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Sample records for spotted fever serological

  1. Serological and molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita

    2017-05-31

    Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.

  2. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  3. Malignant Mediterranean spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Patil, Vaibhav; Ambar, Sameer; Naik, Vishwas

    2015-12-01

    Fever with rash is one of the most common causes of referral to a dermatologist. A plethora of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. They may be broadly classified into infectious causes, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Here we present a rare case of rickettsial fever with cardiac involvement in an elderly male patient with no comorbidities.

  4. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  5. Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Southeastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pitigoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4% had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6% patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4% and rash (98.2%, and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7% of them had a titer IgG ≥1 : 160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  6. Serological Evidence of Dengue Fever Among Refugees, Hargeysa, Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    AD-A24 1 179 Q O0T!119910 j •___ C PUBLICATION REPORT 1602 84/89-90 SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF DENGUE FEVER AMONG REFUGEES, HARGEYOA, SOMALIA BY Boulos...of Dengue Fever Among Refugees, Hargeysa, Somalia Boulos A.M. Botros, Douglas M. Watts, Atef K. Soliman, Adel W. Salib, Mahmoud I. Moussa, H. Mursal...Tukei PM 1982). Epidemic Dengue fever caused by Dengue tion, antibody demonstrated by the EIA, IFA, and HI type-2 virus in Kenya: Preliminary results

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the rash, the infection can cause fever, chills, muscle aches, vomiting, and nausea. Typically, RMSF ... But with late or no treatment, RMSF can cause serious health problems. If your child has fever, achiness, stiff neck, or rash and has or ...

  13. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sousa Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  16. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). PMID:20811570

  17. A comparison of clinical diagnosis and serological diagnosis in an epidemic of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ali, N.; Anwar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is the life-threatening disease caused by Nairovirus of genus Bunya virus caused by tick bite of Hayalomma species or by direct contact of the blood/sera of the patient and animals suffering from this disease. Epidemics have been occurring in Balochistan province of Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan and Iran from time to time with this mortality. Aim: In the absence of facilities for detection of serological markers of CCHF (IgM Et IgG antibodies and PCR for viral RNA), a study was designed to diagnose and treat cases of CCHF reporting to a specialist unit hospital situated at Quetta, Pakistan. The aim was to compare the clinical features, complications and outcome of both groups of patients: one detecting the disease clinically only and the other depending upon serological tests for the diagnosis. Methods: Thirty-four patients having fever of less than two weeks of duration with features of bleeding from the skin and various orifices were included in this study from June 2001 to September 2001 after hospitalization. Index case and some of the consecutive cases were subjected to detection of serological markers. Rest of the cases were diagnosed on clinical ground and baseline laboratory investigations only. Difference in both the group was noted carefully. All the patients were given Ribavirin and blood products as and when required. Results: Statistically there was no obvious difference in clinical manifestations (fever, body aches, purpuric spots, ecchymosis, epistaxis, gum bleed etc. ) and laboratory findings (blood picture, serum ALT, serum urea and electrolytes, PT, APTT, etc). There was also no difference in mortality of the two groups studied. Conclusion: In an on ongoing outbreak of CCHF, history, clinical findings and supportive baseline, laboratory investigations may be sufficient for early detection and treatment of CCHF cases. However for documentation of start of epidemic, serological markers should be done

  18. Human prevalence of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-06-01

    In February 2006, an outbreak of human rickettsiosis occurred in the municipality of Necoclí Colombia, with 35% of lethality. This episode was, followed by two more, one in the municipality of Los Cordobas in 2007 with a 54% of lethality and the other one in the municipality of Turbo in 2008 with 27% of lethality. The aim of this study was to perform serological tests in healthy persons to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and develop a survey to study some infection risk-related factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 and 2012. A blood sample and survey of associated factors was performed in healthy persons. A prevalence of 32%-41% was found in healthy people. From the multivariate analysis, we found that people living more than 16 years in these sites had a 79% higher risk of being seropositive and a 46% higher risk when they reported having birds in their houses if the variable of having a horse was included in the model. In conclusion, this study shows endemicity of at least one spotted fever group Rickettsia in the study zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Serological Follow-Up of Acute Q-Fever Patients after a Large Epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielders, C.C.; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Morroy, G.; Rietveld, A; Notermans, D.W.; Wever, P.C.; Renders, N.H.; Leenders, A.C.; Hoek, W. van der; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serological follow-up of acute Q-fever patients is important for detection of chronic infection but there is no consensus on its frequency and duration. The 2007-2009 Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands allowed for long-term follow-up of a large cohort of acute Q-fever patients. The aim

  20. Association of Mean Platelet Volume with Severity, Serology & Treatment Outcome in Dengue Fever: Prognostic Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kritika; Yadav, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue fever (DF) with its severe manifestations such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has emerged as a major public health problem of international concern. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding are common complications of dengue fever, hence besides platelet counts, there is a need to assess the role of mean platelet volume. Studying association of mean platelet volume (MPV) with severity, serology & treatment outcome to assess its prognostic utility, which can be of great help in limiting morbidity & mortality associated with dengue fever. The present study was conducted in Central Pathology Lab of SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan from the period of March 2013 till October 2013. Blood samples were collected from 200 patients with NS 1 Antigen positivity experiencing febrile illness, clinically consistent with dengue infection. Evaluation of platelet counts, MPV, IgM and IgG antibodies was done in all these cases. Categorical data were presented as numbers (percent) and were compared among groups using Chi-square test. Groups compared for demographic data were presented as mean and standard deviation and were compared using student t-test, ANOVA and Post-Hoc Test, Tukey Test using SPSS, version 20 for Windows. A total of 200 Dengue fever cases were studied. Out of which, 68% cases were of DF, 23% DHF & 9% DSS i.e. classical dengue fever was most common presentation. Maximum (44%) cases were in age group of 15-24 years. Fever was the presenting complaint in all cases (100%). 98% cases of dengue had thrombocytopenia. MPV showed no significant correlation with severity, serology & treatment outcome, thus excluding its role in dengue cases. Mean platelet volume is not important as prognostic parameter in dengue fever.

  1. Q Fever Serological Survey and Associated Risk Factors in Veterinarians, Southern Belgium, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Martinelle, L; Léonard, P; Renaville, B; Renaville, R; Thys, C; Smeets, F; Czaplicki, G; Van Esbroeck, M; Saegerman, C

    2017-06-01

    A sero-epidemiological survey was organized among veterinarians working in Southern Belgium to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and the risk factors associated with exposure. A total of 108 veterinarians took part to this cross-sectional study, with a majority practicing with livestock animals. The overall seroprevalence was 45.4%, but it increased to 58.3% among veterinarians having contact with livestock. Three main serological profiles were detected (relatively recent, past and potentially chronic infections). The contact with manure during the prior month was the risk factor associated with seropositivity after multivariate logistic regression analysis. Classification and regression tree analysis identified the age as the most predictive variable to exclude potentially chronic infection in apparently healthy seropositive veterinarians. In conclusion, livestock veterinarians practicing in Southern Belgium are highly exposed to Q fever, a neglected zoonosis for which serological and medical examinations should be envisaged in at risk groups. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Small Rodents from Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Freitas, Renata N.; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvão, Márcio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region. PMID:23509125

  3. One-year follow-up of patients of the ongoing Dutch Q fever outbreak: clinical, serological and echocardiographic findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, G.J.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Weers-Pothoff, G.; Wijkmans, C.J.; Besselink, R.; Horrevorts, A.M.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Groot, C.A. de

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In 2007, a large goat-farming-associated Q fever outbreak occurred in the Netherlands. Data on the clinical outcome of Dutch Q fever patients are lacking. The current advocated follow-up strategy includes serological follow-up to detect evolution to chronic disease and cardiac screening at

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L

    2005-01-01

    ...) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern Peru (Coletas and Naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  7. Septic arthritis and acute rheumatic fever in children: the diagnostic value of serological inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Raakhi M; Lennon, Diana; Boyle, Matthew J; Chivers, Karel; Frampton, Chris; Nicholson, Ross; Crawford, Haemish

    2015-01-01

    Joint pain and raised inflammatory markers are features of both acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and septic arthritis, often posing a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Important differences in the presenting serological inflammatory marker profile may assist patient diagnosis, however, as clinical experience suggests that ARF is associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), whereas other serological markers may be similarly elevated in these 2 conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of serological inflammatory markers and white cell count (WCC) in children presenting with acute joint pain secondary to ARF or septic arthritis. Data were obtained from the Auckland regional rheumatic fever database and hospital computer records between 2005 and 2012. Records of all patients under the age of 16 years who were admitted with a new diagnosis of ARF or septic arthritis were analyzed. The diagnosis of ARF was defined on the basis of the New Zealand modification of the Jones Criteria, and the diagnosis of septic arthritis was defined on the basis of joint fluid cytology and culture. Baseline characteristics, serological inflammatory markers, and serum WCC were compared between the ARF and septic arthritis patient groups. Children with ARF displayed significantly higher ESR, higher serum C-reactive protein, and lower serum WCC than children with septic arthritis on presentation to hospital. In children presenting with monoarthritis, an ESR>64.5, serum WCCseptic arthritis. A significant proportion (30%) of children with the final diagnosis of ARF initially presented with monoarthritis; 14% of these children (5/34) had received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication before hospital presentation, and 74% of these children (25/34) had abnormal echocardiograms on admission. ARF and septic arthritis are important diagnoses to consider in children presenting with acute joint pain in New Zealand. A significant proportion of patients

  8. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  9. First serological investigation of peste-des-petits-ruminants and Rift Valley fever in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari-Fakhfakh, Emna; Ghram, Abdeljelil; Bouattour, Ali; Larbi, Imen; Gribâa-Dridi, Latifa; Kwiatek, Olivier; Bouloy, Michèle; Libeau, Geneviève; Albina, Emmanuel; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    This study, carried out between September 2006 and January 2007, is the first cross-sectional serological investigation of peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tunisia. The objective was to assess the potential need to develop a dual, recombinant PPR-RVF vaccine and how such a vaccine might be utilised in Tunisia. An overall PPR seroprevalence of 7.45% was determined, a finding supported by the high specificity (99.4%) and sensitivity (94.5%) of the ELISA used. On assessment of the diversity and density of mosquitoes in the sampling area, four species of RVF-vectors of the genus Aedes and Culex were identified. However, no serological evidence of RVF was found despite the use of a highly sensitive ELISA (99-100%). Larger scale investigations are underway to confirm these findings and the continuation of the emergency vaccination program against these two diseases remains valid. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serological and genomic evidence of Rift Valley fever virus during inter-epidemic periods in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, M; Eiden, M; El Mamy, B O; Isselmou, K; Doumbia, B; Ziegler, U; Homeier-Bachmann, T; Yahya, B; Groschup, M H

    2017-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging pathogen of major concern throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting both livestock and humans. In the past recurrent epidemics were reported in Mauritania and studies focused on the analysis of samples from affected populations during acute outbreaks. To verify characteristics and presence of RVFV during non-epidemic periods we implemented a multi-stage serological and molecular analysis. Serum samples of small ruminants, cattle and camels were obtained from Mauritania during an inter-epidemic period in 2012-2013. This paper presents a comparative analysis of potential variations and shifts of antibody presence and the capability of inter-epidemic infections in Mauritanian livestock. We observed distinct serological differences between tested species (seroprevalence: small ruminants 3·8%, cattle 15·4%, camels 32·0%). In one single bovine from Nouakchott, a recent RVF infection could be identified by the simultaneous detection of IgM antibodies and viral RNA. This study indicates the occurrence of a low-level enzootic RVFV circulation in livestock in Mauritania. Moreover, results indicate that small ruminants can preferably act as sentinels for RVF surveillance.

  11. Mapping the serological prevalence rate of West Nile fever in equids, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R

    2015-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Randomized double-blind evaluation of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiol, F; Pallares, R; Carratala, J; Bolao, F; Ariza, J; Rufi, G; Viladrich, P F

    1989-01-01

    A study of 43 patients with Mediterranean spotted fever showed that a 2-day course of ciprofloxacin or a 2-day course of doxycycline may be an effective mode of therapy. All patients in both arms of the study were cured; however, doxycycline produced a more rapid defervescence.

  13. Long-Term Serological Follow-Up of Acute Q-Fever Patients after a Large Epidemic.

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    Cornelia C H Wielders

    Full Text Available Serological follow-up of acute Q-fever patients is important for detection of chronic infection but there is no consensus on its frequency and duration. The 2007-2009 Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands allowed for long-term follow-up of a large cohort of acute Q-fever patients. The aim of this study was to validate the current follow-up strategy targeted to identify patients with chronic Q-fever.A cohort of adult acute Q-fever patients, diagnosed between 2007 and 2009, for whom a twelve-month follow-up sample was available, was invited to complete a questionnaire and provide a blood sample, four years after the acute episode. Antibody profiles, determined by immunofluorescence assay in serum, were investigated with a special focus on high titres of IgG antibodies against phase I of Coxiella burnetii, as these are considered indicative for possible chronic Q-fever.Of the invited 1,907 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,289 (67.6% were included in the analysis. At any time during the four-year follow-up period, 58 (4.5% patients were classified as possible, probable, or proven chronic Q-fever according to the Dutch Q-fever Consensus Group criteria (which uses IgG phase I ≥1:1,024 to as serologic criterion for chronic Q-fever. Fifty-two (89.7% of these were identified within the first year after the acute episode. Of the six patients that were detected for the first time at four-year follow-up, five had an IgG phase I titre of 1:512 at twelve months.A twelve-month follow-up check after acute Q-fever is recommended as it adequately detects chronic Q-fever in patients without known risk factors. Additional serological and clinical follow-up is recommended for patients with IgG phase I ≥1:512, as they showed the highest risk to progress to chronic Q-fever.

  14. Insights into Borrelia miyamotoi infection from an untreated case demonstrating relapsing fever, monocytosis and a positive C6 Lyme serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhindra, Praveen; Wang, Guiqing; Schriefer, Martin E; McKenna, Donna; Zhuge, Jian; Krause, Peter J; Marques, Adriana R; Wormser, Gary P

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient from the United States with PCR- and serology-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection who recovered without antibiotics. Our findings suggest that B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever, blood monocytosis and antibody reactivity to the C6 peptide. Further studies are required to better define the spectrum of clinical and laboratory findings for this emerging tick-transmitted infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever

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    Jeremy M Raynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  16. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynes, Jeremy M; Frost, Hannah R C; Williamson, Deborah A; Young, Paul G; Baker, Edward N; Steemson, John D; Loh, Jacelyn M; Proft, Thomas; Dunbar, P R; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Bell, Anita; Moreland, Nicole J

    2016-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to 'prime' the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here, we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T-antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T-antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T-types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  17. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

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    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  18. The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter W; van der Vlis, Thomas; Mabey, David; Changalucha, John; Mngara, Julius; Clark, Benjamin D; Andreasen, Aura; Todd, Jim; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2013-02-26

    Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays. We developed DBS extraction protocols for use with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and compared the results with those using matching plasma samples from the same patient. Since DBS samples showed poor performance with TPHA and EIA (TPHA sensitivity was 50.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9-61.2%) and EIA specificity was 50.4% (95% CI: 43.7-57.1%), only the DBS TPPA was used in the final evaluation. DBS TPPA showed an sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI: 91.3-98.0%) and a specificity of 99.0% (95% CI: 98.1-99.5%) compared to TPPA using plasma samples as a reference. DBS samples can be recommended for use with TPPA, and may be of value for external quality assurance of point-of-care syphilis testing.

  19. Brazilian spotted fever in dogs/ Febre maculosa brasileira em cães

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    Alexander Welker Biondo

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is caused by bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, highly pathogenic for humans and dogs, and has the Amblyomma cajennense tick as its main vector. Dogs maybe have a significantly participation on the BSF epidemiology, particularly in urban areas, due to the close contact with human beings. Several serologic studies in dogs from different Brazilian regions have indicated a previous contact of these animals with the R. rickettsii, and they are even considered as sentinels for the bacteria distribution. Although dogs are susceptible to R. rickettsii infection, the clinical disease in dogs has been very recently described in Brazil. Common signs of infection may include fever, depression, anorexia, ocular lesions, hemorrhagic petechiaes, anemia and thrombocytopenia, which also may appear in other diseases, such as the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, considered the most common disease in dogs transmitted by ticks in Brazil. Thus, BSF clinical diagnosis in dogs may be confused by other diseases, causing its sub-notification. The aim of the present review article on BSF in dogs was to describe epidemiologic, clinical and diagnosis aspects, including also the main alternatives for its treatment and control.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, cuja patogenicidade é conhecida para seres humanos e cães, e o carrapato Amblyomma cajennense é tido como seu principal vetor. Os cães podem ter um papel significativo na epidemiologia da FMB devido ao próximo contato com seres humanos. Vários estudos sorológicos em cães em diferentes estados brasileiros indicaram um contato prévio destes animais com a R. rickettsii, sendo inclusive considerados sentinelas para a circulação da bactéria. Apesar de serem susceptíveis à infecção por R. rickettsii, a doença clínica em cães foi relatada apenas recentemente no Brasil, onde observaram-se sinais comuns da infecção, como febre, anorexia

  20. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data.

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    Tini Garske

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods.Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000-380,000 cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000-180,000 deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to

  2. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F; Staples, J Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000-380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000-180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the

  3. Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns

  4. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: serological survey of dogs and horses in an endemic area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos epidemiológicos da febre maculosa brasileira: inquérito sorológico em cães e equinos em uma área endêmica no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on Brazilian spotted fever, a study in domestic animals was performed in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, where 17 human cases had been notified. Serum samples obtained from animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for detectable antibodies to spotted fever-group rickettsiae. Seropositivity was revealed in 12 (36.4% of 33 dogs and seven (77.8% of nine horses from the endemic area. For comparison, blood samples from dogs and horses from non endemic area were tested and four (12.9% of 31 dogs and three (27.3% of 11 horses were positive. The highest titers of antibodies by IFA (IgG > 1:1024 were found only in three dogs and six horses from endemic area. The results suggest that dogs as horses may serve as environmental sentinels for estabilishing the prevalence of foci of spotted fever in Brazil.Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a febre maculosa brasileira, um estudo em animais domésticos foi conduzido no município de Pedreira, São Paulo, Brasil, onde 17 casos humanos foram notificados. Amostras de soro obtidas de animais foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos para rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa. Soro reatividade foi observada em 12 (36,4% dos 33 cães e sete (77,8% dos nove eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica. Para comparação, amostras de sangue de cães e de eqüinos procedentes de área não endêmica foram testadas e quatro (12,9% dos 31 cães e três dos 10 eqüinos foram positivos. Somente três cães e seis eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica tinham títulos de anticorpos imunofluorescentes elevados (> 1:1024. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que além dos cães, os eqüinos poderiam servir também como animal sentinela na febre maculosa brasileira

  5. The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology

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    Smit Pieter W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays. Methods We developed DBS extraction protocols for use with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and compared the results with those using matching plasma samples from the same patient. Results Since DBS samples showed poor performance with TPHA and EIA (TPHA sensitivity was 50.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9–61.2% and EIA specificity was 50.4% (95% CI: 43.7–57.1%, only the DBS TPPA was used in the final evaluation. DBS TPPA showed an sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI: 91.3–98.0% and a specificity of 99.0% (95% CI: 98.1–99.5% compared to TPPA using plasma samples as a reference. Conclusion DBS samples can be recommended for use with TPPA, and may be of value for external quality assurance of point-of-care syphilis testing.

  6. Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, Karin; Olsen, Björn; Bergström, Sven; Waldenström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Ake; Sjöstedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2010-01-05

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  7. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexican children: Clinical and mortality factors.

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    Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize clinical manifestations and predictors of mortality in children hospitalized for spotted fever. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study in 210 subjects with a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF in a pediatric hospital in Sonora, from January 1st, 2004 to June 30th, 2015. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results. An upward trend was observed in RMSF morbidity and mortal- ity. Fatality rate was 30%. Three predictors were associated with risk of death: delay ≥ 5 days at the start of doxycycline (ORa = 2.95, 95% CI 1.10-7.95, acute renal failure ((ORa = 8.79, 95% CI 3.46-22.33 and severe sepsis (ORa = 3.71, 95% CI 1.44-9.58. Conclusions. RMSF causes high mortality in children, which can be avoided with timely initiation of doxycycline. Acute renal failure and severe sepsis are two independent predictors of death in children with RMSF.

  9. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  10. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jeanette Trigo; Lana, Rafael César; Silva, Claudia Maria dos Santos; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; da Cunha e Silva, Darllan Collins; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality. To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants), São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012. All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49) notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates) with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases. Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6%) aged 20-49 years old (49%). Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods. The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  11. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  12. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, M.; Papoušek, I.; Bělohlávek, T.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 711-714 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spotted fever group rickettsiae * Rickettsia monacensis * Rickettsia helvetica * Ixodes ricinus * Lacerta schreiberi Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  13. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  14. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G; Wolcott, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  15. Serological patterns of brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever in Bos indicus cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G; Fèvre, Eric M; Morgan, Kenton L; Tanya, Vincent N; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2010-01-21

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region.

  16. THE SECOND BLIND SPOT: SMALL RETINAL VESSEL VASCULOPATHY AFTER VACCINATION AGAINST NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS AND YELLOW FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysidis, Stavros N; Koulisis, Nicole; Patel, Vivek R; Kashani, Amir H; Rao, Narsing A; Humayun, Mark S; Rodger, Damien C

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of small retinal vessel vasculopathy postvaccination. We report the case of a 41-year-old white man who presented with a "second blind spot," describing a nasal scotoma in the right eye that started 4 days after vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis and the yellow fever virus, and after a 2-month period of high stress and decreased sleep. Clinical examination, Humphrey visual field testing, and multimodal imaging with fundus photographs, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and angiography were performed. Clinical examination revealed a well-circumscribed, triangular area of retinal graying of about 1-disk diameter in size, located at the border of the temporal macula. This corresponded to a deep scotoma similar in size to the physiologic blind spot on Humphrey visual field 24-2 testing. There was mild hypoautofluoresence of this lesion on autofluorescence, hypofluorescence on fluorescein angiography, and focal attenuation of a small artery just distal to the bifurcation of an artery supplying the involved area. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography through the lesion conveyed hyperreflectivity most prominent in the inner and outer plexiform layers, with extension of the hyperreflectivity into the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography demonstrated arteriolar and capillary dropout, more pronounced in the superficial retinal layer compared to the deeper retinal layer. At 1-month follow-up, his scotoma improved with monitoring, with reduction from -32 dB to -7 dB on Humphrey visual field testing. There was clinical resolution of the area of graying and decreased hyperreflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, with atrophy of the inner retina. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography showed progression of arteriolar and capillary dropout, more so in the superficial than in the deep capillary

  17. Cardiac involvement in a patient with clinical and serological evidence of African tick-bite fever

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    Ave Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare complications of rickettsiosis, usually associated with Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii. African tick-bite fever (ATBF is generally considered as a benign disease and no cases of myocardial involvement due to Rickettsia africae, the agent of ATBF, have yet been described. Case presentation The patient, that travelled in an endemic area, presented typical inoculation eschars, and a seroconversion against R. africae, was admitted for chest pains and increased cardiac enzymes in the context of an acute myocarditis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ATBF, that usually presents a benign course, may be complicated by an acute myocarditis.

  18. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Chevalier, Véronique; Grosbois, Vladimir; Tran, Annelise; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Durand, Benoit; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rogier, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts. First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human) as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior) as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001). Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6). Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6). Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle. Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution of

  19. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Marie Olive

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts.First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001. Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6. Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6. Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle.Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution

  20. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular and serological studies on the Rift Valley fever outbreak in Mauritania in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, S; Eiden, M; El Mamy, B O; Isselmou, K; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Doumbia, B; Groschup, M H

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne RNA virus affecting humans, livestock and wildlife. In October/November 2010, after a period of unusually heavy rainfall, a Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in northern Mauritania causing clinical cases in cattle, sheep, goats and camels, 21 of which were of lethal outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain further information on the continuation of RVF virus activity and spread in animal species in Mauritania after this outbreak. We therefore tested sera from small ruminants, cattle and camels for the presence of viral RNA and antibodies against RVFV. These sera were collected in different parts of the country from December 2010 to February 2011 and tested with three different ELISAs and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The results show a high seroprevalence of RVFV IgM and IgG antibodies of about 57% in all animals investigated. Moreover, in four camel sera, viral RNA was detected emphasizing the important role camels played during the latest RVF outbreak in Mauritania. The study demonstrates the continuous spread of RVFV in Mauritania after initial emergence and highlights the potential role of small ruminants and camels in virus dissemination. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Online platform for applying space-time scan statistics for prospectively detecting emerging hot spots of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Teng, Yung-Chu; Lin, Bo-Cheng; Fan, I-Chun; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2016-11-25

    Cases of dengue fever have increased in areas of Southeast Asia in recent years. Taiwan hit a record-high 42,856 cases in 2015, with the majority in southern Tainan and Kaohsiung Cities. Leveraging spatial statistics and geo-visualization techniques, we aim to design an online analytical tool for local public health workers to prospectively identify ongoing hot spots of dengue fever weekly at the village level. A total of 57,516 confirmed cases of dengue fever in 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC). Incorporating demographic information as covariates with cumulative cases (365 days) in a discrete Poisson model, we iteratively applied space-time scan statistics by SaTScan software to detect the currently active cluster of dengue fever (reported as relative risk) in each village of Tainan and Kaohsiung every week. A village with a relative risk >1 and p value dengue fever transmission on a weekly basis at the village level by using the routine surveillance data.

  3. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue fever (DF in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space–time clusters and dispersion of DF. Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34. The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9% districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest. Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

  4. Vector and Serologic Survey for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bażanów, Barbara A; Pacoń, Jarosław; Gadzała, Łukasz; Frącka, Agnieszka; Welz, Mirosław; Paweska, Janusz

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to animals, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) causes a severe disease in humans with a high mortality rate. The etiological agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), can be transmitted by argasid and ixodid ticks, but arachnids of the genus Hyalomma, followed by Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor serve as the major vectors of this virus. The goal of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of CCHFV infection in cattle in south-east Poland, and survey for potential tick vector species. A total of 592 bovine blood samples from animals located in the southernmost region in Poland were tested by IgG sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ticks (n = 993) from south-east Poland were collected from dogs, cats, cattle, and horses and tested by RT-PCR. All 592 serum samples were negative for IgG antibodies to CCHFV. Of the ticks collected, 125 were Dermacentor reticulatus and 868 represented Ixodes ricinus, both species are regarded as potential vectors of CCHFV. All tick samples were negative for the presence of CCHFV. Considering the zoonotic nature, public health importance, and the virus increasing spread, it was prudent to assess the seroprevalence of CCHFV in the south-east area of Poland, bordering with CCHFV endemic areas. It seems unlikely that CCHFV infection will suddenly spread in Poland, but considering the multiple possibilities of the virus introduction, serosurveys and vector biosurveillance should be conducted at regular intervals.

  5. Serological detection of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Texan domestic dogs.

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    Maria D Esteve-Gasent

    Full Text Available Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF is caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia. Very limited information exists on the incidence of this disease in humans and domestic dogs in the United States. The main objective of this study is to evaluate exposure of dogs to Borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of TBRF, in Texas. To this end, 878 canine serum samples were submitted to Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory from October 2011 to September 2012 for suspected tick-borne illnesses. The recombinant Borrelial antigen glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ was expressed, purified, and used as a diagnostic antigen in both ELISA assays and Immunoblot analysis. Unfortunately, due to significant background reaction, the use of GlpQ as a diagnostic marker in the ELISA assay was not effective in discriminating dogs exposed to B. turicatae. Nevertheless, immunoblot assays showed that 17 out of 853 samples tested were considered to be seropositive, which constitutes 1.99% of all Texas samples tested in this study. The majority of positive samples were from central and southern Texas. Exposure to TBRF spirochetes may be seasonal, with 70.59% (12 out of 17 of the cases detected between June and December. In addition, 2 out of the 17 sero-reactive cases (11.76% showed reactivity to both B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease and B. turicatae (a causative agent of TBRF. This is the first report of TBRF sero-prevalence in companion animals in an endemic area. Our findings further indicate that B. turicatae is maintained in domestic canids in Texas in regions where human disease also occurs, suggesting that domestic dogs could serve as sentinels for this disease.

  6. Serological Assays Based on Recombinant Viral Proteins for the Diagnosis of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fevers

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    Masayuki Saijo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW and New World (NW complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. To overcome these difficulties, antibody detection systems in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence assay were developed using recombinant nucleoproteins (rNPs derived from these viruses. Furthermore, several antigen-detection assays were developed. For example, novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to the rNPs of Lassa and Junin viruses were generated. Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. These rNP-based assays were proposed to be useful not only for an etiological diagnosis of VHFs, but also for seroepidemiological studies on VHFs. We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses.

  7. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  8. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections , sinus infections , mononucleosis , bronchitis , pneumonia , and tuberculosis Urinary tract infections Viral gastroenteritis and bacterial gastroenteritis Children may have a low-grade fever for 1 ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Rickettsial (Spotted and Typhus Fevers) and Related Infections (Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from eating raw infected fish. Table 3-18. Classification, primary vector, and reservoir occurrence of rickettsiae known ... within 1–2 weeks of infection include fever, headache, malaise, rash, nausea, and vomiting. Many rickettsioses are ...

  10. Online platform for applying space–time scan statistics for prospectively detecting emerging hot spots of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of dengue fever have increased in areas of Southeast Asia in recent years. Taiwan hit a record-high 42,856 cases in 2015, with the majority in southern Tainan and Kaohsiung Cities. Leveraging spatial statistics and geo-visualization techniques, we aim to design an online analytical tool for local public health workers to prospectively identify ongoing hot spots of dengue fever weekly at the village level. Methods A total of 57,516 confirmed cases of dengue fever in 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC. Incorporating demographic information as covariates with cumulative cases (365 days in a discrete Poisson model, we iteratively applied space–time scan statistics by SaTScan software to detect the currently active cluster of dengue fever (reported as relative risk in each village of Tainan and Kaohsiung every week. A village with a relative risk >1 and p value <0.05 was identified as a dengue-epidemic area. Assuming an ongoing transmission might continuously spread for two consecutive weeks, we estimated the sensitivity and specificity for detecting outbreaks by comparing the scan-based classification (dengue-epidemic vs. dengue-free village with the true cumulative case numbers from the TCDC’s surveillance statistics. Results Among the 1648 villages in Tainan and Kaohsiung, the overall sensitivity for detecting outbreaks increases as case numbers grow in a total of 92 weekly simulations. The specificity for detecting outbreaks behaves inversely, compared to the sensitivity. On average, the mean sensitivity and specificity of 2-week hot spot detection were 0.615 and 0.891 respectively (p value <0.001 for the covariate adjustment model, as the maximum spatial and temporal windows were specified as 50% of the total population at risk and 28 days. Dengue-epidemic villages were visualized and explored in an interactive map. Conclusions We designed an online analytical tool for

  11. Development of a microarray for simultaneous detection and differentiation of different tospoviruses that are serologically related to Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-Yuan; Ye, He-Yi; Chen, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-10

    Tospoviruses, the plant-infecting genus in the family Bunyaviridae, are thrips borne and cause severe agricultural losses worldwide. Based on the serological relationships of the structural nucleocapsid protein (NP), the current tospoviruses are divided into six serogroups. The use of NP-antisera is convenient for virus detection, but it is insufficient to identify virus species grouped in a serogroup due to the serological cross-reaction. Alternatively, virus species can be identified by the N gene amplification using specific primers. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type species of the genus Tospovirus and one of the most destructive plant viruses. Eight known tospoviruses, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV), Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Melon severe mosaic virus (MeSMV), Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV), Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV), sharing serological relatedness with TSWV in NP, are grouped in the TSWV serogroup. Most of the TSWV-serogroup viruses prevail in Europe and America. An efficient diagnostic method is necessary for inspecting these tospoviruses in Asia, including Taiwan. A microarray platform was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses. Total RNAs extracted from Chenopodium quinoa leaves separately inoculated with ANSV, CSNV, GRSV, INSV, TCSV and TSWV were used for testing purposes. The 5'-biotinylated degenerate forward and reverse primers were designed from the consensus sequences of N genes of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. Virus-specific oligonucleotide probes were spotted on the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chips to hybridize with PCR products. The hybridization signals were visualized by hydrolysis of NBT/BCIP with streptavidine-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. The

  12. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

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    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories.A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17% tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii.The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.

  13. Multi-omics Analysis Sheds Light on the Evolution and the Intracellular Lifestyle Strategies of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia spp.

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    Khalid El Karkouri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular bacteria which are pathogenic for humans. Within this genus, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia conorii cause frequent and potentially severe infections, whereas Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia massiliae cause rare and milder infections. All four species belong to spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. However, R. slovaca and R. raoultii cause scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy (SENLAT and are mainly associated with Dermacentor ticks, whereas the other two species cause Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus ticks. To identify the potential genes and protein profiles and to understand the evolutionary processes that could, comprehensively, relate to the differences in virulence and pathogenicity observed between these four species, we compared their genomes and proteomes. The virulent and milder agents displayed divergent phylogenomic evolution in two major clades, whereas either SENLAT or MSF disease suggests a discrete convergent evolution of one virulent and one milder agent, despite their distant genetic relatedness. Moreover, the two virulent species underwent strong reductive genomic evolution and protein structural variations, as well as a probable loss of plasmid(s, compared to the two milder species. However, an abundance of mobilome genes was observed only in the less pathogenic species. After infecting Xenopus laevis cells, the virulent agents displayed less up-regulated than down-regulated proteins, as well as less number of identified core proteins. Furthermore, their similar and distinct protein profiles did not contain some genes (e.g., ompA/B and rickA known to be related to rickettsial adhesion, motility and/or virulence, but may include other putative virulence-, antivirulence-, and/or disease-related proteins. The identified evolutionary forces herein may have a strong impact on intracellular expressions and strategies in

  14. Genotypic and biological characteristics of non-identified strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayeva, N M; Demkin, V V; Rydkina, E B; Ignatovich, V F; Artemiev, M I; Lichoded LYa; Genig, V A

    1993-12-01

    A strain of rickettsiae, designated Crimea-108, was isolated from ticks Dermacentor marginatus in the Crimea in 1977. Its immunobiological characteristics involve low pathogenicity for experimental animals, moderate infectivity for chick embryos, and antigenic relatedness to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari), especially to R. sibirica. The genotypic characterization of the strain Crimea-108 was carried out in comparison with SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA-probe hybridization. The marked similarity was detected between DNA restriction patterns of the strains Crimea-108, R. sibirica and R. conorii, but each of them besides comigrating fragments had specific ones. Genotypic analysis of the strain Crimea-108, the SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by three independent DNA probes, based on R. prowazekii DNA, gave unique hybridization patterns for the Crimea-108 strain with all probes. The obtained data show that the Crimea-108 isolate does not belong to the species of R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari. The strain Crimea-108 is a novel strain of SFG rickettsiae for the Crimea region.

  15. Urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to Rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and Rickettsia massiliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, Aurélie; Delaunay, Pascal; Blanchouin, Elea; Cannavo, Isabelle; Cua, Eric; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-12-01

    Here, we report an epidemiological and entomological investigation of a cluster of cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis occurring in southern France. A family of 3 (husband, wife, and their son) presented with symptoms compatible with SFG rickettsiosis. For 2 patients, serum samples presented increased levels of IgM and IgG for SFG Rickettsia. The patients' home was investigated, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were collected from the floor from behind the furniture. Of 22 ticks collected, 20 tested positive for Rickettsia. As Rh. sanguineus serves as a vector for both Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae in southern France, all Rh. sanguineus isolates were tested by real-time PCR and conventional PCR to detect the 2 species. Nine ticks tested positive for Ri. conorii subsp. caspia (marking the first documentation of this subspecies in France), 7 tested positive for Ri. massiliae, and 4 tested positive for both rickettsiae. This study is the first report of coinfection of Rh. sanguineus ticks with Ri. conorii and Ri. massiliae in southern France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Climatic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

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    Ram K Raghavan

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF prevalence in four contiguous states of Midwestern United States, and to determine the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors associated with this disease. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify space and time only trends and spatio-temporal interaction effect in the case reports submitted to the state health departments in the region. Various socio-economic, environmental and climatic covariates screened a priori in a bivariate procedure were added to a main-effects Bayesian model in progressive steps to evaluate important drivers of RMSF space-time patterns in the region. Our results show a steady increase in RMSF incidence over the study period to newer geographic areas, and the posterior probabilities of county-specific trends indicate clustering of high risk counties in the central and southern parts of the study region. At the spatial scale of a county, the prevalence levels of RMSF is influenced by poverty status, average relative humidity, and average land surface temperature (>35°C in the region, and the relevance of these factors in the context of climate-change impacts on tick-borne diseases are discussed.

  17. Epidemiology of Q fever in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis for estimating serological and molecular prevalence

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    Zary Nokhodian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is endemic in Iran, thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii among humans and animals in Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify all articles reporting C. burnetii prevalence in Iranian humans or animals, published from January 2000 to January 2015. Data from articles were extracted, and a pooled estimate of prevalence with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated using random effect method. Results: In this review, 27 papers were identified. The pooled seroprevalence of Q fever in animals was 27% (CI 95%: 23%–32%. The prevalence was 33% (CI 95%: 22%–45% in goats, 27% (CI 95%: 21%–32% in sheep, and 17% (CI 95%: 5%–28% in cattle. The bacterial DNA was detected in 5% (95% CI: 3%–9% of milk samples, and it was higher in cattle (10%; 95% CI: 6%–16% than sheep (2%; 95% CI: 0–7% and goats (4%; 95% CI: 0–12%. Conclusion:C. burnetii DNA or its antibody has been frequently detected among ruminants. Since these animals can transmit the infection to humans, Q fever could be a potential health problem in Iran.

  18. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks of migratory birds in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Vasile, Cozma; Sándor, Attila D

    2016-05-20

    Birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. Particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. Migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from birds at a migratory hot-spot in the Danube Delta, Romania, eastern Europe. DNA was extracted from ticks that were collected from migratory birds in the Danube Delta during migratory seasons in 2011-2012. Two 360 bp  fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and a 381 bp  fragment Gene gltA were PCR amplified and analyzed by sequence analysis (performed at Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Nucleotide sequences were compared to reference sequences available in the GenBank database, using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Four hundred ticks of four different species were found on 11 bird species. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection was 14 % (56/400, CI: 11.7-29.1), with significantly more nymphs hosting rickettsial infection compared to larvae (48 vs 7; P birds migrating through eastern Europe may carry ticks infected with a high diversity of rickettsial pathogens, with four Rickettsia spp. recorded. Migratory direction was important for pathogen burden, with seasonal differences in the occurrence of individual Rickettsia species. Here we report the first individual records of different Rickettsia spp. in H. concinna (R. monacensis), I. arboricola (R. helvetica, R. massiliae) and I. redikorzevi (R. helvetica) and also the first geographical record of occurrence of R. massiliae in Romania, representing the easternmost observation on the continent.

  19. Involvement of the central nervous system in dengue fever: three serologically confirmed cases from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Pedro F. C. VASCONCELOS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of dengue fever involving the central nervous system (CNS are reported. All occurred in 1994 during a dengue (DEN epidemic caused by serotypes DEN-1 and DEN-2. The first case examined was a 17-year-old girl who complained of fever, nuchal rigidity and genital bleeding. Three blood samples were positive by anti-dengue IgM ELISA and showed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test titers ³ 1,280. The second case concerned a 86-year-old woman with fever, muscle and joint pains, altered consciousness, syncope, nuchal rigidity and meningismus. Her blood sample showed an HI titer of 1:320 for flaviviruses, and an IgM ELISA positive for dengue. The third case was a 67-year-old woman with fever, abnormal behaviour, seizures, tremor of extremities, thrombocytopenia, increased hematocrit and leukopenia. The patient suffered a typical case of dengue hemorrhagic fever with ensuing shock and a fatal outcome. A single blood sample showed HI antibodies of ³ 1,280 and an IgM ELISA positive for dengue. No virus could be isolated from any patient by inoculation of blood into C6/36 cells and suckling mice. No other agent of disease was encountered in the patient.Neste trabalho são descritos três casos de dengue com manifestações neurológicas incomuns durante a epidemia de dengue em Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará, em 1994. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino. A paciente do primeiro caso tinha 17 anos e apresentou além da síndrome febril, sinais de comprometimento meníngeo com rigidez de nuca, e sangramento genital. No segundo caso a paciente de 86 anos apresentou quadro febril, intensa dor muscular e articular, alterações da consciência, desmaio, rigidez de nuca e meningismo. A terceira, de 67 anos, teve um quadro inicial de síndrome febril, seguida de comportamento anormal, tremores de extremidades, trombocitopenia, hematócrito aumentado, leucopenia, hipotensão arterial e choque, evoluindo para o óbito. Amostras sangüíneas obtidas das

  20. Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-07-01

    In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Márquez, Francisco J; Romero, Lourdes; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. A total of 2053 ticks (1333 Hyalomma marginatum, 680 H. lusitanicum and 40 Rhipicephalus bursa) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques (PCR) for CCHFV detection. The determination of specific IgG antibodies against CCHFV in 228 serum samples from humans with regular contact with ticks (at risk of acquiring the infection) was performed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The CCHFV was not amplified in ticks, nor were antibodies against the virus found in the serum samples analyzed. The absence of the CCHFV in the ticks studied and the lack of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites would seem to suggest a low risk of acquisition of human infection by CCHFV in Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

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    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  3. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela in Kenya

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    David Ndeereh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human–wildlife–livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5% animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5% in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela. This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  4. Direct analysis of site-specific N-glycopeptides of serological proteins in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Young; Hwang, Heeyoun; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Gun Wook; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides. Using this simple method, we identified a total of 41 site-specific N-glycopeptides from 16 glycoproteins in the DBS samples, from immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG-1, 10 mg/mL) down to complement component C7 (50 μg/mL). Of these, 32 N-glycopeptides from 14 glycoproteins were consistently quantified over 180 days stored at room temperature. The major abundant glycoproteins in the DBS samples were IgG-1 and IgG-2, which contain nine asialo-fucosylated complex types of 16 different N-glycopeptide isoforms. Sialo-non-fucosylated complex types were primarily detected in the other glycoproteins such as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, 2, alpha-1-antitypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, Ig alpha 1, 2 chain C region, kininogen-1, prothrombin, and serotransferrin. We first report the characterization of site-specific N-glycoproteins in DBS samples by LC-MS/MS with minimal sample preparation.

  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

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    ... Publications Help Archive Site Map Información en español Employee Information Connect with NIAID Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google+ Youtube Flickr Instagram Pinterest Email Website Policies & Notices ...

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may be done include: Antibody titer by complement fixation or immunofluorescence Complete blood count (CBC) Kidney ... Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of ...

  7. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3-7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8-19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in this region.

  8. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3–7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8–19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife–livestock–human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  9. Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in domestic cattle and African buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran eJori

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP and the Okavango Delta (OD were screened for the presence of RVF virus neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (49/863, 95% CI [4.3%-7.5%] of cattle and 12.7% (19/150, 95% CI [7.8%-19.5%] of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p=0.0016 for buffalo (12.7%, 95% CI [7.8-19.5] than for cattle (5.7%, 95% CI [4.3-7.5]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5% vs 4%, respectively; p=0.0004. Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVF virus in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlights the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in this region.

  10. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region.

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    Federica Monaco

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment--EQA for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe. Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods

  11. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Federica; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Doumbia, Baba; Madani, Hafsa; El Mellouli, Fatiha; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sghaier, Soufien; Marianneau, Philippe; Cetre-Sossah, Catherine; Polci, Andrea; Lacote, Sandra; Lakhdar, Magtouf; Fernandez-Pinero, Jovita; Sari Nassim, Chabane; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Gallardo, Carmina; Bouzid, Taoufiq; Conte, Annamaria; Bortone, Grazia; Savini, Giovanni; Petrini, Antonio; Puech, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA) linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment—EQA) for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV) was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe). Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods currently

  12. Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Lkhagvatseren, Sukhbaatar; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Nymadawa, Pagbajab; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Baigalmaa, Bekh-Ochir; Anderson, Benjamin D; Reller, Megan E; Lantos, Paul M; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these

  13. Rickettsial spotted fever in capoeirão Village, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil Rickettsiose do grupo da febre maculosa na Vila de Capoeirão, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoella Campostrini Barreto Vianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the infection by spotted fever rickettsia in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF; caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human, canine and equine sera samples, and Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks collected in a rural area of Itabira City, Minas Gerais State were tested for rickettsial infection. Through Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA we demonstrated the presence of antibodies anti-R. rickettsii in 8.2%, 81.3% and 100% of the human, canine and equine sera, respectively. None of the 356 tick specimens analyzed were positive for Rickettsia by the hemolymph test or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR for the htrA and the gltA genes. Our serological results on horses and dogs (sentinels for BSF appoint for the circulation of a SFG Rickettsia in the study area, however in a very low infection rate among the A. cajennense tick population.O presente estudo investigou a infecção por rickéttsias do grupo da febre maculosa (GFM em área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira (FMB; causada por Rickettsia rickettsii no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Amostras de soros de humanos, cães e eqüídeos, e carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense adultos colhidos em um povoado rural em Itabira, Minas Gerais foram testados para infecção por Rickettsia. Pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI foram detectados anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii em 8,2% dos soros humanos, 81,3% dos cães e em 100% dos eqüídeos. Nenhum dos 356 carrapatos se mostrou positivo para Rickettsia no teste de hemolinfa e na reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR objetivando amplificar fragmentos de DNA dos genes htrA and the gltA. Os resultados sorológicos em eqüinos e cães (sentinelas para FMB apontam para a circulação de uma rickéttsia do GFM na área do estudo, porém, numa freqüência de infecção muito baixa na população do carrapato A. cajennense.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS: two systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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    Berit Lange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dried blood spots (DBS are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. Methods We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%–99% and 100% (95%CI:99–100%, respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95–99 and 99% (CI95%:98–100, respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. Conclusion HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS): two systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Cohn, Jennifer; Roberts, Teri; Camp, Johannes; Chauffour, Jeanne; Gummadi, Nina; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nagarathnam, Anupriya; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Easterbrook, Philippa; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2017-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%-99%) and 100% (95%CI:99-100%), respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95-99) and 99% (CI95%:98-100), respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous blood sampling was associated with excellent diagnostic accuracy

  16. Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.. Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri.We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. The patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

  17. Spot the Difference-Development of a Syndrome Based Protein Microarray for Specific Serological Detection of Multiple Flavivirus Infections in Travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleton, Natalie B.; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Reimerink, Johan; Beersma, Mathias F.; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Franco, Leticia; Goeijenbier, Marco; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Niedrig, Matthias; Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Tami, Adriana; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida L.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.

    Background The family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, holds many of the world's most prevalent arboviral diseases that are also considered the most important travel related arboviral infections. In most cases, flavivirus diagnosis in travelers is primarily based on serology as viremia is often low

  18. Penicillin Dried Blood Spot Assay for Use in Patients Receiving Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G and Other Penicillin Preparations To Prevent Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Coward, Jonathan; Moore, Brioni R; Salman, Sam; Marshall, Lewis; Davis, Timothy M E; Batty, Kevin T; Manning, Laurens

    2017-08-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains an important global health challenge. Administration of benzathine penicillin (BPG) every 3 to 4 weeks is recommended as a secondary prophylaxis to prevent recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever and subsequent RHD. Following intramuscular injection, BPG is hydrolyzed to penicillin G (benzylpenicillin). However, little is known of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPG in pediatric populations at high risk of RHD or of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship between penicillin exposure and clinically relevant outcomes. Dried blood spot (DBS) assays can facilitate PK studies in situations where frequent venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy assay for penicillin G in plasma and DBS was developed and validated. Application of the DBS assay for PK studies was confirmed using samples from adult patients receiving penicillin as part of an infection management plan. The limit of quantification for penicillin G in DBS was 0.005 mg/liter. Penicillin G is stable in DBS for approximately 12 h at room temperature (22°C), 6 days at 4°C, and >1 month at -20°C. Plasma and DBS penicillin G concentrations for patients receiving BPG and penicillin G given via bolus doses correlated well and had comparable time-concentration profiles. There was poor correlation for patients receiving penicillin via continuous infusions, perhaps as a result of the presence of residual penicillin in the peripherally inserted central catheter, from which the plasma samples were collected. The present DBS penicillin G assay can be used as a surrogate for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK data for studies of BPG and other penicillin preparations developed to prevent rheumatic fever and RHD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  20. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  1. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  2. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  3. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  4. Assessment of confidence in freedom from Aujeszky's disease and classical swine fever in Danish pigs based on serological sampling—Effect of reducing the number of samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Dahl, J.; Alban, L.

    2013-01-01

    Confirming freedom from disease is important for export of animals and animal products. In Denmark, an intensive surveillance program is in place for Aujeszky's disease (AD) and classical swine fever (CSF), including 34,974 blood samples tested for AD and 37,414 samples tested for CSF (2008 figures......). In the current system, 3.5% of sows and boars for export or slaughter are tested for both diseases, as well as all boars before entering boar stations. Furthermore, nucleus herds are tested every third month for classical swine fever. We investigated, whether the sample size could be reduced without compromising...... as a distribution (0.0042:0.0083; 0.05), and the within-herd and between-herd design prevalence were set to 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. If 50 and 75% of the test results from exported or slaughtered sows and boars were simulated to be removed at random, while the blood samples from boar stations were kept constant...

  5. Serosurvey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs and humans from an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Sorologia para Rickettsia spp. em cães e humanos de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Adriano Pinter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a rickettsial serosurvey in 25 dogs and 35 humans in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, where the tick Amblyomma aureolatum is the main vector. Testing canine and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence against four Rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis and R. bellii showed that 16 (64% of canine sera and 1 (2.8% of human sera reacted to at least one of these rickettsial antigens with titers ³ 64. Seven canine sera and the single reactive human serum showed titers to R. rickettsii at least four times those of any of the other three antigens. The antibody titers in these 7 animals and 1 human were attributed to stimulation by R. rickettsii infection. No positive canine or human serum was attributed to stimulation by R. parkeri, R. felis, or R. bellii. Our serological results showed that dogs are important sentinels for the presence of R. rickettsii in areas where the tick A. aureolatum is the main vector of Brazilian spotted fever.Este estudo avaliou a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia em 25 cães e 35 humanos, em uma área endêmica para a febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, onde o principal vetor é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum. Soros dos cães e humanos foram testados pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta contra quatro antígenos de riquétsias (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, R. bellii, mostrando que soros de 16 (64% cães e 1 (2,8% humano reagiram com títulos ³ 64 para pelo menos um dos antígenos de riquétsias. Sete soros caninos e o único soro humano reativo demonstraram títulos para R. rickettsii no mínimo quatro vezes maior do que aqueles para os outros antígenos de riquétsias. Os títulos de anticorpos nesses cães e um humano foram considerados homólogos a R. rickettsii, enquanto que nenhum soro de cão ou humano foi considerado reativamente homólogo para R. parkeri, R. felis ou R. bellii. Os

  6. Serological blind spots for variants of human IgG3 and IgG4 by a commonly used anti-immunoglobulin reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Heather L; Delaney, Meghan; Wang, Xiaohong; Er, Lay See; Vidarsson, Gestur; Stegmann, Tamara C; Kapp, Linda; Lebedev, Jenna N; Wu, Yanyun; AuBuchon, James P; Zimring, James C

    2016-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), and it is also now appreciated that there are genetic variations within IgG subtypes (called isoallotypes). Twenty-nine different isoallotypes have been described, with 7, 4, 15, and 3 isoallotypes described for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The reactivity of anti-IgG with different isoallotypes has not been characterized. A novel monoclonal anti-K antibody (PugetSound Monoclonal Antibody 1 [PUMA1]) was isolated and sequenced, and a panel of PUMA1 variants was expressed, consisting of the 29 known IgG isoallotypes. The resulting panel of antibodies was preincubated with K-positive red blood cells (RBCs) and then subjected to testing with currently approved anti-IgG by flow cytometry, solid phase systems, gel cards, and tube testing. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal anti-IgG (gamma-clone) failed to recognize 2 of 15 IgG3 isoallotypes (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13) and 3 of 3 IgG4 isoallotypes (IgG4-01, IgG4-02, and IgG4-03). In contrast, an FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal anti-IgG recognized each of the known human IgG isoallotypes. These findings demonstrate "blind spots" in isoalloantibody detection by a monoclonal anti-IgG. If a patient has anti-RBC antibodies predominantly of an IgG3 subtype (the IgG3-03 and/or IgG3-13 variety), then it is possible that a clinically significant alloantibody would be missed. IgG-03 and IgG-13 have an estimated frequency of 1% to 3% in Caucasian populations and 20% to 30% in certain African populations. Nonreactivity with IgG4 is a known characteristic of this monoclonal anti-IgG, but IgG4 isoallotypes have not been previously reported. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam. (Special Issue: Public health in Vietnam: here's the data, where's the action?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Thi Thanh, Toan; Hu, WenBiao; Pham Quang, Thai; Luu Ngoc, Hoat; Wright, P; Martens, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The

  8. Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil Estudo da infecção por Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em humanos e carrapatos de um parque urbano na Cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG. Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. METHODS: The study aimed to investigate SFG rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTS: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6% were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre maculosa é uma zoonose emergente causada por espécies de Rickettsia do grupo febre maculosa (GFM. Rickettsia rickettsii é o principal agente etiológico da febre maculosa brasileira (FMB e é transmitida por Amblyomma spp. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre GFM Rickettsiae no Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas em Londrina, PR, carrapatos de vida livre e de capivaras foram coletados, assim como amostras de sangue das pessoas que trabalham no parque. A. dubitatum e A. cajennense foram submetidos à PCR em pools para analises de Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene

  9. The Sensitivity Of Diazo Test In The Diagnosis Of Enteric Fevers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serological) test in the diagnosis of enteric fevers, blood specimens from101 patients suspected of having enteric fevers were collected. 54.5% (55) of the patients were significantly seropositive. Fifteen urine specimens from these 55 seropositive ...

  10. Situação da febre maculosa na Região Administrativa de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Spotted fever in Campinas region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A febre maculosa brasileira foi detectada pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo em 1929. No entanto, não há registro sistemático de casos neste Estado. Em 1985 ocorreram três casos desta doença no Município de Pedreira, situado na região de Campinas, que fica no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, correspondendo à 5ª Região Administrativa, e compreendendo 88 municípios. Alguns estudos foram realizados no Município de Pedreira, mas a falta de registro de casos foi um obstáculo encontrado. Com a finalidade de recuperar o histórico da doença, resolveu-se pesquisar e registrar as ocorrências de febre maculosa na região no período de 1985 a 2000 e analisar o seu comportamento. Foram recuperados todos os registros da doença nos diversos serviços de saúde pública. Observou-se uma ampliação da área de transmissão e a ocorrência de um aumento dos casos suspeitos a partir de 1996, ano em que a doença foi determinada como de notificação compulsória na região. Esta doença foi causa de óbito na maioria dos anos do período de estudo. Conclui-se que a febre maculosa está em ascensão na região e estudos bioecológicos complementares estão sendo desenvolvidos para melhor compreensão da epidemiologia dessa doença, que é mundialmente reconhecida como um problema emergente de saúde pública.Brazilian spotted fever was detected for the first time in the State of São Paulo in 1929. However, there is no systematic reporting of the disease in the State. In 1985, three cases of the disease occurred in the municipality of Pedreira, located in the Campinas Region, belonging to the 5th Administrative Region, in the Northeast part of the State, including 88 municipalities. An investigation was conducted at the time, but the lack of case registry limited its scope. The present study was undertaken with the aim of recovering the history of the disease in the Region. Data recovered from several public health services for

  11. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Yen Thon; Hii, Sze Fui; Stevenson, Mark A; Graves, Stephen; Rees, Robert; Stenos, John; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-13

    Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians. One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Veterinarians provided a single blood sample and answered a questionnaire on potential risk factors influencing their exposure to R. felis and R. typhi. Indirect microimmunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) was used to identify evidence of serological exposure of the participants to R. felis and R. typhi. Results were analyzed and a logistical regression model performed to predict risk factors associated with seropositivity. In total, 16.0% of participants were seropositive to R. felis, 4.6% to R. typhi and 35.1% seropositive to both, where cross-reactivity of the IFAT between R. felis and R. typhi precluded a definitive diagnosis. Veterinarians residing within the south-eastern states of Victoria and Tasmania were at a higher risk of exposure to R. felis or generalised R. felis or R. typhi exposure. Older veterinarians and those that recommended flea treatment to their clients were found to be significantly protected from exposure. The high exposure to R. felis amongst veterinary professionals suggests that flea-borne spotted fever is an important cause of undifferentiated fever conditions that may not be adequately recognized in Australia.

  12. Trapping of Rift Valley Fever (RVF vectors using Light Emitting Diode (LED CDC traps in two arboviral disease hot spots in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchouassi David P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes’ response to artificial lights including color has been exploited in trap designs for improved sampling of mosquito vectors. Earlier studies suggest that mosquitoes are attracted to specific wavelengths of light and thus the need to refine techniques to increase mosquito captures following the development of super-bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs which emit narrow wavelengths of light or very specific colors. Therefore, we investigated if LEDs can be effective substitutes for incandescent lamps used in CDC light traps for mosquito surveillance, and if so, determine the best color for attraction of important Rift Valley Fever (RFV vectors. Methods The efficiency of selected colored LED CDC light traps (red, green, blue, violet, combination of blue-green-red (BGR to sample RVF vectors was evaluated relative to incandescent light (as control in a CDC light trap in two RVF hotspots (Marigat and Ijara districts in Kenya. In field experiments, traps were baited with dry ice and captures evaluated for Aedes tricholabis, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Mansonia uniformis, Mn. africana and Culex pipiens, following Latin square design with days as replicates. Daily mosquito counts per treatment were analyzed using a generalized linear model with Negative Binomial error structure and log link using R. The incidence rate ratios (IRR that mosquito species chose other treatments instead of the control, were estimated. Results Seasonal preference of Ae.mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus at Ijara was evident with a bias towards BGR and blue traps respectively in one trapping period but this pattern waned during another period at same site with significantly low numbers recorded in all colored traps except blue relative to the control. Overall results showed that higher captures of all species were recorded in control traps compared to the other LED traps (IRR  Conclusion Based on our trapping design and color, none of the LEDs

  13. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  14. Serological evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Naddaf, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but causes a serious threat to humans with a mortality rate up to 50%. Although the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmission...

  15. Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often with a runny ... eyes Your health care provider may diagnose hay fever based on a physical exam and your symptoms. ...

  16. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  17. Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... French Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  18. Rheumatic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatic fever is still common in countries that have a lot of poverty and poor health systems. It does not often occur in the United States and other developed countries. When rheumatic fever does occur in the United ...

  19. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  20. Relapsing fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is characterized by repeated episodes of fever. Causes Relapsing fever is an infection caused by several species of ... death of very large numbers of borrelia bacteria causes shock) Weakness Widespread bleeding ... health care provider right away if you develop a fever after returning from a trip. Possible infections need ...

  1. Rheumatic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, can lead to congestive heart failure. What causes rheumatic fever? Rheumatic fever is not an infection itself, but ... If the antibodies attack your heart, they can cause your heart valves to swell, which can ... is at risk for rheumatic fever? Fewer than 0.3% of people who have ...

  2. Neutropenic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lindsey; Ybarra, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Fever is a common presenting complaint among adult or pediatric patients in the emergency department setting. Although fever in healthy individuals does not necessarily indicate severe illness, fever in patients with neutropenia may herald a life-threatening infection. Therefore, prompt recognition of patients with neutropenic fever is imperative. Serious bacterial illness is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for neutropenic patients. Neutropenic fever should trigger the initiation of a rapid work-up and the administration of empiric systemic antibiotic therapy to attenuate or avoid the progression along the spectrum of sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock syndrome, and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse events and association with age, sex and immunological parameters of Q fever vaccination in patients at risk for chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.; Wong, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Netea, M.G.; Timen, A.; Deuren, M. van; Bondt, P.E. Vermeer-de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients at risk for chronic Q fever received a whole-cell Q fever vaccine. Sensitized people were excluded based on pre-vaccination screening with skin test (ST) and serology. An investigational IFN-gamma-production assay was added.

  4. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID:27869589

  5. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  6. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Ricket . Diseases. Jan 󈨂 - yolk sac 132P. i Isolated from Tatera, in Sialkot, Pakistan 10/3/64. j Obtained from Walter Reed, Dept. of Ricket . Diseases...purified C, burneti was obtained from Dr. Oswald Baca, University of New Mexico , Albuquerque. The DNA was purified by a combination of enzyme digestions

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  8. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Dengue fever is caused by dengue viruses. (DENV). Transmission of DENV has increased dramatically in the past two decades making DENV the most important human pathogens among arthropod-borne viruses (1). About 50-. 100 million dengue fever infections occur every year in tropical and subtropical.

  9. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  10. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  11. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa. Anyone can get yellow fever, but older people ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  13. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  14. Identification, Cloning, and Expression of Potential Diagnostic Markers for Q Fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, C. C; Chen, H. W; Li, X; Xu, W. B; Hanson, B; Ching, W. M

    2005-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Q fever is difficult. Whole cell antigens are currently used in several serological methods, but antigens are limited due to the hazardous nature of Coxiella burnetii cultivation...

  15. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  16. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  17. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Araimi, Hanaa; Al-Jabri, Amal; Mehmoud, Arshad; Al-Abri, Seif

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 38 year-old Sri Lankan female who was referred to the surgeon on call with a picture of acute abdomen. She presented with a three-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoea; however, the physical examination was not consistent with acute abdomen. Her platelet count was 22 ×109/L. A diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was made and dengue serology was positive. Dengue epidemics have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms an...

  18. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  19. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garg A, Garg J, Rao YK et al. Prevalence of dengue. 8. among clinically suspected febrile episodes at a teaching hospital in North India. Journal of Infectious Diseases and. Immunity 2011; 3 (5): 85 – 89. Reiter P. Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? 9. Euro Surveill 2010; 15 (10): 11 – 16. Gibbons RV, Vaughn DW.

  20. Orchid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  1. Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DHF, which is a medical emergency. To treat severe cases of dengue fever at a hospital, doctors will give intravenous (IV) fluids and electrolytes (salts) to replace those lost through vomiting or ... enough to effectively treat the disease. In more advanced cases, doctors may ...

  2. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  3. Dark Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  4. Q fever in infancy: a review of 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardus, J H; Dumas, A M; Huisman, J; Schaap, G J

    1985-01-01

    Infection with Coxiella burnetti (Q fever) was diagnosed in 18 children younger than 3 years of age in The Netherlands during a 16-month period. The diagnosis was confirmed serologically by means of a complement-fixation test and immunofluorescence for IgM determination. A summary of the clinical, hematologic, serologic and epidemiologic features is given. Four children had relapsing episodes of fever during several months. The problem of childhood infection with C. burnetii, particularly in relation to the possibility of intrauterine infection or infection during birth and in the neonatal period, is discussed. In at least one child of this series, an infection by means of breast feeding was considered likely. Q fever is possibly underdiagnosed in children; it should be considered in children with fever of unknown origin.

  5. Chikungunya fever presenting with acute optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Abhijit Anand; Agius-Fernandez, Adriana

    2015-07-28

    Chikungunya fever is a vector borne virus that typically causes a self-limiting systemic illness with fever, skin rash and joint aches 2 weeks after infection. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman presenting with an acute unilateral optic neuropathy as a delayed complication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection contracted during a recent trip to the West Indies. She presented to our ophthalmology department with acute painless visual field loss in the right eye and a recent flu-like illness. She was found to have a right relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) with unilateral optic disc swelling. Serology confirmed recent CHIKV infection. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was delayed while awaiting MRI scans and serology results. At 5-month follow-up, there was a persistent right RAPD and marked optic atrophy with a corresponding inferior scotoma in the visual field. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Prolonged fever in peritoneal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, U.; Irwandi, S.; Habib, H.; Lim, H.; Pasha, M.; Janis, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Ginting, Y.; Effendy-Y S, R.

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal tuberculosis may lead to delayed diagnosis because of the nonspecific features such as fever, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, ascites, and weight loss. Here, wereported a case of prolonged fever and abdominal pain which was due to peritoneal tuberculosis. Initial examinations including acomplete blood test and serologic tests did not lead to the diagnosis. A final diagnosis was made by abdominal CT-scan and laparoscopy combined with histopathological studies. Antituberculous medications provided a good clinical response in this patient.

  7. Tri-phasic fever in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Pradeepa H; Rao, Sathish B; B, Ganaraj; Bhat, Gopalakrishna; M, Chakrapani

    2018-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness with a duration of 2-12 days. Our observational study observed the 24-h continuous tympanic temperature pattern of 15 patients with dengue fever and compared this with 26 others with fever due to a non-dengue aetiology. A tri-phasic fever pattern was seen among two-thirds of dengue fever patients, but in only one with an inflammatory disease. One-third of dengue fever patients exhibited a single peak temperature. Continuous temperature monitoring and temperature pattern analysis in clinical settings can aid in the early differentiation of dengue fever from non-dengue aetiology.

  8. Typhoid fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    , especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar...... cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow...... with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main...

  9. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  10. Typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundus Findings in Dengue Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Berna; Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Marangoz, Deniz; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2015-10-01

    Dengue fever is a flavivirus infection transmitted through infected mosquitoes, and is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Pacific, Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region. A 41-year-old male patient had visual impairment after travelling to Thailand, which is one of the endemic areas. Cotton wool spots were observed on fundus examination. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed minimal vascular leakage from areas near the cotton wool spots and dot hemorrhages in the macula. Dengue fever should be considered in patients with visual complaints who traveled to endemic areas of dengue fever.

  12. Dengue Fever Presenting as Purtscher-like Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz H; Vianello, Silvana; Pimentel, Sérgio; Costa de Andrade, Gabriel; Zett, Claudio; Muller, Léo; Farah, Michel E; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-03-21

    To report the fundus manifestations and spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) features of dengue fever presenting as Purtscher-like retinopathy. Retrospective review of two cases of dengue fever. Color fundus photograph revealed the presence of cotton-wool spots in a Purtscher-like configuration in the posterior pole of all study eyes. SD-OCT demonstrated increased reflectivity signal in the inner retinal layers, and after a variable follow-up period, there was complete disappearance of cotton-wool spots and persistence of the hyperreflectivity signal. We report two unique cases of dengue fever associated with retinal lesions in a configuration of Purtscher-like retinopathy.

  13. Orbital cellulitis in course of typhoid fever; Zapalenie tkanki oczodolowej w przebiegu duru brzusznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowacka, K.; Szreter, M.; Mikolajewicz, J. [Centrum Zdrwowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    In 18 months girl with exophthalmus of the left eye and extensive swelling of the soft tissues in both orbits during continued fever was observed. Typhoid fever with a non-typical course and ophthalmic complications were diagnosed on the basis of serological tests. Complete cure after treatment with augmenting was obtained. (author) 10 refs, 2 figs

  14. Dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations in travellers returning to Quebec from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Duperval, Raymond; Frost, Eric H; Artsob, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations were observed in 1990 and 1992 among travellers returning from Asia, while a third presented with classical dengue fever after the patient’s first trip to an endemic region. All experienced rash, thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders and had flavivirus serology consistent with exposure to dengue virus.

  15. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  16. Zika fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between Zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical complications of Chikungunya fever in Mauritius | Goorah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    44 participants suffered from psychological sequelae. 10 participants had dermatological sequelae, 6 had iatrogenic complications due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastritis, and 3 participants with serologically confirmed Chikungunya fever had neurological manifestations and changes on ...

  18. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  19. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Hay Fever Medications Share | Hay Fever and Allergy Medications This article has been reviewed ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever symptoms range from being mildly annoying to seriously ...

  20. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, rashes and muscle and joint aches. Treatment includes rehydration and recovery is expected. A second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue ...

  1. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  3. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's Guide to Fever ... change into some lighter-weight pajamas. Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  5. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  6. Dengue fever and international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Irani; Leder, Karin; Black, Jim; Torresi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a leading public health problem with an expanding global burden. Dengue virus is also a significant cause of illness in international travelers with an increasing number of cases of dengue fever identified in travelers returning from dengue-endemic countries. This review focuses on the clinical illness of dengue infection in international travelers and provides a summary of the risk of infection for travelers, clinical features of infection, and an overview of dengue vaccines and their potential applicability to travelers. Four prospective studies of travelers to dengue-endemic destinations have shown that the dengue infection incidence ranges from 10.2 to 30 per 1,000 person-months. This varies according to travel destination and duration and season of travel. Dengue is also a common cause of fever in returned travelers, accounting for up to 16% of all febrile illnesses in returned travelers. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, a small proportion of travelers develop dengue hemorrhagic fever. The diagnosis of dengue in travelers requires a combination of serological testing for IgG and IgM together with either nucleic acid or NS1 antigen testing. Several vaccine candidates have now entered into clinical trials including ChimeriVax Dengue, which is currently in phase 3 trials, live-attenuated chimeric vaccines (DENV-DENV Chimera, Inviragen), live-attenuated viral vaccines, recombinant protein subunit vaccines, and DNA vaccines. Dengue infection in international travelers is not infrequent and may be associated with substantial morbidity. Furthermore, an accurate diagnosis of dengue in travelers requires the use of a combination of diagnostic tests. Although a vaccine is not yet available a number of promising candidates are under clinical evaluation. For now travelers should be provided with accurate advice regarding preventive measures when visiting dengue-endemic areas. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. Dengue fever in pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phupong Vorapong

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, the incidence has been increasing among adults. Case presentation A 26-year-old Thai woman, G1P0 31 weeks pregnancy, presented with epigastric pain for 1 day. She also had a high-grade fever for 4 days. The physical examination, complete blood counts as well as serology confirmed dengue fever. The patient was under conservative treatment despite severe thrombocytopenia. She was well at the 3rd day of discharge and 1-week follow-up. The pregnancy continued until term without any complication and she delivered vaginally a healthy female baby. Conclusions More cases of dengue infection in pregnancy can be found due to the increasing incidence during adulthood. It should be suspected when a pregnant woman presents with symptoms and signs like in a non-pregnant. Conservative treatment should be conducted unless there are any complications.

  8. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, S. K.; Al-Ani, F.; Jurji, F. J.; Tantawi, H.; Al-Moslih, M.; Al-Janabi, N.; Mahmud, M. I. A.; Al-Bana, A.; Habib, H.; Al-Munthri, H.; Al-Janabi, Sh.; Al-Jawahry, K.; Yonan, M.; Hassan, F.; Simpson, D. I. H.

    1981-01-01

    Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever was recognized for the first time in Iraq in 1979. The first case was reported on 3 September 1979 and since then a further 9 patients have been investigated. Eight patients gave a history of previous contact with sheep or cattle, while 2 patients, a resident doctor and an auxiliary nurse, acquired their infections in hospital by direct contact with patients. The causal virus was isolated from patients' blood and postmortem liver specimens. The virus isolates were found to be closely related if not identical serologically to members of the Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus group. Eight of the patients had no epidemiological relationship to one another and lived in widely separated areas around Baghdad and Ramadi (110 km to the west of Baghdad). ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6790183

  9. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  10. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  11. Q fever - early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks. Causes Q fever is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii , which ... Prevention Pasteurization of milk destroys the bacteria that cause early Q fever. Domestic animals should be inspected for signs of ...

  12. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  13. CLINICAL COMPLICATIONS OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN MAURITIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Smita Sulackshana Devi Goorah

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever, an emerging mosquito-borne viral disease, has affected Mauritius with two recent outbreaks in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A study was carried out in 2007 to describe the clinical complications post-Chikungunya infection. Ethical clearance was obtained for this study. Data collection was carried out in February and March 2007 on a sample of people who had suffered from Chikungunya fever by means of a comprehensive questionnaire. Participants comprised 77 people; there were 41 males and 36 females. Participants ranged from 6 to 69 years. 70 participants experienced persisting joint pains for at least 6 months following the acute phase. Of these, 35 had residual joint complaints after 6 months. 44 participants suffered from psychological sequelae. 10 participants had dermatological sequelae, 6 had iatrogenic complications due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastritis, and 3 participants with serologically confirmed Chikungunya fever had neurological manifestations and changes on CT/MRI which could correspond to demyelination. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was a weak linear relationship between the number of complications and increasing age; there was a significant difference in the number of complications according to gender, females being more affected than males; participants with co-morbidities had more complications and psychological sequelae than previously healthy participants. This study highlights that Chikungunya fever, which causes a significant impact on health in the acute phase, can have significant sequelae months afterwards and this includes psychological sequelae.

  14. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  15. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  16. Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures.

  17. International travel of Korean children and Dengue fever: A single institutional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Han; Kim, Yae Jean; Shin, Ji Hun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2010-06-01

    Dengue fever occurs in many popular tourist destinations and is increasingly imported by returning travelers in Korea. Since Korea is not an endemic country for dengue fever, pediatricians do not usually suspect dengue fever in febrile children even with typical presentation and exposure history. This study was performed to describe the international travel experiences and dengue fever in Korean children. Travel histories were collected based on questionnaires completed by all patients' guardians who visited the pediatric infectious diseases clinic at Samsung Medical Center from January 2008 to December 2008. For patients who were suspected of dengue fever, a serological test was performed. Five hundred and seventeen children visited the pediatric infectious diseases clinic for the first time during this period. About 30% of patients who responded to the questionnaire (101/339) had experienced international travel within the last 2 years. Four patients were diagnosed with dengue fever by serological test. Increasing numbers of Korean children visit dengue endemic areas and they may return home with dengue fever. Dengue fever should be suspected in patients who have a travel history to endemic areas.

  18. ROLE OF THE SEROLOGIC TEST FOR DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Sinta Purnama Dewi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Dengue virus infection is infection disease cause by dengue virus. Dengue virus infection can cause a broad spectrum disease such as : dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Currently dengue virus ranks eighth as a cause of illness in the State of South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur each year in Indonesia with a tendency incident and the affected area is increasing. Laboratory tests can be done to detect the dengue virus infection: a complete blood count and serology. Of serology test, positive IgM antibody showed that patients had a primary infection, whereas patients with secondary infections showed positive IgG antibodies, usually accompanied by antibody IgM positive. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  20. Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis Transvaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis. Transvaal. P. R. MASON, M. R. JACOBS, P. J. FRIPP. •. In the. SUMMARY. Thirty-seven per cent of 605 samples of human sera col- lected from four ethnic groups in South Africa gave a positive Toxoplasma indir~ct fluorescent antibody test at a dilution 01 1/16 or higher. The incidences ...

  1. Psychosis in dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Suprakash Chaudhury; Biswajit Jagtap; Deepak Kumar Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    An 18-year-old male student developed abnormal behavior while undergoing treatment for dengue fever. He was ill-kempt, irritable and had auditory and visual hallucinations and vague persecutory delusions in clear sensorium with impaired insight. The psychotic episode had a temporal correlation with dengue fever. Psychiatric comorbidities of dengue fever including mania, anxiety, depression, and catatonia are mentioned in literature but the literature on the psychosis following dengue is spars...

  2. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...

  3. Mediterranean spotted fever and hearing impairment: a rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Rossio

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of Rickettsia conorii that was complicated with hearing loss and did not respond to specific treatment. Hearing loss is a rare event, but clinicians should be aware of this complication.

  4. Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn M; Wright, Chelsea L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern United States has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. The results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern Virginia. Since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected from vegetation in a variety of habitats, with Amblyomma americanum constituting over 95% of ticks collected. Other species represented included Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes affinis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes brunneus. We found that 26.9-54.9% of A. americanum ticks tested were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, a non-pathogenic symbiont of this tick species. We also found no evidence of R. rickettsii in D. variabilis ticks, although they did show low infection rates of R. montanensis (1.5-2.0%). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae were found in 41.8-55.7% and 0-1.5% A. maculatum ticks, respectively. The rate of R. parkeri in A. maculatum ticks is among the highest in the literature and has increased in the 2 years since R. parkeri and A. maculatum were first reported in southeastern Virginia. We conclude that tick populations in southeastern Virginia have recently undergone dramatic changes in species and abundance and that these populations support a variety of rickettsial agents with the potential for increased risk to human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of serological tests for the diagnosis of rickettsiosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke

    2009-01-01

    . When analyzing the data using the manufacturers' cut-off values, 41% of samples from presumably healthy blood donors were found positive for spotted fever group Rickettsia antibodies. This does not correlate to the general picture of rickettsiosis in Denmark. Furthermore, sera with Coxiella burnetii...

  6. A Rare Case of Q Fever Osteomyelitis in a Child From Regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, P N; Macartney, K; Arbuckle, S; Little, D; Kesson, A

    2015-09-01

    Q fever osteomyelitis is a rare disease. We report an eighth pediatric case from regional Australia. Serology is the first-line diagnostic test, with confirmation by PCR on tissue specimens. In endemic settings, Q fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis; in particular, presumed chronic-recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis should be considered a possible presentation of Q fever osteo-articular disease in children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Specific Interferon-¿ detection for the diagnosis of previous Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.; Joosten, L.A.; Herremans, T.; Haan, A.F.J.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Wijkmans, C.; Roest, H.I.J.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, van der J.W.; Sprong, T.; Deuren, van M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current practice for diagnosis of Q fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii, relies mainly on serology and, in prevaccination assessment, on skin tests (STs), which both have drawbacks. In this study, C. burnetii-specific interferon ¿ (IFN-¿) production was used as

  8. Murine typhus and leptospirosis as causes of acute undifferentiated fever, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Adi, Mateus S.; Isbandrio, Bambang B.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Rolain, Jean Marc; Raoult, Didier; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients

  9. Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M.H.; Wagenaar, J.F.P.; Goris, M.G.A.; Adi, M.S.; Isbandrio, B.B.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Rolain, J.M.; Raoult, D.; van Gorp, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients

  10. Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.

  11. Fever of unknown origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) often is defined as a fever greater than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory tests. In general, infection accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of FUO, followed by neoplasm and

  12. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  13. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  14. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  15. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii from the formalin-fixed tissues of Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rock Jang

    Full Text Available Serologic diagnosis is one of the most widely used diagnostic methods for Q fever, but the window period in antibody response of 2 to 3 weeks after symptom onset results in significant diagnostic delay. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues in Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data in patients with Q fever hepatitis who underwent liver biopsy during a 17-year period, and whose biopsied tissues were available. We also selected patients who revealed granuloma in liver biopsy and with no Q fever diagnosis within the last 3 years as control. Acute Q fever hepatitis was diagnosed if two or more of the following clinical, serologic, or histopathologic criteria were met: (1 an infectious hepatitis-like clinical feature such as fever (≥ 38°C with elevated hepatic transaminase levels; (2 exhibition of a phase II immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies titer by IFA of ≥ 1:128 in single determination, or a four-fold or greater rise between two separate samples obtained two or more weeks apart; (3 histologic finding of biopsy tissue showing characteristic fibrin ring granuloma.A total of 11 patients with acute Q fever hepatitis were selected and analyzed. Of the 11 patients, 3 (27% had exposure to zoonotic risk factors and 7 (63% met the serologic criteria. Granulomas with either circumferential or radiating fibrin deposition were observed in 10 cases on liver biopsy and in 1 case on bone marrow biopsy. 8 (73% revealed positive Coxiella burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues. In contrast, none of 10 patients with alternative diagnosis who had hepatic granuloma revealed positive C. burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues.Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues appears to be a useful adjunct for diagnosing Q fever hepatitis.

  16. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  17. DENGUE FEVER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zvereva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia number of cases of dengue fever in adults grows up, whereas in endemic areas, due to the wide spread of the disease is more common in children, which symptoms has its own characteristics. In the article is reviewed a clinical case of girl living in Moscow who has been returned from the Thailand vacation — the first registered case of dengue fever in childhood. In the article were discussed the problems of diagnostics of the disease, an algorithm for diagnosis of dengue fever.

  18. Mania in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Jhanjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, also known as break bone fever, is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness. During the last few years, there had been increasing reports of dengue fever with unusual manifestations, primarily with neurological symptoms. Psychiatric morbidity during acute dengue infection has rarely been reported. There has not been any systemic study mentioning the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric sequelae. We report a 28-year-old male who after an acute dengue infection developed an episode of mania which was successfully treated.

  19. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings for the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Madeira island, Portugal, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, P L; Amaro, F; Osório, H; Luz, T; Parreira, P; Andrade, G; Zé-Zé, L; Zeller, H

    2013-02-07

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Madeira island was reported in 2012. Clinical and laboratory findings of the first two laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases are reported. Both cases had fever (≥38 °C) and petechial rash. Symptoms also included myalgia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. The two cases were confirmed by serology and one tested positive for a dengue viral sequence. Dengue virus serotype DEN-1 was identified with probable Central or South American origin.

  20. Fever origins in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, W T; Mangalaboyi, L J; M'Belepe, M R; Ditu, M S

    1982-01-01

    The causes of fever were attempted to identify in a prospective study on 300 adult in- and outpatients with fever at Kinshasa Teaching Hospital, Zaire. Infection was by far the primary cause of fever (87%). Tuberculosis occurred in 15% of the inpatients. Malaria was the most frequent febrile disease: one fever in two was malaria. Connective tissue diseases and neoplasms were rare.

  1. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W C; Weingartl, H M; Drolet, B S; Davé, K; Harpster, M H; Johnson, P A; Faburay, B; Ruder, M G; Richt, J A; McVey, D S

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is concern that this virus could spread because of global warming, increased animal trade or through bioterrorism. This paper discusses the current and developing approaches to diagnosis of RVF. Diagnostic assays are available for RVF, but availability can be limited and there is a need for global harmonization. Continued improvement of standard serological and viral genome amplification approaches, including new embedded/syndromic testing, biosensor, emerging virus detection and characterization technologies is needed.

  2. FATAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyakorn, Nirada; Insiripong, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by dengue virus infection. The classical manifestations consist of fever, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration. However, its unusual complications may be fatal, such as prolong shock, massive bleeding, volume overload, and unusual manifestations, for example, severe rhabdomyolysis. Here we report a case of 17-year old Thai man who was referred to our hospital because of 7-day fever with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration and right pleural effusion. The serology tests confirmed to be dengue infection. He developed various complications: severe hepatitis, coagulopathy, and heavy proteinuria; encephalopathy that needed a respiratory ventilator. On day 12 of fever, he had myalgia and passed dark urine. Serum creatinine and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) were found abnormally high. He was diagnosed as severe rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury, and immediate hemodialysis was performed. He did not respond to treatment and expired within three hours. Although the mechanism of severe rhabdomyolysis in dengue fever is not clearly known, it may theoretically be proposed such as direct muscle cell injury leading to myositis by dengue virus, myotoxic cytokines which are produced in response to viral infection, dehydration or hypophosphatemia.

  3. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both human...

  4. Carrapatos do gênero amblyomma (acari: ixodidae e suas relações com os hospedeiros em área endêmica para febre maculosa no Estado de São Paulo Ticks of genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2008-12-01

    vulture (Cathartidae had the heaviest infestation (69.9% followed by species of the Thamnophilidae and Turdidae families. Adult ticks collected on capybaras were A. cajennense (80.8% and A. dubitatum (19.2%. Both tick species were also found on opossums corresponding to 72.4% and 27.6%, respectively. Due to easy capture and attractiveness for ticks, opossums could be used as bioindicators in Brazilian zoonotic areas with spotted fever. Considering the prevalence and also abundance of ticks, host attractiveness, proliferation and susceptibly for R. rickettsi infection, capybaras and opossums are the main amplifying hosts for this microorganism at the ESALQ/Campus, while horses, black vultures and stray cats act as secondary hosts.

  5. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever as causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad

    2013-03-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested.

  6. [Dengue fever cases in Czech workers returning from the Maldives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojánek, Milan; Tomíčková, Dora; Roháčová, Hana; Kosina, Pavel; Gebouský, Jan; Dvořák, Jan; Chmelik, Vaclav; Batistová, Květoslava; Husa, Petr; Maixner, Jan; Sojková, Naděžda; Zelená, Hana; Marešová, Vilma; Stejskal, František

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to present epidemiological characteristics and clinical symptoms of dengue fever cases in Czech workers who acquired the infection while working on the island of Fushivelavaru, Maldives. Furthermore, the study compares the sensitivity of novel direct detection assays, i.e. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and detection of Dengue NS1 antigen. The retrospective study evaluated the clinical course of dengue fever cases in Czech workers returning from a job in the Maldives who were diagnosed with dengue virus infection from September 1 to October 31, 2012. The laboratory diagnosis of dengue fever was based on the serological detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, detection of dengue NS1 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELISA), and detection of dengue virus DNA by RT-PCR. The infection with dengue virus was confirmed in 18 males with a median age of 40 years (IQR 36-47) who returned from a job in the Maldives. Only one patient required admission to the hospital while the others were treated on an outpatient basis. The most frequently observed symptoms were fever (18), headache (9), muscle and joint pain (8 and 7, respectively), and rash (9). Typical laboratory findings were leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, a low CRP level, and elevated aminotransferase activity. The clinical course was uncomplicated in all patients. The dengue NS1 antigen detection (positive in all 10 patients with acute dengue fever) showed significantly higher sensitivity than the detection of viral RNA using RT-PCR (positive in 4 patients), p = 0.011. Although the vast majority of dengue fever cases are diagnosed among travellers returning from the tropics, the presented study points out the risks posed by dengue fever to long-term workers in endemic areas. The infection in the serologically naïve hosts is usually uncomplicated; however, infected persons are at significant risk of developing a severe complicated clinical course if challenged

  7. Beyond malaria--causes of fever in outpatient Tanzanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acremont, Valérie; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Philipina, Sister; Sangu, Willy; Kahama-Maro, Judith; Lengeler, Christian; Cherpillod, Pascal; Kaiser, Laurent; Genton, Blaise

    2014-02-27

    As the incidence of malaria diminishes, a better understanding of nonmalarial fever is important for effective management of illness in children. In this study, we explored the spectrum of causes of fever in African children. We recruited children younger than 10 years of age with a temperature of 38°C or higher at two outpatient clinics--one rural and one urban--in Tanzania. Medical histories were obtained and clinical examinations conducted by means of systematic procedures. Blood and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected to perform rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, culture, and molecular tests for potential pathogens causing acute fever. Final diagnoses were determined with the use of algorithms and a set of prespecified criteria. Analyses of data derived from clinical presentation and from 25,743 laboratory investigations yielded 1232 diagnoses. Of 1005 children (22.6% of whom had multiple diagnoses), 62.2% had an acute respiratory infection; 5.0% of these infections were radiologically confirmed pneumonia. A systemic bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection other than malaria or typhoid fever was found in 13.3% of children, nasopharyngeal viral infection (without respiratory symptoms or signs) in 11.9%, malaria in 10.5%, gastroenteritis in 10.3%, urinary tract infection in 5.9%, typhoid fever in 3.7%, skin or mucosal infection in 1.5%, and meningitis in 0.2%. The cause of fever was undetermined in 3.2% of the children. A total of 70.5% of the children had viral disease, 22.0% had bacterial disease, and 10.9% had parasitic disease. These results provide a description of the numerous causes of fever in African children in two representative settings. Evidence of a viral process was found more commonly than evidence of a bacterial or parasitic process. (Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and others.).

  8. Ultrasonography as a tool in predicting the severity of dengue fever in children--a useful aid in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath Kumar Reddy, K R; Laksmana, Ramesh R; Veerappa, Basavaraja G; Shivananda

    2013-08-01

    Dengue fever accounts for significant mortality in developing countries. Dengue fever serology takes a week at least to be reported positive, thus necessitating the need for other markers of diagnosis and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ultrasonography as a tool in diagnosing and predicting the severity of dengue fever in children. This was a prospective study conducted in a tertiary pediatric centre from September 2010 to July 2012. Three hundred twenty-four children with confirmed dengue fever were compared with 422 children of suspected dengue fever. Severity of illness was graded as per WHO criteria and sonography findings were correlated to the grade of illness. Gallbladder wall thickening was seen in 75% of the children with confirmed dengue fever. A significant difference was seen between survivors and non-survivors with respect to pericholecystic fluid collection (P = 0.002), hepatic intraparenchymal fluid (P dengue fever in children.

  9. First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Chikeka, Ijeuru; Miles, Jeremy J; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando J

    2016-12-01

    Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America. We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed. We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither rickettsial infections nor Q fever were considered or treated. Further study is warranted to define the burden of these infections in Central America.

  10. Trends of fluid requirement in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever: a single centre experience in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Munasinghe, Ruwan; Ralapanawa, Udaya K; Pathirage, Manoji

    2015-04-08

    Meticulous fluid management is the mainstay of treatment in dengue fever that is currently governed by consensus guidelines rather than by strong research evidence. To examine this issue we audited the fluid requirement of a cohort of adult patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in a tertiary care clinical setting. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 in Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Adult patients with confirmed dengue infection managed according to the national and WHO guidelines were included. Their fluid requirement was audited once data collection was over in both DF and DHF groups. Out of 302 patients, 209 (69%) had serological confirmation of dengue infection, comprising 62 (30%) patients gone into critical phase of DHF. Mean age of the DHF group was 30 years (range 12-63 years) and included more males (n = 42, 68%, p fever on admission and total duration of fever were 4 days and 6 days respectively. DHF group had high incidence of vomiting, abdominal pain and flushing, lowest platelet counts and highest haematocrit values compared to DF group. In DHF group, the mean total daily requirements of fluid from 2(nd) to 7(th) day were 2123, 2733, 2846, 2981, 3139 and 3154 milliliters respectively to maintain a safe haematocrit value and the vital parameters. However, in DF group the fluid requirement was lowest on 3(rd) day (2158 milliliters). DHF group had significantly high fluid requirement on 5(th) -7(th) day compared to DF group (p fever and again on 5(th) to 7(th) day of fever. Despite being an audit, these finding could be useful in future updates of guidelines and designing research.

  11. [Long term persistence of yellow fever neutralising antibodies in elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulange Bodilis, H; Benabdelmoumen, G; Gergely, A; Goujon, C; Pelicot, M; Poujol, P; Consigny, P H

    2011-10-01

    The activity of the yellow fever virus is reemerging in areas without recent transmission history, such as northern Argentina and Paraguay, and persists in an epidemic mode in other countries in Africa and Latin America. Thus more and more travelers are at risk of being exposed to this disease. The population is becoming older, sometimes suffering from multiple pathologies. Moreover, the risk of serious adverse events associated with live-attenuated YF17D vaccine, such as multiple organ failure (YEL-AVD), reaches 1/50,000 vaccines in people over 65 versus 1/200,000 in the general population. We analyzed, in a retrospective study, the results of neutralizing antibody titers against yellow fever in people aged 60 and older, who had been previously vaccinated against yellow fever and had visited the International Vaccination Centre of the Institut Pasteur between January 2005 and February 2009. In this population of 84 persons (median age 69 years), the date of the last vaccination was always more than 10 years: it was precisely known in 68 subjects and alleged in 16 subjects. The median time since the previous vaccination was 14 years, with a maximum of 60 years. The indications of serology were: immunosuppressive therapy (19% of cases), cancer (32%), hemopathy (10.7%), HIV infection (3.6%), chronic hepatitis/chronic renal failure/dialysis (2.4%), autoimmune diseases (2.4%), and in 29.8% of cases, age alone was the indication of serology. The antibody titer was at a protective level in 95.2% of cases. The four individuals with negative serology had no formal documented proof of a previous vaccination against yellow fever. This serological study was able to show a persistent protective antibody titer, after a previous vaccination, even going back 60 years, allowing patients to travel in a yellow-fever endemic area despite a contraindication, and without requiring any vaccine booster.

  12. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  13. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in domestic sheep flocks from Wyoming, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Miller, Myrna M; Massung, Robert F

    2012-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an intracellular bacterial pathogen. It has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a serological survey of domestic sheep herds for infections with C. burnetii in Wyoming following reports of abortion and open ewes. Based on the serologic evidence, there was no link between reproductive problems and exposure to C. burnetii. However, the overall prevalence of C. burnetii in WY sheep was 7%, which indicates that the agent is present in the environment and could pose a threat to public health.

  14. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matllooba Al-Zadjali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically.

  15. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  16. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total...... patients, 4,968 received preoperative antibiotics, were supplied with complete information and included in this analysis. The lithotrites assessed included no fragmentation, ultrasonic, laser, pneumatic and combination ultrasonic/pneumatic. Risk of fever was estimated using multivariate logistic regression...... with adjustment for diabetes, steroid use, a history of positive urine culture, the presence of staghorn calculi or preoperative nephrostomy, stone burden and lithotrite. RESULTS: The overall fever rate was 10%. Pneumatic lithotrites were used in 43% of the cohort, followed by ultrasonic (24%), combination...

  17. Chikungunya Fever in Japan Imported from the Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Eri; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Mitarai, Aoi; Honma, Yasuko; Miyake, Satoru; Kaku, Koki; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR and serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer and immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean islands. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis and have a history of travel to an endemic area.

  18. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  19. Cotton-wool spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E

    1985-01-01

    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  20. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  1. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Noneruptive fever revealing murine typhus in a traveler returning from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellier, Laura; Lanternier, Fanny; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Rivière, Sébastien; Raoult, Didier; Lortholary, Olivier; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia species are increasingly being recognized as a cause of infection among returning travelers. Murine typhus (MT) was mistakenly thought to have disappeared in the 1970s in Tunisia, yet recent serological data show that Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of MT, still circulates in the Tunisian population. We report here a case of MT in a woman returning from Tunisia and hospitalized in France. Her presentation was nonspecific, with acute noneruptive fever. Diagnosis was confirmed by cross-adsorption and immunoblotting. Clinicians taking care of returning travelers with fever should be aware of MT, and know how to diagnose and treat it. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  3. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YFV transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow fever has ... this table are not contained on the official World Health Organization list of countries with risk of YFV transmission ( ...

  4. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  5. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  6. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Adenovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  18. Sirolimus-induced drug fever in a renal transplant patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, I; Carvalho, D; Remédio, F; Possante, M; Ferreira, A; Pinto, J R; Nolasco, F; Santos, J R

    2009-04-01

    Herein we have described the case of a male renal transplant recipient who developed drug fever apparently related to sirolimus. He had been stable under an immunosuppressive regimen of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, but developed acute cellular rejection at 5 years after transplantation due to noncompliance. Renal biopsy showed marked interstitial fibrosis, and immunosuppression was switched from mycophenolate to sirolimus, maintaining low tacrolimus levels. One month later he was admitted to our hospital for investigation of intermittently high fever, fatigue, myalgias, and diarrhea. Physical examination was unremarkable and drug levels were not increased. Lactic dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein were increased. The blood cell count and chest radiographic findings were normal. After extensive cultures, he was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Inflammatory markers and fever worsened, but diarrhea resolved. All serologic and imaging tests excluded infection, immune-mediated diseases, and malignancy. After 12 days antibiotics were stopped as no clinical improvement was achieved. Drug fever was suspected; sirolimus was replaced by mycophenolate mofetil. Fever and other symptoms disappeared after 24 hours; inflammatory markers normalized in a few days. After 1 month the patient was in good health with stable renal function. Although infrequent, the recognition of drug fever as a potential side effect of sirolimus may avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. Nevertheless, exclusion of other common causes of fever is essential.

  19. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND FINDING IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bajaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue fever (DF is a viral haemorrhagic fever causing severe morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the role of ultrasonography (USG in the assessment of patients with Dengue fever, and its complications and to prove ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis during an epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study was conducted in 2016 comprising of 178 patients who were serologically positive for dengue, radiological investigations were conducted in all cases. RESULTS Out of 178 patients Males (N=117 are more effected subjects in the study. female: Male ratio is 1:2. Hepatomegaly 74.1% which is most common findings in study, 113 (63.4% had GB wall thickening 98 had ascites (55%, 32 had pleural effusion (17.9%. most commonly seen in the age group of 20-39 years. Hepatomegaly was the most common finding noted in 67 patients (37.6%, followed by GB wall thickening in 65 patients (36.1%. Hepatomegaly was more common in 0-19 is 56 patients with 31.4% years age group Ascites in >40 years age group (16.8%. Hepatomegaly was seen in most of the patients whose platelet count was <40,000. (94.7%. GB wall thickening (88.5% common findings seen in patients whose platelet count was <40,000. In patients with platelet count of 40,000-80,000, Ascites is most common finding (87.5%, followed by Splenomegaly (60.7%. In patients whose platelet count was 80,000-150,000, Ascites (50% was more common than Splenomegaly (45.8%. In three patients with platelet count more than 150,000, no sonological abnormality was detected. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound findings of hepatic changes, GB wall oedema, splenomegaly, ascites and pleural effusion in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of Dengue fever during an epidemic are diagnostic. Contributing in the differential diagnosis with other causes of febrile disease.

  20. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, M. A.; Devignot, S.; Lattwein, E.; Corman, V. M.; Maganga, G. D.; Gloza-Rausch, F.; Binger, T.; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, P.; Cottontail, V. M.; Tschapka, M.; Oppong, S.; Drexler, J. F.; Weber, F.; Leroy, E. M.; Drosten, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 26637 (2016), č. článku 26637. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 260427 - CCH Fever Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sheep disease virus * family Bunyaviridae * serological relationships * antibody-response * migratory birds * rapid detection * viral load * ticks * nairovirus * genus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  2. Acute Q fever and the risk of developing endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aspas, A; Collado-Pérez, C; Vela-Manzano, L; Fernández-Gutiérrez Del Álamo, C; Tinoco-Racero, I; Girón-González, J A

    2015-01-01

    Assess clinical and serological data as parameters indicative of a possible evolution to endocarditis after an episode of acute Q fever. Retrospective cohort study of evolution to endocarditis after an acute Q fever episode, analyzing the clinical and serological evolution and the antibiotic treatment administered. Eighty patients were recruited, 20% of whom had phase i IgG antibody levels ≥ 1:1024 in the first 3 months. Only 44% of the patients underwent antibiotherapy in the acute phase; only 2 patients underwent extended antibiotherapy. Fifteen percent of the patients underwent an echocardiogram. None of the patients had symptoms suggestive of chronic infection or progressed to endocarditis after a median follow-up of 100 months, regardless of the early increase in phase i IgG antibodies. The early increase in phase i IgG antibodies in asymptomatic patients is not associated with progression to endocarditis despite not undergoing prolonged antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for species-specific detection of tomato chlorotic spot orthotospovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) is an emerging tospovirus that can cause severe disease on tomato plants. There are at least four tospoviruses infecting tomato, and mixed infection of various viruses in a field crop is quite common. With similarity in the symptomatology and cross serological reac...

  4. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  5. Ocular disease in patients with TB and HIV presenting with fever in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the patients with AIDS, 32 (17%) had retinal microangiopathy manifest by cotton wool spots; one (0.5%) had signs of active cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. The presence of microangiopathy was not related to TB. Conclusions. In Malawian patients with TB presenting acutely with fever, choroidal granulomas were ...

  6. Treatment of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo,Chaturaka; Rajapakse,Anoja Chamarie

    2012-01-01

    Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decad...

  7. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  8. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  9. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  10. Clinical Profile of Atypical Manifestations of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothapregada, Sriram; Kamalakannan, Banupriya; Thulasingam, Mahalakshmy

    2016-06-01

    To study the clinical profile and outcome of the atypical manifestations of dengue fever in children. All children (0-12 y of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever at a tertiary care hospital at Puducherry, between the 1st of August 2012 and January 31st 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines 2011 for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies and the data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Out of 254 children admitted with dengue fever, non-severe dengue and severe dengue were seen in 62.6 % and 37.4 % respectively. Atypical manifestations were seen in 106 cases (41.7 %). Mean age of presentation was 6.9(3.3) y. M: F ratio was 1.2:1. The common manifestations of severe dengue infection were shock (37.4 %), bleeding (20.1 %) and multi-organ dysfunction (2.4 %). The most common atypical manifestations of dengue fever were lymphadenopathy (41.7 %), splenomegaly (21.2 %), biphasic fever (18.1 %), hepatitis (11.4 %), febrile diarrhea (6.3 %), refractory shock (2.4 %) and impaired consciousness (1.9 %). The other atypical manifestations present were portal hypertension, acalculous cholecystitis, appendicitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocarditis, pericardial effusion, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), myositis, acute kidney injury (AKI), hemophagocytic syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Platelet count did not always correlate well with the severity of bleeding. There were six deaths (2.4 %) and out of them four presented with impaired consciousness (66.6 %). The common causes for poor outcome were multiorgan failure, encephalopathy and refractory shock. The atypical manifestations of dengue fever are no more a rare entity. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and vigilance for atypical manifestations of

  11. Fever in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasikhova, Yanina; Ludlow, Steven; Baluch, Aliyah

    2017-04-01

    The definition of fever is flexible and depends on the clinical context. Fever is frequently observed in patients with cancer. Infectious and noninfectious causes of fever in patients with various oncological and hematological malignancies and the usefulness of biomarkers are discussed. To treat patients in a timely manner and to minimize morbidity and mortality, it is paramount that health care professionals determine the cause of fever. The usefulness of biomarkers in febrile patients with cancer continues to be controversial. Fever is frequently seen in patients with cancer and can be associated with a variety of infectious and noninfectious causes. The utility of acute-phase reactants, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin, along with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug challenge should be further evaluated as adjunct tools for the workup of fever in patients with cancer.

  12. Seroreactivity to Q Fever Among Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Jam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Q fever is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide; however, little is known about its prevalence in South Korea. We attempted to determine the prevalence of Q fever seroreactivity among Korean slaughterhouse workers and the risk factors for seroreactivity according to the type of work. Methods The study was conducted among 1503 workers at a total of 73 slaughterhouses and 62 residual-product disposal plants. During the study period, sites were visited and surveys were administered to employees involved in slaughterhouse work, and serological tests were performed on blood samples by indirect immunofluorescence assays. Serological samples were grouped by job classification into those of slaughter workers, residual-product handlers, inspectors and inspection assistants, and grading testers and testing assistants. Employee risk factors were analyzed according to the type of work. Results Out of 1481 study subjects who provided a blood sample, 151 (10.2%) showed reactive antibodies. When these results were analyzed in accordance with the type of work, the result of slaughter workers (11.3%) was similar to the result of residual-product handlers (11.4%), and the result of inspectors and assistants (5.3%) was similar to the result of grading testers and assistants (5.4%). Among those who answered in the affirmative to the survey question, “Has there been frequent contact between cattle blood and your mouth while working?” the proportions were 13.4 and 4.6%, respectively, and this was identified as a risk factor that significantly varied between job categories among slaughterhouse workers. Conclusions This study found a Q fever seroreactivity rate of 10.2% for slaughterhouse workers, who are known to be a high-risk population. Contact with cattle blood around the mouth while working was the differential risk factor between job categories among slaughterhouse workers. PMID:28605884

  13. The changing etiology of fever of intermediate duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nuria; Cañas, Elías; Bernabeu-Wittel, Máximo; Martín, Amalia; Viciana, Pompeyo; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2010-01-01

    Fever of intermediate duration (FID) is a common condition. Currently, its most frequent causes are not well defined. Prospective study of FID cases attended at a hospital in 2 periods: 1983-1989 and 2004-2005. Blood cultures and serologic studies for Brucella melitensis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were performed on all patients. Other microbiological, serological, radiological, or invasive procedures were performed according to clinician-in-charge criteria. A total of 505 patients were included from 1983 to 1989, and 179 from 2004 to 2005. A diagnosis was reached in 410 (81.1%) and 109 patients (60.9%), respectively. The cause of FID was an infectious disease in 389 patients from the first period (94.8% of those with a final diagnosis) and 92 from the second (84.4%). Most were systemic infections, 328 (80%) in 1983-1989 and 74 (67.8%) in 2004-2005, followed by focal infections, 9.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Q fever was the most frequent etiology in both periods. In 2004-2005, brucellosis decreased and HIV infection emerged as a cause of FID. The origin of FID was non-infectious in 5.1% and 15.5%, respectively. Q fever is the most frequent cause of FID in southern Spain. Studies over time are needed to identify changes in the etiologic spectrum of this condition. Important viral etiologies, such as HIV infection, may be detected as causes of FID. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of other agents as causes of FID. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000...

  15. Fever in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robyn; Dor, Maya R; McQuilkin, Patricia A

    2013-11-01

    Fever is the most common reason that children and infants are brought to emergency departments. Emergency physicians face the challenge of quickly distinguishing benign from life-threatening conditions. The management of fever in children is guided by the patient's age, immunization status, and immune status as well as the results of a careful physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests and radiographic views. In this article, the evaluation and treatment of children with fevers of known and unknown origin are described. Causes of common and dangerous conditions that include fever in their manifestation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and Serological Insights from the Asian Lineage Chikungunya Outbreak in Grenada, 2014: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum; Noël, Trevor; Fields, Paul; Jungkind, Donald; Yearwood, Katherine; Simmons, Monika; Widjaja, Susana; Mitchell, George; Noel, Dolland; Bidaisee, Satesh; Myers, Todd E; LaBeaud, A Desiree

    2016-10-05

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean region in 2014, and the first serologically confirmed case was seen in Grenada in July. This study investigated the outbreak of CHIKV in Grenada to identify the distinguishing clinical manifestations and the symptoms that corresponded the closest with serological test results. Sera were tested by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between cases positive or negative for CHIKV. Of 493 cases, 426 (86%) tested positive for CHIKV. The diagnostic decision rule, "Define as CHIKV positive a patient presenting with joint pain and any combination of fever, body pain, or rash," produced the closest agreement (85%) with the serological test results (Cohen's kappa, k = 0.289, P value < 0.001). When laboratory facilities are not available for diagnostic confirmation, syndromic surveillance using these four symptoms could be useful to define cases during a CHIKV outbreak when CHIKV is the predominant circulating arbovirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  18. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  19. Relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the incidence of tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) during the last 50 years, once like malaria an endemic disease in Sengerema, Tanzania. Design: By analyzing the annual reports, focusing on the number of admissions, maternal deaths, blood smears of patients with fever for Borrelia.

  20. Dengue fever in Czech travellers: A 10-year retrospective study in a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojánek, Milan; Maixner, Jan; Sojková, Naděžda; Kynčl, Jan; Roháčová, Hana; Marešová, Vilma; Stejskal, František

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a frequent cause of morbidity in travellers. The objective was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of dengue fever in Czech travellers. This descriptive study includes patients with acute dengue fever diagnosed at Hospital Na Bulovce during 2004-2013. Data were collected and analysed retrospectively. A total of 132 patients (83 males and 49 females) of median age 33 years (IQR 29-40) were included. Diagnosis was established by NS1 antigen detection in 87/107 cases (81.3%) and/or RT-PCR in 50/72 (69.4%) and by serology in 25 cases (18.9%). Dengue was acquired in South-East Asia in 69 cases (52.3%), followed by South Asia (48 cases; 36.3%), Latin America (14; 10.6%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (1; 0.8%). The most frequent symptoms included fever, rash and headache. Initial leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were lower in patients who presented in the early phase (0-4 days), however, platelet count was lower and AST, ALT and LDH activity higher in patients with a longer symptoms duration (≥5 days). The clinical course was mostly uncomplicated. Dengue fever is becoming a frequent cause of fever in Czech travellers. Clinicians should be familiar with the typical clinical findings and novel diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dengue fever as an acute febrile disease after overseas travel: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumoto, Norihito; Abe, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a relatively common infection in travelers, with about 100 cases being reported annually in Japan, and this number is increasing. We herein describe two patients who developed a fever after returning to Japan from Southeast Asia and who were serologically diagnosed with DF. Patient 1 was a 19-year-old man who spent 6 days in Thailand and developed diarrhea and a fever after returning to Japan. Virological studies showed dengue virus (DV) serotype 3 by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and anti-DV IgM and IgG antibodies were both positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patient 2 was a 43-year-old man who spent time in various Asian countries and developed a fever and arthralgia after returning to Japan. Virological studies showed DV serotype 2 by RT-PCR, and anti-DV IgM and IgG antibodies were both positive by ELISA. DF and other febrile diseases, including Chikungunya fever, should be strongly suspected in patients who develop fever after returning to Japan from other Asian countries, irrespective of whether patients remember being bitten by mosquitoes.

  2. Dengue fever in patients admitted in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M. A.; Saqib, M. A. N.; Qureshi, H.; Alam, S. E.; Arif, A.; Khan, Z. U.; Saeed, Q.; Iqbal, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the gaps in the diagnosis and management of dengue fever cases. Methods: The retrospective descriptive analytical study was done with a case record analysis of patients with dengue fever admitted from January to December 2010 at five tertiary care hospitals in different Pakistani cities. Using a questionnaire, information was gathered on demography, haematological profile, management, use of blood and platelet transfusions and the outcome. For comparison, data of serologically-confirmed dengue patients from a private laboratory in Islamabad was collected to see the age, gender and month-wise distribution of cases tested over the same period. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of the 841 confirmed dengue cases, 514 (79%) were males and 139 (21%) females. The overall mean age was 31.3+-14.0 years. Dengue fever was seen in 653 (78%) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in 188 (22%) patients. Most cases were between 20 and 49 years of age. A gradual increase in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever was seen from August, with a peak in October/November. Tourniquet test was done only in 20 (2.3%) cases, out of which 11 (55%) were positive and 9 (45%) were negative. Serial haematocrit was not done in any case. Total deaths were 5 (0.6%). Conclusions: Most cases were seen in October/November with the majority being in the 20-39 age group. Tourniquet test and serial haematocrit were infrequently used. No standard national guidelines were employed. (author)

  3. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What About My Child and Rheumatic Fever? Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction that can occur after ... strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  5. Usefulness of the early molecular diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsial diseases in patients with fever of intermediate duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-12-01

    Most cases of fever of intermediate duration (FDI) in Spain are associated with infectious diseases (mainly Q fever and rickettsia infections). In clinical practice, the causal diagnosis of these entities is based on immunodiagnostic techniques, which are of little help in the early stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsia diseases in patients with FDI. A PCR method was used to detect the presence of genetic material of Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in blood specimens from 271 patients with FDI. The specificity of both techniques is high, allowing diagnosis in cases undiagnosed by specific antibodies detection. These data suggest that the use of molecular techniques, with proper selection of the study specimen, and using appropriate primers is a useful tool in the early diagnosis of the main causes of FDI, especially if serology is negative or inconclusive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

  7. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, M’hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle

    2009-01-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  8. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  9. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.N. Naicker, J. Moodley, A. Van Middelkoop, R.C. Cooper. Abstract. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. The prevalence of ... The TPHA test is therefore advocated for screening patients for syphilis.

  10. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of· syphilis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-02

    Apr 2, 1983 ... Experiences at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. S. N. NAICKER, J. MOODLEY, A. VAN MIDDELKOOP, R. C. COOPER. Summary. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital,. Durban. The prevalence ...

  11. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  12. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical, parasitological and serological diagnostic methods were compared for definitive diagnosis of human onchocerciasis in three endemic communities of Nkpologu, Ukpab and Obimo located at differing distances from the bank of Adada river in Nsukka i ; senatorial zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The results revealed ...

  13. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  14. Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic Evidence of Antigenically and Genetically Distinct Chicken Astroviruses in Nigerian ... This knowledge will engender research into the prevalence, distribution, pathogenicity and economic losses caused by these diseases, and ultimately lead to the design ...

  15. Association of serologic and hematologic test results in dengue infant patients in RSUP. Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A.; Handayani, I.; Indrati, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of Dengue virus infection is increasing every year,and the progression of the disease is faster towards severe manifestations in infants than in children and adults.The clinical appearance is still challenging to make for the diagnosis of dengue fever, so routine blood examination becomes one of thefurther enforcement efforts. The gold standard isconfirmatory tests for dengue, but this examination would be difficult in remote areas and also cost more. Research on serological testing and its association with routine blood testing in infant dengue-infected patients is still less publicized. The purpose of this study was to describe theconnection between serological and routine blood test results of infant dengue infection patients in RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin. Observational design in dengue 56 infants with 2-12 months age range examined serologic test and routine blood examination. The results showed that serological testing tended to be on routine blood tests. It can be from differences in routine blood tests such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. Also, there was also no difference in routine blood profile between reactive and non-reactive IgM groups. It suggests that routine blood examination results are still lacking for the diagnosis of dengue.

  16. A Serological Survey About Zoonoses in the Verkhoyansk Area, Northeastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaval, Jean-François; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gibert, Morgane; Gurieva, Alla; Outreville, Jonathan; Dyachkovskaya, Praskovia; Fabre, Richard; Fedorova, Sardana; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Dubois, Damien; Melnitchuk, Olga; Daviaud-Fabre, Pascale; Marty, Marie; Alekseev, Anatoly; Crubezy, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic.

  17. Allergenicity study of EGFP-transgenic chicken meat by serological and 2D-DIGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakano, Mikiharu; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Ezaki, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods must be tested for safety, including by allergenicity tests to ensure that they do not contain new allergens or higher concentrations of known allergens than the same non-GM foods. In this study experimentally developed EGFP-transgenic chickens were used and evaluated the allergenicity of meat from the chicken based on a serological and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis. For the serological analysis, a Western blotting with allergen-specific antibodies and a proteomic analysis of chicken meat allergens with patients' sera, a so-called allergenome analysis, were used. The allergenome analysis allowed us to identify five IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat, including a known allergen, chicken serum albumin, and no qualitative difference in their expressions between the GM and non-GM chicken meat was found. Results of the 2D-DIGE analysis showed that none of the IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat were significantly changed in expression levels between non-GM and GM chicken, and only 3 of the 1500 soluble protein spots including green fluorescence protein were markedly different as a result of gene transfer. These above results showed that the combination of serological and 2D-DIGE analysis is a valid method of evaluating quality and quantity of allergens in GM foods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents are devices that consist of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus antigens and antisera used to identify...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  1. VIRAL TESTING USING BIOLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY FOR MOST IMPORTANT VIRUSES TO PLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catita Plopa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV, 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV. There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: ‘GF 305’, ‘Tuleu dulce’ and ‘Vânăt de Italia’, have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples.On biological indicator ‘Vânăt de Italia’ and ‘Tuleu dulce’ not appeared symptoms for ‘Centenar’variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on ‘GF 305’ indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by ‘Vânăt de Italia’ biological indicator.

  2. Sonography in the diagnosis and assessment of dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, V R; Patil, Prashanth G; Srinath, M G; Kumar, Ashok; Jain, Aditi; Archana, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study is to determine the use of ultrasound as an important adjunct to clinical and laboratory profile in diagnosing dengue fever and in predicting the severity of the disease by correlating imaging features with platelet count. The variation in sonographic features seen in patients from different age groups was also studied. This is a retrospective study. 96 patients who were serologically diagnosed as having dengue fever between April and August 2012 were referred for ultrasound scanning of the abdomen and thorax and the imaging findings were analyzed. Out of 96 sero-positive dengue cases, 64 (66.7%) patients showed edematous gallbladder (GB) wall thickening, 62 (64.5%) patients showed ascites, 48 (50%) patients had pleural effusion, 17 (17.7%) patients had hepatomegaly, 16 (16.7%) patients had splenomegaly and in 17 (17.7%) patients ultrasound findings were normal. Edematous GB wall thickening, ascites and pleural effusion were the most common combination of findings in all age groups. Edematous GB wall thickening was seen in 97.8% of patients with platelet count of less than 40,000 along with ascites (86.9%) and pleural effusion (58.6%). In patients with platelet count between 40,000 and 80,000 ascites was more common than edematous GB wall thickening. Significantly no abnormal sonographic finding was detected in patient with platelet count more than 150,000. Sonographic features of thickened GB wall, pleural effusion (bilateral or right side), ascites, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly should strongly favor the diagnosis of dengue fever in patients presenting with fever and associated symptoms, particularly during an epidemic. The degree of thrombocytopenia showed a significant direct relationship to abnormal ultrasound features.

  3. Persistent Q fever and ischaemic stroke in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Quijada, S; Salazar-Thieroldt, E; Mora-Simón, M J

    2015-04-01

    Whether persistent or chronic Q fever may act as a risk factor for stroke is unknown. A case-control study was conducted in the Hospital Universitario de Burgos (Spain) between February 2011 and December 2012. A total of 803 samples from 634 consecutive hospitalized patients ≥65 years old were tested, of whom 111 were cases (patients with prevalent or incident ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack) and 523 were controls (patients without ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titres phase I and II against Q fever, and IgG antibodies levels against Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus (CMV), were determined using immunofluorescence assay and ELISA methods, respectively. Phase I IgG titres against Coxiella burnetii ≥1:256 (compatible with chronic or persistent Q fever) were detected in 16 of 110 (14.5%) cases and in 32 of 524 (6.1%) controls; P = .004, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 4.9. This ratio was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardioembolic focus, smoking, diabetes, other cardiovascular diseases, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3). High-titre IgG antibodies (top quartile) against CMV (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5), but not against C. pneumoniae (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.6), also were associated with ischaemic stroke after adjustment for risk factors. In conclusion, serology compatible with persistent or chronic Q fever is associated with ischaemic stroke in elderly patients. High levels of IgG antibodies against CMV, but not against C. pneumoniae, also are associated with ischaemic stroke in these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sonography in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Dengue Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the use of ultrasound as an important adjunct to clinical and laboratory profile in diagnosing dengue fever and in predicting the severity of the disease by correlating imaging features with platelet count. The variation in sonographic features seen in patients from different age groups was also studied. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. 96 patients who were serologically diagnosed as having dengue fever between April and August 2012 were referred for ultrasound scanning of the abdomen and thorax and the imaging findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 96 sero-positive dengue cases, 64 (66.7% patients showed edematous gallbladder (GB wall thickening, 62 (64.5% patients showed ascites, 48 (50% patients had pleural effusion, 17 (17.7% patients had hepatomegaly, 16 (16.7% patients had splenomegaly and in 17 (17.7% patients ultrasound findings were normal. Edematous GB wall thickening, ascites and pleural effusion were the most common combination of findings in all age groups. Edematous GB wall thickening was seen in 97.8% of patients with platelet count of less than 40,000 along with ascites (86.9% and pleural effusion (58.6%. In patients with platelet count between 40,000 and 80,000 ascites was more common than edematous GB wall thickening. Significantly no abnormal sonographic finding was detected in patient with platelet count more than 150,000. Conclusion: Sonographic features of thickened GB wall, pleural effusion (bilateral or right side, ascites, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly should strongly favor the diagnosis of dengue fever in patients presenting with fever and associated symptoms, particularly during an epidemic. The degree of thrombocytopenia showed a significant direct relationship to abnormal ultrasound features.

  5. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Shaikh, I.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  6. Acute Rheumatic Fever versus Post-Streptococcal Reactive Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. A migrating polyarthritis after throat infection with group A β-haemolytic streptococci is classically attributed to acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Sterile non-migratory arthritis may occur as a separate entity, the so called post streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). This study aimed to identify clinical and serological differences of patients with reactive arthritis after infection with Lance field group Aβ-haemolytic streptococci, compared with acute rheumatic fever. Hundred and twenty patients were recruited for the study , they were classified into two groups according to the diagnosis of ARF and PSRA patients consecutively seen in the Rheumatology and the Pediatric wards. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed through a questionnaire. The diagnosis of rheumatic fever was made based on revised modified Jones' criteria, while the diagnosis of post streptococcal reactive arthritis was made based on Deighton criteria; these associated with laboratory data, electrocardiography, chest X-ray, and bi-dimensional echocardiography. Results revealed no significant differences between both groups as regard age where ρ>0.05, while there were a significant difference regarding the date of antecedent upper respiratory tract infection (ρ 0.05). Regarding the cardio logical changes P-R interval by ECG was prolonged in 19 patients (31.67%)and Echo study showed changes in 12 patient (20%) of cases of ARF patient only. On the basis of simple laboratory variables and management, it ws possible to differentiate ARF from PSRA patients. So it could be concluded that these two conditions are actually distinct identities

  7. Evaluation of dipstick serologic tests for diagnosis of brucellosis and typhoid Fever in egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Tharwat F.; Smits, Henk; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Malone, Joseph L.; Fadeel, Moustafa A.; Mahoney, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Two dipstick assays for the detection of Brucella- and typhoid-specific immunoglobulin M, recently developed by the Royal Tropical Institute of The Netherlands, were evaluated by use of 85 plasma samples from Egyptian patients. Both dipsticks were simple and accurate rapid diagnostic assays, and

  8. ETIOLOGY OF OROYA FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1926-01-01

    The experiments reported here were carried on in the main with passage strains of Bartonella bacilliformis, and the results indicate that the virulence of the organism has been considerably enhanced by passage through susceptible animals. While the animals of the earlier experimental series showed no anemia, some of the present group manifested a definite reduction in the number of red cells and in hemoglobin, and in one instance (M. rhesus 25) anemia was of the extreme type so often associated with Oroya fever in man. The anemic condition appeared to be secondary in character, however, nucleated red cells being few in number. In this animal also Bartonella bacilliformis was readily demonstrated in the erythrocytes by means of stained smears, though the number of cells invaded by the parasites was by no means so great as in the human infection. In most instances of experimental Bartonella infection so far induced the demonstration of the parasites by ordinary routine examination of stained film preparations is possible only when the titer of the blood exceeds 1:1,000. Prolonged search of many slides has not been attempted, however. The number of microorganisms in the blood, as shown by culture tests of ascending dilutions, was in most instances highest (1:100,000 to 1:10,000,000) during the early period of the infection coincident usually with the period of highest fever, falling to a titer of 1:10 during the last half of the disease. In one of the fatally infected monkeys, however, the titer increased from 1:10 on the 4th day to 1:1,000,000 on the 24th day. The titer of the blood was equally great in Monkeys 5 and 6, although the former was inoculated locally, the other intravenously and intraperitoneally. The largest proportion of infected red cells was found in Monkey 25, while the blood titer, as shown by culture test, was highest in Monkey 7. The febrile reaction varied in the animals of this series from a severe continuous fever of 104–105°F., lasting 2 to

  9. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  10. Phylogenetic analysis in a recent controlled outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the south of Iran, December 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mojtaba Ghiasi, S

    2010-01-01

    herd were serologically analysed and more than half of them were positive for CCHFV. We demonstrated that two routes of transmission played a role in this outbreak: contact with tissue and blood of infected livestock, and nosocomial transmission. Phylogenetic analyses helped to identify the origin......Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock. In December 2008, a re-emerging outbreak...... of CCHF occurred in the southern part of Iran. Five people were hospitalised with sudden fever and haemorrhaging, and CCHF was confirmed by RT-PCR and serological assays. One of the cases had a fulminant course and died. Livestock was identified as the source of infection; all animals in the incriminated...

  11. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  12. Molecular Identification of Q Fever in Patients with a Suspected Diagnosis of Dengue in Brazil in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica M M; Rozental, Tatiana; Guterres, Alexandro; Ferreira, Michelle Dos Santos; Botticini, Renato De Gasperis; Terra, Ana Kely Carolina; Marraschi, Sandro; Bochner, Rosany; Lemos, Elba R S

    2016-05-04

    Q fever is an important cause of undifferentiated fever that is rarely recognized or reported in Brazil. The objective of this study was to look for the presence of Coxiella burnetii during a dengue fever outbreak in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where this bacterium had previously infected humans and domesticated animals. Blood samples from clinically suspected dengue fever patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C. burnetii; the DNA was detected in nine (3.3%) of 272 patients. One was coinfected with dengue virus, which was also detected in another 166 (61.3%) patients. The nucleotide sequence of PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the IS1111 transposase elements in the genome of C. burnetii exhibited 99% identity with the sequence in GenBank. The detection of C. burnetii in patients suspected of dengue fever indicates that awareness and knowledge of Q fever should be strengthened and that this bacterium is present in Brazil. Finally, because a negative molecular result does not completely rule out the diagnosis of Q fever and the serological assay based on seroconversion was not available, the actual number of this zoonosis is likely to be much higher than that reported in this study. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Xing; Wang, Jin; Lin, Hualiang; Chen, Lingling; Wu, Zhifeng; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-07-17

    Background : Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods : Moran's I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results : Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature ( q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation ( q = 0.24), road density ( q = 0.24), and water body area ( q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions : Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou.

  15. Rift Valley fever vaccines: current and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungu, Baptiste; Lubisi, Baratang A; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2018-03-04

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne bunyaviral disease associated with high abortion rates, neonatal deaths, and fetal malformations in ruminants, and mild to severe disease in humans. Outbreaks of RVF cause huge economic losses and public health impacts in endemic countries in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A proper vaccination strategy is important for preventing or minimizing outbreaks. Vaccination against RVF is not practiced in many countries, however, due to absence or irregular occurrences of outbreaks, despite serological evidence of RVF viral activity. Nonetheless, effective vaccination strategies, and functional national and international multi-disciplinary networks, remain crucial for ensuring availability of vaccines and supporting execution of vaccination in high risk areas for efficient response to RVF alerts and outbreaks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial analysis of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-12-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999-2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran (P < 0.01) and the second most common foci were in northeastern and central Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries.

  17. A hospital-based study of hepatic dysfunction in children with dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hepatic dysfunction in children with dengue infection and find out its correlation with the severity of dengue fever. Methods: Seventy-two cases of dengue fever as per the World Health Organization aged from 2 months to 18 years of age guidelines serologically confirmed by dengue NS1 antigen detection or dengue IgM capture ELISA were studied for their hepatic dysfunction after excluding malaria, enteric fever, hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The duration of the study was from April 2013 to March 2014. Results: These 72 cases were grouped into severe dengue, dengue fever with warning sign and dengue fever without warning sign as per the World Health Organization guidelines. The spectrums of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (66%, hepatic tenderness (44%, jaundice (9.72%, raised levels of aspartate transaminase (86%, alanine transaminase (90%, alkaline phosphatase (39%, prolonged prothrombin time (11% and reduced levels of serum albumin (66%. Conclusions: Tender hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes were seen more frequently in severe dengue. There was significant derangement between liver function and tender hepatomegaly. Altered liver function may be evident even in the absence of hepatomegaly.

  18. Humidifier fever 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    MRC Symposium (1977).Thorax, 32, 653-663. Humidifier fever. In enclosed environments, it may be necessary to regulate temperature, ventilation, and humidity to maintain comfortable working conditions. Several systems can be used although in terms of installation and running costs a simple radiator system is far more economical than air conditioning with complete temperature and humidity control. Humidity control requires the introduction of water into a moving current of air, and in such a system baffle plates are often used to eliminate large droplets; also any unused water is usually recirculated. Organic dust drawn into the system and settling on the baffle plates and in the mixing chamber may be utilised by micro-organisms introduced from the atmosphere and from the water supply, and a biomass builds up. Microbial material is then voided into the working atmosphere by the ventilation system. Under appropriate exposure conditions susceptible individuals may succumb to an episode of humidifier fever, an influenza-like illness with pyrexia and malaise as the main symptoms, but cough, chest tightness, dyspnoea and weight loss may also be seen. The episodes usually occur after absence from work for a few days and have been termed `Monday sickness'. Individuals are often able to return to work the next day and appear refractory to further exposure. The disease is of the winter months probably due to the larger amount (up to 90%) of fresh air drawn into the humidifier during the summer. In the blood of exposed subjects precipitins are usually present to extracts of baffle plate material and recirculating water although they are not necessarily indicative of disease. Skin tests may be positive and inhalation challenge has reproduced the disease in susceptible individuals. Many organisms may be isolated from baffle plates and recirculating water but only amoeba extracts have produced consistently positive reactions with sera from affected individuals. Remedial actions

  19. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  20. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Galkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.

  1. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  2. Clinical manifestations and hematological and serological findings in children with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Rahma Karyanti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is endemic to Indonesia and remains a public health problem, with its highest incidence in children. There have been few reports on the clinical, hematological and serological data in children \\\\lith dengue. Objective To assess the clinical and laboratory profiles of children \\\\lith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods Clinical, hematological and serological infonnation from children diagnosed v.ith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were collected from 2007 to 2009. Results Of611 children admitted with dengue, 143 (23.4% had dengue fever (DF, 252 (41.2% had DHF grades I and II; and 216 (35.4% had DHF grades III and IV. Of the 81 cases where dengue serotypes were identified, 12.3% were DENV1, 35.8% were DENV-2, 48.2% were DENV-3 and 3.7% were DENV-4. Mean age of subjects was 8.9 years (SD 4.4, and 48.4% of cases were boys. The mean length of fever before hospital admission was 4.2 days (SD 1.1 and mean length of stay in the hospital was 4 days (SD 2.7. Common symptoms observed were petechiae, hepatomegaly and epistaxis. Complications found mostly in those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS were hematemesis (30 cases, 4.9% of all patients, encephalopathy (19 cases, 3.1 % and melena (17 cases, 2.8%. Conclusion Signs and symptoms of fever, bleeding manifestations and thrombocytopenia were present in children 'With DF and DHF, while signs of increased vascular permeability were found only in those 'With DHF. Encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding were found mostly in DSS cases. At admission, leukopenia was found in more DF patients than in DHF patients. Absence of leukopenia may be a sign of more severe dengue infection.

  3. Neurologic manifestations associated with an outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi--Mozambique, 2009: an epidemiologic investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sejvar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is typically associated with fever and abdominal pain. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Malawi-Mozambique in 2009 was notable for a high proportion of neurologic illness. OBJECTIVE: Describe neurologic features complicating typhoid fever during an outbreak in Malawi-Mozambique METHODS: Persons meeting a clinical case definition were identified through surveillance, with laboratory confirmation of typhoid by antibody testing or blood/stool culture. We gathered demographic and clinical information, examined patients, and evaluated a subset of patients 11 months after onset. A sample of persons with and without neurologic signs was tested for vitamin B6 and B12 levels and urinary thiocyanate. RESULTS: Between March - November 2009, 303 cases of typhoid fever were identified. Forty (13% persons had objective neurologic findings, including 14 confirmed by culture/serology; 27 (68% were hospitalized, and 5 (13% died. Seventeen (43% had a constellation of upper motor neuron findings, including hyperreflexia, spasticity, or sustained ankle clonus. Other neurologic features included ataxia (22, 55%, parkinsonism (8, 20%, and tremors (4, 10%. Brain MRI of 3 (ages 5, 7, and 18 years demonstrated cerebral atrophy but no other abnormalities. Of 13 patients re-evaluated 11 months later, 11 recovered completely, and 2 had persistent hyperreflexia and ataxia. Vitamin B6 levels were markedly low in typhoid fever patients both with and without neurologic signs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic signs may complicate typhoid fever, and the diagnosis should be considered in persons with acute febrile neurologic illness in endemic areas.

  4. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  5. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  6. Serological Follow up in 50 Brucellosis Cases in a Rural Area

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    Semra Özgümüş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is an endemic and zoonotic disease in livestock farming areas. Patients may exhibit relapses, reinfections and multi-system complications. Therefore, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment as well as serological follow-up are extremely important in the management of this disease. Methods: We aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors in 50 brucellosis cases (14 males, 36 females who were treated in Hakkari State Hospital. All patients were evaluated for post-treatment serological results. Results: The mean age of the patients was 35 years. The main clinical symptoms were arthralgia, fatigue, sweating, back pain, and headache. Fever, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and arthritis were the most common signs. Anemia, high level of AST and ALT, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, high sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis were found in laboratory tests. The Wright agglutination test was positive at titers of 1/160 in 18 cases, 1/320 in 22 cases, 1/640 in 3 cases, and 1/1280 in 7 cases. Twelve patients had relapse. One patient, who was a veterinarian, was infected via splashing live brucella vaccine into the eyes. Two women transmitted the disease to their babies through breast milk. At the end of the treatment, Wright agglutination test results were negative in all patients. Conclusion: The average duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was 4 months in our study. Therefore, brucellosis should be considered in all individuals who present with fever and arthralgia in endemic areas (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:139-42

  7. High seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001 and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001 of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5% and seroconversion rate (33.3% of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases with those who were negative (43 cases, the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255, sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351, cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199, and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258, were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.

  8. The hemodyafiltration in the acute renal failure at the patients’ haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Trusov, V.; Shaklein, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Udmurt Republic is the natural focus and the hot spot of the haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome (HFNS). The acute renal failure (ARF), by our data, is being developed from 24 up to 49 % of the HFNS diseased persons, at the severe forms of which, side by side with the medicamental therapy, the hemodialysis is being used. In the last years, the efferent therapy new methods such, as the hemofiltration, the hemodyafiltration (HDF) are being used for the ARF medical treatment.

  9. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  10. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  11. Chest x-ray in Q-fever pneumonia: a series of 71 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encinas, B.; Cerezal, L.F.; Fidalgo, I.; Bustamente, M.; Lopez Calderon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chest X ray features of 71 cases of Q-fever serologically confirmed and with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory disease were retrospectively assessed in order to evaluate the radiographic features. In 68 cases (96%) The X-ray films were abnormal. Segmental consolidation, sometimes multiple and bilateral were tue most usual findings. Nodular opacities were found in 6 cases (9%) and can mimic a tumor. Cavitacion , a very unusual findings, was found in two nodular consolidations(two patients). Laminar atelectasis was less common than proviously reported. As in other series, total resolution or with minimal scars occurs within 3 months 15 refs

  12. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tests to identify antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in serum. The identification aids in... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...

  13. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  14. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

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    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  15. The cause of fever and pulmonary infiltrate: a difficult etiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare condition that typically presents itself with intermittent fever, arthralgia and salmon colored rash. The involvement of the in lung is less common and very rare. Diagnosis is relatively difficult because of the presence of non-specific symptoms and the lack of serological markers specific to the disease. We report the case of a patient having a pulmonary infiltrate/infiltration compatible with pneumonia, cutaneous/skin rash and persistence of fever with multiple admissions to the Emergency Room due to the failure of treatment with antibiotics. After an appropriate work-up, a diagnosis of adult-onset Still’s disease was made.

  16. Dengue Fever among Renal Transplant Recipients: A Series of 10 Cases in a Tropical Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvana Daher; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Jacinto, Camilla Neves; Martiniano, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita; Amaral, Yago Sucupira; Paes, Fernando Jose Villar Nogueira; De Mattos Brito Oliveira Sales, Maria Luiza; de Matos Esmeraldo, Ronaldo; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This is a case series of 10 consecutive renal allograft recipients, followed at a tertiary hospital in northeast Brazil, with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue. Five of the patients needed hospitalization. Half of them were males and age ranged from 19 to 60 years with a median of 38.2 years. They had been transplanted for a mean of 5 days to 166 months. Four patients developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). All patients had myalgia and headache. All of them, except one, had fever. Positive dengue serology (IgM) was found in all patients. No patient died. Dengue is an important infectious disease that can affect renal transplant recipients, mainly in endemic areas. Its presentation seems to be similar to that seen in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26033028

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  18. Sadfly fever: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-01-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as ‘three-day fever’ or ‘pappataci fever’ or ‘Phlebotomus fever’ is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver functi...

  19. Dengue fever: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-07-01

    Dengue fever is a common tropical infection. This acute febrile illness can be a deadly infection in cases of severe manifestation, causing dengue hemorrhagic shock. In this brief article, I will summarize and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. For diagnosis of dengue, most tropical doctors make use of presumptive diagnosis; however, the definite diagnosis should be based on immunodiagnosis or viral study. Focusing on treatment, symptomatic and supportive treatment is the main therapeutic approach. The role of antiviral drugs in the treatment of dengue fever has been limited, but is currently widely studied.

  20. relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... Increase of gold mining, improved local economy, housing and standards of living after the nineties ... countries, Central Asia, the Middle East and the. Americas, tick borne relapsing fever is rare. It is often ... ten miles and 30% from over 10 miles, but inside the district. Figure 1. Admission. 30000. 25000.

  1. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  2. Rhinitis (Hay Fever): Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Rhinitis TTR Share | Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Do you suffer from frequent sneezing, congestion or ... Triggers Seasonal allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is triggered by outdoor allergens such as pollen ...

  3. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English (US) ... and 15 years old. People Can Spread Scarlet Fever Germs to Others Group A strep bacteria can ...

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search the CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  5. Neurological complications of dengue fever: Experience from a tertiary center of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue, an acute viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection have been observed more frequently in the recent past and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications arising in the course of dengue illness. In this retrospective study, we report various neurological complications observed during the last 2 years in patients of dengue fever. Materials and Methods: The patients presenting with neurological complications with positive serology (IgM antibody for dengue infection were consecutively recruited from the Department of Neurology/Medicine from a tertiary center of Lucknow, India. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood count, hematocrit, coagulation parameters, biochemical assays, serology for dengue fever, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus and other relevant investigations. Results: Twenty-six patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection were observed during the last 2 years. Eighteen of these patients were male. Of the 26 patients, 10 patients were suffering from brachial neuritis, four patients had encephalopathy, three patients were consistent with the diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome, three patients had hypokalemic paralysis associated with dengue fever and two patients had acute viral myositis. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome was diagnosed in two patients, myelitis in one patient and acute disseminated encephalo-myelitis also in one patient. Conclusion: Dengue fever was associated with widespread neurological complications. Brachial neuritis and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome were observed for the first time in this study.

  6. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes t...

  7. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, James M; Wolff, Jacob De; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treat...

  8. CLINICAL STUDY OF FEVER WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha; Sumangala; Ishwarya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent days fever with Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical presentation in the medical wards. This study has been undertaken to know the modes of clinical presentations and possible causes of fever with Thrombocytopenia. OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine possible infective etiology for fever with Thrombocytopenia. 2. To correlate clinical features, laboratory studies and infective etiology. METHODS: Case record analysis of fever with Thrombocytopenia admitted to ...

  9. Factors Associated with Fever in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, Sabreena J; Ouyang, Bichun; Lee, Vivien H; John, Sayona

    2017-06-01

    Fever is common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify predictors of fever in patients hospitalized with ICH, and compare infectious fever with noninfectious fever. A retrospective review on consecutive spontaneous ICH patients from April 2009 to March 2010 was performed. Fever was defined as temperature 100.9°F or higher and attributed to infectious versus noninfectious etiology, based upon the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to determine factors associated with fever and with infection. Among the 351 ICH patients, 136 (39%) developed fever. Factors associated with fever included mean ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), external ventricular drain (EVD) placement or surgical evacuation, positive microbial cultures, longer length of stay (LOS), and higher in-hospital mortality. Among patients with fever, 96 (71%) were noninfectious and 40 (29%) were infectious. Infectious fever was associated with higher LOS. Noninfectious fever was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. In multivariable analysis, ICH volume (OR = 1.01, P = .04), IVH (OR = 2.0, P = .03), EVD (OR = 3.7, P fever. Infectious fever (OR = 5.26, P = .004), EVD (OR = 4.86, P = .01), and surgical evacuation (OR = 4.77, P = .04) correlated with prolonged LOS when dichotomized using a median of 15 days. Fever is common in ICH patients and is not associated with a clear infectious etiology in the majority of patients. Patients with noninfectious fever have higher in-hospital mortality, but survivors have shorter LOS. Further studies are warranted to better understand fevers in ICH. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  11. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    yalomma (Hoogstraal, 1956, 1979; Watts et al., 1989a,b). CHF viral replication and tissue tropism inHyalomma trun- atum ticks were examined by Dickson and...Evidence for its presence in France, Portugal, Egypt , and India is based only on limited serologic observations. Interestingly, after several decades...author is indebted to members of the NAMRU-3 (Cario, Egypt ) medical library for providing English trans- lations for many of the original Russian works

  12. Choroidal neovascularization induced by immunogenic alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium in dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Carlos Eduardo; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Nehemy, Márcio B

    2015-01-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to dengue fever. A 54-year-old female was referred to our department with blurred vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Two weeks earlier, she had presented all of the classic symptoms of dengue fever including a positive serology. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/150 in the left eye. She underwent a fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. All findings were consistent with CNV secondary to dengue fever. FA revealed a classic CNV associated with focal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) destruction and detachment. Three consecutive monthly injections of intravitreal ranibizumab resulted in functional and anatomical improvement for as long as 6 months with a BCVA of 20/25. However, CNV recurred 2 years later, again with an improvement after ranibizumab therapy, but with persistence of a fibrovascular RPE detachment, highlighting the pathomechanism of a classic CNV formation. Maculopathy in dengue fever may be followed by CNV as a result of the immunologic alteration of the RPE. Physicians should be aware of this manifestation to be able to initiate adequate treatment with excellent functional and anatomical results.

  13. Q fever and pregnancy: experience from the Limoges Regional University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste Mazeau, Perrine; Hantz, Sébastien; Eyraud, Jean-Luc; Donadel, Lorène; Lacorre, Aymeline; Rogez, Sylvie; Aubard, Yves; Gauthier, Tristan

    2016-08-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Its tropism for the uterus is a potential source of obstetric complications. We describe the obstetric consequences of Q fever diagnosed during pregnancy from a series of cases. When an antenatal diagnosis was made, antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin (Rulid(®)) was started until delivery. Between 2007 and 2012, 30 patients were treated for Q fever diagnosed during pregnancy, i.e. 1.9 cases per 1000 people. The most common reasons for performing serology was intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor and oligoamnios. Q fever was diagnosed as acute and chronic in 26 and 4 cases, respectively. Progression to chronic disease occurred in 8 % of acute forms of the diseases. The prevalence of obstetric complications was 66 %, including 10 % foetal deaths, 31 % preterm delivery and 27 % low birthweight pregnancy is responsible for severe obstetric complications. It must be diagnosed early and its clinical forms known in order to start appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  14. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  15. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    touching their forehead, while 21 (13.9%) used thermometer. Commonest action taken when there was fever was to administer Paracetamol (107 (70.9%)). Commonest identified complication of fever was convulsion (86(67.7%)). Conclusion: Knowledge of fever is good amongst mothers in Port Harcourt; however there is ...

  16. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  17. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  18. Management experience of surgical complications of dengue fever patients at hameed latif hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of surgical complications among patients with dengue fever. Design: Cross sectional study design was used. Settings: Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore. Methods: From March - 2009 to December - 2011 total of 875 patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in this study. Complete blood count, liver function test, blood urea, serum creatinin, serum amylase were determined in all patients admitted with the diagnosis of dengue fever. All the patients were evaluated for the presence of surgical complications by physical examination and real time ultrasound abdomen. Patient had CT - abdomen and brain where it was required. Patients having surgical complications were managed in dengue ward and ICU with multidisciplinary approach. Data entry and analysis was done by using SPSS 16. Results: Among 875 patients with dengue fever, 491 (43.9%) patients were men and 384 (48.9%) were women with age range (18 - 70) years. Surgical complications were detected in 121 (13.8%) patients: acute cholecystitis in 46 (5.26%); acute pancreatitis in 19 (2.17%); injection abscess in 14 (1.6%); gastrointestinal bleed in 24 (2.74%); forearm compartment syndrome in 3 (0.34%); abdominal compartment syndrome in 2 (0.23%) and acute appendicitis, 4 (0.46%) patients. Cerebral bleed, retroperitoneal hematoma, abdominal wall hematoma and splenic rupture was seen among 3 (0.34%), 2 (0.23%), 3 (0.34%), and 1 (0.11%) patients, respectively. Out of 121 patients surgery was done in 20 (16.5%) patients while rest of 101 (83.5%) patients were managed conservatively. Two patients died. Conclusion: Surgical complications are common and should be suspected in every patient with dengue fever. Majority of surgical manifestations of dengue fever were managed conservatively however surgical intervention was done in certain cases with favorable outcome. (author)

  19. Katayama fever ID scuba divers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... A. C. EVANS, D. J. MARTIN, B. D. GINSBURG. Summary. Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had contact with a large dam in an·endemic area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld at the same time ...

  20. THE TRANSMISSION OF YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.

    1930-01-01

    1. Saimiri sciureus has been infected with yellow fever virus, both by the inoculation of infectious blood and by the bites of infective mosquitoes. Some of the monkeys have died, showing lesions, including hepatic necrosis, suggesting yellow fever as seen in human beings and in rhesus monkeys. Virus has been transferred back to M. rhesus from infected Saimiri both by blood inoculation and by mosquito bites. The virus undoubtedly has been maintained through four direct passages in Saimiri. Reinoculations of infectious material into recovered monkeys have not given rise to invasion of the blood stream by virus. Sera from recovered animals have protected M. rhesus against the inoculation of virus. 2. It has been possible to pass the virus to and from Ateleus ater by the injection of blood or liver and by the bites of mosquitoes. The livers from two infected animals have shown no necrosis. The serum from one recovered monkey proved to be protective for M. rhesus. 3. Only three out of twelve Lagothrix lagotricha have reacted to yellow fever virus by a rise in temperature. Probably none have died as a result of the infection. In only one instance has the virus been transferred back to M. rhesus. The sera of recovered animals have had a protective action against yellow fever virus. PMID:19869721

  1. Diarrhea associated with typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Butler, T.; Nath, S.; Rahman, H.; Stoll, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    To study the pathogenesis of diarrhea occurring with typhoid fever, we selected 42 patients with diarrhea and blood cultures positive for Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, but without diarrheal copathogens, for measurement of stool output and examination of fecal composition. The mean

  2. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  3. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to echovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to poliovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in serological tests to identify antibodies to mumps virus in serum. Additionally, some of these... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L C

    1985-04-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  11. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, L C

    1985-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  12. Serological study of yaws in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Ying; Soebekti, R.

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of serological analyses made by the laboratory of the Treponematoses Control Project, Indonesia, from its establishment in April 1951 until April 1953. All sera were tested quantitatively with the VDRL and Kline slide-tests or the Kahn test, or with all three. A study of the mean reagin titre in untreated yaws cases showed that the percentage of seronegative reactors among clinically positive cases was low. Less seronegativity was observed among females than males. Examination of decrease in mean reagin titre after treatment by clinical group showed maximum to minimum decrease in the following sequence: early contagious, early contagious plus hyperkeratosis, ulcerative plus osteo-articular, ulcerative, hyperkeratosis, and osteo-articular lesions. The decrease tended to be greater in females than males and in patients with high than with low titre; it also varied with the age of the patient. No significant variation in decrease was noted when four different PAM treatment schedules were tested comparatively. The percentage of serological cure and improvement with all schedules was highest in the cases with early lesions, and in the younger age-groups. A study of patients requiring re-treatment at the time of resurvey showed no important difference in mean reagin titre between clinically cured and uncured patients suffering from palmar or plantar hyperkeratosis and ulcerative or osteo-articular lesions. Serological testing of sera from clinically negative household contacts and non-contacts, with or without previous history of yaws, gave the following results: Among the household contacts, the number of seronegative reactors, while not affected by age-distribution, was significantly higher in the history-positive than in the history-negative groups. The percentage of seropositive reactors was in direct proportion to the prevalence of yaws, the seropositivity-rate being high in villages with a yaws incidence of 11%-30%. The report also

  13. Evaluation of fever in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Sarah; Chavez, Summer A; Perkins, Jack; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Fever is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED) and is more complex than generally appreciated. The broad differential diagnosis of fever includes numerous infectious and non-infectious etiologies. An essential skill in emergency medicine is recognizing the pitfalls in fever evaluation. This review provides an overview of the complaint of fever in the ED to assist the emergency physician with a structured approach to evaluation. Fever can be due to infectious or non-infectious etiology and results from the body's natural response to a pyrogen. Adjunctive testing including C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and procalcitonin has been evaluated in the literature, but these tests do not have the needed sensitivity and specificity to definitively rule in a bacterial cause of fever. Blood cultures should be obtained in septic shock or if the results will change clinical management. Fever may not be always present in true infection, especially in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Oral temperatures suffer from poor sensitivity to diagnose fever, and core temperatures should be utilized if concern for fever is present. Consideration of non-infectious causes of elevated temperature is needed based on the clinical situation. Any fever evaluation must rigorously maintain a broad differential to avoid pitfalls that can have patient care consequences. Fever is complex and due to a variety of etiologies. An understanding of the pathophysiology, causes, and assessment is important for emergency physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Pentastomosis. A serological study of 193 Ivorians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P; Cagnard, V; Doucet, J

    1982-01-01

    Pentastomosis is the infection caused by the larvae of a worm resorting to Armillifer genus, the adults living in the lungs of big african snakes. Eggs are released with snakes slime and dejecta and ingested by man and various animals. Larvae are disseminated through lymphatic vessels in peritoneum, liver, spleen, lungs, pleurae, and rarely in kidneys, brain or even eye. Most often the infection is fortuitously detected during a radiologic control or a surgical inspection. The serological prevalence was of 4.2 p. 100 as a whole, somewhat lower than that given by post mortem examinations but higher than the prevalence resulting of radiologic controls. Children under 5 are concerned with a prevalence of 7 p. 100.

  15. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  16. Biochemical and serological properties of Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmler, C

    1991-12-01

    The Strep-Zym identification system, a combination of 23 enzymatic tests, allowed a rapid biochemical characterization of Streptococcus uberis. The biochemical profiles of the S. uberis cultures clearly differed from those of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae. Serological grouping of S. uberis revealed polysaccharide antigens of groups E, G, P and U. Some cultures of S. uberis demonstrated CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities on sheep blood agar and reacted specifically with the lectins of Helix pomatia and Dolichos biflorus. The occurrence of group polysaccharides, CAMP-like reactivities, and the lectin agglutination reactions were obviously not related to each other or to any of the biochemical properties. These reactions, possibly of importance as virulence factors, might serve as epidemiological markers.

  17. Serology of paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides lutzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Pereira, Edy Firmina; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-07-01

    Paracoccidioides lutzii is a new agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and has its epicenter localized to the Central-West region of Brazil. Serological diagnosis of PCM caused by P. lutzii has not been established. This study aimed to develop new antigenic preparations from P. lutzii and to apply them in serological techniques to improve the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. Paracoccidioides lutzii exoantigens, cell free antigen (CFA), and a TCA-precipitated antigen were evaluated in immunodiffusion (ID) tests using a total of 89 patient sera from the Central-West region of Brazil. Seventy-two sera were defined as reactive for P. brasiliensis using traditional antigens (AgPbB339 and gp43). Non-reactive sera for traditional antigens (n = 17) were tested with different P. lutzii preparations and P. lutzii CFA showed 100% reactivity. ELISA was found to be a very useful test to titer anti-P. lutzii antibodies using P. lutzii-CFA preparations. Sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii presented with higher antibody titers than PCM due to P. brasiliensis and heterologous sera. In western blot, sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii were able to recognize antigenic molecules from the P. lutzii-CFA antigen, but sera from patients with PCM due to P. brasiliensis could not recognize any P. lutzii molecules. Due to the facility of preparing P. lutzii CFA antigens we recommend its use in immunodiffusion tests for the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. ELISA and western blot can be used as complementary tests.

  18. Imunopatogenesis Treponema pallidum dan Pemeriksaan Serologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSifilis adalah penyakit menular seksual yang sangat infeksius, disebabkan oleh bakteri berbentuk spiral, Treponema pallidum subspesies pallidum. Penyebaran sifilis di dunia telah menjadi masalah kesehatan yang besar dengan jumlah kasus 12 juta pertahun. Infeksi sifilis dibagi menjadi sifilis stadium dini dan lanjut. Sifilis stadium dini terbagi menjadi sifilis primer, sekunder, dan laten dini. Sifilis stadium lanjut termasuk sifilis tersier (gumatous, sifilis kardiovaskular dan neurosifilis serta sifilis laten lanjut. Sifilis primer didiagnosis berdasarkan gejala klinis ditemukannya satu atau lebih chancre (ulser. Sifilis sekunder ditandai dengan ditemukannya lesi mukokutaneus yang terlokalisir atau difus dengan limfadenopati. Sifilis laten tanpa gejala klinis sifilis dengan pemeriksaan nontreponemal dan treponemal reaktif, riwayat terapi sifilis dengan titer uji nontreponemal yang meningkat dibandingkan dengan hasil titer nontreponemal sebelumnya. Sifilis tersier ditemukan guma dengan pemeriksaan treponemal reaktif, sekitar 30% dengan uji nontreponemal yang tidak reaktifKata kunci: sifilis, Treponema pallidum, serologiAbstractSyphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly infectious, caused by a spiral -shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The spread of syphilis in the world has become a major health problem and the common, the number of 12 million cases per year. Infectious syphilis is divided into early and late-stage syphilis. Early-stage syphilis is divided into primary, secondary, and early latent. Advanced stage of syphilis include tertiary syphilis (gumatous, cardiovascular syphilis, and neurosyphilis and late latent syphilis. Primary syphilis is diagnosed by clinical symptoms of the discovery of one or more chancre (ulcer. Secondary syphilis is characterized by the finding of localized mucocutaneous lesions or with diffuse lymphadenopathy. Latent syphilis without clinical symptoms of syphilis with

  19. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a...

  20. Malignant Catarrhal Fever-Like Disease in Barbary Red Deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) Naturally Infected with a Virus Resembling Alcelaphine Herpesvirus 2†

    OpenAIRE

    Klieforth, Robert; Maalouf, Gabriel; Stalis, Ilse; Terio, Karen; Janssen, Donald; Schrenzel, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Eight Barbary red deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) developed clinical signs suggestive of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) over a 28-day period. These animals were housed outdoors with four other species of ruminants. Affected red deer had lethargy, ocular signs, and nasal discharge and were euthanatized within 48 h. Lesions included ulcers of the muzzle, lips, and oral cavity associated with infiltrates of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Serologically, six of seven red deer tested during the outbr...

  1. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  2. Comparison of the performance of IFA, CFA, and ELISA assays for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever by quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Tineke; Hogema, Boris M; Nabuurs, Marrigje; Peeters, Marcel; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn; Schneeberger, Peter; Nijhuis, Carla; Notermans, Daan W; Galama, Joep; Horrevorts, Anton; van Loo, Inge H M; Vlaminckx, Bart; Zaaijer, Hans L; Koopmans, Marion P; Berkhout, Hanneke; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Stenos, John; Nicholson, William; Bijlmer, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered the reference method for diagnosing Q fever, but serology is also performed by complement fixation assay (CFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, comparability between these assays is not clear, and therefore a quality assessment was performed. A total of 25 serum samples from negative controls, Q fever patients, and a serial diluted high-positive sample were analyzed in 10 Dutch laboratories. Six laboratories performed CFA, 5 performed IFA, and 5 performed ELISAs. Three international reference laboratories from Australia, France, and the USA also participated in this study. Qualitative values between laboratories using the same methods were within close range, and all 3 methods correctly identified acute Q fever patients. The IFA, ELISA, and CFA are all suitable serodiagnostic assays to diagnose acute Q fever, but the IFA remains an important tool in the follow-up of patients and in identifying patients at risk for developing chronic Q fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical and laboratory profile of dengue fever patients admitted in combined military hospital rawalpindi in year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M. M. U.; Zakaria, M.; Mustafvi, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of clinical presentations, haematological and biochemical abnormalities, and outcome of dengue fever patients admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi in year 2015. Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, CMH Rawalpindi, from January 2015 to December 2015. Material and Methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were admitted at CMH Rawalpindi and blood serology was done to confirm the diagnosis of dengue fever. Cases with positive dengue serology were included in the study. Clinical symptoms, signs, investigations and outcome of these patients were recorded on a proforma. Blood samples were taken for analysis. Chest X-Ray and ultrasound abdomen were done on required basis. Results: Out of forty confirmed cases of dengue fever, there were 25 (62.5 percent) males and 15 (37.5 percent) females. Mean age was 40 years. There were 39 cases (97.5 percent) of dengue fever and one case (2.5 percent) of dengue shock syndrome.There was no case of dengue haemorrhagic syndrome. Maximum cases were seen in the month of October 2015.The clinical features noted were: headache and myalgias 62.5 percent, chills and rigors 57.5 percent, retro-orbital pain 42.5 percent, vomiting 35.0 percent, pruritus 27 percent, skin rash 20 percent, abdominal pain 20 percent, diarrhoea 10 percent, bleeding 2.5 percent, ascites and pleural effusion 2.5 percent, and hepatomegaly 15 percent. The laboratory findings were: leucopenia 85 percent and thrombocytopenia 92.5 percent. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), urea, and creatinine were raised in 30 percent, 2.5 percent and 7.5 percent cases respectively. Mortality was 2.5 percent. Conclusion: This study showed that patients admitted to CMH hospital had a milder presentation of dengue fever in the year 2015. (author)

  4. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R

    1987-01-01

    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  5. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  6. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  8. [Descriptive summary of the classical swine fever control in wild boar in Germany since 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Christoph; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Blome, Sandra; Fröhlich, Andreas; Blicke, Julia; Jahn, Birgit; Teuffert, Jürgen; Kramers, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar repeatedly appeared in different federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1995, from which it has been successfully eradicated sometimes fast, sometimes in a more time taking way using oral immunization as a main element of control. Since 2005 the cases focused solely on North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. In the present study, therefore, the situation of CSF in wild boar has been closely investigated concerning the period 2005 to 2012 in these two regions. It is noteworthy that in this period two different variants of the virus subtype 2.3 occurred in two regionally defined areas of the "Eifel" and "Westerwald" as well as in the "Pfalz". The two Federal States have undertaken extensive oral vaccination campaigns and surveillance activities, which enabled an assessment of the existing virus prevalence and serological prevalence in the different regions. After an initial high serological prevalence, caused probably by interaction of infection and vaccination, the serological levels stabilized seasonally adjusted in a range from 50 to 60% in almost all areas. The vaccination campaigns have been maintained by both Federal States over a period of at least 2.5 years after virus has been detected for the last time. In consequence Germany as a whole has been recognized for the first time to be officially free from CSF in wild boar. By genotyping of virus isolates it has been demonstrated that the virus changed over time and played a role in the outbreak area "Westerwald".

  9. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  10. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  12. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A summary of the imported cases of Chikungunya fever in Japan from 2006 to June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Tajima, Shigeru; Kotaki, Akira; Shibasaki, Ken-Ichi; Itokawa, Kentaro; Kato, Kengo; Yamashita, Akifumi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Tomita, Takashi; Saijo, Masayuki; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2018-01-01

    Due to the huge 2-way human traffic between Japan and Chikungunya (CHIK) fever-endemic regions, 89 imported cases of CHIK fever were confirmed in Japan from January 2006 to June 2016. Fifty-four of 89 cases were confirmed virologically and serologically at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan and we present the demographic profiles of the patients and the phylogenetic features of 14 CHIK virus (CHIKV) isolates. Patients were diagnosed with CHIK fever by a combination of virus isolation, viral RNA amplification, IgM antibody-, IgG antibody-, and/or neutralizing antibody detection. The whole-genome sequences of the CHIKV isolates were determined by next-generation sequencing. Prior to 2014, the source countries of the imported CHIK fever cases were limited to South and Southeast Asian countries. After 2014, when outbreaks occurred in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and Latin American countries, there was an increase in the number of imported cases from these regions. A phylogenetic analysis of 14 isolates revealed that four isolates recovered from three patients who returned from Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Angola, belonged to the East/Central/South African genotype, while 10 isolates from 10 patients who returned from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tonga, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Colombia and Cuba, belonged to the Asian genotype. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, we could predict the situations of the CHIK fever epidemics in Indonesia, Angola and Cuba. Although Japan has not yet experienced an autochthonous outbreak of CHIK fever, the possibility of the future introduction of CHIKV through an imported case and subsequent local transmission should be considered, especially during the mosquito-active season. The monitoring and reporting of imported cases will be useful to understand the situation of the global epidemic, to increase awareness of and facilitate the diagnosis of CHIK fever, and to identify a future CHIK fever outbreak in

  14. The effect of measuring serum doxycycline concentrations on clinical outcomes during treatment of chronic Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roeden, S E; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Kampschreur, L M; de Regt, M J A; Vermeulen Windsant, A; Hoepelman, A I M; Wever, P C; Oosterheert, J J

    2018-01-08

    First choice treatment for chronic Q fever is doxycycline plus hydroxychloroquine. Serum doxycycline concentration (SDC) >5 μg/mL has been associated with a favourable serological response, but the effect on clinical outcomes is unknown. To assess the effect of measuring SDC during treatment of chronic Q fever on clinical outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study, to assess the effect of measuring SDC on clinical outcomes in patients treated with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for chronic Q fever. Primary outcome was the first disease-related event (new complication or chronic Q fever-related mortality); secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and PCR-positivity. Multivariable analysis was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model, with shared-frailty terms for different hospitals included. We included 201 patients (mean age 68 years, 83% male): in 167 patients (83%) SDC was measured, 34 patients (17%) were treated without SDC measurement. First SDC was >5 μg/mL in 106 patients (63%), all with 200 mg doxycycline daily. In patients with SDC measured, dosage was adjusted in 41% (n = 68), concerning an increase in 64 patients. Mean SDC was 4.1 μg/mL before dosage increase, and 5.9 μg/mL afterwards. SDC measurement was associated with a lower risk for disease-related events (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-0.97, P = 0.04), but not with all-cause mortality or PCR-positivity. SDC measurement decreases the risk for disease-related events, potentially through more optimal dosing or improved compliance. We recommend measurement of SDC and striving for SDC >5 μg/mL and <10 μg/mL during treatment of chronic Q fever.

  15. Q fever: a neglected zoonosis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogren, Adel; Shakoor, Zahid; Hasanato, Rana; Adam, Mustafa Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Infection due to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetii), the causative agent of Q fever is rarely sought for in clinical practice. This study was performed to detect C burnetii infection in patients with pyrexia of undetermined cause (PUC). This is a prospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh be.tween March 2011 and January 2013. A total of 3 mL venous blood was collected from 51 patients with PUC at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. This group of patients included 30 males and 21 females (mean age 33.9 [21.3] years) with the history of febrile illness ranging between 4 and 8 weeks. A control group of 50 healthy individuals comprising 39 males and 11 females (mean age 27 [9] years) was also included in the study. Detection of phase II C burnetii-specific IgG antibodies was performed by immunofluorescence assay, and a titer of > 1:64 was considered positive. Phase II C burnetii-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 18 (35.2%) patients out of the total 51 tested. Two (4%) individuals out of 50 in the control group tested positive for anti-C burnetii IgG antibodies. The proportion of positive results among the patients was significantly higher than the controls (P < .0002, 95% CI, 15.09-46.25). The antibody titer range was between 1:128 and 1:1024 where 6 patients had titers of 1:256, 5 had 1:512, 4 had 1024, and 3 had 1:128. The evidence of C burnetii infection in a sizable number of patients emphasizes the need for inclusion of serologic investigations for Q fever in patients with PUC.

  16. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  17. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  18. Fever in the critically ill medical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupland, Kevin B

    2009-07-01

    Fever, commonly defined by a temperature of >or=38.3 degrees C (101 degrees F), occurs in approximately one half of patients admitted to intensive care units. Fever may be attributed to both infectious and noninfectious causes, and its development in critically ill adult medical patients is associated with an increased risk for death. Although it is widespread and clinically accepted practice to therapeutically lower temperature in patients with hyperthermic syndromes, patients with marked hyperpyrexia, and selected populations such as those with neurologic impairment, it is controversial whether most medical patients with moderate degrees of fever should be treated with antipyretic or direct cooling therapies. Although treatment of fever may improve patient comfort and reduce metabolic demand, fever is a normal adaptive response to infection and its suppression is potentially harmful. Clinical trials specifically comparing fever management strategies in neurologically intact critically ill medical patients are needed.

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  20. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  1. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  2. Multiple sclerosis and positive lyme serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.

  3. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  4. Serología en hepatitis virales = Serology in viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Aristizábal, María Clara; García Rendón, María Valentina; Restrepo Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cuando ocurre infección por el virus de hepatitis A (VHA), virus de hepatitits B (VHB), virus de hepatitis C (VHC) virus de hepatitis D o virus de hepatitis E (VHE) el cuadro clínico y bioquímico es similar, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza el agente etiológico; dentro de estas se encuentran: la serología, que permite detectar antígenos virales o anticuerpos contra estos y las pruebas moleculares...

  5. Epidemiology of Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsial Infection in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    tn~::.ifo n ’ Davis, California; Instituto Veterinario de Investtgacrones Troptcales y de Altura , lquttos, P~ru, US. Naval Me~ Silver...dominiqueeeza@yahoo.co.uk. Hugo Galvez, Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura , lquitos, Peru, E-mail: ivitaiq@terra.com.pe

  6. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  7. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  8. DNA homologies and serologic relationships among ureaplasmas from various hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, M F

    1986-01-01

    The available data on the serologic and genomic relationships among the established and unspeciated Ureaplasma species and serovars isolated from various hosts can be summarized as follows. Ureaplasma urealyticum (human) is composed of 14 serovars separated into two genomic clusters. Ureaplasma diversum (bovine) is antigenically complex, has three serologic clusters and requires the three representative antisera to identify all U. diversum strains. The nonhuman primate strains form four serologic groups, and each serogroup is composed of strains isolated from primates belonging to one of four distinct zoologic primate families. The ovine-caprine strains have two serologic clusters. Canine strains form four serologic clusters but serovars 1 and 2 are closely related by DNA homology. Avian strains belong to one serogroup with two genomic clusters. The DNA homology data indicate that phenotypic information alone, including antigenic serotypic data, is not always adequate for species designation among the ureaplasmas and that comparative analyses of the genome provide invaluable data for establishing new species. Although there are only two established species, the published data support the contention that the nonhuman primate, ovine-caprine, canine, feline and avian ureaplasmas are genomically and phenotypically distinct from each other based on the serologic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein and DNA cleavage patterns and DNA homology studies and that these ureaplasmas from various hosts may represent new species or subspecies within the genus.

  9. Coxiella burnetii Infection Is Lower in Children than in Adults After Community Exposure: Overlooked Cause of Infrequent Q Fever Reporting in the Young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, Volker H; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Loo, Inge H M; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn; Somers, Carlijn; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-12-01

    Q fever is rarely reported in children/adolescents. Although lower reporting rates are commonly attributed to milder disease and subsequent underdiagnosis in infected children/adolescents, pertinent evidence is scarce. We present data from a large, well-defined single-point source outbreak of Q fever to fill this gap. We compared (A) Q fever testing and notification rates in children/adolescents who were 0-19 years of age with those in adults 20+ years of age in October 2009; (B) serological attack rates of acute Q fever in children/adolescents with the rates in adults after on-source exposure on the outbreak farm's premises; (C) incidence of Q fever infection in children/adolescents with that in adults after off-source exposure in the municipality located closest to the farm. (A) Children/adolescents represented 19.3% (59,404 of 307,348) of the study area population, 12.1% (149 of 1217) of all subjects tested in October 2009 and 4.3% (11 of 253) of notified laboratory-confirmed community cases. (B) Serological attack rate of acute Q fever in children with on-source exposure was 71% (12 of 17), similar to adults [68% (40 of 59)]. (C) Incidence of infection in children/adolescents after community (off-source) exposure was 4.5% (13 of 287) versus 11.0% (12 of 109) in adults (adjusted odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.84; P = 0.02). No children/adolescents reported clinical symptoms. Proportion of notified infections was significantly lower in children/adolescents (2.5%) than in adults (10.4%; risk ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.80, P = 0.02). Notified Q fever was less frequent in children/adolescents than in adults. Although underrecognition contributed to this phenomenon, lower rates of infection in children after community exposure played an unexpected major role. On-source (presumed high-dose) exposure, by contrast, was associated with high serological and clinical attack rates not only in adults but also in children/adolescents. Our

  10. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  11. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  12. THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Putu Sutirta-Yasa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue has gradually increased during the past decade. Today, dengue is considered one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseasases in humans in term of morbidity and mortality. Dengue infection   a potential life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF / dengue shock syndrome(DSS, characterized by thrombocytopenia and increased vascular permiability. Thrombocytopenia causes bleeding, but in   DHF patients with thrombocytopenia do not always develop bleeding manifestation. The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia are not cleared. Multiple factors  may be involved in the machanisms leading to thrombocytopenia in DHF/DSS patients.

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. Identification of Novel Serodiagnostic Signatures of Typhoid Fever Using a Salmonella Proteome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Darton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30, and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling. In four models containing responses to antigens including flagellin, OmpA, HlyE, sipC, and LPS, multi-antigen signatures discriminated typhoid (n = 100 from other febrile bacteremia (n = 52 in Nepal. These models contained combinatorial IgM, IgA, and IgG responses to 5 antigens (ROC AUC, 0.67 and 0.71 or 3 antigens (0.87, although IgA responses to LPS also performed well (0.88. Using a novel systematic approach we have identified and validated optimal serological diagnostic signatures of typhoid fever.

  15. Dengue fever with diffuse cerebral hemorrhages, subdural hematoma and cranial diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nayomi Shermila; Thalagala, Eranga; Wattegama, Milanka; Thirumavalavan, Kanapathipillai

    2016-05-10

    Neurological manifestations in dengue fever occur in diabetes insipidus are extremely rare and had not been reported in published literature earlier, thus we report the first case. A 24 year old previously healthy lady was admitted on third day of fever with thrombocytopenia. Critical phase started on fifth day with evidence of pleural effusion and moderate ascites. Thirty one hours into critical phase she developed headache, altered level of consciousness, limb rigidity and respiratory depression without definite seizures. Non-contrast CT brain done at tertiary care level revealed diffuse intracranial haemorrhages and sub arachnoid haemorrhages in right frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and brainstem, cerebral oedema with an acute subdural hematoma in right temporo- parietal region. Her platelet count was 40,000 at this time with signs of vascular leakage. She was intubated and ventilated with supportive care. Later on she developed features of cranial diabetes insipidus and it responded to intranasal desmopressin therapy. In spite of above measures signs of brainstem herniation developed and she succumbed to the illness on day 8. Dengue was confirmed serologically. Exact pathophysiological mechanism of diffuse cerebral haemorrhages without profound thrombocytopenia is not well understood. Increased awareness and high degree of clinical suspicion is needed among clinicians for timely diagnosis of this extremely rare complication of dengue fever. We postulate that immunological mechanisms may play a role in pathogenesis. However further comprehensive research and studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this complication.

  16. Hypocholesterolemia as a predictor of disease severity in dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, S.; Tahira, Q.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the difference between total cholesterol (TC) of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and also between DHF patients with favourable (DHF I and II) and adverse (DHF III and IV) outcome. Methodology: This comparative cross - sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from August to November 2012. The study comprised of 100 febrile patients with positive dengue serology. TC was measured on the admission day. The patients were observed during admission period for clinical outcome i.e. DF and DHF. DHF patients were graded as I - IV and grouped as favourable (I and II) and adverse (III and IV) out- come. Results: Out of 100 patients included in the study, 64 were males and 36 were females with mean age 33.03 ± 14.5 years and mean TC 3.02 ± 0.88 mmollL. The 63 DF and 37 DHF patients had mean ages of 30.21 ± 12.7 and 37.84 ± 16.2lyears respectively (p-value 0.017) and mean TC 3.43 +- 0.79 and 2.34 ± 0.56 mmollL respectively (p-value 0.000). M:F for DF and DHF was 2:1 and 1.47:1 respectively (p-value 0.001). Among 37 DHF patients, there were 16 DHF I, 8 DHF II, 10 DHF III and 3 DHF IV patients. For DHF I - IV, mean TC was 2.77 ± 0.45, 2.16 ± 0.33, 2.05 ± 0.35 and 1.49 ± 0.35 mmollL respectively. DHF patients with favourable and adverse out.come had mean TC 2.55 ± 0.5 and 1.92 ± 0.42 mmolll respectively (p = value 0.000). Conclusion: Low serum TC strongly correlated with disease severity in dengue fever patients. (author)

  17. Management of symptomatic thrombocytopenia associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameel, T.; Saleem, I.U.; Mehmood, K.; Tanvir, I.; Saadia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Immune - mediated destruction of platelets is thought to be the mechanism of thrombocytopenia seen after the viraemic phase of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Immuno - suppressants such as steroids, immune globulin and Anti D immune globulin are effective in the treatment of this type of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of oral Prednisolone in the rate of resolution of thrombocytopenia and monitoring of complications in patients recovering from Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Method: A controlled study was carried out on diagnosed cases Dengue haemorrhagic patients presenting with sever thrombocytopenia and symptoms like confluent ecchymosis, epistaxis and purpuric rashes. In study was conducted in Ittefaq hospital (trust) Lahore, during the period of October to December 2008. Treatment group received steroids in two forms i.e. first line therapy prednisolone (1 mg / kg) orally or as second line therapy of initial I/V high dose (prednisolone) in pulse doses i.e. 40 mg / bd for four days and later oral prednisolone as in first line therapy with omeprazole 20 mg / bd in addition to standard treatment. Control group received standard supportive care only. Results: A total of 341 suspected patients were admitted in hospital. Serological diagnosis was confirmed in 166 patients. CBC revealed platelet count . 100 x 109 / l in 106 patients. A group of symptomatic febrile patients have platelet count < 20 x 109 / l was selected for therapeutic intervention. first line therapy (oral prednisolone was stated in 43 patients. In Fourteen patients second line therapy (high dose dexamethasone pulse) therapy was instituted. Seven of them attained complete response whereas two patients achieved partial response. Four patients were shifted to Anti D therapy. Three deaths occurred during our study. Rest of all the patients improved and were discharged in due course of time. Conclusion: This small scale preliminary study shows promising

  18. caregivers' knowledge and home management of fever in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    . Public Health Education should be implemented in order to enlighten caregivers on fever and advocate for the use of a clinical thermometer to monitor fever at home. INTRODUCTION. Fever is controlled increase in body ...

  19. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  20. Towards a unified theory for immunogenetic systems. I. Probing the serologic field--a meta-serologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A serologic field (SEF) is produced by the in vitro studies of antibody-antigen interactions and usually includes serologic information processing (SIF). SIF can be regarded as the process whereby essentially "meaningless" raw data or experimental observables emanating from an input reality are structuralized and hence falsified into a "meaningful" pattern, Gestalt or output image. According to this "black box model", different "fact categories" (FC) can be identified in SEF. Traditional serology generally confounds its FC whereby fact category mistakes (FCM) are produced. Some FCM are structurally similar to the description of "mice" as four-letter animals or as a four-legged word--i.e. facts about "thing-properties" (animals, legs) are confounded with facts about "language-properties" (letters, words). In SEF, antibody and antigen molecules (thing-properties) are similarly endowed with "empty symbols" (language-properties). Due to such FCM, radically new meanings are assigned to experimental observables if the serologic language and/or theory is changed. The present meta-serologic approach consists of the design of a meta-serologic symbol language (SL-2) which includes the contemporary (simple-complex) conceptual framework (language and theory) as a limiting case. Consequently, some truly radical and revolutionary Gestalt switches will be generated when a specified SEF is mapped onto SL-2.

  1. Serology and ultrasound for diagnosis of choledocholithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, G; Williams, R; Metcalfe, M; Dennison, AR

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is not a routine investigation to exclude choledocholithiasis unless there is clinical or biochemical suspicion of common bile duct (CBD) stones. This study attempted to determine which radiological or serological parameters best predicted CBD stones. Methods All patients undergoing MRCP from 2005 to 2011 were selected. Patients with pancreatitis were excluded. Liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and prior to MRCP were recorded, as was abdominal ultrasonography and MRCP results. Parameters measured routinely on LFTs included alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin. Receiver operating characteristic curve area analysis (area under the curve [AUC]) and chi-squared analysis were undertaken. Results Overall, 195 patients were identified, 71 of whom had CBD stones on MRCP. Raised ALP levels on admission demonstrated a correlation with CBD stones (AUC: 0.619, odds ratio [OR]: 3.16, p=0.06). At ultrasonography, a dilated CBD (OR: 3.76, p<0.001) and intrahepatic duct dilation (OR: 5.56, p<0.001) were highly significant predictors. However, only 37% of patients had a dilated CBD on ultrasonography. Ongoing elevation of LFT parameters, particularly ALP (AUC: 0.707, OR: 4.64, p<0.001) and ALT (AUC: 0.646, OR: 5.40, p<0.001), displayed a significant correlation with CBD stones. Conclusions Ongoing (even if minor) elevations of liver function test parameters should prompt the need to exclude CBD stones even in the presence of a normal CBD diameter on ultrasonography. PMID:24780789

  2. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  3. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your children to do the same, especially before eating, after using the toilet, after spending time in a crowd or around someone who's sick, after petting animals, and during travel on public transportation. Show your ...

  4. Serological Evidence of Contrasted Exposure to Arboviral Infections between Islands of the Union of Comoros (Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koussay Dellagi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional serological survey of arboviral infections in humans was conducted on the three islands of the Union of Comoros, Indian Ocean, in order to test a previously suggested contrasted exposure of the three neighboring islands to arthropod-borne epidemics. Four hundred human sera were collected on Ngazidja (Grande Comore, Mwali (Mohéli and Ndzouani (Anjouan, and were tested by ELISA for IgM and/or IgG antibodies to Dengue (DENV, Chikungunya (CHIKV, Rift Valley fever (RVFV, West Nile (WNV, Tick borne encephalitis (TBEV and Yellow fever (YFV viruses and for neutralizing antibodies to DENV serotypes 1-4. Very few sera were positive for IgM antibodies to the tested viruses indicating that the sero-survey was performed during an inter epidemic phase for the investigated arbovirus infections, except for RVF which showed evidence of recent infections on all three islands. IgG reactivity with at least one arbovirus was observed in almost 85% of tested sera, with seropositivity rates increasing with age, indicative of an intense and long lasting exposure of the Comorian population to arboviral risk. Interestingly, the positivity rates for IgG antibodies to DENV and CHIKV were significantly higher on Ngazidja, confirming the previously suggested prominent exposure of this island to these arboviruses, while serological traces of WNV infection were detected most frequently on Mwali suggesting some transmission specificities associated with this island only. The study provides the first evidence for circulation of RVFV in human populations from the Union of Comoros and further suggests that the virus is currently circulating on the three islands in an inconspicuous manner. This study supports contrasted exposure of the islands of the Comoros archipelago to arboviral infections. The observation is discussed in terms of ecological factors that may affect the abundance and distribution of vector populations on the three islands as well as concurring

  5. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E; Blacksell, Stuart D; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N

    2016-04-01

    Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10-14 and were monitored until delivery. 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4-43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5-40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum malaria

  6. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilada Chansamouth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos.This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10-14 and were monitored until delivery.250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range gestational age on admission was 24 (4-43 weeks. The median (range tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5-40.5°C. Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60% were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53% had a single disease and 17 (7% had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum

  7. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  8. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance problems in typhoid fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, R. H.; Purba, G. C. F.

    2018-03-01

    Typhoid fever (enteric fever) remains a burden in developing countries and a major health problem in Southern and Southeastern Asia. Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe and solely a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. Infection of S. typhi can cause fever, abdominal pain and many worsenonspecific symptoms, including gastrointestinal symptoms suchas nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin,and cotrimoxazole were the first-recommended antibiotics in treating typhoid fever. In the last two decades though, these three traditional drugs started to show resistance and developed multidrug resistance (MDR) S. typhi strains. In many parts of the world, the changing modes ofpresentation and the development of MDR have made typhoid fever increasingly difficult to treat.The use of first-line antimicrobials had been recommended to be fluoroquinolone as a replacement. However, this wassoonfollowedbyreportsof isolates ofS. typhi showing resistancetofluoroquinolones as well. These antimicrobial resistance problems in typhoid fever have been an alarming situation ever since and need to be taken seriously or else typhoid fever will no longer be taken care completely by administering antibiotics.

  10. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent ...

  11. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5%

  12. The immune response in Q fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as

  13. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever, but it is not contagious between animals and people. Valley fever in dogs is similar to valley ... Via Growth on Fomites. An Epidemic Involving Six Persons. Am Rev Respir Dis. ... aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 ...

  14. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  15. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  16. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  17. Typhoid Fever: Misdiagnosis or Overdiagnosis | Onyekwere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently there has been a public panic about an increase in cases of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever caused by salmonella typhi is common and constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa, South America and parts of Asia. Its clinical features are non-specific and available ...

  18. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  19. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus.

  20. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%-60% in terms of milk fever...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K......)-(Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle...

  1. DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are re-emerging diseases that are endemic in the Tropics. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in South-East Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Americas. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of Aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban population, and increasing air travel. Several Southeast Asian countries show that the age of the reported dengue cases has increased from 5-9 years, to older children and young adults. Dengue infection in adolescents and adults has also been recognized as a potential hazard to international travelers returning from endemic areas, especially SoutheastAsia. Dengue is one disease entity with different clinical presentations; often with unpredictable clinical evolutions and outcomes. Bleeding manifestations in adult patients, including petechiae and menorrhagia were also frequently found; however, massive hematemesis may occur in adult patients because of peptic ulcer disease and may not be associated with profound shock as previously reported in children. Although shock and plasma leakage seem to be more prevalent as age decreases, the frequency of internal hemorrhage rises as age increases. Increase in liver enzymes found in both children and adults indicated liver involvement during dengue infections. Pre-existing liver diseases in adults such as chronic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hemoglobinopathies may aggravate the liver impairment in dengue infection. Fulminant hepatitis is a rare but well described problem in adult patients with dengue infection. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent exists for dengue. The early recognition of dengue infection, bleeding tendency, and signs of circulatory collapse would reduce mortality rates in adult patients with dengue infection.

  2. Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kampschreur, Linda M.; Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identifi...

  3. Management of severe dengue hemorrhagic fever and bleeding complications in a primigravida patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Hori; Yahya, Corry Quando; Wibowo, Primartanto; Tampubolon, Oloan E

    2016-12-20

    The incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever is increasing among the adult population living in endemic areas. The disease carries a 0.73% fatality rate for the general population, but what happens when the disease strikes a special subpopulation group, the obstetrics? Perhaps the important question specific to this special subpopulation revolves around the right time and mode of delivery under severe coagulopathy and plasma leakage in conditions of imminent delivery. A 24-year-old primigravid Sundanese woman presented to our intensive care unit due to acute pulmonary edema secondary to massive plasma leakage caused by severe dengue. She tested positive for both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M dengue serology indicating she had secondary dengue infection, which placed her at risk for an exaggerated cytokine response as was evident clinically. She had to undergo an emergency cesarean section which was later complicated by rebleeding and hemodynamic instability due to an atypical defervescence period. She was successfully managed by multiple blood transfusions and was discharged from our intensive care unit on day 8 without any negative sequel. Fever, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration are the classical symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever observed in adult, pediatric, and obstetric populations. However, a clinician must be particularly watchful in treating a pregnant dengue-infected patient as physiologic hematology changes provide greater volume compensation and the advent of shock marks significant volume loss. In conclusion, an important principle in the management of dengue hemorrhagic fever in pregnancy is to prioritize maternal well-being prior to addressing fetal issues.

  4. Randomised primary health center based interventions to improve the diagnosis and treatment of undifferentiated fever and dengue in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Tran Q

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is a common reason for attending primary health facilities in Vietnam. Response of health care providers to patients with fever commonly consists of making a presumptive diagnosis and proposing corresponding treatment. In Vietnam, where malaria was brought under control, viral infections, notably dengue, are the main causes of undifferentiated fever but they are often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated with antibiotics. This study investigate if educating primary health center (PHC staff or introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs improve diagnostic resolution and accuracy for acute undifferentiated fever (AUF and reduce prescription of antibiotics and costs for patients. Methods In a PHC randomized intervention study in southern Vietnam, the presumptive diagnoses for AUF patients were recorded and confirmed by serology on paired (acute and convalescence sera. After one year, PHCs were randomized to four intervention arms: training on infectious diseases (A, the provision of RDTs (B, the combination (AB and control (C. The intervention lasted from 2002 until 2006. Results The frequency of the non-etiologic diagnosis "undifferentiated fever" decreased in group AB, and - with some delay- also in group B. The diagnosis "dengue" increased in group AB, but only temporarily, although dengue was the most common cause of fever. A correct diagnosis for dengue initially increased in groups AB and B but only for AB this was sustained. Antibiotics prescriptions increased in group C. During intervention it initially declined in AB with a tendency to increase afterwards; in B it gradually declined. There was a substantial increase of patients' costs in B. Conclusions The introduction of RDTs for infectious diseases such as dengue, through free market principles, does improve the quality of the diagnosis and decreases the prescription of antibiotics at the PHC level. However, the effect is more sustainable in combination with

  5. Randomised primary health center based interventions to improve the diagnosis and treatment of undifferentiated fever and dengue in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Hoang L; Nga, Tran T T; Giao, Phan T; Hung, Le Q; Binh, Tran Q; Nam, Nguyen V; Nagelkerke, Nico; de Vries, Peter J

    2010-09-21

    Fever is a common reason for attending primary health facilities in Vietnam. Response of health care providers to patients with fever commonly consists of making a presumptive diagnosis and proposing corresponding treatment. In Vietnam, where malaria was brought under control, viral infections, notably dengue, are the main causes of undifferentiated fever but they are often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated with antibiotics.This study investigate if educating primary health center (PHC) staff or introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) improve diagnostic resolution and accuracy for acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and reduce prescription of antibiotics and costs for patients. In a PHC randomized intervention study in southern Vietnam, the presumptive diagnoses for AUF patients were recorded and confirmed by serology on paired (acute and convalescence) sera. After one year, PHCs were randomized to four intervention arms: training on infectious diseases (A), the provision of RDTs (B), the combination (AB) and control (C). The intervention lasted from 2002 until 2006. The frequency of the non-etiologic diagnosis "undifferentiated fever" decreased in group AB, and - with some delay- also in group B. The diagnosis "dengue" increased in group AB, but only temporarily, although dengue was the most common cause of fever. A correct diagnosis for dengue initially increased in groups AB and B but only for AB this was sustained. Antibiotics prescriptions increased in group C. During intervention it initially declined in AB with a tendency to increase afterwards; in B it gradually declined. There was a substantial increase of patients' costs in B. The introduction of RDTs for infectious diseases such as dengue, through free market principles, does improve the quality of the diagnosis and decreases the prescription of antibiotics at the PHC level. However, the effect is more sustainable in combination with training; without it RDTs lead to an excess of costs.

  6. Cutaneous Manifestations of Chikungunya Fever: Observations from an Outbreak at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southeast Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Manoj K; Jain, Suresh K; Yadav, Sumit K; Singhal, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is caused by chikungunya virus which is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes. To study the various mucocutaneous manifestations in suspected cases of chikungunya fever. The patients who attended our outpatient department from July 2016 to October 2016 and fulfilled the criteria for "suspect cases" of chikungunya infection stipulated by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India, were included in the study prospectively. A total of 112 patients (62 males and 50 females) with mucocutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever were enrolled in the study. Mucocutaneous manifestations were found more in males than females. Serological immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) test for chikungunya virus was positive in 62 (55.3%) patients. Generalized erythematous maculopapular rash (53.5%) was the most common finding. Genital pustular rash with aphthae (4.4%), oral and intertriginous aphthae, red lunula, subungual hemorrhage, localized erythema of the ear pinnae, erythema, swelling, and eczematous changes over the preexisting scars and striae (scar phenomenon) were the other interesting findings. Various pattern of pigmentation (37.5%) were observed including striking nose pigmentation in a large number of patients, by looking at which even a retrospective diagnosis of chikungunya fever could be made. There was flare-up of existing dermatoses like psoriasis and dermatophytic infection. Wide varieties of the mucocutaneous manifestations were observed in our study, but the striking nose pigmentation was present irrespective of age and this peculiar pigmentation may be considered as a specific clinical marker of chikungunya fever. Chikungunya fever must be suspected in any patient with painful oro-genital and intertriginous aphthous-like lesions associated with febrile polyarthralgia with rash.

  7. Simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies associated with viral hemorrhagic fever by a multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Quanfu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jiandong; Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin

    2014-07-17

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are worldwide diseases caused by several kinds of viruses. With the emergence of new viruses, advanced diagnostic methods are urgently needed for identification of VHFs. Based on Luminex xMAP technology, a rapid, sensitive, multi-pathogen and high-throughput method which could simultaneously detect hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) specific IgG antibodies was developed. Recombinant antigens of nine HFVs including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV), Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) and dengue virus (DENV) were produced and purified from a prokaryotic expression system and the influence of the coupling amount was investigated. Cross-reactions among antigens and their rabbit immune sera were evaluated. Serum samples collected from 51 laboratory confirmed hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, 43 confirmed SFTS patients and 88 healthy donors were analyzed. Results showed that recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the five viruses belonging to the genus Hantavirus, had serological cross-reactivity with their corresponding rabbit immune sera, but not apparent with immune sera of other four viruses. Evaluation of this new method with clinical serum samples showed 98.04% diagnostic sensitivity for HFRS, 90.70% for SFTS detection and the specificity was ranging from 66.67% to 100.00%. The multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay has firstly been established in our study, which provides a potentially reliable diagnostic tool for IgG antibody detection of VHFs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serological Diagnosis of Brucella Infections in Odontocetes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Manire, Charles A.; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Staggs, Lydia; Thompson, Rachel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    Brucella ceti causes disease in Odontoceti. The absence of control serum collections and the diversity of cetaceans have hampered the standardization of serological tests for the diagnosis of cetacean brucellosis. Without a “gold” standard for sensitivity and specificity determination, an alternative approach was followed. We designed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) that recognizes immunoglobulins G (IgGs) from 17 odontocete species as a single group. For the standardization, we used Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides, serum samples from seven resident odontocetes with no history of infectious disease displaying negative rose bengal test (RBT) reactions, and serum samples from seven dolphins infected with B. ceti. We compared the performance of the iELISA with those of the protein G ELISA (gELISA), the competitive ELISA (cELISA), and the immunofluorescence (IF) and dot blot (DB) tests, using 179 odontocete serum samples and RBT as the reference. The diagnostic potential based on sensitivity and specificity of the iELISA was superior to that of gELISA and cELISA. The correlation and agreement between the iELISA and the gELISA were relatively good (Ri/g2 = 0.65 and κi/g = 0.66, respectively), while the correlation and agreement of these two ELISAs with cELISA were low (Ri/c2 = 0.46, Rg/c2 = 0.37 and κi/c = 0.62, κg/c = 0.42). In spite of using the same anti-odontocete IgG antibody, the iELISA was more specific than were the IF and DB tests. An association between high antibody titers and the presence of neurological symptoms in dolphins was observed. The prediction is that iELISA based on broadly cross-reacting anti-dolphin IgG antibody would be a reliable test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in odontocetes, including families not covered in this study. PMID:19386800

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE OF DENGUE FEVER IN KANYAKUMARI GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE- A STUDY FROM KANYAKUMARI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue infection is viral infection with different clinical presentation. This study was conducted in Kanyakumari Government Medical College Hospital, Asaripallam, Tamil Nadu, to study the various clinical profile and polyserositis involvement in dengue. MATERIALS AND METHODS The clinical profile and polyserositis involvement in dengue infection were determined by the retrospective study of all dengue infection in Kanyakumari Government Medical College Hospital, Asaripallam, Nagercoil, Tamilnadu. It was a retrospective study. All probable cases that had high-grade fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, features of hock or haemorrhage and so forth and were admitted with provisional diagnosis of dengue fever were taken into account. All patients with positive dengue tests, either NS1 antigen, IgM, IgG antibody rapid serological test kit or ELISA were taken into the study group. As the duration of history of fever might be fallacious, the patients were subjected to all three serological tests. Patients who were positive for malaria, meningitis and enteric fever were excluded from the study. The whole number of patients included in our study was 40 (=40. RESULTS In this study, it was found that the bleeding manifestation had no correlation with thrombocytopenia, hepatomegaly and raised SGOT. All 40 patients had fever and they were treated with antipyretics (paracetamol in appropriate doses. Patients who presented with warning signs and stable vital signs were initially encouraged to take oral fluids; if they were not tolerated, intravenous fluids were started according to the WHO guidelines. CONCLUSION Dengue is an important arboviral infection in tropical countries. 1 Global incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically in the recent decades. There are very few studies based on the revised new dengue classification. In our study, the total number of cases analysed was 40, out of which 28 (70% were categorised as cases of non

  10. [SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, T V; Yakovleva, L M; Brovarska, O S; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The serological and phytotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of plant pathogens--Pantoea agglomerans were studied. It is known that the thin variations in the structure of the O-specific polysaccharides determining serological specificity of gram- negative bacteria and used as a molecular basis of serological classification schemes. For P. agglomerans still does not exist a classification scheme based on serology specificity of their LPS. The results of cross serological tests demonstrate immunochemical heterogeneity of species P agglomerans. Only three strains of the 8488, 8490 and 7969 according to the agglutination of O-antigens and direct hemagglutination and inhibition direct hemagglutination can be attributed to a single serogroup. Other strains--each separate group, although some have a relationship. Compared with control plants under the influence of seed treatment of LPS in plants may be reduced, and in some cases increased root length, height and weight sprout, depending on the strain from which the selected LPS. Dive seedlings of tomatoes in the solutions of the studied preparations FSC caused the loss, and after some time, restore turgor.

  11. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  12. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  13. The serological and virological investigation of canine adenovirus infection on the dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188-54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188-45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs.

  14. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs, Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1, the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7% blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2% blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs.

  15. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

  16. Serologic and Virologic Studies of an Imported Dengue Case Occurring in 2014 in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mika; Tamayose, Maki; Miyagi, Kazuya; Takaragawa, Hiroo; Tateyama, Masao; Tadano, Masayuki; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    After returning from Bali, Indonesia, in February 2014, a 72-year-old man was hospitalized in Okinawa owing to a high fever and rash. Dengue was clinically suspected, and the patient tested positive for IgM against dengue using a commercial kit. Serologically, the patient showed secondary seroreactivity. Significant increases in neutralization titers (N-titers) against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains were recognized in convalescent-phase sera comparing to acute phase sera. The N-titer against DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was the highest among all DENV serotypes. Interestingly, the N-titers against JEV strains were significantly higher than those against all types of DENV comparing to acute phase sera. The virus was isolated from the acute-phase serum and identified as DENV-1 and designated RD14/Okinawa. The patient's symptoms were due to DENV-1 infection. Phylogenetic sequencing analysis indicated that the isolate RD14/Okinawa belonged to genotype I of DENV-1, which is closely related to the Southeast Asian strains and isolates found during the dengue outbreak in Japan in 2014. We should undertake control measures against dengue in Okinawa, which is a subtropical area with Aedes albopictus activity throughout year.

  17. [Ebola fever: an emerging disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Z

    2001-04-01

    One of the most fatal diseases encountered by mankind so far is Ebola fever. Ebola fever is caused by a highly pathogenic virus from the Filoviridae family which is found in nature in four different sub-types which differ among others also by their pathogenicity for man. The hitherto detected EBO sub-types are stable do not change in the course of an epidemic nor in the course of the patient's illness, nor during passage of the virus from one subject to another. The author presents a historical review of epidemics, nosocomial and laboratory infections, spread and epizoonosis caused by the Ebola virus. The author presents a detailed clinical picture describing the frequency and evolution of different clinical symptoms and signs based on the observation of 103 patients infected with the Ebola virus in Kikwit, Zaire (nowadays Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1995. In the laboratory diagnosis individual tests are mentioned assessing the presence of the virus, viral antigens and antibodies, incl. the most recent immunohistochemical test. The author mentions the problem of patient care and his therapy, incl. available antiviral drugs and passive immunotherapy. He also discusses the possibility and probability of spread of the Ebola virus into our environment. He mentions principles for transport of subjects with suspected disease, demands for their strict isolation and maximum protection of the attending staff incl. barrier nursing technique. The author discusses also principles of epidemiological work, detection and isolation of sources, identification and follow up of contacts and epidemiological supervision of affected areas. Past epidemics made it possible to assemble many scientific findings and practical experience. These make it possible to cope nowadays with any attack of the Ebola virus not only in areas of its epizootic occurrence.

  18. Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Bâ, Hampâté; Fall, Gamou; Ishagh, Elkhalil; Diallo, Mamadou Y; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sembene, Pape Mbacké; Faye, Ousmane; El Kouri, Brahim; Sidi, Mohamed Lemine; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania. Overall, 184 suspected cases from different localities were identified by 26 health facilities. Blood samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the Institut Pasteur de Dakar (IPD). Sequencing of partial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RT-PCR-positive samples. As part of routine surveillance at IPD, samples were also screened for dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR. Of the 184 suspected cases, there were 57 confirmed cases and 12 deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences indicated an emergence of a virus that originated from Northeastern Africa. Our results show co-circulation of other arboviruses in Mauritania-dengue, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viruses. The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and highlights the need to strengthen arbovirus surveillance in Africa.

  19. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  20. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Wiening Christiane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2003 the Soest County Health Department was informed of an unusually large number of patients hospitalized with atypical pneumonia. Methods In exploratory interviews patients mentioned having visited a farmers' market where a sheep had lambed. Serologic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Q fever. We asked local health departments in Germany to identiy notified Q fever patients who had visited the farmers market. To investigate risk factors for infection we conducted a case control study (cases were Q fever patients, controls were randomly selected Soest citizens and a cohort study among vendors at the market. The sheep exhibited at the market, the herd from which it originated as well as sheep from herds held in the vicinity of Soest were tested for Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Results A total of 299 reported Q fever cases was linked to this outbreak. The mean incubation period was 21 days, with an interquartile range of 16–24 days. The case control study identified close proximity to and stopping for at least a few seconds at the sheep's pen as significant risk factors. Vendors within approximately 6 meters of the sheep's pen were at increased risk for disease compared to those located farther away. Wind played no significant role. The clinical attack rate of adults and children was estimated as 20% and 3%, respectively, 25% of cases were hospitalized. The ewe that had lambed as well as 25% of its herd tested positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Conclusion Due to its size and point source nature this outbreak permitted assessment of fundamental, but seldom studied epidemiological parameters. As a consequence of this outbreak, it was recommended that pregnant sheep not be displayed in public during the 3rd trimester and to test animals in petting zoos regularly for C. burnetii.

  1. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  2. Outbreak of chikungunya virus in a vulnerable population of Sergipe, Brazil-A molecular and serological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marielton Dos Passos; Santos, Cliomar Alves Dos; Neto, Daniel Ferreira de Lima; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; Pour, Shahab Zaki; Passos, Saulo Duarte; Souza, Mércia Simone Feitosa de; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2017-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus that is causing outbreaks in several countries of the Americas. The virus was introduced in Brazil in 2014, and since then, several Brazilian states have notified autochthonous cases. Provide additional evidence on a CHIKV outbreak and an outline of the laboratory and clinical profile of symptomatic patients in Sergipe, Brazil. In February 2016, we collected 142 serum samples from symptomatic patients for arboviruses in Sergipe, Brazil. All samples were submitted to qRT-PCR for the emerging arboviruses circulating in Brazil - ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV - and later submitted to the immunoenzymatic assay. RNA positive samples were randomly selected and sequenced for characterization of the genotype involved in the outbreak. Our study had 75.35% (107/142) positivity for CHIKV infection, with all age groups and genera being equally infected. The virus was identified in 11 of the 13 cities studied in that state, including the ECSA genotype. Importantly, fever was the only statistically significant symptoms for CHIKV infection (p<0.05), while asthenia was significantly associated with symptomatic patients that were CHIKV-negative (p<0.05). Our findings support the importance of fever as a clinical marker and contribute to molecular and serological surveillance data, which may help in the understanding of CHIKV circulation, emergence and clinical description. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald

    2015-01-01

    It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis.

  5. Dengue fever outbreak: a clinical management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Illyas, M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever and compare the clinical and haematological characteristics of Dengue-probable and Dengue-proven cases. All patients with age above 14 years, who were either hospitalized or treated in medical outdoor clinic due to acute febrile illness, were evaluated for clinical features of Dengue Fever (DF), Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Patients showing typical clinical features and haematological findings suggestive of Dengue fever (As per WHO criteria) were evaluated in detail for comparison of probable and confirmed cases of Dengue fever. All other cases of acute febrile illness, not showing clinical features or haematological abnormalities of Dengue fever, were excluded. The clinical and laboratory features were recorded on SPSS 11.0 programme and graded where required, for descriptive and statistical analysis. Out of 5200 patients with febrile illness, 107 (2%) presented with typical features of DF, 40/107 (37%) were Dengue-proven while 67/107 (63%) were Dengue-probable. Out of Dengue-proven cases, 38 were of DF and 2 were of DHF. Day 1 temperature ranged from 99-105 degreeC (mean 101 degree C). Chills and rigors were noticed in 86 (80%), myalgia in 67%, headache in 54%, pharyngitis in 35%, rash in 28%, and bleeding manifestations in 2% cases. Hepatomegaly in 1(0.5%), lymphadenopathy in 1 (0.5%) and splenomegaly in 12 (11.2%) cases. Leucopoenia (count 40 U/L in 57% cases. Frequency of clinically suspected dengue virus infection was 107 (2%), while confirmed dengue fever cases were 40 (0.8%) out of 5200 fever cases. Fever with chills and rigors, body aches, headache, myalgia, rash, haemorrhagic manifestations, platelet count, total leukocyte count, and ALT, are parameters to screen the cases of suspected dengue virus infection, the diagnosis cannot be confirmed unless supported by molecular studies or dengue specific IgM. (author)

  6. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  7. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effa, Emmanuel E; Lassi, Zohra S; Critchley, Julia A; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-10-05

    Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics. To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating children and adults with enteric fever. We searched The Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (February 2011); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011); EMBASE (1974 to February 2011); and LILACS (1982 to February 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) in February 2011. Randomized controlled trials examining fluoroquinolone antibiotics, in people with blood, stool or bone marrow culture-confirmed enteric fever. Two authors independently assessed the trial's methodological quality and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Comparative effectiveness has been interpreted in the context of; length of treatment, dose, year of study, known levels of antibiotic resistance, or proxy measures of resistance such as the failure rate in the comparator arm. Twenty-six studies, involving 3033 patients, are included in this review.Fluoroquinolones versus older antibiotics (chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin and ampicillin)In one study from Pakistan in 2003-04, high clinical failure rates were seen with both chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, although resistance was not confirmed microbiologically. A seven-day course of either ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin were found to be superior. Older studies of these comparisons failed to show a difference (six trials, 361 participants).In small studies conducted almost two decades ago, the fluoroquinolones were demonstrated to have fewer

  8. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  9. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  10. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2017-12-21

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  12. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  14. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  15. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  16. Enterobacter agglomerans--associated cotton fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, R; Feeney, C; Chirurgi, V A

    1993-10-25

    Cotton fever is usually a benign febrile, leukocytic syndrome of unknown etiology seen in intravenous narcotic abusers. Cotton and cotton plants are heavily colonized with Enterobacter agglomerans. We report a case of cotton fever associated with E agglomerans in which the organism was first isolated from the patient's blood and secondarily from cotton that he had used to filter heroin. Enterobacter agglomerans is with most probability the causal agent of cotton fever. Patients presenting with the classic history should have blood cultures performed and should be started on a regimen of empiric antibiotic therapy.

  17. Appendicular perforation in dengue fever: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Desai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections have become one of major emerging infectious diseases in the tropics. Acute abdomen occurring in dengue viral infection is not uncommon. The spectrums of acute surgical emergencies which raise suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe in patients presenting with dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, non-specific peritonitis and very rarely acute appendicitis. The presence of low white cell count and platelet count can raise suspicion of a diagnosis of dengue in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, during a dengue epidemic. We herein report three patients with dengue fever who had appendicular perforation during the course of their viral fever.

  18. Epidural Labor Analgesia and Maternal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emily E; Arendt, Katherine W

    2017-06-01

    Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. With these consequences, understanding and preventing maternal fever is imperative.

  19. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  1. Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identified, of which 151 (53.7%) had proven, 64 (22.5%) probable, and 69 (24.3%) possible chronic Q fever. Among proven and probable chronic Q fever patients, vascular infection focus (56.7%) was more prevalent than endocarditis (34.9%). An acute Q fever episode was recalled by 27.0% of the patients. The all-cause mortality rate was 19.1%, while the chronic Q fever-related mortality rate was 13.0%, with mortality rates of 9.3% among endocarditis patients and 18% among patients with a vascular focus of infection. Increasing age (P = 0.004 and 0.010), proven chronic Q fever (P = 0.020 and 0.002), vascular chronic Q fever (P = 0.024 and 0.005), acute presentation with chronic Q fever (P = 0.002 and P fever (P = 0.025 and P fever-related mortality, respectively. PMID:24599987

  2. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can cause: • fever and flu-like symptoms • jaundice (yellow skin or ... vaccine? fromyellow A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a ... problems Yellow fever vaccine has been associated with fever, and with ...

  3. Clinical Features Of Malaria And Typhoid Fever | Mba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Features to distinguish Malaria from Typhoid fever. These can be discerned from a good and detailed clinical history, in addition to a thorough physical examination. The following would help. The paroxysms of malaria fever as against the step ladder pattern fever of typhoid fever. The prominence of headaches in typhoid ...

  4. Role of platelet transfusion in children with bleeding in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothapregada, Sriram; Kamalakannan, Banupriya; Thulasingam, Mahalakshmy

    2015-12-01

    The indications for platelet transfusion in dengue fever are clearly defined in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines (2011) for dengue fever, but physicians face practical difficulty in its implementation in an epidemic setting. On one hand there is an intense social pressure created by the panic-struck parents to transfuse platelets in presence of bleeding and on the other hand there is a need for its judicious use as the requirement is more than its availability. The study was aimed to assess the clinico-hematological parameters, and the requirement and need for platelet transfusion in children with dengue fever. All children (0-12 yr of age) diagnosed and confirmed with dengue fever at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry between 1 August 2012 and 31 January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised WHO guidelines for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen- based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Out of 261 cases of dengue fever, hemorrhagic manifestations were observed in 52 children (19.9%), which mainly included petechiae (38.5%), gum bleeding (34.6%) and melena (26.9%). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 211 (80.8%) cases. Bleeding manifestations were present in 20(39.2%), 8(15.7%), 13(25.5%) and 11(21.6%) cases with platelet count 1.50,000/mm3 respectively. Bleeding manifestations did not always correlate with platelet count in non-severe dengue infection in comparison to severe dengue infection. The most common mode of presentation of severe dengue infection was shock with 102(39.1%) cases and among them only 22 children (21.6%) had bleeding. About 17 children (6.5%) with severe dengue infection required platelet transfusion and out of them, 12 children (70.6%) had a platelet count <20,000/ mm3 whereas five children (29.4%) had platelet count in the range of 20,000-50,000/mm3. Platelet transfusion was required

  5. Q fever in Quebec (1989–93: Report of 14 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Goyette

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever, a zoonosis acquired by inhalation of the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii, is rarely diagnosed in Canada. The world incidence has been increasing since 1960, because of progressive dissemination of this microorganism in animal populations, particularly domestic ruminants. Some recent outbreaks were caused by cats. Of 14 cases reported in Quebec between 1989 and the beginning of 1993, nine occurred successively in an 18-month period in the rural region surrounding Trois-Rivières, after contact with livestock or cats. These cases are reported here, with the results of serological screening of the workers of an abattoir where one of the cases worked. Five additional cases reported in Quebec during the same period are briefly reviewed.

  6. Anti-MDA5-Positive Dermatomyositis Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lori W; Narang, Neera S; Postolova, Anna; Seminara, Nicole; Kantor, Molly A

    2016-12-01

    Dermatomyositis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory infiltrates in the skin and muscle. The wide variability in clinical and serologic presentation poses a diagnostic challenge for the internist. Appreciation of the clinical variants of dermatomyositis allows for expedient diagnosis and avoidance of diagnostic error. We illustrate these challenges with the case of a 51-year-old Vietnamese-American man who initially presented with fever of unknown origin in the absence of overt skin and muscle manifestations. The diagnosis of dermatomyositis was not evident on several clinical encounters due to the absence of these hallmark symptoms. We review the variable clinical manifestations of a subtype of dermatomyositis associated with an autoantibody against melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (anti-MDA5) and suggest consideration of dermatomyositis as a diagnosis in patients presenting with systemic illness and markedly elevated ferritin, even in the absence of elevated muscle enzymes and classic autoantibodies.

  7. [Rift Valley fever: sporadic infection of French military personnel outside currently recognized epidemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J P; Richecoeur, L; Peyrefitte, C; Boutin, J P; Davoust, B; Zeller, H; Bouloy, M; Tolou, H

    2002-01-01

    For three years the arbovirus surveillance unit of the Tropical Medicine Institute of the French Army Medical Corps (French acronym IMTSSA) in Marseille, France has been investigating causes of benign non-malarial febrile syndromes in French military personnel serving outside mainland France. The methodology used in N'Djamena consisted of sending frozen specimens collected concomitant with viremia, to Marseille for culture. During the rainy season of 2001, specimens were collected from a total of 50 febrile soldiers. Cultures allowed isolation and identification of two strains of Rift Valley virus. The risk of contamination exists not only in the field but also in mainland hospital departments treating infected patients. Routine serological diagnosis for Rift Valley fever must be DISCUSSED for all patients in the field or returning from Africa.

  8. Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, G; De Clercq, E

    1993-09-01

    Viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in man belong to the following virus groups: togavirus (Chikungunya), flavivirus (dengue, yellow fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever), arenavirus (Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever), filovirus (Ebola, Marburg), phlebovirus (Rift Valley fever), nairovirus (Crimian-Congo hemorrhagic fever) and hantavirus (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathic epidemia). Hemorrhagic fever virus infections can be approached by different therapeutic strategies: (i) vaccination; (ii) administration of high-titered antibodies; and (iii) treatment with antiviral drugs. Depending on the molecular target of their interaction, antiviral agents could be classified as follows: IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors (i.e., ribavirin and its derivatives); OMP decarboxylase inhibitors (i.e., pyrazofurin); CTP synthetase inhibitors (i.e., cyclopentylcytosine and cyclopentenylcytosine); SAH hydrolase inhibitors (i.e., neplanocin A); polyanionic substances (i.e., sulfated polymers); interferon and immunomodulators.

  9. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Buckle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain important causes of morbidity worldwide. Accurate disease burden estimates are needed to guide policy decisions and prevention and control strategies.

  10. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  11. Nutritional management in Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamon Chaiyasit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral infection causing a major health problem worldwide. In this short article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the nutritional management (energy, protein, fat and micronutrient in management of Ebola infection.

  12. Biological control of cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive livestock pests that are endemic to Mexico and invasive along the Texas – Mexico border. Acaricide resistance, alternate wildlife hosts, and pathogenic landscape forming weeds present challenges for sustainable...

  13. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2014-05-01

    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare.

  14. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Khetarpal, Niyati; Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and...

  15. Acute pancreatitis complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalenahalli Jagadish; Chandrashekar, Anitha; Basavaraja, Chetak Kadabasal; Kumar, Halasahalli Chowdegowda Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection can have spectrum of manifestations, often with an unpredictable clinical progression and outcome. There have been increasing reports of atypical manifestations. Abdominal pain or tenderness and persistent vomiting (warning signs) are present in the majority of cases with severe dengue prior to clinical deterioration. We report a 10-year-old child who presented with fever, persistent vomiting, and abdominal pain. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. This is a very infrequently reported complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  16. Malignant causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foggo, Vanessa; Cavenagh, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    The presence of fever in malignancy usually indicates infection, though transfusion, thrombosis and drugs are also culprits. However, particularly in some tumour types, fever can also be a paraneoplastic syndrome, caused by the malignancy itself. This can be a difficult diagnosis to establish and presents a therapeutic challenge to the physician when the underlying malignancy is not easily treated. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  17. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  18. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  19. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  20. Global Spread of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Predicting Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Souris, Marc; Valdivia-Granda, Willy

    2018-01-01

    As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers. Other pathogens that are remarkable for their epidemic expansions include the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus diseases carried by rodents over great geographic distances and the arthropod-borne viruses (West Nile, chikungunya and Zika) enabled by ecology and vector adaptations. Did we learn from the past epidemics? Are we prepared for the worst?The ultimate goal is to develop a resilient global health infrastructure. Besides acquiring treatments, vaccines, and other preventive medicine, bio-surveillance is critical to preventing disease emergence and to counteracting its spread. So far, only the western hemisphere has a large and established monitoring system; however, diseases continue to emerge sporadically, in particular in Southeast Asia and South America, illuminating the imperfections of our surveillance. Epidemics destabilize fragile governments, ravage the most vulnerable populations, and threaten the global community.Pandemic risk calculations employ new technologies like computerized maintenance of geographical and historical datasets, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Next Generation sequencing, and Metagenomics to trace the

  1. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  2. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Blastomyces determatitidis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of blastomycosis...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of respiratory...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to parainfluenza virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections and provides...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to coxsackievirus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of coxsackievirus antisera conjugated with a...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Francisella tularensis in serum or to identify Francisella tularensis in cultured isolates derived from...

  10. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  11. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  12. Microbiological and Serological Studies of some Poultry Pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Serological surveillance of 24 different species of wild water birds living around water sewage plants and fresh wetland water area in Khartoum state (Sudan) were carried out in the period from September 2011 to March 2012 during ringing operation. The presence of selected avian diseases including ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of diseases caused by virus-like bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsiae and...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...