Enclosure 6, Healthcare section) 22.214.171.124. Emergency Contraception /Sexually Transmitted...pregnancy, options for emergency contraception , and any necessary follow-up care and/or referral services. E126.96.36.199.3. Assessment for the need...and listen/engage in quiet support, as needed, and provide the victim appropriate emotional support resources. To the extent practicable, accommodate
When women are banished from their communities following sexual assault, this rejection should be considered an act of forced migration by the administrators of truth commission reparations programmes.
Hornor, Gail; Thackeray, Jonathan; Scribano, Philip; Curran, Sherry; Benzinger, Elizabeth
Although pediatric sexual assault nurse examiners (P-SANEs) have been providing care for over two decades there remain major gaps in the literature describing the quality of P-SANE care and legal outcomes associated with their cases. The purpose of this study was to compare quality indicators of care in a pediatric emergency department (PED) before and after the implementation of a P-SANE program described in terms of trace forensic evidence yield, identification of perpetrator DNA, and judicial outcomes in pediatric acute sexual assault. A retrospective review of medical and legal records of all patients presenting to the PED at Nationwide Children's Hospital with concerns of acute sexual abuse/assault requiring forensic evidence collection from 1/1/04 to 12/31/07 was conducted. Detection and documentation of ano-genital injury, evaluation and documentation of pregnancy status, and testing for N. gonorrhea and C. trachomatis was significantly improved since implementation of the P-SANE Program compared to the historical control. The addition of a P-SANE to the emergency department (ED) provider team improved the quality of care to child/adolescent victims of acute sexual abuse/assault. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Wilson, Maria C I
This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.
Lessenger, J E
Perfumes have been associated with rashes in employees exposed to scented soaps or with allergic conditions, such as rhinitis or asthma, in employees exposed to perfumes or fragrances in the air. Reported here is a case of an anaphylactic reaction and respiratory distress as a result of a deliberate assault with a perfume spray. The medical literature was searched using the key words "fragrances," "respiratory distress," "assault," and "health care workers." A female medical assistant with no history of asthma or reactions to fragrances was assaulted by a patient, who pumped three sprays of a perfume into her face. The employee experienced an acute anaphylactic reaction with shortness of breath, a suffocating sensation, wheezes, and generalized urticaria, and required aggressive medical treatment, a long period of oral bronchodilator therapy, and, finally, weaning from the medications. Perfumes are complex mixtures of more than 4,000 vegetable and animal extracts and organic and nonorganic compounds. Fragrances have been found to cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients, including chest tightening and wheezing, and are a common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. In many work settings the use of fragrances is limited. Assault is becoming more common among workers in the health care setting. Workers should be prepared to take immediate steps should an employee go into anaphylactic shock.
Linos, Natalia; Slopen, Natalie; Subramanian, S V; Berkman, Lisa; Kawachi, Ichiro
We examined whether social norms toward spousal violence in Nigeria, at the state level, are associated with a woman's exposure to physical and sexual violence perpetrated by her husband. Using data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey, we fit four 3-level random intercepts models to examine contextual factors associated with spousal violence while accounting for individual-level predictors. Of the 18,798 ever-married Nigerian women in our sample, 18.7% reported exposure to spousal sexual or physical violence. The prevalence was geographically patterned by state and ranged from 3% to 50%. Permissive state-level social norms toward spousal violence were positively associated with a woman's report of physical and sexual violence perpetrated by her husband (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 2.77), after adjusting for individual-level characteristics. A number of individual-level variables were significantly associated with victimization, including a woman's accepting beliefs toward spousal violence (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.14). Women living in states with Sharia law were less likely to report spousal violence (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.95). Efforts to end violence against women, particularly spousal violence, should consider broader social and contextual determinants of violence including social norms.
Matzek, Amanda E.; Cooney, Teresa M.
Few studies have examined how raising grandchildren influences the marital relationship of grandparent caregivers although half of such caregivers are married. This study used national survey data from Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) to contrast perceptions of spousal support and strain for grandparents who had recently provided…
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi-structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants: 16 victims, 16 perpetrators, and eight key informants from rural and urban Ghana. Participants' discursive accounts suggest that husbands have implicit moral right and obligation to punish their wives for disobedience and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate their agency to leave abusive marital relationships. The findings contribute to our understanding of how cultural and social norms of spousal violence are morally constituted, reproduced, and sustained in talk of perpetrators, victims, and other key members of society.
Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V
The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors.
Korporaal, M.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.
Objectives: This study examines the effects of own and spousal disability on social and emotional loneliness among married adults aged 65 and older. Method: Data from 710 men and 379 women of a Dutch community sample were analyzed with linear regression analyses. Results: For men, only their wives'
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate...
Prateek S Shrivastava
Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1% followed by physical in 64 (63.4%. Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.
Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Smith, T.W.; Carlisle, M.; Birmingham, W.; Bowen, K.S.; Light, K.C.; O'Hartaigh, B.
Objectives: Although perceiving one’s social ties as sources of ambivalence has been linked to negative health outcomes, the more specific contexts by which such relationships influence health remain less studied. We thus examined if perceived spousal relationship quality in three theoretically
Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok
This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…
Pitner, Ronald O; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Zeira, Anat
In this study, we examined what contextual factors influence adolescents' judgments and reasoning about spousal retribution. Adolescents were drawn from Central and Northern Israel and consisted of 2,324 Arab and Jewish students (Grades 7-11). The study was set up in a 2 (Arab/Jewish respondent) × 2 (spousal retribution scenarios) factorial design. Our findings suggest that societal and cultural norms may be more powerful contextual variables than group stereotypes in influencing Arab and Jewish adolescents' evaluations of spousal retribution. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra; Matsufuji, Hiromi; Coxon, Kirstie
a substantial number of Nepali women experience spousal violence, which affects their health in many ways, including during and after pregnancy. This study aimed to examine associations between women's experiences of spousal violence and their receipt of skilled maternity care, using two indicators: (1) receiving skilled maternity care across a continuum from pregnancy to the early postnatal period and (2) receiving any skilled maternity care in pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum. data were analysed for married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were included on women who completed an interview on spousal violence as part of the survey and had given birth within the five years preceding the survey (weighted n=1375). Logistic regression models were developed for analyses. the proportion of women who received skilled maternity care across the pregnancy continuum and those who received any skilled maternity care was 24.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that spousal violence was statistically significantly associated with receiving low levels of skilled maternity care, after adjusting for accessibility of health care. However, after controlling for women's sociodemographic backgrounds (age, number of children born, educational level, husband's education level, husband's occupation, region of residence, urban/rural residence, wealth index), these significant associations disappeared. Better-educated women, women whose husbands were professionals or skilled workers and women from well-off households were more likely to receive skilled maternity care either across the pregnancy continuum or at recommended points during or after pregnancy. spousal violence and low uptake of skilled maternity care are deeply embedded in a society in which gender inequality prevails. Factors affecting the receipt of skilled maternity care are multidimensional; simply expanding geographical access to maternity services may
Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers. PMID:24924872
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Purpose: Sexual assault is a violent crime against both the individual and society but is largely underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of sexual assault among female students in the University of Maiduguri. Methods: A crossectional descriptive study using a close ended, self ...
Wamboldt, Alexander; Khan, Shamus R; Mellins, Claude Ann; Hirsch, Jennifer S
Sexual assault is a part of many students' experiences in higher education. In U.S. universities, one in four women and one in ten men report being sexually assaulted before graduation. Bystander training programmes have been shown to modestly reduce campus sexual assault. Like all public health interventions, however, they have unintended social consequences; this research examines how undergraduate men on one campus understand bystander interventions and how those understandings shape their actual practices. We draw on ethnographic data collected between August 2015 and January 2017 at Columbia University and Barnard College. Our findings show that university training and an earnest desire to be responsible lead many men to intervene in possible sexual assaults. However, students' gendered methods target more socially vulnerable and socially distant men while protecting popular men and those to whom they are socially connected. Students' actual bystander practices thus reproduce social hierarchies in which low prestige may or may not be connected to actual risks of sexual assault. These results suggest that understanding intragroup dynamics and social hierarchies is essential to assault prevention in universities and that students' actions as bystanders may be effective at preventing assaults in some circumstances but may lead to new risks of sexual assault.
Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio ...
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Websites Employee Resources Gender Relations Academies Work to Prevent Assault, Harassment WASHINGTON, Dec . 13, 2007 - The Defense Department's Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the U.S assault at the U.S. service academies during the 2006-2007 school year, officials are calling them a sign
... participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop clear guidelines that are applicable to rural and urban South Africa. Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents ...
... Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, women, men, and children across America suffer the pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and rape, this crime occurs far too frequently, goes...
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... action was extracted, analysed and compared to the observed lesions (LE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: 75.5% of the victims were under 30 years of age. Observed LE: 79% had observed LE. 41% had body LE only, 19% genito-anal LE...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...
Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Forman, Julie L; Krogh, Jesper; Shear, M. Katherine; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates
Importance Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes and Measures Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. Results The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner’s suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general
I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B
The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships.
Conclusion: The benefits of urgent reduction in chemical load is intuitively obvious, and by shaving tangentially to bleeding, vital tissue is preserved. Trying to prove benefit in terms of an RCT is however ethically challenging.
Radl, Jonas; Himmelreicher, Ralf K
This article analyzes the impact of marital status and spousal employment on the timing of retirement in Germany and Spain. Retirement behavior is examined by means of event-history models, with a competing risks framework being used to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary work-exit transitions. To take account of the role of social policies, we adopt a comparative approach. Data are drawn from a 2006 special retirement module implemented analogously in national labor force surveys. The results show that spousal labor market participation plays a large role in work-exit transitions, even when retirement is involuntary. This finding questions the widespread belief that coretirement is exclusively due to preference for joint retirement shared among spouses. Moreover, widows and widowers tend to retire prematurely in Germany, whereas no such effect could be found in Spain. This finding is explained by reference to specific economic incentives arising from national pension legislation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pai, Manacy; Carr, Deborah
We use data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study to investigate the extent to which: (1) five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability/neuroticism, extraversion, and openness) moderate the effect of late-life spousal loss on depressive symptoms; (2) these patterns vary based on the expectedness of the death; and (3) the patterns documented in (1) and (2) are explained by secondary stressors and social support. Widowed persons report significantly more depressive symptoms than married persons, yet the deleterious effects of loss are significantly smaller for highly extraverted and conscientious individuals. The protective effects of personality traits, however, vary based on the expectedness of the death. Extraversion is protective against depression only for persons who had forewarning of the death. Extraverts may be particularly good at marshalling social support during prolonged periods of spousal illness. We discuss the ways that extraversion and conscientiousness may buffer against bereavement-related stressors.
Career Advancement Accounts program, available to assist some Figure 1. Impact of PCS Moves on Military Spousal Earnings NOTES: The “working spouses...Spouses’ career earnings may be especially affected by permanent change-of-station (PCS) moves. Job-specific skills and knowledge gained while one is...Finally, the inherently disruptive nature of moving could have negative effects on productivity , thereby lowering wages. To date, our understanding of
Full Text Available Interpersonal violence seems to be on the increase worldwide. This is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate limb injuries that are related to assault seen in ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu, Nigeria. The limbs are very important in economic survival and its loss or dysfunction could create serious disability and jeopardize survival. This was a prospective study carried out between March 2012 and February 2013 in the Forensic Clinic of ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the victims off assault visiting the Forensic Clinic of the Hospital. Data was analyzed using simple statistical methods. A total of 1928 individuals visited the Forensic Clinic during the study period. 233 of them sustained one form of injury or the other. Limb injuries occurred in 88 (37.7% of injured victims. Upper limb and lower limb injuries occurred in 71.6% (n = 63 and 18.2% (n = 16 respectively and 10.2% (n = 9 had injuries involving both upper and lower limbs. Male to female ration is 1.6:1. The commonest weapon of assault was knife 22.7% followed by wood 18.1% and teeth 16.0%. Workman\\'s tools and bottle accounted for 13.6% and 11.4% respectively. The youngest victim was 15 years and the oldest 65 years. The modal age range of victims was 21 and ndash; 30 years 43.1% (n and ndash; 38 and mean age is 34.1 years. Laceration 44.3% (n and ndash; 39 was the commonest soft tissue injury seen and bone fracture was seen in 3.4% (n and ndash; 3 of cases. Most of the injuries occurred in business or work place 37.5% (N and ndash; 33, closely followed by attacks in the living quarters 36.4% (n and ndash; 32. The upper limb is a common site of injury during assault probably because most individuals would attempt to protect themselves using their hands. Weapons used in assault are those commonly found at the point of assault and active
Ro, Annie; Goldberg, Rachel E
Prospective studies have found unemployment and job loss to be associated with negative psychological and physical health outcomes. For immigrants, the health implications of employment change cannot be considered apart from pre-migration experiences. While immigrants demonstrate relative success in securing employment in the United States, their work is often not commensurate with their education or expertise. Previous research has linked downward employment with adverse health outcomes among immigrants, but with gender differences. We extended this literature by considering a wider range of employment states and accounting for the interdependence of husbands' and wives' employment trajectories. We examined the relationships between personal and spousal post-migration employment changes and self-rated health and depressive symptoms using dyadic data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) (n = 5682 individuals/2841 spousal pairs). We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to model cross-partner effects and account for spousal interdependence. In general, men's downward employment trajectories were associated with poorer health for themselves. Women's employment trajectories had fewer statistically significant associations with their own or their husbands' health, underscoring the generally more peripheral nature of women's work in the household. However, women's current unemployment in particular was associated with poorer health outcomes for themselves and their husbands, suggesting that unmet need for women's work can produce health risks within immigrant households. Our findings suggest that employment change should be considered a household event that can impact the wellbeing of linked individuals within. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte
Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Francisco Javier Mato Díaz
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koper, Christopher S; Johnson, William D; Nichols, Jordan L; Ayers, Ambrozine; Mullins, Natalie
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health.
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria
Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low-income, and poorly educated households. Our study aims to determine the associations between child marriage and controlling behaviors (CB) and spousal violence by husbands against adolescent and young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. We analyzed data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, of currently married women aged 15-24 years who had participated in the domestic violence module (n = 589, 22.5% [589/2,615] of the subsample aged 15-24 years) to identify differences in CB and spousal violence experiences between early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and CB and spousal violence by husband were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AOR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, and rural residence), spousal age gap, and husband's education. Overall, 47.8% of currently married women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. About one third of women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan reported experiencing CB (31.8%) and spousal violence (31.1%) by their husbands. Compared with adult marriage, child marriage was significantly associated with CB (AOR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.042-2.157), any form of spousal violence (physical or emotional) (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.392-2.969), emotional violence (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.254-2.767), and physical violence (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.582-3.760), including severe physical violence (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.122-5.872). Effective interventions are needed to prevent child marriages and raise awareness about their negative consequences, with special reference to spousal violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blair, D T
1. Provocation is an important risk predictor because these issues can be recognized, assessed, and appropriate interventions can be implemented to reduce the associated risks. It is only by the reduction of such "non-fixed" risk factors that any reduction of assaults can be accomplished. 2. Involuntary admission, patients with dementia or organic brain disorder, physical or verbal limits, staff attitude, denial of the possibility of assaults, and the educational level and clinical experience of the staff may help provoke an assaultive episode. 3. An important step is assessing the assault to identify provocation due to certain medical causes, and to document the extent of degeneration in patients with dementia or organic brain disorder. Medical intervention would be indicated and would appropriately address the causes of some violent episodes.
Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R
This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...
Logan, Barry K; Yeakel, Jillian K; Goldfogel, Gary; Frost, Michael P; Sandstrom, Greg; Wickham, Dennis J
Dextromethorphan is a commonly encountered antitussive medication which has found additional therapeutic use in the treatment of pseudobulbar disorder and as an adjunct to opiate use in pain management. Dextromethorphan at high doses has phencyclidine-like effects on the NMDA receptor system; recreational use of high doses has been found to cause mania and hallucinations. The toxicology and pharmacology of the drug in abuse are reviewed, and the historical literature of adverse psychiatric outcomes is assessed. Five new cases of dextromethorphan intoxication that resulted in assault, suicide, and homicide are reported, together with the corresponding toxicology results. Blood concentrations ranged from 300 to 19,000 μg/L. These results are compared with typical concentrations reported in therapeutic use and impaired driving cases. Based on these findings, dextromethorphan should be considered as a potential causative agent in subjects presenting with mania, psychosis, or hallucinations, and abusers are at risk for violent and self-destructive acts. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
of which are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely one to be...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Forensic medical examinations conducted on complainants of sexual assault in the Forensic Medicine Institute, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, between 2006 and 2013
Full Text Available A total of 46 cases of alleged sexual assault were analysed from the years 2006–2013 where forensic medical examinations were conducted. The material was compared with data from literature. All the victims were female. In 9 cases (20% a sexual assault by sexual touching was alleged, 67% of complainants (31 cases had alleged non-consensual sexual intercourse, 6 complainants (13% had no recollection of events. Genital area injuries were reported in 26% of sexual assault victims. Injuries of other parts of the body were found in 73% of victims. None of the subjects were positive for severe injuries such as fractures, wounds, and head trauma with loss of consciousness. The majority of complainants (29 cases, 63% were examined within 24 hours after the incident and 6 examinees (13% were assessed between 24 and 48 hours after the alleged sexual assault. Eleven forensic medical examinations (24% were conducted after the lapse of more than 48 hours since the alleged incident. Twenty nine complainants admitted that they had washed their genital area after the sexual assault. Forensic swabs were taken during all forensic medical examinations.
Gray, Benjamin J; Barton, Emma R; Davies, Alisha R; Long, Sara J; Roderick, Janine; Bellis, Mark A
To investigate whether sharing and linking routinely collected violence data across health and criminal justice systems can provide a more comprehensive understanding of violence, establish patterns of under-reporting and better inform the development, implementation and evaluation of violence prevention initiatives. Police violence with injury (VWI) crimed data and emergency department (ED) assault attendee data for South Wales were collected between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2016 to examine the rates and patterns of VWI. Person identifiable data (PID) were cross-referenced to establish if certain victims or events were less likely to be reported to criminal justice services. A total of 18 316 police crimed VWI victims and 10 260 individual ED attendances with an assault-related injury were considered. The majority of ED assault attendances (59.0%) were unknown to police. The key demographic identified as under-reporting to police were young males aged 18-34 years, while a significant amount of non-reported assaults involved a stranger. The combined monthly age-standardised rates were recalculated and on average were 74.7 (95% CI 72.1 to 77.2) and 66.1 (95% CI 64.0 to 68.2) per 100 000 population for males and females, respectively. Consideration of the additional ED cases resulted in a 35.3% and 18.1% increase on the original police totals for male and female VWI victims. This study identified that violence is currently undermeasured, demonstrated the importance of continued sharing of routinely collected ED data and highlighted the benefits of using PID from a number of services in a linked way to provide a more comprehensive picture of violence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Musah, Rabi A; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Vuong, Angela L; Shepard, Jason R E
Sexual assault crimes are vastly underreported and suffer from alarmingly low prosecution and conviction rates. The key scientific method to aid in prosecution of such cases is forensic DNA analysis, where biological evidence such as semen collected using a rape test kit is used to determine a suspect's DNA profile. However, the growing awareness by criminals of the importance of DNA in the prosecution of sexual assaults has resulted in increased condom use by assailants as a means to avoid leaving behind their DNA. Thus, other types of trace evidence are important to help corroborate victims' accounts, exonerate the innocent, link suspects to the crime, or confirm penetration. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed for the comprehensive characterization of non-DNA trace evidence associated with sexual assault. The ambient ionization method associated with DART-MS is extremely rapid and samples are processed instantaneously, without the need for extraction, sample preparation, or other means that might compromise forensic evidence for future analyses. In a single assay, we demonstrated the ability to identify lubricant formulations associated with sexual assault, such as the spermicide nonoxynol-9, compounds used in condom manufacture, and numerous other trace components as probative evidence. In addition, the method can also serve to identify compounds within trace biological residues, such as fatty acids commonly identified in latent fingerprints. Characterization of lubricant residues as probative evidence serves to establish a connection between the victim and the perpetrator, and the availability of these details may lead to higher rates of prosecution and conviction, as well as more severe penalties. The methodology described here opens the way for the adoption of a comprehensive, rapid, and sensitive analysis for use in crime labs, while providing knowledge that can inform and guide criminal justice policy and practice
Martin, Linda; Miranda, Baldwin; Bean, Michelle
The main objective of the present study was to explore the impact of separation on couples where one spouse lives in a skilled nursing facility and the other spouse lives alone in the community. Six couples participated in a 10-week gardening group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the beginning of the study and observations were made and discussions engaged through the 10-week horticultural programme. Thematic analysis of interviews and discussions revealed reduced social participation of community-dwelling spouses in an effort to maintain their marital role. In one or more cases the non-institutionalized spouse adapted to separation by developing social roles and relationships within the skilled nursing facility and continuing as a caregiver to their spouse. Occupational therapists are encouraged to include spouses in programmes to nurture healthy spousal roles. Further research is needed to explore how elderly couples may support each other through purposeful occupation while one spouse is in a long-term care facility. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G
There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal.
Yndo, Monica C; Zawacki, Tina
The current study examined the effects of physical attractiveness and sexual interest cues on men's sexual perceptions of women and whether increases in sexual perceptions of a woman would lead to decreases in labeling of subsequent nonconsensual sex as sexual assault. Two hundred thirty-three male college students ( M age = 19.17, SD = 1.22) read a vignette describing a hypothetical social interaction between a man and a woman; within the vignette, the female character's physical attractiveness (attractive vs. less attractive) and the degree to which the female character behaved interested in the male character (uninterested vs. ambiguous) were manipulated. The vignette ends with the male character physically forcing sexual intercourse with the female character. After reading the vignette, participants' labeling of the nonconsensual sex as sexual assault was addressed. Participants' perceptions of the female character's sexual interest in the male character prior to the nonconsensual sex was assessed as a dependent variable during stopping points in the vignette, prior to sexual assault. Both physical attractiveness and interest cues had a significant positive influence on men's perception of the female character as sexually interested. In addition, perceptions of sexual interest had a direct negative effect on sexual assault labeling. These results indicate that increases in physical attractiveness and interest cues increase perceptions of sexual interest, in turn decreasing the labeling of nonconsensual sex as sexual assault. This experimental research contributes to the literature on misperception of sexual interest and sexual assault labeling. These findings provide implications for intervention programs and for forensic issues related to sexual assault.
Rizwan, S A; Kant, S; Goswami, K; Rai, S K; Misra, P
Migrant workers constitute an important risk group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome transmission in India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India. A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to the current location after 15 years of age,had worked in the current factory for at least 1 year, who were willing to participate and were able to give written, informed consent were included in the study. A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of 162 participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was 59.3%, and 78.4% of the men reported having consumed alcohol in the last 1 year. About 48.1% of men reported having consumed alcohol before their last non-spousal sexual encounter. Men who consumed alcohol were three times more likely to not use a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4). This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers. An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies.
Augustine Vincent Umoh
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736
Full Text Available Spousal clustering of diabetes merits attention. Whether old-age vulnerability or a shared family environment determines the concordance of diabetes is also uncertain. This study investigated the spousal concordance of diabetes and compared the risk of diabetes concordance between couples and noncouples by using nationally representative data.A total of 22,572 individuals identified from the 2002-2013 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan constituted 5,643 couples and 5,643 noncouples through 1:1 dual propensity score matching (PSM. Factors associated with concordance in both spouses with diabetes were analyzed at the individual level. The risk of diabetes concordance between couples and noncouples was compared at the couple level. Logistic regression was the main statistical method. Statistical data were analyzed using SAS 9.4. C&RT and Apriori of data mining conducted in IBM SPSS Modeler 13 served as a supplement to statistics.High odds of the spousal concordance of diabetes were associated with old age, middle levels of urbanization, and high comorbidities (all P < 0.05. The dual PSM analysis revealed that the risk of diabetes concordance was significantly higher in couples (5.19% than in noncouples (0.09%; OR = 61.743, P < 0.0001.A high concordance rate of diabetes in couples may indicate the influences of assortative mating and shared environment. Diabetes in a spouse implicates its risk in the partner. Family-based diabetes care that emphasizes the screening of couples at risk of diabetes by using the identified risk factors is suggested in prospective clinical practice interventions.
Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S; Abed, Yasmeen I; Al-Heety, Lujain M; Basha, Shaikh A
Spousal concordance is defined as similar behaviours and associated health statuses between spouses. This study aimed to identify the concordance of diabetes mellitus (DM) and related variables among genetically unrelated couples in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). This cross-sectional study included 270 married women attending either the Mushairef Health Center or the Gulf Medical College Hospital in Ajman between May and November 2012. A validated questionnaire was designed to determine sociodemographic characteristics and a history or family history of DM, hypertension, coronary artery disease or dyslipidaemia among the women and their husbands. The weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all women were measured. Of the women, 39.3% of those with diabetic husbands and 39.9% of those with non-diabetic husbands were diabetic themselves (P >0.050). The prevalence of DM spousal concordance was 17.8%. A history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemia was significantly more frequent among women whose husbands had a history of the same conditions (P = 0.001, 0.040 and 0.002, respectively). Spousal concordance of abnormal glycaemia among non-diabetic women with diabetic husbands was significant (P = 0.001). Having a diabetic husband (P = 0.006) and being obese (P = 0.009) were the only significant predictors of hyperglycaemia among non-diabetic women after controlling for confounding factors. There was significant concordance of abnormal glycaemia among non-diabetic women with diabetic husbands. The spouses of diabetic patients may therefore be a target population for regular hyperglycaemia and DM screening.
Polenick, Courtney A; DePasquale, Nicole
Aging spouses commonly care for a partner with functional disability, but little is known about how spousal caregiving may impact different life domains. This study evaluated how caregiving characteristics are associated with secondary role strains among spousal caregivers. This cross-sectional study examined 367 spousal caregivers and their partners from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. Hierarchical regressions were estimated to determine how caregiver background factors (sociodemographics, health conditions) along with primary objective (care activities, care recipient health conditions, and dementia status) and subjective (emotional caregiving difficulties, role overload) stressors are linked to care-related valued activity restriction, negative caregiving relationship quality, and care-related family disagreements. Gender differences were considered. After accounting for all predictors, older caregivers and caregivers providing more help with activities of daily living and health system interactions (e.g., scheduling appointments) were more likely to report activity restriction, whereas caregivers with more emotional difficulties reported higher negative caregiving relationship quality. Role overload was positively associated with all three secondary strains. For husbands only, caring for a partner with more chronic conditions was linked to higher negative caregiving relationship quality and caring for a partner with dementia was associated with a greater likelihood of family disagreements. Secondary role strains may develop through similar and unique pathways for caregiving wives and husbands. Further research is needed to identify those who could benefit from support in managing their care responsibilities alongside other life areas. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C
Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Levine, Ethan Czuy
The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.
Brotman, Shari; Drummond, Jennifer; Silverman, Marjorie; Sussman, Tamara; Orzeck, Pam; Barylak, Lucy; Wallach, Isabelle; Billette, Veronique
This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining service provider perceptions and experiences of addressing sexuality and intimacy with women spousal caregivers. The caregiver-provider encounter is examined, and challenges faced by service providers in addressing sexuality are considered. Themes identified include ambivalence and discomfort, personal and institutional barriers, meanings attributed to sexuality and intimacy, and lack of opportunities to discuss experiences. Strategies to overcome silence and invisibility on the part of service providers in the health and social services system are considered. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.
Heffron, Laurie Cook; Busch-Armendariz, Noël Bridget; Vohra, Shetal S; Johnson, Regina Jones; Camp, Victoria
Forensic nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), and victim advocates have long recognized the trauma of sexual assault crimes and the significance of survivors' decisions around reporting these crimes to law enforcement agencies. Until recently, survivors who didn't report the crime were not entitled to a free medical forensic examination. In a significant policy shift, the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 provided an additional decision option with regard to the medical examination for survivors of sexual assault. This provision, referred to here as the nonreport option, was established to offer survivors a full range of reporting options and to ensure exemplary health care, with evidence collection as an important secondary goal. This study sought to examine the implementation of the nonreport option in Texas; explore its impact on SANEs, survivors, and the criminal justice system; and identify strengths and challenges of the nonreport process. A mixed-method approach was used that included qualitative interviews with 79 professionals who regularly respond to sexual assault crimes, a Web-based survey questionnaire of such professionals that yielded 131 completed surveys, and a review of existing data. The step-by-step process involved in a nonreport case was described, and findings in three descriptive areas emerged: confidentiality processes, storage and shipment of evidence, and the use of the nonreport option. Beneficial effects of the nonreport option were identified in five areas: the role of SANEs, the impact on survivors, collaborative relationships, collateral crimes, and anonymous reporting strategies. Seven areas of remaining dilemmas were also identified. Findings indicate that the nonreport option has had a considerable positive impact on SANEs, survivors of sexual assault, and the criminal justice system. But challenges remain if this option is to be fully utilized in the future; further research
... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...
... greatest risk of rape and sexual assault, and many victims, male and female, first experience abuse during... depression, fear, and suicidal feelings in the months and years following an assault, and some face health...
Joling, Karlijn J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Veldhuijzen, Aaltje E; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Scheltens, Philip; Smit, Filip; van Hout, Hein P J
Caregivers of persons with dementia play an important and economically valuable role within society, but many may do so at a considerable cost to themselves. Knowing which caregivers have the highest risk of developing a mental disorder may contribute to better support of ultra-high-risk groups with preventive interventions. This study aims to describe the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in caregivers and to identify its significant predictors. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 24 months. 181 spousal caregivers of persons with dementia without a clinical depression or anxiety disorder at baseline. Memory clinics, case management services, and primary care settings in the Netherlands. The onset of depression and anxiety was measured every 3 months with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured diagnostic instrument for DSM-IV mental disorders. Potential predictors were assessed at baseline. 60% of the caregivers developed a depressive and/or anxiety disorder within 24 months: 37% a depression, 55% an anxiety disorder, and 32% both disorders. Sub-threshold depressive symptoms (Wald χ2=6.20, df=1, OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.28-8.03, p=0.013) and poor self-reported health of the caregiver (Wald χ2=5.56, df=1, OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, p=0.018) at baseline were significant predictors of disorder onset. Spousal caregivers of persons with dementia have a high risk to develop a mental disorder. Indicators related to the caregiver's (mental) health rather than environmental stressors such as patient characteristics or interruption of caregivers' daily activities predict disorder onset and can be used to identify caregivers for whom supporting preventive interventions are indicated. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is prevalent in Western society. There is a significant degree of confusion regarding the definition and prevalence of DFSA. It is a subject with medical, scientific and legal aspects. These facets are explored in this review through a detailed examination of published data. The legal issues are defined in the context of the Irish judicial system. Several key case-law studies are presented to aid in understanding unresolved difficulties that persist in this complex field of forensics. The aim of this paper is to aid individuals from disparate disciplines to increase their evidence base in the complex and evolving issue of DFSA.
Melsom, S.M.; Khangure, M.S.
A case of craniofacial mucormycosis following assault is discussed. A female diabetic developed peri-orbital cellulitis adjacent to a scalp wound which progressed to a necrotizing fasciitis. This did not respond to treatment. Subsequently the patient developed a hemiparesis, with CT imaging showing peri-orbital and paranasal sinus inflammatory changes, evidence of cavernous sinus invasion and development of a middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The patient died shortly afterwards. The imaging findings and their relationship to the pathological spread of mucor infection are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Full Text Available In keeping within the theme of CU Expo 2013, ‘Engaging Shared Worlds’, this case study examines and reflects on a complex community-university partnership which developed to conceptualise, design, conduct and communicate evaluation research on one community’s sexual assault and domestic violence protocol. As community-university partners coming together for the first time, we reflect on the purpose of our engagement, the characteristics and principles which define our partnership and our potential to teach graduate students how to undertake community-engaged scholarship. Keywords: Community-engaged research, evaluation research, complex community-university partnerships, scholarship of engagement, practice research
Ho, Justin; Ralston, D Christopher; McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H
This Open Forum commentary reviews the ethical considerations relevant to the question of prosecuting assaultive psychiatric patients, with particular attention to the significance that should be attached to the arguments generated by those considerations. A comprehensive literature search was conducted incorporating the terms "assaultive patients," "ethics," "psychiatric inpatients," and "law." The literature of professional medical ethics was applied to identify relevant domains of ethical argument. Five domains were identified: fiduciary obligations of physicians to assaultive and other patients; obligations to staff members; professional virtues of compassion, self-sacrifice, and self-effacement; retributive justice; and the patient's right to confidentiality. The content of each domain is explained, and guidance is provided on how to assess the relative strengths of ethical argument within each domain. All five domains must be explicitly addressed in order to make ethically disciplined judgments about whether to seek prosecution. A distinctive feature of this ethical analysis is the central importance of the professional virtues.
Sanjuan, Pilar M.; Langenbucher, James W.; Labouvie, Erich
Many women with sexual assault histories receive care in alcohol and other drug treatment programs. Affected women frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction, leading investigators to suggest self-medication may be one path to alcohol and other drug use disorders and relapse. This preliminary study examined sexual dysfunction and sexual assault in 71 women receiving treatment for addiction. Women with prior sexual assault scored higher than non-assaulted women on sexual dysfunction overall, a ...
Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo
Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.
Davies, Helen D; Newkirk, Lori A; Pitts, Christiane B; Coughlin, Christine A; Sridhar, Sneha B; Zeiss, L McKenzie; Zeiss, Antonette M
Sexuality and intimacy in couples in which one partner is affected by dementia has been widely researched. Few studies have explored these issues in couples where one partner is affected by mild memory impairment (MMI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and contrast issues of intimacy and sexuality that spousal caregivers of persons with MMI and dementia may experience, and (2) identify future lines of research in this population. Fourteen dementia and nine MMI spousal caregivers participated in focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the Stanford/VA Alzheimer's Research Center. Content analyses were conducted to identify themes. Five themes emerged: communication, marital cohesion, affectional expression, caregiver burden, and ambiguity concerning the future of the relationship. Dementia caregivers reported more difficulties with communication, cohesion, and perceptions of increased burden than their MMI counterparts. Both groups indicated reduced sexual expression due to physical limitations; substitute activities including hand-holding, massaging, and hugging were noted. Both groups reported difficulty anticipating the future of the relationship due to present stressors. While dementia caregivers could consider future romantic relationships with others, MMI caregivers were primarily able to consider future relationships only for companionship and emotional intimacy. Early therapeutic interventions may assist couples in modifying activities, behaviors, and expectations about the future of the relationship. Such modifications may help maintain relationship satisfaction, decrease burden, preserve quality of life, and delay time-to-placement. Extending time-to-placement could have cost savings implications for families and the healthcare system.
Monin, Joan K; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C
To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, both AD individuals' and caregivers' compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers' compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' burden as well as the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers' compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Results suggest that AD individuals' compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers' and AD individuals' feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners' compassionate love may benefit caregivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692
Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Keppel, Robert D.; La Moria, Robert D.
When a serial offender strikes, it usually means that the investigation is unprecedented for that police agency. The volume of incoming leads and pieces of information in the case(s) can be overwhelming as evidenced by the thousands of leads gathered in the Ted Bundy Murders, Atlanta Child Murders, and the Green River Murders. Serial cases can be long term investigations in which the suspect remains unknown and continues to perpetrate crimes. With state and local murder investigative systems beginning to crop up, it will become important to manage that information in a timely and efficient way by developing computer programs to assist in that task. One vital function will be to compare violent crime cases from different jurisdictions so investigators can approach the investigation knowing that similar cases exist. CATCH (Computer Aided Tracking and Characterization of Homicides) is being developed to assist crime investigations by assessing likely characteristics of unknown offenders, by relating a specific crime case to other cases, and by providing a tool for clustering similar cases that may be attributed to the same offenders. CATCH is a collection of tools that assist the crime analyst in the investigation process by providing advanced data mining and visualization capabilities.These tools include clustering maps, query tools, geographic maps, timelines, etc. Each tool is designed to give the crime analyst a different view of the case data. The clustering tools in CATCH are based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs learn to cluster similar cases from approximately 5000 murders and 3000 sexual assaults residing in a database. The clustering algorithm is applied to parameters describing modus operandi (MO), signature characteristics of the offenders, and other parameters describing the victim and offender. The proximity of cases within a two-dimensional representation of the clusters allows the analyst to identify similar or serial murders and sexual
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
... before it starts and ensuring victims get the support they need. Sexual violence is an affront to human... sexual assault nurse examiner programs and sexual assault response teams, helping States deliver justice... Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...
Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.; Dvorak, R.D.; Elklit, A.; Elhai, J.D.
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more
Langeland, W.; van den Brink, W.; Draijer, N.; Hartgers, C.
Evaluation of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as a screen for identifying sexual and physical assault histories. The sensitivity and specificity of the ASI assault items were examined in 146 alcoholic patients with the assault questions of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview
Goodman, Geoff; Gerstadt, Cherie; Pfeffer, Cynthia R.; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina
Forty-three psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children were assessed regarding their assaultive and suicidal behaviors. These children were subsequently classified into two groups, assaultive/suicidal (AS) and assaultive-only (AO). AS children had higher aggression and suicidal-scale scores, but not higher depression scores, and were more…
Nicksa, Sarah C
This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario.
Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.
Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…
Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…
During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault....
person to join in unwanted sexual contact or attention2. Sexual ... though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. .... Some workers have also focused on perpetrator ... of this approach to sexual assault prevention, the.
This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…
Dept of Population and Family Health
Of lifetime sexual assault victims, majority 19 (73.1%) were victims of rape and five (19.2%) of the victims had ... poorest countries where men's used to be dominant figures in the ... Violence Prevention as “any sexual act, attempt to obtain a ...
Ensink, B.J.; Winkel, F.W.; Berlo, van W.
A substantial number of victims of sexual assault refrain from disclosing to others the victimizing episode and its emotional consequences. A prospective study (n = 36 rape victims reporting theirvictimization to the police) and a retrospective study (n = 33) were conducted to examine the
Zijlstra, J.E.; Esselink, G.; Moors, M.L.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of
Method: 140 participants recruited from public hospital services in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces were interviewed within two weeks after completing the post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medication. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and sexual assault characteristics ...
Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.
Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…
Anderson, Laura Jane; Flynn, Asher; Pilgrim, Jennifer Lucinda
A systematic review was undertaken to determine the current global prevalence of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) reported in adults in order to identify trends in the toxicology findings in DFSA around the world over the past 20 years. Databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were systematically searched using the terms: "drug-facilitated sexual assault", "chemical submission", "date rape", "rape drugs" and "drink-spiking" to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the review. This study focused on adult victims of suspected DFSA aged 16 years and above in which toxicology results were reported. The majority of studies included were published in the United States, followed by the United Kingdom, with only a single study dedicated to this area in both Australia and Europe. Epidemiology, prevalence rates, and toxicology for DFSA appear broadly commensurate across different continents, although there are some differences in how "drug-facilitated sexual assault" is defined, as well as differences in the sensitivity of toxicological analyses. Nonetheless, alcohol is the most commonly detected substance and co-occurrence with other drugs is common. Aside from alcohol there was no other specific drug category associated with DFSA. Cannabinoids and benzodiazepines were frequently detected, but a lack of contextual information made it difficult to establish the extent that these substances contributed to suspected cases of DFSA. This comprehensive review suggests that alcohol intoxication combined with voluntary drug consumption presents the greatest risk factor for DFSA, despite populist perceptions that covert drink-spiking is a common occurrence. There is a need to develop policies that encourage early responders to suspected DFSA (e.g., law enforcement agencies, medical staff, support agencies, etc), to collect detailed information about the individual's licit and illicit drug consumption history, in order to assist in providing appropriate and more thorough
Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Odimegwu, Clifford
Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries -Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether household-poverty necessarily serves to
Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more...... strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N=4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette...... to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant...
Zion, M M; Tracy, E; Abell, N
The present investigation focused on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members in Ohio to ascertain whether or not spousal participation in Gam-Anon, the companion support group, decreased the gambler's relapse into gambling behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 43 GA members was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. While no significant difference was found in the relapse of those gamblers with or without a spouse in Gam-Anon, the degree to which the gambler had engaged in other addictive-like behaviors in the past did appear to be related to relapse. Those gamblers who had not relapsed reported significantly more engagement in past addictive-like behaviors (excessive overeating, drinking, and using drugs) than those who had relapsed. Additionally, their spouses had also engaged in addictive-like behaviors in the past. Discussion suggests possible explanations for the findings. Implications are drawn for both outcome measures and research with self-help groups.
Eldoseri, Halah M; Sharps, Phyllis
This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV. A multisectoral approach should be implemented with focus on providers' training, women's safety, and involvement of men in violence prevention and intervention programs.
Full Text Available Background: The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring’s education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. Methods: The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65–105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011. Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring’s education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Results: Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99 had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Conclusions: Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.
Parekh, Sanjoti; King, David; Owen, Neville; Jamrozik, Konrad
This paper describes a composite 'Prudence Score' summarising self-reported behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. If proved robust, the 'Prudence score' might be used widely to encourage large numbers of individuals to adopt and maintain simple, healthy changes in their lifestyle. We calculated the 'Prudence Score' based on responses collected in late 2006 to a postal questionnaire sent to 225 adult patients aged 25 to 75 years identified from the records of two general medical practices in Brisbane, Australia. Participants completed the behavioural, dietary and lifestyle items in relation to their spouse as well as themselves. The spouse or partner of each addressee completed their own copy of the study questionnaire. Kappa scores for spousal concordance with probands' reports (n = 45 pairs) on diet-related items varied between 0.35 (for vegetable intake) to 0.77 (for usual type of milk consumed). Spousal concordance values for other behaviours were 0.67 (physical activity), 0.82 (alcohol intake) and 1.0 (smoking habits). Kappa scores for test-retest reliability (n = 53) varied between 0.47 (vegetable intake) and 0.98 (smoking habits). The veracity of self-reported data is a challenge for studies of behavioural change. Our results indicate moderate to substantial agreement from life partners regarding individuals' self-reports for most of the behavioural risk items included in the 'Prudence Score'. This increases confidence that key aspects of diet and lifestyle can be assessed by self-report. The 'Prudence Score' potentially has wide application as a simple and robust tool for health promotion programs.
Reports an error in "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress" by Christopher R. DeCou, Trevor T. Cole, Shannon M. Lynch, Maria M. Wong and Kathleen C. Matthews ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , 2017[Mar], Vol 9, 166-172). In the article, there was an error in the coding of missing values thus effecting the abstract, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The frequency counts for sexual assault victimization, reactions to social disclosure, and assault-related shame were calculated incorrectly due to an error in the coding of missing values, and have been corrected in the description of participants and in the results and discussion sections. In addition, the sample size was incorrectly reported as N = 207, and should have appeared as "N = 208." The sample size and corresponding percentages have been corrected throughout the text. Two transcription errors for the indirect effects via PTSD and global distress were also corrected. These indirect effects were incorrectly reported as "PCL-C; β = .27," and "OQ-45.2;β = .21," and should have appeared as "PCL-C;β = .26," and "OQ-45.2; β = .20." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-43136-001.) Objective: Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past
Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31....
Lal, Sweta; Singh, Alpana; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Behera, Sanjeeta
Rape and abuse of women are common occurrences, which, many a times go unspoken due to social stigma or fear of retribution. Rape is a crime not against a single human being but against the entire humanity. For granting justice to the rape survivor it becomes necessary that such matters are properly presented before the Courts of Law. Healthcare workers play an important role in this regard because they are the first person who examine the rape victims. They prepare a documented record of medical condition of rape victim and do relevant sample collection. The objective of this study is to analyse demographic and event characteristics of rape victims who presented to the Emergency Department in tertiary care, Delhi after sexual assault. Data was retrospectively collected from the medico legal register of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between June 2010 to December 2013. We noted a marked increase in the number of cases. Mean age of victims was 17 and most belonged to the lower socio-economic strata of the society. Use of sedatives and physical trauma was not common. Victims often knew the perpetrator of the event. Most (58%) of them reported within one day of the incident. Major degrees of perineal tears were seen in young victims. By understanding the demography of the sexual assault victims, we need to train our doctors for proper evidence collection not just in a government set up but also in private clinics, to help rape victims get justice and proper medical treatment.
Kang, Han; Dalager, Nancy; Mahan, Clare; Ishii, Erick
The 1991 Gulf War was the first major military deployment where female troops were integrated into almost every military unit, except for combat ground units. We evaluated the impact of reported sexual trauma during this deployment on the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the war. A nested case-control analysis was conducted using the data collected in a population-based health survey of 30,000 Gulf War era veterans. A total of 1381 Gulf War veterans with current PTSD were compared with 10,060 Gulf veteran controls without PTSD for self-reported in-theater experiences of sexual harassment/assault and combat exposure. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for PTSD associated with a report of sexual assault was 5.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.19-9.17) in female veterans and 6.21 (95% CI, 2.26-17.04) in male veterans. The aOR for PTSD associated with "high" combat exposure was also statistically significant (aOR, 4.03 [95% CI, 1.97-8.23] for females; aOR, 4.45 [95% CI, 3.54-5.60] for males). Notwithstanding a possibility of recall bias of combat and sexual trauma, for both men and women, sexual trauma as well as combat exposure appear to be strong risk factors for PTSD.
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and impact of serious assault warranting in-patient care over six years and its impact on ED attendances in a large teaching hospital in Dublin over 2 years. There were 16,079 emergency assault-related inpatient hospital discharges reducing from 60.1 per 100,000 population in 2005 to 50.6 per 100,000 population in 2010. The median length of stay was 1 day (1-466) representing 49,870 bed days. The majority were young males (13,921, 86.6%; median age 26 years). Overall crime figures showed a similar reduction. However, knife crimes did not reduce over this period. Data on ED attendances confirmed the age and gender profile and also showed an increase at weekends. Alcohol misuse was recorded in 2,292\\/16079 (14%) of in-patient cases and 242\\/2484 (10%) in ED attendances. An inter-sectoral preventative approach specifically targeting knife crime is required to reduce this burden on health services.
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
In recent years, there has been renewed interest among community psychologists in indigenous interventions, which are programs created by local practitioners (rather than researchers) already rooted in their communities. Indigenous interventions have strong ecological validity, but their effectiveness is often unknown because so few are rigorously evaluated. The goal of this project was to use Kelly and Trickett's ecological theory as a conceptual framework for evaluating an indigenous intervention and its mediating mechanisms of effectiveness. The focal intervention was a midwestern Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, which provides post-assault medical care, crisis intervention, and medical forensic exams for sexual assault survivors. Prior studies of SANE programs have suggested that these interventions may help increase sexual assault prosecution rates. In this case example, we used a mixed methods design to determine if this program contributed to increased prosecution rates, and if so, why. Based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, we found substantial evidence for the Principle of Interdependence such that the SANE program strengthened the interconnections between the legal and medical systems, which contributed to increased prosecution. The intervention was effective in these outcomes because it promoted Cycling of Resources throughout the systems and fostered Adaptation of new roles for legal and medical personnel. Moving beyond this specific case example, this paper also examines cross-cutting advantages and struggles of using an ecological approach in the evaluation of indigenous community interventions.
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.
Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Bybee, Deborah; Shaw, Jessica
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul
The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.
William F. Griffith
Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62% were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier
O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.
Background: High levels of both prolonged grief symptoms (PGS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are relatively common following bereavement, and the two types of bereavement complications share some of the same features. Little research has studied which of the two precedes the other...... following the death of a loved one. The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between change in high levels of PGS and PTSS during the first four years following old age spousal loss. Methods: Participants were 237 Danes (40% male; mean age = 73 years, SD = 4.4; range 65-81) who....... Results: Lower-level mediation analyses wereas performed. Results indicated that PGS mediated 83% of the relationship between time and PTSS, while PTSS only mediated 17% of the relationship between time and PGS. These results suggest that changes in PGS mediated changes in PTSS following spousal...
DiLauro, Michelle; Pereira, Amanda; Carr, Jennifer; Chiu, Mary; Wesson, Virginia
Spousal caregivers of persons with dementia often have difficulty engaging persons with dementia in leisure activities. This qualitative descriptive study identifies how caregivers perceive their spouses' participation in leisure activities since dementia onset and the professional guidance caregivers require to increase persons with dementia participation in shared leisure activities. Nine spousal caregivers from a hospital-based caregiver intervention attended one of three focus groups. Using symbolic interactionism and selective optimization with compensation theory as guiding frameworks, thematic content analysis was performed. Three major themes were identified: Recognizing and acknowledging changes, Making sense of changes and conflicts, and Embracing changes and forging ahead. Findings can be used by healthcare providers to better understand caregivers' needs for engaging persons with dementia in shared leisure activities, and inform development of feedback protocols to enhance caregiver interventions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
rate of sexual assaults against men and women, as well as the least likely to exhibit or promote stereotypical hypermasculinity. Without surveys...desire for women, a perceived existential threat or challenge to one’s manhood, and the endorsement and validation of stereotypical military...attendees drinking in the hallway. As you pass, the gauntlet of men starts grabbing your clothes and groping your body parts. In self-defense you
Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.
Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.
Raaj Kishore Biswas
Full Text Available Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years, other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.
Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425
Morrison, Christopher N; Ukert, Benjamin; Palumbo, Aimee; Dong, Beidi; Jacoby, Sara F; Wiebe, Douglas J
This study investigates whether assault frequency increased on days and in cities where candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton held campaign rallies prior to the 2016 US Presidential election. We calculated city-level counts of police-reported assaults for 31 rallies for Donald Trump and 38 rallies for Hillary Clinton. Negative binomial models estimated the assault incidence on rally days (day 0) relative to that on eight control days for the same city (days -28, -21, -14, -7, +7, +14, +21, and +28). Cities experienced an increase in assaults (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.22) on the days of Donald Trump's rallies, and no change in assaults on the days of Hillary Clinton's rallies (IRR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). Assaults increased on days when cities hosted Donald Trump's rallies during the 2016 Presidential election campaign.
Jakubiak, Brittany K.; Feeney, Brooke C.
In two daily-diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult lifespan. Attachment theory posits that exploration—including the pursuit of autonomous goals—promotes well-being across the lifespan and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult lifespan. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. PMID:27560610
Goyal, Monika K; Mollen, Cynthia J; Hayes, Katie L; Molnar, Jennifer; Christian, Cindy W; Scribano, Philip V; Lavelle, Jane
The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of a novel pediatric sexual assault response team (SART) program in the first 3 years of implementation and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. This was a retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (ED) who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with sex, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. One hundred eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 (SD, 4.6) years. The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among girls (P < 0.01), but not by sex. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical examination was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal girls were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (P < 0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, and HIV prophylaxis (P < 0.01). In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on examination. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault.
Bleetman, A; Perry, C H; Crawford, R; Swann, I J
OBJECTIVE: To review assault victim attendance at the accident and emergency department of Glasgow Royal Infirmary before and after a police initiative to curb knife carrying and tackle violent assaults ("Operation Blade"). METHODS: Assault victim attendance was reviewed for the month before the implementation of Operation Blade and for one month a year later. The number of victims requiring treatment in the resuscitation room for stab wounds before, during, and after Operation Blade was also...
and fewer indicated they serve DoD or Service contractors (6%) and/or military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by...Prevention and Response-Related Responders 19 | DMDC contractors and 13% have had military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted...dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by someone other than a parent or caregiver (e.g., another child, neighbor, coach, etc.; 3
views of sexual harassment and sexual assault at their base/ installation, but they do not portray a statistical report on incidence rates or...assaulted them. But not the other way around.” (E1-E4 Male ) – “I believe that a sexist attitude leads to sexual harassment , which leads to sexual ...were designed to better understand howrecent changes in sexual assault policies and programs have impacted military members and their workplace
Hall, Janet; Goodall, Edward A; Moore, Tara
Alleged sexual assault cases, identified from the forensic science Northern Ireland (FSNI) database, which had toxicology assays carried out on either blood or urine samples, were examined for the years 1999 up to and including 2005. In 1999 there were 30 toxicology requests while in 2005 there were 51, representing a 70% increase. The percentage of cases containing alcohol, drugs or both increased from 66% in 1999 to 78% in 2005. The estimated average blood alcohol concentration remained broadly similar throughout the spread of years. It was found to be 218mg% (milligrams per 100 millilitres) in 1999 and 217mg% in 2005. The actual number of cases studied within the 12h cut-off time rose from 9 in 1999 to 22 in 2005. The relationship between negative toxicology results and time delay between the alleged assault and forensic sampling was examined. This showed that between 44% and 74% of cases were found to have a time delay of >12h. Some of these cases may therefore represent false negative results. The presence of drugs, either alone or in combination with other drugs, doubled between 1999 and 2005. Increased identification was found with antidepressants, recreational drugs, benzodiazepines and analgesics, some of which were also associated with alcohol consumption. The findings are sufficient to cause alarm for the health and safety of certain individuals and their increased vulnerability to sexual assault in some social settings. Additionally, the legal implications of what constitutes valid consent needs to be considered further in the light of these findings, if attrition rates are to improve.
Wadsworth, Pamela; Krahe, Eve; Searing, Kim
In this article, the authors describe factors that enhance or detract from well-being after adult sexual assault from the perspective of sexual assault victims and survivors. The authors present a holistic view of the complex ways in which women respond to and cope with the impact of adult sexual assault while trying to create a sense of well-being. The forces that facilitate or detract from well-being are organized into an ecological model. The data originate from a grounded theory study in 2015, with 22 adult female adult sexual assault victims/survivors.
Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E
Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dir, Allyson L; Riley, Elizabeth N; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T
Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester). Among 332 undergraduate women (M(SD)age = 19.15(1.69), 76.9% Caucasian), sexting (T2) predicted sexual assault (T3; b = 3.98, p = .05), controlling for baseline sexual assault (b = 0.82, p sexting (T2) mediated the relationship between problem drinking (T1) and sexual assault (T3) (b = 0.04, CI[.004,.12]). Findings suggest that sexting is one mechanism through which drinking increases the risk of college women being targeted for sexual assault.
Hoxmeier, Jill C; Acock, Alan C; Flay, Brian R
Sexual assault is a major public health issue. Bystander engagement programs are becoming widely used to combat sexual assault on college campuses. The purpose of this study was to examine students' intervention norms, intentions, opportunities, and behaviors as bystanders to sexual assault. Undergraduate students ( N = 779) completed the Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire in the fall of 2014. The t tests revealed differences in students' intervention norms, intentions, opportunities, and missed opportunities based on sex, race/ethnicity, athletic participation, and fraternity/sorority membership. The findings support the use of additional measures to assess bystander behavior and to identify student subpopulations that may benefit from programs aimed at increasing prosocial intervention.
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene; Skovlund, Charlotte W
Assault in Copenhagen, and 10004 women without a known assault experience (controls). Somatic diagnoses were retrieved from the National Health Registry and number of visits to general practitioners from the Danish Health Insurance Registry. Somatic data were assessed during the five-year period before......INTRODUCTION: Sexual assault is a public health issue with many potential short- and long-term consequences for the victims. We aimed to investigate somatic health of women before and after sexual assault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 2501 women who attended the Centre for Victims of Sexual...
Banwari L. Meel
Method: This is a record review of attendees at the Sinawe Centre from 2001 to 2005. It is the only centre in the Mthatha area that provides care for sexually assaulted persons and it is affiliated to the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. All mentally impaired victims of sexual assault were recorded on the register. Results: During the study period, 1,268 individuals, of whom 32 were profoundly mentally impaired, attended the Sinawe Centre following sexual assault. Of these mentally impaired individuals, 28 (87.5% were below the age of 18 years. Two were males while the rest were females, giving a male to female ratio of 1:15. A close relative was implicated in 29 (90.6% of the cases. Among the victims were six (18.7% epileptics who were on treatment. One was 13 years old and pregnant. Four were HIV positive on screening. Conclusion: Over 2% of the sexual assault victims attending the Sinawe Centre were mentally impaired. Of these, 12.5% were HIV seropositive.
Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel
Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and
This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.
Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L
To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Roberts, Megan E; Banse, Rainer; Ebbeler, Christine; Ferketich, Amy K
Married couples often share similar health-related characteristics and behaviors, including cigarette smoking status. Despite their rising popularity in the U.S., little research has examined the patterns of spousal concordance (SC) for alternative tobacco products (ATPs), such as e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah. The purpose of this project was to examine the roles of age, gender, and culture in the strength of SC for these ATPs. Analyses focused on a diverse community sample of married individuals in Ohio, U.S. (N=278), but also examined patterns in Austria, Greece, Israel, the Netherlands, and Slovakia. All participants completed a survey in which they indicated both their own, and their spouse's ever-use of various tobacco products. For the U.S. sample, SC was highest for e-cigarettes, flavored e-cigarettes, flavored cigarettes, and hookah (ϕs=0.48- 0.61); SC appeared to be stronger among younger couples, and when there was only a small female vs. male differences in use. Similar patterns were found in the other countries, with a few key exceptions. In particular, there was low SC for e-cigarettes and flavored e-cigarettes in the other countries, where e-cigarettes had been federally regulated by the time of data collection. Overall, these findings have implications for the continued spreading popularity of these tobacco use behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tseng, Fu-Min; Petrie, Dennis; Wang, Shaolin; Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey I
This paper estimates the impact of spousal bereavement on hospital inpatient use for the surviving bereaved by following the experience of 94,272 married Scottish individuals from 1991 until 2009 using a difference-in-difference model. We also consider the sample selection issues related to differences in survival between the bereaved and non-bereaved using a simple Cox Proportional-Hazard model. Before conducting these estimations, propensity score approaches are used to re-weight the non-bereaved to generate a more random-like comparison sample for the bereaved. We find that those bereaved who survive are both more likely to be admitted and to stay longer in hospital than a comparable non-bereaved cohort. Bereavement is estimated to induce on average an extra 0.24 (95% CI [0.15, 0.33]) hospital inpatient days per year. Similar to previous studies, we estimate the bereaved have a 19.2% (95% CI [12.5%, 26.3%]) higher mortality rate than the comparable non-bereaved cohort. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Margaret K Sande
Full Text Available Introduction: There is currently no standard forensic medicine training program for emergency medicine residents. In the advent of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE programs aimed at improving the quality of care for sexual assault victims, it is also unclear how these programs impact emergency medicine (EM resident forensic medicine training. The purpose of this study was togather information on EM residency programs’ training in the care of sexual assault patients and determine what impact SANE programs may have on the experience of EM resident training from the perspective of residency program directors (PDs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. The study cohort was all residency PDs from approved EM residency training programs who completed a closed-response self-administered survey electronically.Results: We sent surveys to 152 PDs, and 71 responded for an overall response rate of 47%. Twenty-two PDs (31% reported that their residency does not require procedural competency for the sexual assault exam, and 29 (41% reported their residents are required only to observe sexual assault exam completion to demonstrate competency. Residency PDs were asked how their programs established resident requirements for sexual assault exams. Thirty-seven PDs (52% did not know how their sexual assault exam requirement was established.Conclusion: More than half of residency PDs did not know how their sexual assault guidelines were established, and few were based upon recommendations from the literature. There is no clear consensus as to how PDs view the effect of SANE programs on resident competency with the sexual assault exam. This study highlights both a need for increased awareness of EM resident sexual assault education nationally and also a possible need for a training curriculum defining guidelines forEM residents performing sexual assault exams. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:461–466.
Claude A Mellins
Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across
Gage, Anastasia J
This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tiesman, Hope M; Gwilliam, Melody; Konda, Srinivas; Rojek, Jeff; Marsh, Suzanne
Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze temporal trends. Data were analyzed in 2016-2017. Between 2003 and 2014, an estimated 669,100 law enforcement officers were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. The overall rate of 635 per 10,000 full-time equivalents was three times higher than all other U.S. workers rate (213 per 10,000 full-time equivalents). The three leading injury events were assaults and violent acts (35%), bodily reactions and exertion (15%), and transportation incidents (14%). Injury rates were highest for the youngest officers, aged 21-24 years. Male and female law enforcement officers had similar nonfatal injury rates. Rates for most injuries remained stable; however, rates for assault-related injuries grew among law enforcement officers between 2003 and 2011. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement data demonstrate a significant upward trend in assault injuries among U.S. law enforcement officers and this warrants further investigation. Police-citizen interactions are dynamic social encounters and evidence-based policing is vital to the health and safety of both police and civilians. The law enforcement community should energize efforts toward the study of how policing tactics impact both officer and citizen injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The paper argues that the current global capitalist crisis entails an assault on democracy. Since crisis connotes danger and opportunity, the recent crisis appears to be a danger to democracy but an opportunity to its antithetical ideals. At the international level, multilateral institutions have...... seized the moment to reaffirm the perpetuation of the discursive and structural hegemony of neoliberalism. In East and Southeast Asia, states and regional organisations have revived arguments for the institutional justification of authoritarian liberalism in the region. And in the US and Europe, attempts...
Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan
Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…
Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Street, Gordon P.; Riggs, David S.; Foa, Edna B.
This study examined the hypothesis that variables such as history of prior trauma, assault severity, and type of assault, previously found to be associated with natural recovery, would also predict treatment outcome. Trauma-related variables were examined as predictors of posttreatment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in a sample of…
Barbaro, Nicole; Parkhill, Michele R; Nguyen, David
Attachment theory has increasingly been utilized to understand the etiology of sexual violence, and anxious attachment appears to be especially informative in this domain. We investigate the influence of general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment on hostile masculine attitudes to predict male-perpetrated sexual assault. We hypothesize that hostile masculinity will mediate the relationship between general anxious attachment style and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 1) and the relationship between specific anxious attachment to the assaulted woman and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 2). Men ( N = 193) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to determine sexual assault history and completed measures of general attachment style, specific attachment to the woman involved in the sexual activity, and measures of hostile masculine attitudes. Results support the hypothesized mediation models, such that general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment are significantly associated with hostile masculinity, which in turn, predicts the likelihood of male-perpetrated sexual assault. The findings suggest that the unique characteristics of anxious attachment may escalate into hostile masculinity, which then increases the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This research is the first to investigate attachment bonds to the woman involved in the sexual activity and likelihood of sexual assault perpetration against the same woman.
51 List of Figures Figure 1: DoD Social Ecological Model...across the Joint Force understands their role in upholding ethical standards of behavior as a way to prevent sexual assault. Sexual Assault...strategy execution at all subordinate levels of the military social environment (Figure 1). Figure 1: DoD Social Ecological Model Incorporated DoD
Jones, T.; Robinson, A.; Fevre, R.; Lewis, D.
Studies based on British Crime Survey (BCS) data suggest that the overall incidence of workplace assault is relatively low. However, these data have a number of limitations. They include only assaults carried out by clients or the public, provide limited information about the individuals involved
Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon
Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1) video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198
Taylor, Zachary W.
Longitudinal research has suggested that sexual assault on college campuses is widespread and grossly underreported. To date, scholars have not examined a seemingly commonsense aspect of sexual assault reporting: the readability of the reporting instructions themselves; therefore, in this study the author examined the readability--using four…
Bicanic, I.; Snetselaar, H.; de Jongh, A.; van de Putte, E.
Background: Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide
Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer
The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…
Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa
Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…
Gökdoğan, M R; Bafra, J
Sexual offences are recognized to be one of the most critical of crimes throughout the world. In Turkey, forcible rapes show, in the sexual crime rates, an increase of approximately 3% every year. It becomes even more critical, when realizing that less than half of all rapes, which are believed to occur, are reported to law enforcement, and of those few assailants who are arrested even fewer are convicted of rape. Often, little or no knowledge of the correct methods of locating, recovering, packaging, and preserving evidence specimens are the causes for compromising the forensic examination in court. This problem occurs when medical personnel are not adequately trained or properly advised in the evidentiary aspects and medical features of treating a victim. The current survey is aimed to increase the awareness of the need of an initial and continuing education by health care policies to cope with increasing professional demands for forensic practice sexual assault cases, to take judicial and social precautions, and medico-legal evidence. To determine the likelihood of obtaining corroborating evidence this paper presents the results of a study referring to this problem. An updated questionnaire has been applied at random to medical personnel, a total of 543 participants, throughout Turkey. Taking certain criteria into consideration the findings revealed a significant deficiency of knowledge regarding medical-legal examination. In comparison, a one-semester course of basic forensic sciences proved to be sufficient to recognize the amount of knowledge required to work as a forensic professional. Based on the results, recommendations are presented in the form of a sexual assault evidence collection kit (SAECK). A kit, which takes into consideration the needs of crime laboratories, law enforcement agencies, medical personnel, and above all the victim. This is the first step in building a responsible and successful evidence collection program that will survive the rigors
Coulter, Robert W S; Rankin, Susan R
Sexual- and gender-minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) undergraduate students are at greater risk for sexual assault victimization than their cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) heterosexual peers. However, few studies have examined how social environments affect sexual assault victimization among sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students. Nevertheless, this research area was identified as a priority by the Institute of Medicine as well as President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault. Therefore, we tested the association between college campuses' inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and experiences of sexual assault victimization. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students ( N = 1,925) from higher education institutions in all 50 U.S. states in 2010. Our dependent variable was experiencing sexual assault victimization at college. Our primary independent variable was campus climate, measured with items assessing perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and witnessing sexual- or gender-minority harassment. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (accounting for the clustering of students within schools) to estimate the association between campus climate and experiencing sexual assault victimization. Overall, 5.2% of the sample reported ever being victims of sexual assault at college. Controlling for sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, and year in school, greater perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people on campus was associated with significantly lower odds of experiencing sexual assault victimization. Our study suggests that improving campus climate for sexual- and gender-minority individuals may reduce their prevalence of college sexual assault, which has potential implications for college practitioners and administrators as well as sexual assault
Fredrickson, Leif; Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara
The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981-1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001-2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today's ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable.
Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara
The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981–1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001–2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today’s ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable. PMID:29698097
Böhmig, G A; Regele, H; Säemann, M D; Exner, M; Druml, W; Kovarik, J; Hörl, W H; Zlabinger, G J; Watschinger, B
Excellent graft outcome has been reported for spousal-donor kidney transplantation. In husband-to-wife transplantation, however, a tendency toward inferior graft survival has been described for recipients who were previously pregnant. In our series of spousal-kidney transplantations (nine transplantations; three female recipients), actual graft survival is 100% (median observation time, 339 days). Five patients experienced early allograft rejection. In four transplant recipients, rejection was easily reversible by conventional antirejection therapy. In a multiparous recipient, however, mild interstitial allograft rejection associated with early graft dysfunction was resistant to anticellular treatment (antilymphocyte antibody, tacrolimus rescue therapy). The particular finding of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in peritubular capillaries and the finding of diffuse capillary deposits of the complement split product, C4d, in a posttransplantation biopsy specimen suggested a role of antibody-mediated graft injury. Retrospective flow cytometry cross-matching showed the presence of preformed immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HLA class I antigens that were not detectable by pretransplantation lymphocytotoxic cross-match testing or screening for panel reactive antibodies. After transplantation, however, complement-fixing antibodies, also presumably triggered by reexposure to spousal-donor HLA antigens, could be detected in the patient's serum. These findings suggested antibody-mediated allograft rejection and led to the initiation of immunoadsorption therapy (14 sessions) with staphylococcal protein A. Selective removal of recipient IgG resulted in complete reversal of graft dysfunction. Our findings suggest that in husband-to-wife transplantation, donor-specific antibodies, presumably triggered by previous pregnancies, might occasionally induce sustained allograft dysfunction. Thus, in this particular setting, a detailed immunologic and histopathologic work-up regarding
Barrett, Betty Jo; Peirone, Amy; Cheung, Chi Ho; Habibov, Nazim
Rational choice theory proposes that spousal violence survivors engage in a cost-benefit analysis when determining whether to contact the police in the aftermath of violence. Feminist intersectional frameworks contend that the perceived costs and benefits of police intervention differ among survivors based on their intersecting social identities. Normative theory further posits that it is not solely individual factors but also social norms derived from one's neighborhood context that may be related to reporting practices. Consistent with these perspectives, this study assessed the association between spousal violence survivors' sociodemographic, violence, and neighborhood characteristics and (a) police contact, (b) pathways to police contact, (c) motivations for contacting the police, and (d) motivations for not contacting the police. Data were drawn from the 2009 Canadian General Social Survey-Victimization main file, and included male and female survivors ( N = 890). Survivors most commonly contacted the police to stop the violence (89.4%) and most commonly did not contact the police because they did not believe it was important enough (35.3%). Results of multivariate regression analysis indicate that survivors who were visible minority, those who feared for their lives, and those who were injured were significantly more likely to self-report violence to police. Survivors were more likely to say the violence was not important enough to report if there was a police station in their neighborhood, and were less likely to say that violence was not important enough to report if they had experienced multiple incidents of violence. Implications for policing and criminal justice system engagement with spousal violence survivors are provided.
Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gonzalez, Alicia; Pollak, Kathryn I
Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males' smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at 4 time points throughout the intervention. Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male partners' self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners' level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners' outcomes. These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed at increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace
As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.
Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ferentzy, Peter; Skinner, Wayne; Antze, Paul
This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed.
Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S
The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Zhuang, Xiao Yu
This study endeavors to advance the current literature by examining the gender differences in the caregiving experiences and the stress-buffering role of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) among Chinese spousal caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong. Forty-nine husband caregivers and 121 wife caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong (N = 170) responded to the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), and demographic questions. These spousal caregivers were diverse in age, and their care receivers were diverse in terms of age and health condition. As predicted, there were significant gender differences in the moderating effects of PAC on the relationships of caregiving burden to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress. While PAC significantly buffered the effects of caregiving burden on depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress for wife caregivers, the moderating effects of PAC were not significant for husband caregivers. Unexpectedly, wife caregivers reported lower PAC, higher caregiving burden, and higher psychological distress. As these findings suggest that PAC is lower but more beneficial for Chinese wife caregivers than Chinese husband caregivers, helping professionals are recommended to use strengths-based interventions that target PAC when working with Chinese wife caregivers.
Hong, Sung-Chull; Coogle, Constance L
Spousal caregiving allows stressed couples to continue living in the community rather than seeking institutional solutions. Dr. Toni Calasanti has postulated that there are gender differences in the care work styles and coping strategies used by spousal caregivers dealing with dementia. While caregiving husbands tend to adopt task-oriented (masculine) approaches, caregiving wives are more likely to take an emotionally focused (feminine) orientation. These differences result in the need for varied interventions. Male caregivers tend toward a managerial approach, whereas female caregivers generally adopt a relational approach. This distinction was examined in the course of a literature review through the deductive process. It was determined that the core thesis of such a gender-based view of care work as a tiered entity threaded with masculinity/femininity remains quite plausible in contrast to models based on self-perceived gender identity of caregivers that require more exploration. Recommendations for future investigations are offered as new questions arise. © The Author(s) 2014.
Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C.
Purpose of the Study: To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Design and Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. Results: As hypothesized, both AD individuals’ and caregivers’ compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers’ compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ burden as well as the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers’ compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Implications: Results suggest that AD individuals’ compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers’ and AD individuals’ feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners’ compassionate love may benefit caregivers. PMID:24534607
The Sisters' Sexual Assault Recovery Center was established in Moscow, Russia, in 1993, to address the needs of victims of sexual violence. The Center's help-line received 4029 crisis calls in 1994-97. Most clients are seeking information about medical services or legal aid. Others call about employment, HIV/AIDS, alcoholism, and drug abuse. Services are available without regard to age, sex, occupation, or sexual orientation. Program funding has come entirely from Western foundations and organizations. Although Russia has not passed a law on domestic violence, the post-Communism government is reluctantly starting to acknowledge that rape and domestic violence are serious social problems. The Center runs an educational program for law enforcement officers to increase their sensitivity and create an environment of safety for women who report sexual violence.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Greenwood, Marc D
The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.
Full Text Available The assailants of sexuel assault to serve this purpose to the victims of many different drug can use. These drugs can be applied together with alcohol, soft drinks, water and other drinks can be given together. Most of these drugs tasteless and odorless. In a few minutes after ingestion chemical effect of drugs can start. Victims the conscious reduction and limitation of the physical move occur. Drug drinking from the pass the time until impact memory loss can occur. For this purpose the main benzodiazepines (Diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc., hypnotics (Zopiclone, zolpidem, anesthetics (Gama-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, amphetamines (Metylendioxymetamphetamine=ecstasy, opiats (Cocaine, cannabis=marihuana and alcohols such as ethanol substances used. However in study frequently encountered in the literature; cocaine, cannabis, metylendioxymetamphetamine, zolpidem, ketamine hydrochloride, zopiclone, gamma hydroxybutirate, diazepam, flunitrazepam and the effects of these substances after oral ingestion were evaluated and the approach to victims.
Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin
The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.
Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A
We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness.
Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A
Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.
Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia
Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.
Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander
Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be
Carifio, J; Lanza, M
This study compared all possible orders of responding to three vignettes describing incidents between a male patient and a female nurse in which the nurse is mildly assaulted, severely assaulted, or verbally abused by the patient (the control condition). Subjects were 32 female senior-year nursing students and 28 practicing nurses. It was found that response levels to a given vignette could predict a respondent's response to the other vignettes. Also, a significant "bench-marking" effect was found: if a subject responded to the mild assault vignette first, the subject's overall response pattern best fit the general nonlinear assignment-of-blame pattern observed, but if the subject responded to the severe assault or control vignette first, this vignette set a bench mark for responding from which the subject's subsequent responses did not deviate greatly, which slightly distorted the subject's V-shaped nonlinear response pattern.
Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T; Holder, Norah
Hospital-based partner assault clinics are a relatively recent addition to the community response to partner violence. In this study, 66% of 111 women attending hospital clinics for partner assault were physically injured and 43% reported death threats. Few concurrently used other services (shelters or police) and most relied on female friends and relatives for help. Many participants who currently lived with the perpetrator were contemplating leaving but only a third had made plans to do so. Participants faced an unusually high risk of future assault, according to both victim interview using the ODARA actuarial risk assessment and their own perceptions. Findings imply an important role for partner assault clinics and the feasibility of the victim service sector's using the same actuarial risk assessments as the criminal justice system.
Jeanette M. Sebaeng
Conclusion: Women who experience sexual assault are left with devastating effects such as physical and psychological harm and social victimisation. There is also a need for safety and support towards the recovery of these women. This study recommends that professional practitioners involved in the management of sexual assault be sensitised regarding the ordeal experienced by women and stop perceiving survivors as crime scene ‘clients’ from whom only medico-legal evidence has to be collected. Professional practitioners and family members must be supportive, non-judgemental and considerate of the dignity of survivors. The establishment of sexual assault response teams (SART is also recommended. There should also be inter-professional education for better coordination of services rendered to sexually assaulted women.
Flannery, Raymond B; Peterson, Brenda; Walker, Andrew P
Although there have been several studies of the characteristics of psychiatric patient assailants, there have been only six comprehensive, empirical assessments of precipitants to these assaults and no precipitant study has focused solely on elderly psychiatric patient assailants. This one and one-half year, retrospective study continued the inquiry into the nature of patient assault precipitants and focused only on elderly assailants. Older, male patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and histories of violence toward others and substance use disorder physically assaulted primarily male, mental health workers. These staff victims experienced disruptions in the domains of mastery, attachment, and meaning as well as the symptomatology associated with psychological trauma. The most common precipitants to these assaults were denial of services and acute psychosis. The findings and implications for health care providers in long-term care settings where elderly psychiatric patients reside are discussed.
Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia
Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Directed by Dr. Daniel P. McDonald, Executive Director 366...address an Unrestricted Report of sexual assault and the extent to which leadership would support victims and encourage their recovery. A healthy... leadership can help mitigate potential re-traumatization and may encourage other victims of sexual assault to make a report. The response climate
Buicko, Jessica L; Parreco, Joshua; Willobee, Brent A; Wagenaar, Amy E; Sola, Juan E
Hospital readmission in trauma patients is associated with significant morbidity and increased healthcare costs. There is limited published data on early hospital readmission in pediatric trauma patients. As presently in healthcare outcomes and readmissions rates are increasingly used as hospital quality indicators, it is paramount to recognize risk factors for readmission. We sought to identify national readmission rates in pediatric assault victims and identify the most common readmission diagnoses among these patients. The Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) for 2013 was queried for all patients under 18years of age with a non-elective admission with an E-code that is designed as assault using National Trauma Data Bank Standards. Multivariate logistic regression was implemented using 18 variables to determine the odds ratios (OR) for non-elective readmission within 30-days. There were 4050 pediatric victims of assault and 92 (2.27%) died during the initial admission. Of the surviving patients 128 (3.23%) were readmitted within 30days. Of these readmitted patients 24 (18.75%) were readmitted to a different hospital and 31 (24.22%) were readmitted for repeated assault. The variables associated with the highest risk for non-elective readmission within 30-days were: length of stay (LOS) >7days (OR 3.028, preadmission diagnosis groups were bipolar disorders (8.2%), post-operative, posttraumatic, or other device infections (6.2%), or major depressive disorders and other/unspecified psychoses (5.2%). Readmission after pediatric assault represents a significant resource burden and almost a quarter of those patients are readmitted after a repeated assault. Understanding risk factors and reasons for readmission in pediatric trauma assault victims can improve discharge planning, family education, and outpatient support, thereby decreasing overall costs and resource burden. Psychoses, weight loss, and prolonged hospitalization are independent prognostic indicators of
Hollywood , “Creating a True Army of One: Four Proposals to Combat Sexual Harassment in Today’s Army,” www.law.harvard.edu (accessed January 2, 2012). 10...outlined the Department’s policy concerning sexual harassment , and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) prescribed how to handle sexual assault...tolerance for sexual assault,” the offenders received sentences ranging from prison time to dishonorable discharges. 13 Dana Michael Hollywood , 168. 7
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M
Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.
Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin
This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault.
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Nocera, Maryalice; Smith, Jamie B; Blando, James; Goldmacher, Suzi; O'Hagan, Emily; Valiante, David; Harrison, Robert
This study examines changes in violent event rates to hospital employees before and after enactment of the California Hospital Safety and Security Act in 1995. We compared pre- and post-initiative employee assault rates in California (n = 116) emergency departments and psychiatric units with those in New Jersey (n = 50), where statewide workplace violence initiatives do not exist. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare assault rates between a 3-year pre-enactment period (1993-1995) and a 6-year post-enactment period (1996-2001) using New Jersey hospitals as a temporal control. Assault rates among emergency department employees decreased 48% in California post-enactment, compared with emergency department employee assault rates in New Jersey (rate ratio [RR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31, 0.90). Emergency department employee assault rates decreased in smaller facilities (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.96) and for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.79) post-enactment. Among psychiatric units, for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.85) and hospitals located in smaller communities (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.92) experienced decreased assault rates post-enactment. Policy may be an effective method to increase safety to health care workers.
Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H
This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors.
Silk, Aaron J; Billing, Daniel C
The Australian Defence Force is currently developing physical standards commensurate with job demands. Vital to this development process has been the accurate profiling of common military tasks. One such task required of all dismounted combat soldiers, an offensive assault on an enemy force, was the subject of in-depth profiling. In addition to overall assault performance, potential differences among patrol roles (scout, gunner, and flank) were investigated. Three different mock assaults of 100 to 150 m were performed by three patrols comprising qualified experienced infantry soldiers. Each soldier was fitted with a heart rate monitor and wore a global positioning device. Average assault duration was 6.5 minutes and required nineteen 7-m bounds performed on a 22-seconds duty cycle at 75% heart rate reserve and a work to rest ratio 1:4. Assaults conducted in more densely vegetated terrain resulted in significantly reduced (p 0.05). As a result of profiling the assault task, a valid simulation capable of assessing soldiers' physical capacity to perform this task was developed. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott
The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…
Anthony C. Akpanta
Full Text Available The act of violence against wife is condemnable and attracts various legal penalties, globally. This article attempts to find a link between spousal age difference and violence (Emotional, Physical and Sexual against wives in Nigeria. The result show that wives who are older than their partners are more likely to experience sexual and emotional violence; also, wives who are same age as their husbands are more likely to experience sexual violence; whereas wives who are 1-4 years younger than their husbands are more likely to experience physical violence; while wives 5 years or more younger than their husbands are generally less likely to experience any form of violence.
Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after
Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.
Wieland, Natalie; Baker, B L
Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. The relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems was examined in 132 families of 6-year-olds with and without ID. Using hierarchical regression, these relationships were also studied over time from child ages 6-8 years. Child behaviour problems were assessed with mother-reported Child Behavior Checklist. The marital domain was measured using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 and the Spousal Support and Agreement Scale. Mother-reported parenting stress and observed parenting practices were tested as potential mediators of the relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems. Mean levels of the marital domain were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) and ID groups, but there were significantly greater levels of variance in reported marital quality in the ID group at ages 6, 7 and 8. The marital domain score at child age 6 years predicted child behaviour problems at age 8 for the TD group only. This predictive relationship appeared to be a unidirectional effect, as child behaviour problems at age 6 were not found to predict levels of the marital domain at age 8. Parenting stress partially mediated this relationship for the TD group. The marital domain may have a greater impact on behavioural outcomes for TD children. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS. First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications, and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice.
Kim, Seungyoun; Knight, Bob G
Models of resilience suggest that psychosocial resources and their interactions facilitate resilience while experiencing life challenges of caregiving. The MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, Reflective attitude, and Emotion regulation) have been suggested as possible personal resources of resilience that predict positive health outcomes of caregivers. Applying a model of resilience, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of the three of the MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, and Emotion regulation) on caregiving spouses' life satisfaction and perceived physical health. Using data from the survey of Midlife in the United States, caregiving spouses (n = 114) and matched non-caregivers (n = 114) were included. We compared the direct and indirect effects of the wisdom resources on life satisfaction and physical health between the two groups. The simple mediation model proposed in 2008 by Preacher and Hayes revealed that openness to experience was directly associated with better life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Sense of mastery and emotion regulation had indirect effects on life satisfaction through spousal support. The effects the wisdom resources on caregiving spouses' perceived physical health were not found. This study demonstrated that the three of the MORE wisdom resources are possible personal resilience factors influencing life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Moreover, the study showed how spousal support mediates the relationship between the wisdom resources and life satisfaction. Interventions aiming to increase life satisfaction among caregiving spouses should focus on increasing both personal and environmental resources and strengthening the relationship of the caregiver and care recipient.
27 d. Military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by someone other than a parent...under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by someone other than a parent or caregiver (e.g., another child, neighbor, coach, etc.) 1. Yes 2...spouses, dependents) ........................................... d. Military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by
Williamson, C.L.; Iams, Z.L.
Rigid polyurethane foam utilizes a variety of mechanisms to mitigate the thermal assault of a ''regulatory burn''. Polymer specific heat and foam k-factor are of limited usefulness in predicting payload protection. Properly formulated rigid polyurethane foam provides additional safeguards by employing ablative mechanisms which are effective even when the foam has been crushed or fractured as a result of trauma. The dissociative transitions from polymer to gas and char, and the gas transport of heat from inside the package out into the environment are also thermal mitigators. Additionally, the in-situ production of an intumescent, insulative, carbonaceous char, confers thermal protection even when a package's outer steel skin has been breached. In this test program, 19 liter, ''Five gallon'' steel pails are exposed on one end to the flame of an ''Oil Burner'' as described in the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ''Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook''. When burning 2 diesel at a nominal rate of 8.39 kg (18.5 pounds)/hr, the burner generates a high emissivity flame that impinges on the pail face with the thermal intensity of a full scale pool-fire environment. Results of these tests, TGA and MDSC analysis on the subject foams are reported, and their relevance to full size packages and pool fires are discussed
Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth
There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Merkel, Reinhard; Putzke, Holm
Non-therapeutic circumcision violates boys' right to bodily integrity as well as to self-determination. There is neither any verifiable medical advantage connected with the intervention nor is it painless nor without significant risks. Possible negative consequences for the psychosexual development of circumcised boys (due to substantial loss of highly erogenous tissue) have not yet been sufficiently explored, but appear to ensue in a significant number of cases. According to standard legal criteria, these considerations would normally entail that the operation be deemed an 'impermissible risk'-neither justifiable on grounds of parental rights nor of religious liberty: as with any other freedom right, these end where another person's body begins. Nevertheless, after a resounding decision by a Cologne district court that non-therapeutic circumcision constitutes bodily assault, the German legislature responded by enacting a new statute expressly designed to permit male circumcision even outside of medical settings. We first criticise the normative foundations upon which such a legal concession seems to rest, and then analyse two major flaws in the new German law which we consider emblematic of the difficulty that any legal attempt to protect medically irrelevant genital cutting is bound to face.
Klein, Sonja B; Buoncristiani, Martin R
Analysis of sexual assault evidence, often a mixture of spermatozoa and victim epithelial cells, represents a significant portion of a forensic DNA laboratory's case load. Successful genotyping of sperm DNA from these mixed cell samples, particularly with low amounts of sperm, depends on maximizing sperm DNA recovery and minimizing non-sperm DNA carryover. For evaluating the efficacy of the differential extraction, we present a method which uses a Separation Potential Ratio (SPRED) to consider both sperm DNA recovery and non-sperm DNA removal as variables for determining separation efficiency. In addition, we describe how the ratio of male-to-female DNA in the sperm fraction may be estimated by using the SPRED of the differential extraction method in conjunction with the estimated ratio of male-to-female DNA initially present on the mixed swab. This approach may be useful for evaluating or modifying differential extraction methods, as we demonstrate by comparing experimental results obtained from the traditional differential extraction and the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC © ) procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen
Cancer and its treatment have a major impact on the lives of patients and their intimate partners, such as on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aims of this study are to: (i) assess the HRQOL of advanced cancer patients and spousal caregivers, and explore the relationship between the HRQOL of cancer patients and that of their spousal caregivers; (ii) detect factors influencing the HRQOL of cancer patients and spousal caregivers; and (iii) explore the impact of anxiety and depression on the HRQOL of couples. A total of 131 couples where one of the partners was hospitalized for advanced cancer were invited to complete a survey to assess their demographic and background information, HRQOL, and anxiety and depression. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12, while anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analyzed using a T-test, Pearson correlations, multiple linear regressions, and structural equation modeling. In general, the spousal caregivers had higher levels of HRQOL (seven out of eight SF-12 domains and two SF-12 dimensions) p = 0.038-0.000, anxiety (p = 0.002), and depression (p = 0.011) than patients. Correlations of HRQOL between patients and spouses were small to moderate (r = 0.193-0.398). Multiple independent factors influencing the physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), vitality (VT), and role emotional (RE) sections of the SF-12 were identified, including: gender, time since diagnosis, levels of education, working status, the extent to which spousal caregivers were informed about the disease, improved marital relationship after the diagnosis of cancer, and anxiety and depression. For both patients and spousal caregivers, the strongest independent factor influencing HRQOL (SF-12 PCS, MCS, VT, and RE) was anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression may have both actor and partner effects on the HRQOL of couples to various degrees. The findings of
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Watkins, Daphne C; Wharton, Tracy; Mitchell, Jamie A; Matusko, Niki; Kales, Helen
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of non-spousal family support on mental health among older, church-going African American men. The mixed methods objective was to employ a design that used existing qualitative and quantitative data to explore the interpretive context within which social and cultural experiences occur. Qualitative data (n=21) were used to build a conceptual model that was tested using quantitative data (n= 401). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an inverse association between non-spousal family support and distress. The comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis fit index, and root mean square error of approximation indicated good model fit. This study offers unique methodological approaches to using existing, complementary data sources to understand the health of African American men.
Lemon, D J; Partridge, R
It is often suggested that the weather can effect behaviour, increasing the likelihood of assaults and resulting in increased admissions to emergency departments (ED). Therefor a better understanding of the effect of climatic conditions could be useful to help EDs in capacity planning. Whilst other studies have looked at this, none have used data collected specifically to look at ED attendance for assaults or have taken account of potential behaviour modifiers. We use data from our ED violence surveillance system, the Cardiff Model (CM), married to daily meteorological data to construct negative-binomial regression models. The models are used to estimate changes in the assault rate with changes in temperature, adjusting for day of the week and alcohol consumption. We find that there is 1% increase in the assault rate for every degree increase in the maximum daily temperature (IRR=1.01, P-value=0.033). Additionally, different patterns in alcohol consumption at weekends also provide a significant contribution. However, when we generalise this model to represent temperature in terms of factors of standard deviation from the mean temperature, the IRR relationship changes, plateauing at unusually high temperatures (±1.5 SD above the mean). The results presented here suggest that whilst temperature does increase the risk of assaults in Dorset, there may be a limit to its effect. This implies the 'curve-linear' relationship for temperature as suggested by others. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Rebecca; Dworkin, Emily; Cabral, Giannina
This review examines the psychological impact of adult sexual assault through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of human development, we examine how individual-level factors (e.g., sociodemographics, biological/genetic factors), assault characteristics (e.g., victim-offender relationship, injury, alcohol use), microsystem factors (e.g., informal support from family and friends), meso/ exosystem factors (e.g., contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems, and rape crisis centers), macrosystem factors (e.g., societal rape myth acceptance), and chronosystem factors (e.g., sexual revictimization and history of other victimizations) affect adult sexual assault survivors' mental health outcomes (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidality, and substance use). Self-blame is conceptualized as meta-construct that stems from all levels of this ecological model. Implications for curbing and/or preventing the negative mental health effects of sexual assault are discussed.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: ‘What is the journey o f recovery that is undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault?’ Another question that developed during data collection and data analysis was ‘What is the meaning that women attach to recovery?’ The findings are discussed under the eight concepts or categories and the context and the intervening conditions that influence the journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma. Refer to part 1 article. These are complemented with abstracts of data from the participants’ voices and the related discussions. The developed theory highlights the process and the interconnectedness of the different stages of what the women experience in their journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma.
Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen; Paul, Sheila
A one year audit was undertaken of the mental health (MH) status of adult attendees to the Thames Valley Sexual Assault Centres (SARC). There were 301 relevant referrals over the twelve month period of whom 126 (42%) either fully or partially completed the mental health assessments. 38% (n = 66) of the population did not consent to the research. Participation in the study was felt inappropriate by the case clinician in the rest of the cases. To summarise the findings: 36% were moderately or severely depressed; 30% experienced moderate to severe anxiety; 28% were drinking at hazardous/harmful levels; and 12% had a drug problem that was moderate to severe. Self harm affected 45% of the sample with the greater majority cutting themselves and self-harming before the age of 17. Admission to a psychiatric in-patient unit was not uncommon and 19% had been admitted an average of three times each. The figure of 19% admitted to a psychiatric hospital is 90 times higher than for the general female population. 42% of the total sample were being prescribed medication for their mental health problem. The paper concludes that: there should be agreement nationally on the use of a standardised set of mental health outcome measures which are used in all assessments; there should be a move towards the commissioning of expert psychological support that is offered in a SARC and the pathways for specialist mental health care out of the SARCs. Finally, forensic physicians and general practitioners needs a greater awareness of the mental health sequalae of sexual assault and they then need to make prompt referrals to the appropriate services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Matthew D; Anderson, Jared R; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C
The current study sought to explore the indirect association of spousal overprotection on patient dietary adherence through the mechanism of diabetes distress and whether the link between overprotection and diabetes distress was moderated by spouse active engagement. Participants were 117 married couples in which one member had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were recruited from a patient registry at a Midwestern (USA) medical centre. Data were gathered from spouses and patients through a self-report survey instrument. The research questions were answered with structural equation modelling using the latent moderated structural equations (LMS) approach and dyadic data analytic procedures. Overprotection was associated with reduced dietary adherence indirectly via increased diabetes distress only at low levels of active engagement. The proposed model also proved superior when compared to two plausible alternatives. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the nuanced associations among the different ways spouses cope with illness to achieve better diabetes outcomes and the mechanisms responsible for linking coping and dietary adherence. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Spousal coping behaviour can influence dietary adherence among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, positively and negatively. Spouses simultaneously engage in different ways of coping with partner illness, but little is known about the interactive nature of coping styles or possible mechanisms that might link coping with illness outcomes. What does this study add? Spousal overprotection is only associated with reduced patient dietary adherence when spouses are also engaging in low levels of active engagement. Diabetes distress is an important mechanism linking spousal coping with patient dietary adherence. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women’s perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women’s attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women. PMID:29161277
Malinen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Sevón, Eija; Schoebi, Dominik
Designing parenting interventions and preventions requires knowledge on the factors and processes that shape parenting behaviors. Using data collected over 10 days, during the last hour of work and before going to bed, this study examined the spillover of interpersonal work stresses into positive and negative parenting behaviors. Data were collected among 103 couples who had at least one child between the age of one and eight years. Of particular interest was the role of received emotional spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. Dyadic variants of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that on days on which mothers or fathers reported stressful interpersonal interactions in the workplace, they also reported less positive parenting behaviors. In addition, mothers reported more negative parenting behaviors on days characterized by these kinds of work experiences. Mothers and fathers were found to report more positive parenting behaviors, and mothers less negative parenting behaviors, on the days on which they received more spousal support. Received spousal support also moderated spillover of work stress into parenting behaviors and this finding was found to be gender-specific: for mothers, support enhanced spillover into positive behaviors, and for fathers, it enhanced spillover into negative parenting behaviors.
Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies.
Potter, Sharyn; Howard, Rebecca; Murphy, Sharon; Moynihan, Mary M
To examine the well-documented mental and physical health problems suffered by undergraduate women sexually assaulted while on campus with an exploration of how the trauma impacts a survivor's lifetime education trajectory and career attainment. In November and December 2015, researchers recruited US participants using an online crowdsourcing tool and a Listserv for sexual violence prevention and response professionals. Of 316 women who completed initial screening, 89 qualified to complete a Qualtrics survey. Eighty-one participants completed the online survey, and 32 participated in phone interviews. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported health problems related to the assault that they attributed to difficulties they faced in their attainment of their education and career goals. The findings suggest the importance of simultaneously examining the effects of human capital losses and mental and physical health problems attributed to the costly public health problem of campus sexual assault.
The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed.
Lukacena, Kaylee M; Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Quick, Brian L
The high prevalence of sexual assault in US college campuses has led to a widespread implementation of bystander intervention programs aimed at preventing sexual assault. The current study examines predictors of college students' intentions to engage in bystander intervention through the theoretical lens of the reasoned action approach. An online survey with college students (N = 186) was conducted at a large Midwestern university. Our results indicated experiential attitudes, instrumental attitudes, descriptive norms, autonomy, and capacity, each positively associated with participants' intentions to intervene to stop a sexual assault. Against expectations, injunctive norms were unrelated to bystander intervention intentions. Finally, in addition to these main effects, an experiential attitude by autonomy interaction was also observed. The results are discussed with a focus on the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
R C Jiloha
Full Text Available Sexual assault in various forms has been recognized as a crime by almost all religions and cultures throughout the recorded history. It is a crime against basic human rights of an individual and a most common crime against women in India. In India, "rape laws" began with the enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments, and the main issue of focus remained the definition of rape which has been recently broadened to include a wide range of sexual activities. The inclusion of "marital rape" in the ambit of rape remains a matter of debate. With a long history, the sexual offence in the form of sexual assault has been discussed from legal and mental health perspective in this presentation. Social and psychological impact of sexual assault on the victim has also been discussed.
Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann
This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…
Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L
This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.
Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…
Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine
Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…
Scott, K. M.; Koenen, K. C.; King, A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Bunting, B.; de Jonge, P.; Haro, J. M.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Sampson, N. A.; Shahly, V.; Stein, D. J.; Torres, Y.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background. Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors
Walter S DeKeseredy
Full Text Available Recent analyses of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS data show that male-to-female separation/divorce assault varies across geographic regions in the United States, with rural rates of such woman abuse being higher than those for suburban and urban areas. Using the same data set, the main objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into whether characteristics of female victims of separation/divorce assault also differ across urban, suburban, and rural communities.
Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A
Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R
This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Tapesana, Stanley; Chirundu, Daniel; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Juru, Tsitsi Patience; Mufuta, Tshimanga
Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted. Epi. Info 7 software was used to analyse data and generate frequencies, measures of central tendency and proportions. We analysed 474 medical affidavits completed between January 2014 and July 2016. Thirty percent of the victims sought care within 72 h of the sexual assault. Baseline HIV testing was done in 23 (22%) and follow-up HIV test done in 2 (2%) of the victims. Post Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV was administered to 18 (51%), emergency contraception 9 (69%) and forensic evidence gathered in six (5%) of victims presenting within the prescribed 72 h of the sexual assault. Prophylactic antibiotics were given to 156 (33%). There were no documented counselling sessions for all victims whilst follow up care was given to 47 (10%) victims. Suboptimal clinical care was given to victims of sexual assault during the period 2014-2016. These findings suggest possible delayed presentation by victims of sexual assault as well as suboptimal administration of prophylaxis by health care workers. We recommend adherence to guidelines in managing sexual assault. Further research to determine factors for delayed presentation among sexual assault victims and quality of care provided to them is recommended.
Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Grove, William M; Hughes, John Russell
To study the risks of abuse, violence, and homicide, 5 studies of groups at risk for violence are summarized. 192 Abused Infants, 181 Abused Children, 127 Homicidal Youth, 425 Assaulters, 223 Rapists, and 223 Molesters were randomly selected and tracked in court, probation, medical, and school records, then compared with carefully matched groups of Controls and (in older groups) Nonviolent Delinquents. In adolescence or adulthood, these groups were classified into Later Homicidal (N=234), Later Violent or Nonviolent Delinquent, and Later Nondelinquent subgroups for more detailed comparisons. Shao's bootstrapped logistic regressions were applied to identify risks for commission of homicide. Significant predictors for all homicidal cases in these samples were number of court contacts, poorer executive function, lower social maturity, alcohol abuse, and weapon possession. Predictors for the 373 Abused cases (Infants and Children) were court contacts, injury, burn, poisoning, fetal substance exposure, and parental alcohol abuse. Predictors for the 871 Violent Delinquent cases (Assaulters, Rapists, Molesters) were court contacts, poorer executive function, and lower social maturity. Accuracies of prediction from the regressions ranged from 81% for homicidal sex offenders to 87 to 99% for other homicidal groups.
Mausbach, Brent T; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Grant, Igor
Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease is a highly stressful experience that is associated with significant depressive symptoms. Previous studies indicate a positive association between problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease (e.g., repeating questions, restlessness, and agitation) and depressive symptoms in their caregivers. Moreover, the extant literature indicates a robust negative relationship between escape-avoidance coping (i.e., avoiding people, wishing the situation would go away) and psychiatric well-being. The purpose of this study was to test a mediational model of the associations between patient problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers. Ninety-five spousal caregivers (mean age: 72 years) completed measures assessing their loved ones' frequency of problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was tested to determine if escape-avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between patient problem behaviors and caregiver depressive symptoms. Patient problem behaviors were positively associated with escape-avoidance coping (beta = 0.38, p avoidance coping was positively associated with depressive symptoms (beta = 0.33, p avoidance coping. Sobel's test confirmed that escape-avoidance coping significantly mediated the relationship between problem behaviors and depressive symptoms (z = 2.07, p avoidance coping partially mediates the association between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms among elderly caregivers of spouses with dementia. This finding provides a specific target for psychosocial interventions for caregivers.
Alboebadi, F; Afshari, P; Jamshidi, F; Poor, Rm; Cheraghi, M
We aimed to study the relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and the general health of the victims referred to forensics in Ahvaz city (Iran). It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that was designed by two groups as case and control which has done on 128 subjects. Sixty-four rape victims who were referred to the forensic center, considered as case group and in control group, 64 people who were being referred to health clinics in Ahvaz city. The data were collected through Rogers's standard self-concept and general health questionnaires. Questionnaires were filled in self-completion way. Data had entered and analyzed by using SPSS software (version 22). A level of significance was less than 0.05. The average score of self-concept in the case group was 14.97 ±4.78 and in control group was 6.08 ±2.9. Average score of general health of the case and control groups, respectively, were 51.09 ±18.07 and 16.92 ±12.79. A significant statistical difference between the average score of self-concept, social functioning, physical and general health components in the groups was observed. More negative self-concept and vulnerable general health was observed in the rape victims group than in the control group. Providing counseling and health services and family and social support of these victims can be effective in their general health promotion.
Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown
A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…
Background: This six-month study at Odi Hospital in the district of Mabopane in the North-West Province was undertaken to gain insight into the way in which alleged sexual assault victims experienced the treatment they received from doctors, nurses and others and how the quality of the care they received can be improved.
... endures the fear of assault or the pain of an attack on their physical well-being and basic human dignity... globe as we work toward a common vision of a world free from the threat of sexual violence, including as...
Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa
Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI in child victims of acute sexual assault. settings and Design: It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods : Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age, had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition. Results : The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%. Conclusion : Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a child′s local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal.
The country experiences high levels of violence, with incidents of violence being reported in ... establish the type of injuries suffered by the victims of assault. Methods ... Senior family physician/senior lecturer, Department of Family Medicine, University of Pretoria, Mpumalanga Campus .... such a way that the profile of the as-.
... problems including chronic pain, stomach problems, and sexually transmitted diseases. It can also cause... are essential to this effort and work tirelessly to help victims cope with the trauma of sexual... child victims. For example, since 1997, VOCA funding has supported the development of Sexual Assault...
Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Young-Xu, Yinong; Resick, Patricia A.
This study compares a sample of PTSD-positive, female survivors of interpersonal assault (n = 162) to a sample of similarly traumatized male counterparts (n = 45) on a number of variables, including PTSD-symptom severity, depressive symptoms, anger, guilt, and health-related concerns. Results indicate that male and female interpersonal assault…
Maier, Shana L.
While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Mar 2, 2004 ... rooms, as South African Police Service (SAPS) personnel do not always have easy ... commence by taking the medical history and details of the actual sexual assault. ... patient can shower/bath and change their clothing on completion of the full ... and 3TC (Combivir), one tablet twice daily. Children and the.
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.
Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha
Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…
better understand the link between drugs (e.g., illicit, prescription, and/or synthetic drugs, and alcohol consumption) and sexual assault, the National... marijuana and arrested. Due to Subject’s arrest and pending EAS, no further administrative or judicial action will be initiated by Command. 71a
The etiology of maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another and even within the same country depending on the prevailing socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors.[1-4] Road traffic crashes (RTC), assaults, sports, falls occupational hazards are documented causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries.
Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura
R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
Thatcher, W. Gregory
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…
Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary
Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…
Bohner, G.; Danner, U.; Siebler, F.; Samson, G.B.
Processing strategies in risk assessment were studied in an Internet experiment. Women (N = 399) who were either low or high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) were asked to recall either two or six behaviors that either increase or decrease the risk of being sexually assaulted. Later they judged their
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.
Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.
"Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…
South African Family Practice ... In South Africa, violence plays a detrimental role in our daily lives, affecting almost everybody, directly or indirectly. ... From 29th October 1999 to 1st May 2000, the patients who attended for injuries due to alleged assault (interpersonal violence) and met the inclusion criteria were included in ...
Muehlenhard, Charlene L; Peterson, Zoë D; Humphreys, Terry P; Jozkowski, Kristen N
In 2014, U.S. president Barack Obama announced a White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, noting that "1 in 5 women on college campuses has been sexually assaulted during their time there." Since then, this one-in-five statistic has permeated public discourse. It is frequently reported, but some commentators have criticized it as exaggerated. Here, we address the question, "What percentage of women are sexually assaulted while in college?" After discussing definitions of sexual assault, we systematically review available data, focusing on studies that used large, representative samples of female undergraduates and multiple behaviorally specific questions. We conclude that one in five is a reasonably accurate average across women and campuses. We also review studies that are inappropriately cited as either supporting or debunking the one-in-five statistic; we explain why they do not adequately address this question. We identify and evaluate several assumptions implicit in the public discourse (e.g., the assumption that college students are at greater risk than nonstudents). Given the empirical support for the one-in-five statistic, we suggest that the controversy occurs because of misunderstandings about studies' methods and results and because this topic has implications for gender relations, power, and sexuality; this controversy is ultimately about values.
Draughon, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Rotolo, Sue; Austin, Kim Wieczorek; Sheridan, Daniel J
Nonoccupational, postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is offered inconsistently to patients who have been sexually assaulted. This may be due to Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) programs utilizing diverse nPEP protocols and HIV risk assessment algorithms. This study examines factors associated with FNEs offering nPEP to patients following sexual assault at two FNE programs in urban settings. Offering nPEP is mostly driven by site-specific protocol. At Site 1, in addition to open anal or open genital wounds, the presence of injury to the head or face was associated with FNEs offering nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 64.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 1942.37]). At Site 2, patients assaulted by someone of Other race/ethnicity (non-White, non-African American) were 86% less likely to be offered nPEP (AOR 0.14, 95% CI = [.03, .72]) than patients assaulted by Whites. In addition to following site-specific protocols, future research should further explore the mechanisms influencing clinician decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.
Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.
A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…
Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa M; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W
Patient assault is a serious issue for the well-being of staff in psychiatric hospitals. To guide workplace responses to patient assault, more information is needed about social support from different sources and whether those supports are associated with staff well-being. The present study examines social support after patient assault from work-based and nonwork-based sources, and whether inpatient psychiatric staff desires support from them and perceive the support received as being effective. Received support across sources was examined in relations to staff well-being (physical health, mental health, anger, sleep quality) and perceptions of safety. Survey data was collected from 348 clinical staff in a large public forensic mental hospital. Among the 242 staff who reported an assault in the last year, 71% wanted support and 72% found effective support from at least one source. Generally, effective support from supervisors, coworkers, and their combination was associated with better well-being. Support from nonwork sources was related to less concerns about safety, but not to other well-being measures. However, 28% of staff did not receive effective support from any source postassault. Gaps in support as reported in this study and as found by other investigators call for systematic programming by hospital organizations to enhance the well-being of clinical staff, which in turn has implications for patient care.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, transfer, and... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.40 Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture...
Altinbaş, Kürşat; Altinbaş, Gülçin; Türkcan, Ahmet; Oral, E Timuçin; Walters, James
Assaults on health professionals have been an area of burgeoning clinical and political interest in recent years. There is now a body of literature suggesting that violence towards psychiatrists is more common than to other doctors. Thus far the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in Western European and North American clinical settings. For the first time, this study examines this issue in the context of Turkish psychiatric settings. (i) The study aims to detect the prevalence of verbal and physical assaults towards psychiatrists in Turkey. (ii) It aims to compare the experience of verbal and physical assaults according to the gender and training experience of psychiatrists. (iii) The paper intends to investigate how psychiatrists reacted to and appraised the experience of violence. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate violence towards psychiatrists (adapted from the Overt Agression Scale). The questionaire was administered to psychiatric specialists and residents working in state hospitals, research and training hospitals, mental health hospitals and university psychiatry clinics. A response rate of 93% was achieved with 186 out of 200 psychiatrsits approached completing the study questionnaire. Of all the psychiatrists who responded, 71% reported having experienced verbal or physical assaults during their professional life (verbal assaults only (19.9%), physical assaults only (2.7%) and both (48.4%)). Of these, 26% suffered injury to at least a mild degree. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gender and workplace. In spite of the extremely high rates of aggression and violence towards psychiatrists, roughly 50% perceived these acts a normal part of their job and only 5% formally reported the violent incident. The majority of psychiatrists described having been victims of verbal and physical assaults although half perceived aggression and violence as a normal part of their job. Levels of reporting of violence
Hassija, Christina; Gray, Matt J
Although evidence-based treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been available for some time, many treatment-seeking trauma survivors are unable to access such services. This is especially the case in remote and rural areas where access to specialists is an exception rather than a rule. Advances in videoconferencing-based technologies are improving rural residents' access to specialized psychological services. However, at present, little is known about the viability and efficacy of providing psychological interventions via distal technologies to individuals who present at rural domestic violence and rape crisis centers. The present study attempts to partially address this void by evaluating, in the context of an uncontrolled trial, the effectiveness and feasibility of providing evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment via videoconferencing to rural survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. Participants in the present study were clients referred to the Wyoming Trauma Telehealth Treatment Clinic (WTTTC) for psychological services via videoconferencing from distal domestic violence and rape crisis centers located in the state of Wyoming. Fifteen female victims of assaultive violence who received at least four sessions of trauma-focused treatment via videoconferencing-based technology at distal rape and domestic violence crisis centers were included in the present study. Participants completed measures of PTSD and depression symptom severity and client satisfaction. Participants evidenced large reductions on measures of PTSD (d = 1.17) and depression (d = 1.24) symptom severity following treatment via videoconferencing. Additionally, participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with videoconferencing-administered services. Results provide evidence in support of videoconferencing as an effective means to provide psychological services to rural domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Clinical implications and avenues
Molinatti, Florencia; Acosta, Laura Débora
Describe the trend in deaths by assault in women in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico between 2001 and 2011. Descriptive study. Mortality from assaults and undetermined intentional acts was calculated, adjusted for age, using the direct method and the World Health Organization's standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify statistically significant changes. The male:female mortality ratio was compared and trends in the rates were calculated and adjusted for each of the two causes of death and the specific rates of mortality by assault in women by age group. The highest rates of assault of women were reported in Brazil, followed by Colombia, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile. Between 2001 and 2011, decreases were reported from Argentina and Colombia; in Brazil and Mexico the rates increased; and in Chile they remained stable. The highest specific rates were found in young women (15-29 years) and adults (30-44 and 45-59 years). In Colombia the rates declined in all groups, while in Mexico they increased in women aged 15 to 59 years. Only Colombia showed a decrease in mortality from undetermined intentional acts; in Argentina and Mexico there was a decrease at the beginning of the period with a later increase; in Brazil no variations were observed. Mortality from assaults on women in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico between 2001 and 2011 was higher than the world average and the Latin American average; rates were lower in Argentina and Chile, with minor differences between the sexes. Progress must be made in terms of understanding the power relationships that underlie femicide, which should be included in national criminal legislation.
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping
Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J.; Bilheimer, Alecia; Gonzalez, Alecia; Pollak, Kathryn I.
Objective Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Methods Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males’ smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at four time points throughout the intervention. Results Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male’s partners’ self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners’ level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners’ outcomes. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. PMID:25844907
Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah
Social reactions to disclosures of sexual assault have significant effects on women's post-assault outcomes (see Ullman, 2010, for a review). The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) measures these reactions (as reported by survivors) and aggregates them into positive and negative scales. However, studies indicate that only some "negative" reactions have a negative valence for survivors whereas others produce a mixed (positive and negative) valence. The current study compares a one-primary-factor model of "negative reactions" to a model with two primary factors that we have labeled "turning against" and "unsupportive acknowledgement." Results showed that although one primary factor was plausible, two primary factors provided a better fit to the data. To assess the discriminant validity of the two factors, we performed regressions predicting social support, psychological adjustment, and coping behaviors. Analyses supported the hypotheses that reactions of being turned against were related to social withdrawal, increased self-blame, and decreased sexual assertiveness whereas reactions of unsupportive acknowledgment were related to both adaptive and maladaptive coping. Against predictions, depression and PTSD were more related to receiving unsupportive acknowledgment than to receiving turning against reactions. Implications for interventions and research are discussed. Importantly, almost all women (94%) in our sample received reactions that acknowledged that an assault occurred but failed to provide support, and this lack of support was associated with worse coping than even more hostile reactions such as being blamed or stigmatized. Therefore, there seems a great need for effective programs to train community members to respond to survivors with the kind of emotional and tangible support that promotes better outcomes.
Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L
The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.
de Heer, Brooke
Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thun, M; Henley, J; Apicella, L
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies of the association of ischemic heart disease risk and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure from a spouse who smokes. Seventeen studies (nine cohort, eight case-control) comprising more than 485,000 lifelong nonsmokers and 7,345 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were included in a meta-analysis. Together, these studies include 36% more CHD events and 58% more study subjects than were available for review by the U. S. Occupational Safety an...
Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
The Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) in the CA group were significantly higher than in the non-CA group (p<0.001), with a median (interquartile range) ISS of 3 (2 - 6) in CA cases v. 1 (1 - 2) in non-CA cases. Comparison between the CA v. non-CA groups showed that a Glasgow Coma Scale <15 (20.1% v. 5.4%, respectively) ...
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.
Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel
Large numbers of children are affected by child sexual abuse in South Africa. This study aimed to assess psychological adjustment of children post sexual assault. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with caretakers, and structured interviews using mental health assessment screening tools were given to children at three intervals over a five-month period after presentation at a sexual assault center. Almost half of the children met clinical criteria for anxiety, and two-thirds met criteria for full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder two to four weeks post disclosure. With standard care, we observed some recovery; 43.3% of children still met full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder nearly six months post disclosure. Our findings indicate that current practice in South Africa does not promote adequate recovery for children.
Scheff, T J
With many years of experience and refinement, the arts of self-defense against physical assault are highly developed. Without an effective theory and and a useful practice, there is little in the way of self-defense against verbal assault. For THEORY, I draw upon ideas from aikido, family systems theory, and the sociology of emotions. Since unacknowledged shame seems to generate rage and damage social bonds, I emphasize the management of shame, anger, and bonds. To illustrate the meaning of these principles, I offer several episodes as examples, using the METHOD of discourse analysis. I apply this theory and method to the PRACTICE of psychotherapy by describing some rudimentary principles of defense of self against verbal aggression, especially the subtle aggression of innuendo. Psychotherapy is often an arena of verbal aggression by both therapist and client, even though it is usually unintentional and outside of awareness.
Orchowski, Lindsay M; Untied, Amy S; Gidycz, Christine A
How a support provider responds to disclosure of sexual victimization has important implications for the process of recovery. The present study examines the associations between various positive and negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and psychological distress, coping behavior, social support, and self-esteem in a sample of college women (N = 374). Social reactions to assault disclosure that attempted to control the survivor's decisions were associated with increased symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and lower perceptions of reassurance of worth from others. Blaming social reactions were associated with less self-esteem and engagement in coping via problem solving. Social reactions that provided emotional support to the survivor were associated with increased coping by seeking emotional support. Contrary to expectations, social reactions that treated the survivor differently were associated with higher self-esteem. Implications are discussed.
Mollayeva, Tatyana; Mollayeva, Shirin; Lewko, John; Colantonio, Angela
To examine the etiology, prevalence and severity of assault-precipitated work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in Ontario, Canada through a sex lens. Cross-sectional study using data abstracted from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims files in 2004. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the distribution of worker/employment/incident characteristics. Workplace physical violence that resulted in a TBI accounted for 6.6% percent of all TBI injury claims. Female workers, primarily in the health care/social services sector, accounted for over half of all TBIs. Most workers were assaulted by consumers/clients. Forty five percent of injuries occurred among workers with less than 3 years of employment. This paper identifies profiles of workers and workplaces for targeted preventive efforts. Future studies are needed to further address risk factors by sex and outcomes, such as length of disability and health care cost.
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort
Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....
McLean, Caitlin L; Crowder, Marisa K; Kemmelmeier, Markus
The overwhelming majority of rapes goes unreported. To better understand the sociocultural mechanisms behind why underreporting may occur, three studies (total n = 1,481) examine how women's endorsement of honor values influence the perceptions of rape. Using vignettes that varied the closeness of the perpetrator of a sexual assault (i.e., stranger, acquaintance, or husband), we found that women who endorse honor values of womanhood were less likely to label a forced sexual act as "rape" and to suggest that the victim discloses the rape to others, including to the police. This was especially true the closer the victim was to the perpetrator (e.g., husband vs. stranger). Our findings highlight the effects of honor values on perceived sexual assault and the consequences of disclosure, and may aid in understanding barriers to rape reporting and areas for intervention. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
to feel helpless.”27 2014 TV commercials show children/ teens having confidence to take what they want (a kiss without permission) and declaring...Events - How They Influence You Today Sexual Harassment/Assault Knowing Personal Boundaries Suicide Navigating a Counter Culture Drugs 4 Identities of... Depression A Starting Point - Initial Topic Recommendations Airmen can build self-awareness and autonomy with purposeful open dialogue in these
aggressive in general (i.e., outside the laboratory), have antisocial characteristics, and endorse more feelings of anger and hostility toward others...conducted using a validated measure, such as the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; Babor and Grant, 1989), AUDIT-C (Bradley et al...Factors for Rape, Physical Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women: Examination of Differential Multivariate Relationships,” Journal of
providers we interviewed said that these same traditional gender stereotypes can make it particularly difficult for males to report that they were...develop a plan for using its data to inform program development; systematically evaluate whether male victims have gender - specific medical and...not systematically identified whether male victims have any gender -specific needs. DOD sexual assault policies specify that care be sensitive to gender
Kenyon, S. (1996). "Honey, we don’t do men": Gender stereotypes and the provision of services to sexually assaulted males . Journal of Interpersonal... males is limited. The Department is now working to increase research-informed, gender -specific prevention techniques that address male specific...needs of male survivors. The Department will conduct further evaluation of gender -specific needs to determine if additional gender -specific training or
Goyal, MK; Mollen, CJ; Hayes, KL; Molnar, J; Christian, CW; Scribano, PV; Lavelle, J
Objective Describe the experience of a novel pediatric Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) program in the first three years of implementation, and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. Methods Retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric ED who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with gender, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. Results One hundred and eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 years (+/− 4.6 years). The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among females (p<0.01), but not by gender. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical exam was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal females were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy (p<0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, STI, and HIV prophylaxis (p<0.01). Conclusions In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on exam. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault. PMID:23974714
the definition of child abuse that includes the rape , molestation, prostitution , or other such form of sexual exploitation of a child; or incest...data gleaned from comparable statistical samples. See Appendix B for details. The primary offenses that occurred were rape of a child, aggravated...Offense/Manual for Courts-Martial Rape of a child under 12 Rape of a child over 12 but under 16 Sexual assault of a child under 16 Sexual abuse of a
were offensive or embarrassing), unwanted sexual attention (attempts to establish a sexual relationship), and sexual coercion (classic quid pro quo ...are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely to be challenged. This...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: COMPARING DATA FROM 2002 AND 2006 Dr. Richard J. Harris University of Texas at San
costs and benefits of disclosure and made an informed deci- sion that it was not in their personal best interest. The emotional trauma of forensic...forensic services, (3) advocacy and emotional support, and (4) mental health and psy- chiatric care. In each subsection, the review focuses primarily...al., 1996). The WHO guidelines recommend that victims who present for services within five days of the assault be offered emergency contraception
Lee, Hei Hwa; Chen, Suen Chi; Lee, Jong Feng; Lin, Hsin Yu; Chen, Bai Hsiun
According to domestic and international epidemiological investigation, the proportion of substance involved sexual assault has the trend of ascent. In the past, laboratory methods that investigated urine sample of the sexual assault victims was to screen with enzyme immunoassay and then confirmed with mass spectrometry. The objective of the study is to simultaneously identify abused drugs in 126 decoded urine samples of sexual assault victims by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring with an electro-spray positive ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated with ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22μm PVDF filter before injection into the system. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.2 to 10ng/mL. The precision (CV) results were below 12.9% (intraday) and 15.0% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 84.8 to 121.0%, interday accuracy ranged from 72.0 to 117.3%. We found that 29 (23.0%) were positive for drugs. The most common drug identified is flunitrazepam (11.1%), followed by nimetazepam and ketamine (7.9%), some new psychoactive substances, such as 2C-B, mephedrone, methylone, PMA and PMMA were also identified. We identified abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine of sexual assault victims by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.
BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808
Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim
In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms.
Kathryn B H Clancy
Full Text Available Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666 to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932
Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange
A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A t...
Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura
Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Christopher F Chabris
Full Text Available Inattentional blindness—the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else—has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.
Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J
Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tatiana V. Kushch
Full Text Available This paper addresses the military and political aspect of the Turkish siege of Constantinople in 1422 AD, when the Ottomans gained valuable experience to use it later, in the final battle of 1453. The research is based on the analysis of fifteenth-century Byzantine historical and rhetorical works. The author of this paper has reconstructed the course of the siege and the main stages of preparation to the decisive assault, has analysed the enemy’s military plans, the alignment of forces and tactical ploys of siege warfare, the specificities of Ottoman weaponry, and the sides’ actions during the assault. Attention has been paid to the Byzantines’ behaviour in the period of military conflict and the emperors’ political actions for the conflict resolution. The history of the siege and assault of the Byzantine capital in 1422 has been placed into the political context of the period in question, and has been uncovered as a stage in the development of the Byzantine-Ottoman relations in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century. The paper concludes that the Ottomans’ rout resulted from a series of circumstances: the perfection of the fortification system of Constantinople, total mobilization of the metropolitan population, the lack of maritime blockade, and the rebel in the rear of the Ottomans starting not without a help from the Byzantines, all of this allowed the city to withstand. The siege was relieved; however, the situation in foreign policy was still difficult for Byzantium, thus making the emperor to search for peace with the sultan.
Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos
To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Schilling, Samantha; Deutsch, Stephanie A; Gieseker, Rebecca; Molnar, Jennifer; Lavelle, Jane M; Scribano, Philip V
The purpose of our study was to increase the rate of children with appropriate HIV-PEP regimens among those diagnosed with sexual assault in The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Emergency Department (ED). The outcome measure was the percent of patients receiving correct HIV-PEP. We retrospectively reviewed 97 charts over 31 months to define the baseline rate of children receiving appropriate HIV-PEP regimens (pre QI-implementation period: 2/2012-8/2014). Among children in which HIV-PEP was indicated following sexual assault, 40% received the recommended 28-day course. Root cause analysis indicated prescribing errors accounted for 87% of patients not receiving appropriate HIV-PEP. Process drivers included standardizing care coordination follow-up calls to elicit specific information about HIV-PEP, ED educational initiatives targeted at HIV-PEP prescribing, revision of the clinical pathway to specify indicated duration of HIV-PEP, and revision of the order set to auto-populate the number of days for the HIV-PEP prescription. During the QI-implementation period (9/2014-4/2015), the rate of appropriate HIV-PEP increased to 64% (median 60%) and the average number of days between incorrect HIV-PEP regimens was 24.5. Post QI-implementation (5/2015-3/2016), the rate of appropriate HIV-PEP increased to 84% (median 100%) and the average number of days between incorrect HIV-PEP regimens increased to 78.4. A multifaceted quality improvement process improved the rate of receipt of appropriate HIV-PEP regimens for pediatric victims of sexual assault. Decision support tools are instrumental in sustaining ideal care delivery, but require ongoing evaluation and improvement in order to remain optimally effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E
To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Barth, Shannon K; Kimerling, Rachel E; Pavao, Joanne; McCutcheon, Susan J; Batten, Sonja V; Dursa, Erin; Peterson, Michael R; Schneiderman, Aaron I
Military sexual trauma (MST) includes sexual harassment or sexual assault that occurs during military service and is of increasing public health concern. The population prevalence of MST among female and male veterans who served during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) has not been estimated to our knowledge. The purpose of this study is to assess the population prevalence and identify military correlates of MST, sexual harassment, and sexual assault among OEF/OIF veterans. MST was assessed in the 2009-2011 National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a survey of 60,000 veterans who served during the OEF/OIF eras (response rate, 34%, n=20,563). Weighted prevalence estimates and AORs of MST, sexual harassment, and sexual assault among women and men were calculated. Gender-stratified logistic regression models controlled for military and demographic characteristics. Data analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Approximately 41% of women and 4% of men reported experiencing MST. Deployed men had lower risk for MST compared with non-deployed men, though no difference was found among women. However, veterans reporting combat exposure during deployment had increased risk for MST compared with those without, while controlling for OEF/OIF deployment. Among women, Marines and Navy veterans had increased risk for MST compared with Air Force veterans. MST was significantly higher among veterans who reported using Veterans Affairs healthcare services. These prevalence estimates underscore the importance of public awareness and continued investigation of the public health impact of MST. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lewis, Shana R.
Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…
Kute, Vivek B; Shah, Pankaj R; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gumber, Manoj R; Goplani, Kamal R; Patel, Himanshu V; Munjappa, Bipin C; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R
Deceased donor organ shortage has made living donors (LD) major source for renal transplantation (RTx) in India. Spouses represent an important source of allograft. We carried out a retrospective study of spousal RTx vs. other LDRTx to compare long-term results. This retrospective single-center study was undertaken to evaluate demographic, patient survival, graft survival, function vis-à-vis serum creatinine (SCr) and rejection episodes in 1523 living donor renal allograft recipients from 1998 to 2009. It included spouse donors (n=337) (group 1), living related donors (LRD) (n=969) (group 2), and living unrelated donors (LUD) (n=217) (group 3). Mean recipient age (years +/- SD)) was 41.48 +/- 8.87, 30.49 +/- 10.61, and 37.13 +/- 13.25, respectively for the three groups who were followed for 4.47 +/- 3.03, 4.47 +/- 3.0 and 5.15 +/- 3.28 years respectively. Female donors were 92.6%, 66.4%, and 41%, mean HLA match was 1.15 +/- 0.93, 3 +/- 1.05 and 1.30 +/- 1.08 respectively. One, 5 and 12 year graft survivals among group 1 were 91.39%, 75.49%, and 73.13%; 90.98%, 74.10% and 64.57% in group 2 and 94.92%, 82.86% and 70.31% in group 3. Patient survival for 1, 5 and 12 years were 89.31%, 72.55% and 66.58% in group 1, 93.57%, 82.25% and 72.23% in group 2, and 92.62%, 79.76% and 66.79% in group 3. Acute rejections were noted in 16.6%, 15.8% and 17% respectively. In circumstances of organ shortage andunavailability of well developed ABO incompatible transplants, spousal donation is viable option.
Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C
Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.
Full Text Available Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA. Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the 'spiking' of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink, a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16-24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O. The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types.
of execution ra te Per spective 3: Business Processes Imp rove knowledge managemen t •Knowledge management CoP utilization rate •CoPuser satisfact...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...recurring Human Relations 2009 Operational Troop Survey. As a result of the 2009 DON Sexual Assault Study findings released in November 2009
Georgia, Emily J; Roddy, McKenzie K; Doss, Brian D
Rates of child and adult sexual assault (SA) among women are staggering and place women at risk for intra- and interpersonal difficulties. However, the independent contributions of child and adult SA or the mechanisms of this risk are unknown. This study's goal was to examine the indirect effects of child and adult SA on women's own and partner's relationship functioning through their impact on women's mental health, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Results revealed that the association of women's child SA with both her own and her partner's relationship satisfaction operated through emotional intimacy. Considerations for the study of women with a history of SA in the context of couple functioning are discussed.
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Shu-Chen
Forensic nursing is a new nursing specialty that provides forensic nursing service to domestic violence victims and offenders. Development of the role of forensic nurses has become urgent and necessary. The high rates of domestic violence and sexual assault in Taiwan suggest that forensic nurses have an important role to play in domestic healthcare. This article highlights the significance of forensic nursing in Taiwan in the future in terms of its origin, definitions, models, roles and functions, training and education, and previous studies. Through cooperation among academia, government, industry, and law enforcement agencies, it is expected that forensic nursing will be a positive and important area of expansion for professional nursing.
Harned, Melanie S; Ormerod, Alayne J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Collinsworth, Linda L; Reed, Maggie
Although sexual assault by workplace personnel is widely viewed as a type of sexual harassment, little is known about whether these overlapping constructs may possess some unique characteristics. This article compares the theoretical antecedents and consequences of sexual assault by workplace personnel and other types of sexual harassment among 22,372 women employed in the U.S. military. Path analysis revealed that low sociocultural and organizational power are associated with an increased likelihood of both types of victimization. Organizational climate and job gender context are directly associated with sexual harassment but are only indirectly associated with sexual assault by workplace personnel. Both types of victimization are associated with a variety of negative outcomes, but the pattern of negative consequences differs.
Kelly, Erin L.; Fenwick, Karissa; Brekke, John S.; Novaco, Raymond W.
Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual’s stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was completed by 323 clinical care staff, of whom 69.5% had experienced physical assault in the previous 12 months. Staff well-being (depression, anger, and physical health) and staff safety concerns were adversely affected by conflicts with other staff members and by individual reactivity to social conflict and to assault. To improve staff well-being, in addition to safety protocols, interventions should target staff relationships, personal health maintenance practices, and individual coping skills for dealing with adverse workplace experiences. PMID:26377816
Bostock, Deborah J; Daley, James G
From a stratified random sample, 2,018 active-duty United States Air Force women completed a telephone survey dealing with sexual assault and harassment. The lifetime prevalence of rape among Air Force women (28%) was more than twice as high as the prevalence in a national sample (13%). Nearly half of the military sample had been the victims of rape, molestation, or attempted sexual assault. The majority of both initial rapes (75%) and most recent rapes (56%) involved assault by civilians when the victims were civilians. Family members perpetrated 29% of initial rapes and 33% of most recent rapes. Regarding military status of the perpetrator, 14% of first-time victims were raped by a military member, 26% of multiple-time victims were raped by a military member, 31.8% of military women were sexually harassed by a military supervisor or boss, and 26.7% of military women were sexually harassed by a military coworker.
Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.
assault, sexual harassment , and gender discrimination in the military. The resulting study, the RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS), invited close to...members are highlighted in this brief. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military HigHligHts from tHe 2014 rAND militAry WorkplAce stuDy...significantly higher rates than men : 22 percent of women and 7 percent of men experienced sexual harassment in the past year. In addition, we estimate
Özaşçılar, Mine; Ziyalar, Neylan
Studies have examined university students' fear of crime focusing on the relationship between the fear of sexual assault and fear of other crimes, termed the shadow of sexual assault hypothesis; however, no study to date has examined the shadow thesis in a Turkish context. Drawing on the shadow thesis, using a sample of 723 university students in Istanbul, this study focuses on the effect of fear of sexual assault and perceived risk of crime to general fear of crime among university students in Istanbul. Also, the predictors of fear of crime are explored to examine the relationship between lifestyle characteristics, constrained behaviors, and fear. The findings of the study supported the shadow thesis, indicating that fear of sexual assault shaped the nonsexual crimes, especially crimes involving face-to-face confrontations between the victim and offender. Furthermore, lifestyle characteristics are correlated with the men's fear of nonsexual crimes, particularly fear of robbery, aggravated assault, and burglary home.
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Cong, Zhen; Hale, Thomas W
Women with a history of sexual assault are at increased risk for sleep difficulties and depression in their first year of motherhood. Breastfeeding improves sleep parameters and lowers risk of depression for women in general. However, it is unknown whether breastfeeding is related to maternal depression, sleep quality, and maternal well-being in sexual assault survivors. We examined the association between sexual assault and several indices of sleep, depression, and maternal well-being in a large sample of sexual assault survivors in the first year postpartum. We also explored whether feeding method was related to our outcome variables for both sexually assaulted and non-assaulted women. A sample of 6,410 mothers of infants 0-12 months old participated in the online Survey of Mothers' Sleep and Fatigue; 994 women had a history of sexual assault. As predicted, women with a history of sexual assault had a number of sleep difficulties, increased risk of depression, and overall poorer subjective well-being than their non-assaulted counterparts. However, sexual assault survivors who were breastfeeding were at lower risk on all of the sleep and depression parameters than sexual assault survivors who were mixed or formula feeding. Sexual assault has a pervasive negative effect on new mothers' sleep quality and risk of depression. However, these negative effects were less severe for the breastfeeding mothers than they were for the mixed- or formula-feeding mothers.
Campbell, Rebecca; Ahrens, Courtney E; Sefl, Tracy; Clark, Marcia L
Previous research has established a link between childhood sexual abuse and engaging in prostitution as an adult. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by exploring whether being raped as an adult is associated with exchanging sex for money. Interviews with 102 rape survivors in a major metropolitan area revealed that 23.5% had engaged in prostitution post-rape. Those who had exchanged sex for money were more likely to be women of color, to have a high school education or less, to be unemployed, and to have children to support, than those who had not engaged in prostitution post-assault. The prostitution subsample also had significantly higher levels of psychological distress, physical health symptomatology, and substance use. Survivors were asked whether and how the rape was associated with engaging in prostitution: most (75%) stated that they felt it was related to the assault. The most commonly cited reason for engaging in prostitution by these survivors was that they were trying to regain some control over their lives and their bodies; exchanging sex for money was seen as one way to control men's access to them. Implications for future research on victimization and prostitution are discussed.
Mohamed, Ashry G
To determine the extent of work-related violence against nurses in hospitals in Riyadh. Through a cross sectional approach, a self administered questionnaire was offered to 500 active-duty nurses selected randomly. In addition to the demographic characteristics, the questionnaire inquired about exposure to workplace violence, hospital and department of employment at the time of exposure, characteristics of the assailant and nurses' perception of the causes of violence. Out of 434 respondents, 93 (21.4%) were males, and 341 (78.6%) females. The mean age was 36.1 ± 7.97 years. Workplace violence was experienced by 235 (54.3%) nurses. Of these 93.2% were exposed to harsh insulting language, 32.8% to verbal threat, 28.1% to attempts of physical assault, 17.4% to sexual harassment and 16.2% to actual physical assault. Nurses working in psychiatry and emergency units had the highest rate of exposure to violence (84.3% & 62.1% respectively) Nurses perceived shortage in security personnel (82%), shortage in nursing staff (63%), language barrier (36.3%) and unrestricted movement of patients in hospitals (21.5%) as causes of their exposure to violence. improve security in hospitals by increasing the number of security officers on duty and increase the community's awareness of the problem.
... who is unable to consent. It also includes abusive sexual contact. It can happen to men, women or children. The attacker can be anyone - a current or former partner, a family member, a person in position of power or trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a ...
... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Olsen, Angela; Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Teniola, Simonette; White, Catherine
Background: People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual abuse and less likely to access support than the general population, this is due to a range of variables at the individual, societal and service-delivery level. This study presents a service evaluation of St Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre, Manchester to…
depression , and homelessness. Page 34 GAO-17-217 Sexual Assault in Army Reserve Components In our survey of full-time SARCs and VAs in the...or money order. Call for additional information. Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr, LinkedIn, Twitter, and YouTube . Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or
sexual assault had negative impacts on the career, reputation, and overall welfare of the victims (Bergman, Palmiere, Cortina, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p...women sexually, non-sexually, or both. The team evaluated subjects based on home environment, delinquency , sexual promiscuity, attitudes supporting...The findings suggest that “hostile childhood experiences affect involvement in delinquency and lead to aggression through two paths: hostile
Coulter, Stephen; Mullin, Anne
This article focuses on the experience of one particular family living amid the sociopolitical violence in Northern Ireland to illustrate the impact of a particular traumatic event--a paramilitary assault due to mistaken identity. These attacks are often colloquially referred to as "punishment shootings" or "beatings." The…
Witte, Tricia H.; Casper, Deborah M.; Hackman, Christine L.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.
Objective: The present study investigated the well-being of bystanders who witness and intervene in sexual assault and dating violence situations on campus. Participants: Participants were 321 young men and women from a large university in the southeastern United States. Methods: Participants completed a survey at the end of the Spring semester of…
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.; Ochoa, Yesenia
With the advent of the "Dear Colleague" letter in 2011, higher education institutions have become focused on sexual assault and related policies, procedures regarding offenses, and prevention education. Institutions should consider using this spotlight on interpersonal dynamics to increase awareness about other types of relationship…
Lowe, S R; Joshi, S; Galea, S; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Koenen, K C; Cerdá, M
Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation. Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome. The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09-0.15, all p violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01-0.02, all p violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors' exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.
Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti
Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L
The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nixon, Reginald D V
The study tested the efficacy and tolerability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for survivors of assault with acute stress disorder. Participants (N=30) were randomly allocated to CPT or supportive counseling. Therapy comprised six individual weekly sessions of 90-min duration. Independent diagnostic assessment for PTSD was conducted at posttreatment. Participants completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and negative trauma-related beliefs at pre-, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that both interventions were successful in reducing symptoms at posttreatment with no statistical difference between the two; within and between-group effect sizes and the proportion of participants not meeting PTSD criteria was greater in CPT. Treatment gains were maintained for both groups at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Felipe Santos Abreu
Full Text Available The present study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of firearm assaults and melee weapon, no period of 2009 to 2011, in a General Hospital not interior of Bahia. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and data presented as absolute and relative frequencies. From the results, 299 hospitalizations were due to aggression by firearms or bladed weapon, with the highest percentage of victims, young men, aged 20-29 years (39.5%. It is necessary the elaboration and implementation of public policies involving the various segments of civil society and organized to deal with this public health issue with a view to adoption of strategies for the prevention and reduction of morbidity and mortality rates.
Felipe Santos Abreu
Full Text Available The present study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of firearm assaults and melee weapon, no period of 2009 to 2011, in a General Hospital not interior of Bahia. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and data presented as absolute and relative frequencies. From the results, 299 hospitalizations were due to aggression by firearms or bladed weapon, with the highest percentage of victims, young men, aged 20-29 years (39.5%. It is necessary the elaboration and implementation of public policies involving the various segments of civil society and organized to deal with this public health issue with a view to adoption of strategies for the prevention and reduction of morbidity and mortality rates.
Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah
A majority of the existing research on women's use of violence focuses on intimate partner violence, often excluding other types of violence for which women may be incarcerated. The current study expands this area of research by assessing between and within-group differences among a randomly selected group of incarcerated women (n = 543). Comparisons between violent and nonviolent offense types among women found few differences, but significant differences among women with an assaultive offense, based on the presence or absence of a self-reported uncaught violence, were found. Differences in women with isolated (i.e., single incident of violence perpetration through a review of formal and self-report data) and patterned uses of violence were present in relation to issues of mental health, substance abuse, criminogenic risk, and expressions of anger and personality factors. These findings have important implications for intervention as well as future research.
Leardmann, Cynthia A; Pietrucha, Amanda; Magruder, Kathryn M; Smith, Besa; Murdoch, Maureen; Jacobson, Isabel G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gackstetter, Gary; Smith, Tyler C
Previous studies have examined the prevalence, risk factors, and health correlates of sexual stressors in the military, but have been limited to specific subpopulations. Furthermore, little is known about sexual stressors' occurrence and their correlates in relation to female troops deployed to the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using longitudinal data from Millennium Cohort participants, the associations of recent deployment as well as other individual and environmental factors with sexual harassment and sexual assault were assessed among U.S. female military personnel. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate the associations. Of 13,262 eligible participants, 1,362 (10.3%) reported at least one sexual stressor at follow-up. Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-2.64) or both sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61-3.78) compared with nondeployers. In addition, significant risk factors for sexual stressors included younger age, recent separation or divorce, service in the Marine Corps, positive screen for a baseline mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual stressor experiences. Although deployment itself was not associated with sexual stressors, women who both deployed and reported combat were at a significantly increased odds for sexual stressors than other female service members who did not deploy. Understanding the factors associated with sexual stressors can inform future policy and prevention efforts to eliminate sexual stressors. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Sanghyun; Kim, Dong Jin; Paik, Kwang Yeol; Chung, Jae Hee; Park, Woo-Chan; Kim, Wook; Lee, In Kyu
Background Although self-inflicted and assault-induced knife injuries might have different mortality and morbidity rates, no studies have actually evaluated the importance of the cause of knife injuries in terms of patient outcomes and treatment strategies. Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the difference between the outcomes of patients presenting with self-inflicted stab wounds (SISW) versus assault-induced stab wounds (AISW). Patients and Methods A retrospective review of the relevant electronic medical records was performed for the period between January 2000 and December 2012 for patients who were referred to the department of surgery for stab wounds by the trauma team. The patients were divided into either SISW (n = 10) or AISW groups (n = 11), depending on the cause of the injury. Results A total of 19 patients had undergone exploratory laparotomy. Of the nine patients with SISW undergoing this procedure, no injury was found in seven of the patients. In the AISW group, eight of the ten laparotomies were therapeutic. Three patients in the AISW group died during hospital admission. The average number of stab wounds was 1.2 for the SISW group and 3.5 for the AISW group. Organ injuries were more frequent in the AISW group, affecting the lung (2), diaphragm (3), liver (5), small bowel (2), colon (2), and kidney (1). Conclusions Although evaluations of the initial vital signs and physical examinations are still important, the history regarding the source of the stab wounds (AISW vs. SISW) may be helpful in determining the appropriate treatment methods and predicting patient outcomes. PMID:28184363
Gibson, Carolyn J; Gray, Kristen E; Katon, Jodie G; Simpson, Tracy L; Lehavot, Keren
Exposure to sexual and physical trauma during military service is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Little is known about their prevalence and impact in women veterans across age cohorts. Data from a 2013 national online survey of women veterans was used to examine associations between age and trauma during military service, including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical victimization. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression, adjusting for service duration and demographic factors. In secondary analyses, the moderating role of age in the relationship between trauma and self-reported health was examined. The sample included 781 women veterans. Compared with the oldest age group (≥ 65), all except the youngest age group had consistently higher odds of reporting trauma during military service. These differences were most pronounced in women aged 45 to 54 years (sexual assault odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.77-6.71]; sexual harassment, OR, 3.99 [95% CI, 2.25-7.08]; and physical victimization, OR, 5.72 [95% CI, 3.32-9.85]). The association between trauma during military service and self-reported health status also varied by age group, with the strongest negative impact observed among women aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64. Compared with other age groups, women in midlife were the most likely to report trauma during military service, and these experiences were associated with greater negative impact on their self-reported health. Providers should be aware that trauma during military service may be particularly problematic for the cohort of women currently in midlife, who represent the largest proportion of women who use Department of Veterans Affairs health care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pertl, M M; Hannigan, C; Brennan, S; Robertson, I H; Lawlor, B A
A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship. We examined (1) whether greater psychological stress mediated a relationship between caregiver stress exposure and executive functioning and (2) whether greater self-efficacy and cognitive reserve (CR) moderated this relationship. Spousal dementia caregivers (n = 253) completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (stress exposure), the Perceived Stress Scale, the National Adult Reading Test (CR), the Fortinsky dementia-specific caregiver self-efficacy scale, and the Color Trails Test (executive functioning). Moderated mediation was tested using the PROCESS macro. Age, gender, and dementia risk factors were included as covariates. Greater stress exposure indirectly predicted executive functioning through psychological stress. Stronger relationships between greater psychological stress and poorer executive functioning were observed among caregivers with lower CR; there was no evidence that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between stress exposure and psychological stress. Our findings are in line with the idea that greater psychological stress in response to challenges associated with dementia care predicts poorer caregiver executive functioning, particularly among caregivers with low CR. However, these findings are cross sectional; it is also possible that poorer executive functioning contributes to greater caregiver stress.
Dam, Alieske E H; Boots, Lizzy M M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E
Access to social support contributes to feelings of independence and better social health. This qualitative study aims to investigate multi-informant perspectives on informal social support in dementia care networks. Ten spousal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) completed an ecogram, a social network card and a semi-structured interview. The ecogram aimed to trigger subjective experiences regarding social support. Subsequently, 17 network members were interviewed. The qualitative analyses identified codes, categories, and themes. Sixth themes emerged: (1) barriers to ask for support; (2) facilitators to ask for support; (3) barriers to offer support; (4) facilitators to offer support; (5) a mismatch between supply and demand of social support; and (6) openness in communication to repair the imbalance. Integrating social network perspectives resulted in a novel model identifying a mismatch between the supply and demand of social support, strengthened by a cognitive bias: caregivers reported to think for other social network members and vice versa. Openness in communication in formal and informal care systems might repair this mismatch.
Knox, Lucy; Douglas, Jacinta M; Bigby, Christine
To understand how the spouses of individuals with severe TBI experience the process of supporting their partners with decision-making. This study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach, with data consisting of in-depth interviews conducted with spouses over a 12-month period. Data were analysed through an iterative process of open and focused coding, identification of emergent categories and exploration of relationships between categories. Participants were four spouses of individuals with severe TBI (with moderate-severe disability). Spouses had shared committed relationships (marriage or domestic partnerships) for at least 4 years at initial interview. Three spouses were in relationships that had commenced following injury. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first identified the saliency of the relational space in which decision-making took place. The second revealed the complex nature of decision-making within the spousal relationship. Spouses experience decision-making as a complex multi-stage process underpinned by a number of relational factors. Increased understanding of this process can guide health professionals in their provision of support for couples in exploring decision-making participation after injury.
On January 2, 2003, Dr. James G. Roche, the Secretary of the Air Force, received an e-mail directed initially to female cadets, which asserted that there was a significant sexual assault problem at the United States Air Force...
Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack
In some cases of sexual assault the victim may not report the assault for several days after the incident due to various factors. The ability to obtain an autosomal STR profile of the semen donor from a living victim rapidly diminishes as the post-coital interval is extended due to the presence of only a small amount of male DNA amidst an overwhelming amount of female DNA. Previously, we have utilized various technological tools to overcome the limitations of male DNA profiling in extended interval post-coital samples including the use of Y-chromosome STR profiling, cervical sample, and post-PCR purification permitting the recovery of Y-STR profiles of the male DNA from samples collected 5-6 days after intercourse. Despite this success, the reproductive biology literature reports the presence of spermatozoa in the human cervix up to 7-10 days post-coitus. Therefore, novel and improved methods for recovery of male profiles in extended interval post-coital samples were required. Here, we describe enhanced strategies, including Y-chromosome-targeted pre-amplification and next generation Y-STR amplification kits, that have resulted in the ability to obtain probative male profiles from samples collected 6-9 days after intercourse.
Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L
A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees' mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status), violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%). The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2-3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females) than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females) after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8). Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES.
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational s...
Full Text Available Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status, violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%. The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2–3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8. Conclusions: Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES. Keywords: Depression, Employment, Japan, Mental health, Social class, Worker, Violence, Workplace
Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).
Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)
Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J
Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the problem of sexual violence in the military. Because sexual harassment and assault are more closely intertwined in the military than in most civilian contexts, the military context affords a unique opportunity to study the interrelationships between these two types of sexual violence. In this review, we briefly summarize existing research on military sexual trauma prevalence rates, effects on victims, and risk factors, as well as prevention and response programs in the military context. In each of these topic areas, we emphasize issues unique to the complex interplay between sexual harassment and assault in the military and make recommendations for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Ludes, B; Geraut, A; Väli, M; Cusack, D; Ferrara, D; Keller, E; Mangin, P; Vieira, D N
Sexual assault is a complex situation with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Forensic experts play a major role in terms of forensic and gynecological medical examination and evidence collection in order to maintain the chain of custody. Victims should be examined by a specially trained medico-legal examiner in order to avoid multiple examinations in the surroundings that do not meet minimum health standards. The evolution and treatment of sexual assault victims are time-intensive and should optimally be provided by a team that includes a forensic medical doctor. These guidelines will be of interest to forensic medical doctors who will have responsibility for the examination and assessment of victims of sexual violence and can be used as a day-to-day service document and/or a guide to develop health service for victims of sexual violence.
harassment, and gender discrimination in the military. The RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS) included one of the largest surveys of its kind: Almost...approach to counting service members who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination , providing DoD with unprecedented...harassment, or gender discrimination . Specifically, both the phone and web follow-up surveys revealed possible nonresponse bias in the RMWS estimates, but
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
assault is a crime that devastates victims and has a far- reaching negative impact for DOD because it undermines DOD’s core values, degrades...must take place to achieve the greatest, and most lasting impact . Figure 1: CDC’s Model of Four Domains in Which Risk and Protective Factors Can...associating with sexually aggressive and delinquent peers and having an emotionally unsupportive familial environment as possible influences on the
Cisler, Josh M; Bush, Keith; Scott Steele, J; Lenow, Jennifer K; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D
Current neurocircuitry models of PTSD focus on the neural mechanisms that mediate hypervigilance for threat and fear inhibition/extinction learning. Less focus has been directed towards explaining social deficits and heightened risk of revictimization observed among individuals with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault. The purpose of the present study was to foster more comprehensive theoretical models of PTSD by testing the hypothesis that assault-related PTSD is associated with behavioral impairments in a social trust and reciprocity task and corresponding alterations in the neural encoding of social learning mechanisms. Adult women with assault-related PTSD (n = 25) and control women (n = 15) completed a multi-trial trust game outside of the MRI scanner. A subset of these participants (15 with PTSD and 14 controls) also completed a social and non-social reinforcement learning task during 3T fMRI. Brain regions that encoded the computationally modeled parameters of value expectation, prediction error, and volatility (i.e., uncertainty) were defined and compared between groups. The PTSD group demonstrated slower learning rates during the trust game and social prediction errors had a lesser impact on subsequent investment decisions. PTSD was also associated with greater encoding of negative expected social outcomes in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral middle frontal gyri, and greater encoding of social prediction errors in the left temporoparietal junction. These data suggest mechanisms of PTSD-related deficits in social functioning and heightened risk for re-victimization in assault victims; however, comorbidity in the PTSD group and the lack of a trauma-exposed control group temper conclusions about PTSD specifically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... offenses under 10 U.S.C. 920 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), for the purpose of....-9:30 a.m. Presentation by Mr. Russell Strand-- Overview of the Problem of Sexual Assault in the Military and Civilian Society 9:30 a.m.-10:30 a.m. Special Victim Capability Overview 10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m...
Russell, Brenda L; Oswald, Debra L; Kraus, Shane W
This study examines the extent to which verdict, guilt, and legal components associated with jury instructions of sexual assault differ as a function of aggressor gender, participant gender, and sexual strategy used (consensual, verbal coercion, alcohol, or physical aggression) to obtain sex. Participants (N = 423; 276 women and 147 men) read a vignette depicting either a couple having consensual sex (control), or a male or female aggressor who initiates sexual intercourse via verbal coercion, use of alcohol, or physical abuse. College students were provided with legal instructions of sexual assault then asked to provide a verdict, degree of guilt, and legal components. Female participants rated guilt and coercion higher than did male participants. Ratings of guilt were highest in the physical assault condition followed by the alcohol, verbal, and control conditions. Female aggressors were rated less guilty than male aggressors. Results are explained in relation to sexual scripts and legal decision making. Lack of significance in verdict decisions and interaction effects suggests male and female aggressors are evaluated similarly using coercive strategies; yet, consent for sex was assumed and attributions of guilt was lower when the aggressor was female. Implications for jury instructions and future research are discussed.
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; White, Meghan; Turner, Linda
Little is known about the characteristics of women with disabilities who have experienced abuse and their satisfaction with care received from specialized healthcare providers working in hospital-based violence services. To address this gap, we surveyed clients presenting to 30 sexual assault/domestic violence treatment centers (SA/DVTCs) in Ontario. Of the 920 women aged 12 years or older who completed a survey, 194 (21%) reported having a disability. Bivariate analyses revealed that women with a disability who experienced abuse were more likely than those without a disability to be older, separated, widowed or divorced, and unemployed; to live alone or to be homeless or living in a shelter; and to report less support from family and friends or colleagues. Women with disabilities were less likely to have been assaulted by acquaintances known for Women with disabilities were also more likely than those without disabilities to sustain physical injuries in the assault. Despite these significant differences, almost all women with disabilities rated the care received as excellent or good (97%) and reported that they received the care needed (98%); were able to choose the preferred care (95%); felt safe during the visit (96%); and were treated sensitively (97%), respectfully (96%), and in a nonjudgmental manner (96%). Furthermore, 96% stated that they would recommend the services to others. Women with disabilities were overwhelmingly satisfied with SA/DVTC services. However, given their distinct vulnerabilities and increased risk of being injured, attending health providers should receive training relevant to working with this population.
Du Mont, Janice; Parnis, Deborah
This population-based study compared nurses who had participated in a sexual assault nurse examiner training program (SANEs) to nurses who had not participated in the program (nonSANEs) on their opinions and practices in relation to the collection of forensic evidence. Self-administered surveys were distributed to all SANEs and non-SANEs employed in sexual assault care centres in Ontario (N = 317). We found that SANEs were more likely to indicate that certain samples, items, or questions should not be taken and/or asked as a regular part of the forensic examination. They were less likely to perceive the presence of physical injuries and semen and/or sperm as being "extremely important" to a positive legal outcome. Finally, more SANEs reported experiencing dilemmas with respect to their dual roles as caregivers and evidence collectors. These findings are discussed in relation to the more expansive and comprehensive experience and education of SANEs versus nonSANEs. Implications for care offered to victims of sexual assault are discussed.
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.
Bellis Mark A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency department (ED data have the potential to provide critical intelligence on when violence is most likely to occur and the characteristics of those who suffer the greatest health impacts. We use a national experimental ED monitoring system to examine how it could target violence prevention interventions towards at risk communities and optimise acute responses to calendar, holiday and other celebration-related changes in nighttime assaults. Methods A cross-sectional examination of nighttime assault presentations (6.01 pm to 6.00 am; n = 330,172 over a three-year period (31st March 2008 to 30th March 2011 to English EDs analysing changes by weekday, month, holidays, major sporting events, and demographics of those presenting. Results Males are at greater risk of assault presentation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.14, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 3.11-3.16; P 2 = 0.918; P Conclusions To date, the role of ED data has focused on helping target nightlife police activity. Its utility is much greater; capable of targeting and evaluating multi-agency life course approaches to violence prevention and optimising frontline resources. National ED data are critical for fully engaging health services in the prevention of violence.