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Sample records for spotted fever rickettsiae

  1. Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds.

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    Elfving, Karin; Olsen, Björn; Bergström, Sven; Waldenström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Ake; Sjöstedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2010-01-05

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  2. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  3. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, M.; Papoušek, I.; Bělohlávek, T.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 711-714 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spotted fever group rickettsiae * Rickettsia monacensis * Rickettsia helvetica * Ixodes ricinus * Lacerta schreiberi Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  4. Urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to Rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and Rickettsia massiliae.

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    Renvoisé, Aurélie; Delaunay, Pascal; Blanchouin, Elea; Cannavo, Isabelle; Cua, Eric; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-12-01

    Here, we report an epidemiological and entomological investigation of a cluster of cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis occurring in southern France. A family of 3 (husband, wife, and their son) presented with symptoms compatible with SFG rickettsiosis. For 2 patients, serum samples presented increased levels of IgM and IgG for SFG Rickettsia. The patients' home was investigated, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were collected from the floor from behind the furniture. Of 22 ticks collected, 20 tested positive for Rickettsia. As Rh. sanguineus serves as a vector for both Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae in southern France, all Rh. sanguineus isolates were tested by real-time PCR and conventional PCR to detect the 2 species. Nine ticks tested positive for Ri. conorii subsp. caspia (marking the first documentation of this subspecies in France), 7 tested positive for Ri. massiliae, and 4 tested positive for both rickettsiae. This study is the first report of coinfection of Rh. sanguineus ticks with Ri. conorii and Ri. massiliae in southern France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Small Rodents from Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Freitas, Renata N.; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvão, Márcio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region. PMID:23509125

  6. Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia.

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    Nadolny, Robyn M; Wright, Chelsea L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern United States has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. The results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern Virginia. Since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected from vegetation in a variety of habitats, with Amblyomma americanum constituting over 95% of ticks collected. Other species represented included Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes affinis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes brunneus. We found that 26.9-54.9% of A. americanum ticks tested were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, a non-pathogenic symbiont of this tick species. We also found no evidence of R. rickettsii in D. variabilis ticks, although they did show low infection rates of R. montanensis (1.5-2.0%). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae were found in 41.8-55.7% and 0-1.5% A. maculatum ticks, respectively. The rate of R. parkeri in A. maculatum ticks is among the highest in the literature and has increased in the 2 years since R. parkeri and A. maculatum were first reported in southeastern Virginia. We conclude that tick populations in southeastern Virginia have recently undergone dramatic changes in species and abundance and that these populations support a variety of rickettsial agents with the potential for increased risk to human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  8. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Human prevalence of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

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    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-06-01

    In February 2006, an outbreak of human rickettsiosis occurred in the municipality of Necoclí Colombia, with 35% of lethality. This episode was, followed by two more, one in the municipality of Los Cordobas in 2007 with a 54% of lethality and the other one in the municipality of Turbo in 2008 with 27% of lethality. The aim of this study was to perform serological tests in healthy persons to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and develop a survey to study some infection risk-related factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 and 2012. A blood sample and survey of associated factors was performed in healthy persons. A prevalence of 32%-41% was found in healthy people. From the multivariate analysis, we found that people living more than 16 years in these sites had a 79% higher risk of being seropositive and a 46% higher risk when they reported having birds in their houses if the variable of having a horse was included in the model. In conclusion, this study shows endemicity of at least one spotted fever group Rickettsia in the study zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

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    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories.A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17% tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii.The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.

  11. Serological and molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola.

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    Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita

    2017-05-31

    Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.

  12. Genotypic and biological characteristics of non-identified strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in Crimea.

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    Balayeva, N M; Demkin, V V; Rydkina, E B; Ignatovich, V F; Artemiev, M I; Lichoded LYa; Genig, V A

    1993-12-01

    A strain of rickettsiae, designated Crimea-108, was isolated from ticks Dermacentor marginatus in the Crimea in 1977. Its immunobiological characteristics involve low pathogenicity for experimental animals, moderate infectivity for chick embryos, and antigenic relatedness to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari), especially to R. sibirica. The genotypic characterization of the strain Crimea-108 was carried out in comparison with SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA-probe hybridization. The marked similarity was detected between DNA restriction patterns of the strains Crimea-108, R. sibirica and R. conorii, but each of them besides comigrating fragments had specific ones. Genotypic analysis of the strain Crimea-108, the SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by three independent DNA probes, based on R. prowazekii DNA, gave unique hybridization patterns for the Crimea-108 strain with all probes. The obtained data show that the Crimea-108 isolate does not belong to the species of R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari. The strain Crimea-108 is a novel strain of SFG rickettsiae for the Crimea region.

  13. Multi-omics Analysis Sheds Light on the Evolution and the Intracellular Lifestyle Strategies of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia spp.

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    Khalid El Karkouri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular bacteria which are pathogenic for humans. Within this genus, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia conorii cause frequent and potentially severe infections, whereas Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia massiliae cause rare and milder infections. All four species belong to spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. However, R. slovaca and R. raoultii cause scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy (SENLAT and are mainly associated with Dermacentor ticks, whereas the other two species cause Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus ticks. To identify the potential genes and protein profiles and to understand the evolutionary processes that could, comprehensively, relate to the differences in virulence and pathogenicity observed between these four species, we compared their genomes and proteomes. The virulent and milder agents displayed divergent phylogenomic evolution in two major clades, whereas either SENLAT or MSF disease suggests a discrete convergent evolution of one virulent and one milder agent, despite their distant genetic relatedness. Moreover, the two virulent species underwent strong reductive genomic evolution and protein structural variations, as well as a probable loss of plasmid(s, compared to the two milder species. However, an abundance of mobilome genes was observed only in the less pathogenic species. After infecting Xenopus laevis cells, the virulent agents displayed less up-regulated than down-regulated proteins, as well as less number of identified core proteins. Furthermore, their similar and distinct protein profiles did not contain some genes (e.g., ompA/B and rickA known to be related to rickettsial adhesion, motility and/or virulence, but may include other putative virulence-, antivirulence-, and/or disease-related proteins. The identified evolutionary forces herein may have a strong impact on intracellular expressions and strategies in

  14. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  15. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks of migratory birds in Romania.

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    Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Vasile, Cozma; Sándor, Attila D

    2016-05-20

    Birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. Particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. Migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from birds at a migratory hot-spot in the Danube Delta, Romania, eastern Europe. DNA was extracted from ticks that were collected from migratory birds in the Danube Delta during migratory seasons in 2011-2012. Two 360 bp  fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and a 381 bp  fragment Gene gltA were PCR amplified and analyzed by sequence analysis (performed at Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Nucleotide sequences were compared to reference sequences available in the GenBank database, using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Four hundred ticks of four different species were found on 11 bird species. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection was 14 % (56/400, CI: 11.7-29.1), with significantly more nymphs hosting rickettsial infection compared to larvae (48 vs 7; P birds migrating through eastern Europe may carry ticks infected with a high diversity of rickettsial pathogens, with four Rickettsia spp. recorded. Migratory direction was important for pathogen burden, with seasonal differences in the occurrence of individual Rickettsia species. Here we report the first individual records of different Rickettsia spp. in H. concinna (R. monacensis), I. arboricola (R. helvetica, R. massiliae) and I. redikorzevi (R. helvetica) and also the first geographical record of occurrence of R. massiliae in Romania, representing the easternmost observation on the continent.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L

    2005-01-01

    ...) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern Peru (Coletas and Naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group...

  17. Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia.

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    von Fricken, Michael E; Lkhagvatseren, Sukhbaatar; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Nymadawa, Pagbajab; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Baigalmaa, Bekh-Ochir; Anderson, Benjamin D; Reller, Megan E; Lantos, Paul M; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these

  18. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

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    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  19. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela in Kenya

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    David Ndeereh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human–wildlife–livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5% animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5% in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela. This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  20. Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.. Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri.We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. The patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

  1. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

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    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  2. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  3. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

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    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  4. Molecular detection of Rickettsia rhipicephali and other spotted fever group Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks infesting wild birds in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeringóta, Viviane; Maturano, Ralph; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Daemon, Erik; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; McIntosh, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated parasitism of wild birds by ticks in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and examined the ticks for rickettsial agents. Birds were captured during 2014 and 2015 and ticks were identified by sequencing fragments of the 16S and 12S ribosomal DNA. Among 260 birds representing 19 families and 52 species, a total of 69 (26.5%) were found to be infested by larvae (LL) and/or nymphs (NN) of Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844) (45 LL, 4 NN), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899 (9 LL, 15 NN), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, 1899 (2 NN), Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca and Aragão, 1952 (21 LL), Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré (77 LL), and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard, 1869) (17 LL, 1 NN). The use of PCR and sequencing of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB, revealed the presence of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in A. longirostre (13/49; 26%) and Rickettsia parkeri (strain ApPR) in both A. parkeri (1/21; 5%) and haplotype Nazaré (42/77; 55%) ticks. In addition, we detected Rickettsia rhipicephali in 31 (40%) of the 77 haplotype Nazaré ticks. This is the first record of this rickettsial agent in a species of the genus Amblyomma. The pathogenic potential of this bacterium is undetermined, but the unprecedented association with Amblyomma ticks may represent a cause for concern for public and/or animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil Estudo da infecção por Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em humanos e carrapatos de um parque urbano na Cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná

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    Roberta Santos Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG. Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. METHODS: The study aimed to investigate SFG rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTS: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6% were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre maculosa é uma zoonose emergente causada por espécies de Rickettsia do grupo febre maculosa (GFM. Rickettsia rickettsii é o principal agente etiológico da febre maculosa brasileira (FMB e é transmitida por Amblyomma spp. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre GFM Rickettsiae no Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas em Londrina, PR, carrapatos de vida livre e de capivaras foram coletados, assim como amostras de sangue das pessoas que trabalham no parque. A. dubitatum e A. cajennense foram submetidos à PCR em pools para analises de Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene

  6. Serosurvey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs and humans from an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Sorologia para Rickettsia spp. em cães e humanos de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Adriano Pinter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a rickettsial serosurvey in 25 dogs and 35 humans in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, where the tick Amblyomma aureolatum is the main vector. Testing canine and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence against four Rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis and R. bellii showed that 16 (64% of canine sera and 1 (2.8% of human sera reacted to at least one of these rickettsial antigens with titers ³ 64. Seven canine sera and the single reactive human serum showed titers to R. rickettsii at least four times those of any of the other three antigens. The antibody titers in these 7 animals and 1 human were attributed to stimulation by R. rickettsii infection. No positive canine or human serum was attributed to stimulation by R. parkeri, R. felis, or R. bellii. Our serological results showed that dogs are important sentinels for the presence of R. rickettsii in areas where the tick A. aureolatum is the main vector of Brazilian spotted fever.Este estudo avaliou a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia em 25 cães e 35 humanos, em uma área endêmica para a febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, onde o principal vetor é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum. Soros dos cães e humanos foram testados pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta contra quatro antígenos de riquétsias (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, R. bellii, mostrando que soros de 16 (64% cães e 1 (2,8% humano reagiram com títulos ³ 64 para pelo menos um dos antígenos de riquétsias. Sete soros caninos e o único soro humano reativo demonstraram títulos para R. rickettsii no mínimo quatro vezes maior do que aqueles para os outros antígenos de riquétsias. Os títulos de anticorpos nesses cães e um humano foram considerados homólogos a R. rickettsii, enquanto que nenhum soro de cão ou humano foi considerado reativamente homólogo para R. parkeri, R. felis ou R. bellii. Os

  7. Malignant Mediterranean spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Patil, Vaibhav; Ambar, Sameer; Naik, Vishwas

    2015-12-01

    Fever with rash is one of the most common causes of referral to a dermatologist. A plethora of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. They may be broadly classified into infectious causes, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Here we present a rare case of rickettsial fever with cardiac involvement in an elderly male patient with no comorbidities.

  8. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

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    Raquel Sousa Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  9. RICKETTSIA

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    Nova Pramestuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungkin sebagian orang belum mengetahui bahkan baru mendengar tentang Rickettsia. Di Indonesia, skrining terhadap kasus Rickettsia ini masih jarang dan belum banyak dilakukan penelitian. Rickettsia sebenarnya merupakan bakteri yang mempunyai sifat parasit obligat intrasel uler, berukuran kecil (0,3-0,5 x 0,8-2,0 µm, mempunyai bentuk coccobacilli, gram negatif, tidak berflagel (kecuali Rickettsia prowazekii, dan mengalami pembelahan ganda dalam set pejamu. Rickettsia dianggap sebagai kelompok bakteri yang terpisah karena mempunyai ciri sebagai agent penyakit yang ditularkan oleh vektor arthropoda (tungau, pinjal, caplak, dan kutu.

  10. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Reusken, C.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts.

  13. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia Asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Maina, A.N; Knobel, D.L.; Cleaveland, S.; Laudisoit, A.; Wamburu, K.; Ogola, E.; Parola, P.; Breiman, R.F.; Njenga, M.K.; Richards, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenoc...

  14. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  15. Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Southeastern Romania

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    Daniela Pitigoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4% had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6% patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4% and rash (98.2%, and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7% of them had a titer IgG ≥1 : 160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  16. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  17. Genome Sequence of Rickettsia hoogstraalii, a Geographically Widely Distributed Tick-Associated Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Nguyen, Thi-Tien; Caputo, Aurélia; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-11-06

    Rickettsia hoogstraalii is a tick-associated member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae that is geographically widely distributed. We report here the draft genome of R. hoogstraalii strain Croatica(T) (=DSM 22243 = UTMB 00003), which was isolated from Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks collected in Croatia. Copyright © 2014 Sentausa et al.

  18. Propagation of Arthropod-Borne Rickettsia spp. in Two Mosquito Cell Lines▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2007-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that include pathogenic species in the spotted fever, typhus, and transitional groups. The development of a standardized cell line in which diverse rickettsiae can be grown and compared would be highly advantageous to investigate the differences among and between pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of rickettsiae. Although several rickettsial species have been grown in tick cells, tick cells are more difficult to maintain and they gr...

  19. Travelers' Health: Rickettsial (Spotted and Typhus Fevers) and Related Infections (Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from eating raw infected fish. Table 3-18. Classification, primary vector, and reservoir occurrence of rickettsiae known ... within 1–2 weeks of infection include fever, headache, malaise, rash, nausea, and vomiting. Many rickettsioses are ...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the rash, the infection can cause fever, chills, muscle aches, vomiting, and nausea. Typically, RMSF ... But with late or no treatment, RMSF can cause serious health problems. If your child has fever, achiness, stiff neck, or rash and has or ...

  6. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia massiliae/Bar29 and Rickettsia conorii in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Anna; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, Mª Mercè; Pons, Imma; López-Claessens, Sonia; Castellà, Joaquim; Antón, Esperança; Segura, Ferran

    2018-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of exposure to Rickettsia massiliae/Bar29 and Rickettsia conorii in wild red foxes, we collected blood samples and ticks from 135 foxes shot in different game reserve areas in Catalonia. To detect SFG rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex ticks collected from the foxes, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for ompA gene and a tick-borne bacteria flow chip technique based on multiplex PCR. Serum samples were positive for antibodies against spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in 68 (50.3%). Molecular techniques identified R. massiliae in 107 ticks, R. aeschlimannii in 3 ticks, and R. slovaca in one tick; no R. conorii was identified in any of the ticks analyzed. We conclude that red foxes can carry ticks with SFG rickettsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia

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    Rees Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

  9. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

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    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  10. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). PMID:20811570

  11. The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis identifies the first putative conjugative plasmid in an obligate intracellular parasite.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Ogata; Patricia Renesto; Stéphane Audic; Catherine Robert; Guillaume Blanc; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Hugues Parinello; Jean-Michel Claverie; Didier Raoult

    2005-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp) and a long (62,829 bp) form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, sev...

  12. Mediterranean spotted fever and hearing impairment: a rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Rossio

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of Rickettsia conorii that was complicated with hearing loss and did not respond to specific treatment. Hearing loss is a rare event, but clinicians should be aware of this complication.

  13. Incidence of Male-Killing Rickettsia spp. (α-Proteobacteria) in the Ten-Spot Ladybird Beetle Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Schulenburg, J. Hinrich Graf; Habig, Michael; Sloggett, John J.; Webberley, K. Mary; Bertrand, Dominique; Hurst, Gregory D. D.; Majerus, Michael E. N.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria that kill male host offspring during embryogenesis and their frequencies in certain groups of host taxa suggest that the evolution of male killing and the subsequent spread of male-killing symbionts are primarily determined by host life history characteristics. We studied the 10-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in which male killing has not been recorded previously, to test this hypothesis, and we also assessed the evolution of the male killer identified by DNA sequence analysis. Our results show that A. decempunctata harbors male-killing Rickettsia (α-proteobacteria). Male-killing bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia have previously been reported only for the congeneric two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. Phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia DNA sequences isolated from different populations of the two host species revealed a single origin of male killing in the genus Rickettsia. The data also indicated possible horizontal transfer of symbionts between host species. In addition, A. bipunctata is known to bear at least four different male-killing symbionts in its geographic range two of which coexist in the two locations from which A. decempunctata specimens were obtained for the present study. Since only a single male-killing taxon was found in A. decempunctata, we assume that the two closely related ladybird beetle species must differ in the number and/or geographic distribution of male killers. We discuss the importance of these findings to our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of symbiotic associations between male-killing bacteria and their insect hosts. PMID:11133455

  14. Rickettsia conorii transcriptional response within inoculation eschar.

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    Patricia Renesto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia conorii, the causative agent of the Mediterranean spotted fever, is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The skin thus constitutes an important barrier for the entry and propagation of R. conorii. Given this, analysis of the survival strategies used by the bacterium within infected skin is critical for our understanding of rickettsiosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first genome-wide analysis of R. conorii gene expression from infected human skin biopsies. Our data showed that R. conorii exhibited a striking transcript signature that is remarkably conserved across patients, regardless of genotype. The expression profiles obtained using custom Agilent microarrays were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Within eschars, the amount of detected R. conorii transcripts was of 55%, this value being of 74% for bacteria grown in Vero cells. In such infected host tissues, approximately 15% (n = 211 of the total predicted R. conorii ORFs appeared differentially expressed compared to bacteria grown in standard laboratory conditions. These genes are mostly down-regulated and encode proteins essential for bacterial replication. Some of the strategies displayed by rickettsiae to overcome the host defense barriers, thus avoiding killing, were also pointed out. The observed up-regulation of rickettsial genes associated with DNA repair is likely to correspond to a DNA-damaging agent enriched environment generated by the host cells to eradicate the pathogens. Survival of R. conorii within eschars also involves adaptation to osmotic stress, changes in cell surface proteins and up-regulation of some virulence factors. Interestingly, in contrast to down-regulated transcripts, we noticed that up-regulated ones rather exhibit a small nucleotide size, most of them being exclusive for the spotted fever group rickettsiae. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Because eschar is a site for rickettsial

  15. Rickettsial spotted fever in capoeirão Village, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil Rickettsiose do grupo da febre maculosa na Vila de Capoeirão, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Manoella Campostrini Barreto Vianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the infection by spotted fever rickettsia in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF; caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human, canine and equine sera samples, and Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks collected in a rural area of Itabira City, Minas Gerais State were tested for rickettsial infection. Through Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA we demonstrated the presence of antibodies anti-R. rickettsii in 8.2%, 81.3% and 100% of the human, canine and equine sera, respectively. None of the 356 tick specimens analyzed were positive for Rickettsia by the hemolymph test or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR for the htrA and the gltA genes. Our serological results on horses and dogs (sentinels for BSF appoint for the circulation of a SFG Rickettsia in the study area, however in a very low infection rate among the A. cajennense tick population.O presente estudo investigou a infecção por rickéttsias do grupo da febre maculosa (GFM em área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira (FMB; causada por Rickettsia rickettsii no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Amostras de soros de humanos, cães e eqüídeos, e carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense adultos colhidos em um povoado rural em Itabira, Minas Gerais foram testados para infecção por Rickettsia. Pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI foram detectados anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii em 8,2% dos soros humanos, 81,3% dos cães e em 100% dos eqüídeos. Nenhum dos 356 carrapatos se mostrou positivo para Rickettsia no teste de hemolinfa e na reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR objetivando amplificar fragmentos de DNA dos genes htrA and the gltA. Os resultados sorológicos em eqüinos e cães (sentinelas para FMB apontam para a circulação de uma rickéttsia do GFM na área do estudo, porém, numa freqüência de infecção muito baixa na população do carrapato A. cajennense.

  16. Brazilian spotted fever in dogs/ Febre maculosa brasileira em cães

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    Alexander Welker Biondo

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is caused by bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, highly pathogenic for humans and dogs, and has the Amblyomma cajennense tick as its main vector. Dogs maybe have a significantly participation on the BSF epidemiology, particularly in urban areas, due to the close contact with human beings. Several serologic studies in dogs from different Brazilian regions have indicated a previous contact of these animals with the R. rickettsii, and they are even considered as sentinels for the bacteria distribution. Although dogs are susceptible to R. rickettsii infection, the clinical disease in dogs has been very recently described in Brazil. Common signs of infection may include fever, depression, anorexia, ocular lesions, hemorrhagic petechiaes, anemia and thrombocytopenia, which also may appear in other diseases, such as the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, considered the most common disease in dogs transmitted by ticks in Brazil. Thus, BSF clinical diagnosis in dogs may be confused by other diseases, causing its sub-notification. The aim of the present review article on BSF in dogs was to describe epidemiologic, clinical and diagnosis aspects, including also the main alternatives for its treatment and control.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, cuja patogenicidade é conhecida para seres humanos e cães, e o carrapato Amblyomma cajennense é tido como seu principal vetor. Os cães podem ter um papel significativo na epidemiologia da FMB devido ao próximo contato com seres humanos. Vários estudos sorológicos em cães em diferentes estados brasileiros indicaram um contato prévio destes animais com a R. rickettsii, sendo inclusive considerados sentinelas para a circulação da bactéria. Apesar de serem susceptíveis à infecção por R. rickettsii, a doença clínica em cães foi relatada apenas recentemente no Brasil, onde observaram-se sinais comuns da infecção, como febre, anorexia

  17. 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana': A novel Rickettsia species isolated from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Troyo, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    Rickettsiae are intracellular bacteria commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods. Most of them have been described in hard ticks, but some have been found in soft ticks. Here we report the detection and isolation of a new Rickettsia from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi larvae collected from Balantiopteryx plicata (Emballonuridae) in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Two ticks were processed to detect Rickettsia spp. genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA by PCR. Part of the macerate was also inoculated into Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, and cells were evaluated by Giménez stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and PCR. Both ticks were positive by PCR and rickettsial growth was successful in Vero E6 cells. Amplification and sequencing of near full length rrs, gltA, sca4 genes, and fragments of ompA and ompB showed that the Rickettsia sp. was different from described species. The highest homologies were with 'Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii' and Rickettsia peacockii: 99.70% (1321/1325) with both sequences for rrs, 99.58% (1172/1177) and 99.76% (1246/1249) for gltA, 99.26% with both sequences (2948/2970 and 2957/2979) for sca4, 98.78% (485/491) and 98.39% (2069/2115) for ompA, and 98.58 (1453/1474) and 98.92% (1459/1475) for ompB; respectively. Bat blood, spleen, liver, and lung samples analyzed for Rickettsia detection were negative. Results demonstrate that the Rickettsia isolated from O. knoxjonesi is probably an undescribed species that belongs to the spotted fever group, for which 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana' is proposed. Considering that B. plicata inhabits areas where contact with humans may occur and that human parasitism by Ornithodoros has been reported in the country, it will be important to continue with the characterization of this species and its pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N; Knobel, Darryn L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2013-08-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1 pool

  19. Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in domestic animals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Beth K; Wainaina, James M; Magiri, Charles G; Nganga, Joseph K; Ithondeka, Peter M; Njagi, Obadiah N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic and human diseases. Arthropod vectors, such as fleas, mites, ticks, and lice, transmit rickettsiae to vertebrates during blood meals. In humans, the disease can be life threatening. This study was conducted amidst rising reports of rickettsioses among travelers to Kenya. Ticks and whole blood were collected from domestic animals presented for slaughter at major slaughterhouses in Nairobi and Mombasa that receive animals from nearly all counties in the country. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 1019 cattle, 379 goats, and 299 sheep and were screened for rickettsiae by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (Rick17b) using primers and probe that target the genus-specific 17-kD gene (htrA). The ticks were identified using standard taxonomic keys. All Rick17b-positive tick DNA samples were amplified and sequenced with primers sets that target rickettsial outer membrane protein genes (ompA and ompB) and the citrate-synthase encoding gene (gltA). Using the Rick17b qPCR, rickettsial infections in domestic animals were found in 25/32 counties sampled (78.1% prevalence). Infection rates were comparable in cattle (16.3%) and sheep (15.1%) but were lower in goats (7.1%). Of the 596 ticks collected, 139 had rickettsiae (23.3%), and the detection rates were highest in Amblyomma (62.3%; n=104), then Rhipicephalus (45.5%; n=120), Hyalomma (35.9%; n=28), and Boophilus (34.9%; n=30). Following sequencing, 104 out of the 139 Rick17b-positive tick DNA had good reverse and forward sequences for the 3 target genes. On querying GenBank with the generated consensus sequences, homologies of 92-100% for the following spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia africae (93.%, n=97), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (1.9%, n=2), Rickettsia mongolotimonae (0.96%, n=1), Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis (0.96%, n=1), Candidatus Rickettsia kulagini (0.96% n=1), and Rickettsia spp. (1.9% n=2). In

  20. Rickettsial ompB promoter regulated expression of GFPuv in transformed Rickettsia montanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald D Baldridge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular, alpha-proteobacteria that have historically been associated with blood-feeding arthropods. Certain species cause typhus and spotted fevers in humans, but others are of uncertain pathogenicity or may be strict arthropod endosymbionts. Genetic manipulation of rickettsiae should facilitate a better understanding of their interactions with hosts.We transformed a species never associated with human disease, Rickettsia montanensis, by electroporation with a TN5 transposon (pMOD700 containing green fluorescent protein (GFPuv and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT genes under regulation of promoters cloned from the Rickettsia rickettsii ompB gene, and isolated a Chloramphenicol-resistant GFP-fluorescent rickettsiae population (Rmontanensis700. The Rmontanensis700 rickettsiae contained a single transposon integrated near an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene in the rickettsial chromosome. Northern blots showed that GFPuv and CAT mRNAs were both expressed as two transcripts of larger and smaller than predicted length. Western immunoblots showed that Rmontanensis700 and E. coli transformed with a plasmid containing the pMOD700 transposon both expressed GFPuv proteins of the predicted molecular weight.Long-standing barriers to transformation of rickettsiae have been overcome by development of transposon-based rickettsial transformation vectors. The ompB promoter may be the most problematic of the four promoters so far employed in those vectors.

  1. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species in bat ticks, France, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  4. Amblyomma sculptum: genetic diversity and rickettsias in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourth, K; Amorim, M; DE Oliveira, S V; Caetano, R L; Voloch, C M; Gazêta, G S

    2017-12-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888 is the most important tick vector in Brazil, transmitting the bioagent of the most severe form of spotted fever (SF) in part of the Cerrado (in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo). In another part of the Cerrado (Central-West region of Brazil), a milder form of SF has been recorded. However, neither the rickettsia nor the vector involved have been characterized. The aim of the current study was to analyse genetic variation and the presence of rickettsia in A. sculptum in Cerrado, from silent areas and with the milder form of SF. Samples were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit II and D-loop mitochondrial genes (for tick population analyses), and gltA, htrA, ompA and gene D (sca4) genes for rickettsia researches. Exclusive haplotypes with low frequencies, high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, star-shaped networks and significant results in neutrality tests indicate A. sculptum population expansions in some areas. Rickettsia amblyommatis, Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Rickettsia felis were detected. The A. sculptum diversity is not geographically, or biome delimited, pointing to a different potential in vector capacity, possibly associated with differing tick genetic profiles. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Yen Thon; Hii, Sze Fui; Stevenson, Mark A; Graves, Stephen; Rees, Robert; Stenos, John; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-13

    Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians. One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Veterinarians provided a single blood sample and answered a questionnaire on potential risk factors influencing their exposure to R. felis and R. typhi. Indirect microimmunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) was used to identify evidence of serological exposure of the participants to R. felis and R. typhi. Results were analyzed and a logistical regression model performed to predict risk factors associated with seropositivity. In total, 16.0% of participants were seropositive to R. felis, 4.6% to R. typhi and 35.1% seropositive to both, where cross-reactivity of the IFAT between R. felis and R. typhi precluded a definitive diagnosis. Veterinarians residing within the south-eastern states of Victoria and Tasmania were at a higher risk of exposure to R. felis or generalised R. felis or R. typhi exposure. Older veterinarians and those that recommended flea treatment to their clients were found to be significantly protected from exposure. The high exposure to R. felis amongst veterinary professionals suggests that flea-borne spotted fever is an important cause of undifferentiated fever conditions that may not be adequately recognized in Australia.

  6. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  7. Randomized double-blind evaluation of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiol, F; Pallares, R; Carratala, J; Bolao, F; Ariza, J; Rufi, G; Viladrich, P F

    1989-01-01

    A study of 43 patients with Mediterranean spotted fever showed that a 2-day course of ciprofloxacin or a 2-day course of doxycycline may be an effective mode of therapy. All patients in both arms of the study were cured; however, doxycycline produced a more rapid defervescence.

  8. Multispacer typing of Rickettsia isolates from humans and ticks in Tunisia revealing new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znazen, Abir; Khrouf, Fatma; Elleuch, Nihel; Lahiani, Dorra; Marrekchi, Chakib; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Bouattour, Ali; Hammami, Adnene

    2013-12-31

    Rickettsioses are important remerging vector born infections. In Tunisia, many species have been described in humans and vectors. Genotyping is important for tracking pathogen movement between hosts and vectors. In this study, we characterized Rickettsia species detected in patients and vectors using multispacer typing (MST), proposed by Founier et al. and based on three intergenic spacers (dksA-xerC, rmpE- tRNA(fMet), mppA-pruC) sequencing. Our study included 25 patients hospitalized during 2009. Ticks and fleas were collected in the vicinity of confirmed cases. Serology was performed on serum samples by microimmunofluorescence using Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia typhi antigens. To detect and identify Rickettsia species, PCR targeting ompA, ompB and gltA genes followed by sequencing was performed on 18 obtained skin biopsies and on all collected vectors. Rickettsia positive samples were further characterized using primers targeting three intergenic spacers (dksA-xerC, rmpE- tRNA(fMet) and mppA-purC). A rickettsial infection was confirmed in 15 cases (60%). Serology was positive in 13 cases (52%). PCR detected Rickettsia DNA in four biopsies (16%) allowing the identification of R. conorii subsp israelensis in three cases and R. conorii subsp conorii in one case. Among 380 collected ticks, nine presented positive PCR (2.4%) allowing the identification of six R. conorii subsp israelensis, two R. massiliae and one R. conorii subsp conorii. Among 322 collected fleas, only one was positive for R. felis. R. conorii subsp israelensis strains detected in humans and vectors clustered together and showed a new MST genotype. Similarly, R. conorii subsp conorii strains detected in a skin biopsy and a tick were genetically related and presented a new MST genotype. New Rickettsia spotted fever strain genotypes were found in Tunisia. Isolates detected in humans and vectors were genetically homogenous despite location differences in their original isolation suggesting

  9. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections Among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-03

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1-14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2-17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2-38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8-15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6-12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Rickettsia hoogstraalii sp. nov., isolated from hard- and soft-bodied ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Darja; Punda-Polic, Volga; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Bouyer, Donald; Walker, David H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Jelovsek, Mateja; Gracner, Maja; Trilar, Tomi; Bradaric, Nikola; Kurtti, Timothy J; Strus, Jasna

    2010-04-01

    A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia was found in Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks collected from sheep and goats in Croatia in 2006. At the same time, a genetically identical organism was co-isolated with the embryonic cell line CCE3 obtained from the soft tick Carios capensis in Georgia, USA. In this study, further phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the novel rickettsial strain present in H. sulcata ticks were investigated. Based on the cultivation of bacteria in mosquito and Vero cell cultures, the presence of rickettsiae in tick tissues and cell cultures [confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] and the amplification and sequencing of five rickettsial genes, it was demonstrated that the novel Rickettsia strain fulfils the criteria to be classified as a novel species. The name Rickettsia hoogstraalii sp. nov. is proposed for the new strain. Rickettsia hoogstraalii sp. nov., an obligately intracellular bacterium, was grown in Vero cells and arthropod CCE3, ISE6 and C6/36 cell lines. The morphology of the cells of the novel species was typical of SFG rickettsiae. The small coccobacillary appearance of the bacteria was apparent with light microscopy. A Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and a cytoplasmic membrane separated by a narrow periplasmic space were visible by TEM. To date, Rickettsia hoogstraalii sp. nov. has been isolated from two species of ticks, H. sulcata and C. capensis. The novel species appears to be geographically widely distributed, having been detected in Croatia, Spain and Georgia, USA. Although no information is available regarding the possible pathogenicity of the novel species for vertebrate hosts, R. hoogstraalii sp. nov. has a cytopathic effect in Vero, CCE3 and ISE6 cells. Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA, 17 kDa, gltA, ompA and ompB genes indicated that even though R. hoogstraalii sp. nov. was closely related to Rickettsia felis, it represents a separate species within the spotted fever group. The type strain of R

  11. Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L

    2012-12-01

    A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Development and validation of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for the detection of Rickettsia felis and not Rickettsia felis-like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Antony M; Maina, Alice N; Taylor, Melissa L; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2014-07-01

    Human infections with Rickettsia felis have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have revealed the presence of many closely related but unique rickettsiae, referred to as Rickettsia felis-like organisms (RFLO), identified in various arthropods. Due to the recent discovery of the lack of specificity of earlier R. felis-specific assays, there has become a need to develop a new generation of R. felis-specific molecular assays that will differentiate R. felis not only from other rickettsiae but more importantly from other members of the R. felis genogroup that may not be pathogenic to humans. This new generation of assays is essential for determining the true risk for flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) by surveying arthropod vectors/hosts. Because of the lack of specificity of previous assays developed to detect R. felis infections, prior surveys may have overestimated the prevalence of R. felis in arthropod vectors and thus the perceived risk of FBSF. We have developed a specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect R. felis (RfelB). Specificity of the assay was determined by testing it with a panel of 17 related Rickettsia species and 12 nonrickettsial bacterial DNA preparations. The RfelB qPCR assay was positive for R. felis DNA and negative for all of the 17 related Rickettsia species and 12 nonrickettsia bacterial DNA preparations. The limit of detection of the RfelB qPCR assay was determined to be two copies (two genoequivalents) per microliter of R. felis target ompB fragment-containing plasmid. Validation of the RfelB qPCR assay was accomplished by testing 83 previously sequence-confirmed R. felis and RFLOs containing DNA preparations from human and flea samples collected from different geographical locations around the world. This assay will be useful for rapid detection, identification, and enumeration of R. felis, an emerging human pathogen of worldwide importance, from both clinical and environmental samples.

  13. RickA expression is not sufficient to promote actin-based motility of Rickettsia raoultii.

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    Premanand Balraj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG. The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. peacocki. This result led us to investigate if RickA, the protein thought to generate actin nucleation, was expressed within this rickettsia species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amplification and sequencing of R. raoultii rickA showed that this gene encoded a putative 565 amino acid protein highly homologous to those found in other rickettsiae. Using immunofluorescence assays, we determined that the motility pattern (i.e. microcolonies or cell-to-cell spreading of R. raoultii was different depending on the host cell line in which the bacteria replicated. In contrast, under the same experimental conditions, R. conorii shares the same phenotype both in L929 and in Vero cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of infected cells showed that non-motile bacteria were free in the cytosol instead of enclosed in a vacuole. Moreover, western-blot analysis demonstrated that the defect of R. raoultii actin-based motility within L929 cells was not related to lower expression of RickA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, together with previously published data about R. typhi, strongly suggest that another factor, apart from RickA, may be involved with be responsible for actin-based motility in bacteria from the Rickettsia genus.

  14. Rickettsia spp. among wild mammals and their respective ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Costa, Francisco Borges; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia comprises obligatory intracellular bacteria, well known to cause zoonotic diseases around the world. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Rickettsia spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular and serological techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, serum, whole blood and/or spleen samples were collected from 31 coatis, 78 crab-eating foxes, seven ocelots, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials. Serum samples from canids, felids, rodents and marsupials were individually tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in order to detect IgG antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia amblyommatis. DNA samples from mammals and ectoparasites were submitted to a multiplex qPCR assay in order to detect and quantify spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae and Orientia tsutsugamushi. Positive samples in qPCR assays were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA genes, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The ticks collected (1582) from animals belonged to the species Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma auricularium. Overall, 27 (64.2%) dogs, 59 (75.6%) crab-eating foxes and six (85.7%) ocelots were seroreactive (titer≥64) to at least one Rickettsia species. For 17 (40.4%) dogs, 33 (42.3%) crab-eating foxes, and two (33.3%) ocelots, homologous reactions to R. amblyommatis or a closely related organism were suggested. One hundred and sixteen (23.5%) tick samples and one (1.2%) crab-eating fox blood sample showed positivity in qPCR assays for SFG Rickettsia spp. Among SFG Rickettsia-positive ticks samples, 93 (80.2%) belonged to A. parvum, 14 (12%) belonged to A. sculptum species, three (2.5%) belonged to A

  15. Proposal to create subspecies of Rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of Rickettsia conorii

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    Raoult Didier

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsiae closely related to the Malish strain, the reference Rickettsia conorii strain, include Indian tick typhus rickettsia (ITTR, Israeli spotted fever rickettsia (ISFR, and Astrakhan fever rickettsia (AFR. Although closely related genotypically, they are distinct serotypically. Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST, we have recently found that distinct serotypes may not always represent distinct species within the Rickettsia genus. We investigated the possibility of classifying rickettsiae closely related to R. conorii as R. conorii subspecies as proposed by the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. For this, we first estimated their genotypic variability by using MLST including the sequencing of 5 genes, of 31 rickettsial isolates closely related to R. conorii strain Malish, 1 ITTR isolate, 2 isolates and 3 tick amplicons of AFR, and 2 ISFR isolates. Then, we selected a representative of each MLST genotype and used multi-spacer typing (MST and mouse serotyping to estimate their degree of taxonomic relatedness. Results Among the 39 isolates or tick amplicons studied, four MLST genotypes were identified: i the Malish type; ii the ITTR type; iii the AFR type; and iv the ISFR type. Among these four MLST genotypes, the pairwise similarity in nucleotide sequence varied from 99.8 to 100%, 99.4 to 100%, 98.2 to 99.8%, 98.4 to 99.8%, and 99.2 to 99.9% for 16S rDNA, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes, respectively. Representatives of the 4 MLST types were also classified within four types using MST genotyping as well as mouse serotyping. Conclusion Although homogeneous genotypically, strains within the R. conorii species show MST genotypic, serotypic, and epidemio-clinical dissimilarities. We, therefore, propose to modify the nomenclature of the R. conorii species through the creation of subspecies. We propose the names R. conorii subsp. conorii subsp. nov. (type strain = Malish, ATCC VR-613

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexican children: Clinical and mortality factors.

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    Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize clinical manifestations and predictors of mortality in children hospitalized for spotted fever. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study in 210 subjects with a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF in a pediatric hospital in Sonora, from January 1st, 2004 to June 30th, 2015. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results. An upward trend was observed in RMSF morbidity and mortal- ity. Fatality rate was 30%. Three predictors were associated with risk of death: delay ≥ 5 days at the start of doxycycline (ORa = 2.95, 95% CI 1.10-7.95, acute renal failure ((ORa = 8.79, 95% CI 3.46-22.33 and severe sepsis (ORa = 3.71, 95% CI 1.44-9.58. Conclusions. RMSF causes high mortality in children, which can be avoided with timely initiation of doxycycline. Acute renal failure and severe sepsis are two independent predictors of death in children with RMSF.

  17. Rickettsia parkeri invasion of diverse host cells involves an Arp2/3 complex, WAVE complex and Rho-family GTPase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shawna C O; Serio, Alisa W; Welch, Matthew D

    2012-04-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that are transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors and cause diseases such as spotted fever and typhus. Although rickettsiae require the host cell actin cytoskeleton for invasion, the cytoskeletal proteins that mediate this process have not been completely described. To identify the host factors important during cell invasion by Rickettsia parkeri, a member of the spotted fever group (SFG), we performed an RNAi screen targeting 105 proteins in Drosophila melanogaster S2R+ cells. The screen identified 21 core proteins important for invasion, including the GTPases Rac1 and Rac2, the WAVE nucleation-promoting factor complex and the Arp2/3 complex. In mammalian cells, including endothelial cells, the natural targets of R. parkeri, the Arp2/3 complex was also crucial for invasion, while requirements for WAVE2 as well as Rho GTPases depended on the particular cell type. We propose that R. parkeri invades S2R+ arthropod cells through a primary pathway leading to actin nucleation, whereas invasion of mammalian endothelial cells occurs via redundant pathways that converge on the host Arp2/3 complex. Our results reveal a key role for the WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, as well as a higher degree of variation than previously appreciated in actin nucleation pathways activated during Rickettsia invasion. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky

  19. Feeding period required by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks for transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Soares, Herbert S; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium.

  20. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jeanette Trigo; Lana, Rafael César; Silva, Claudia Maria dos Santos; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; da Cunha e Silva, Darllan Collins; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality. To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants), São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012. All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49) notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates) with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases. Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6%) aged 20-49 years old (49%). Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods. The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  2. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  3. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G; Wolcott, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  4. THE SECOND BLIND SPOT: SMALL RETINAL VESSEL VASCULOPATHY AFTER VACCINATION AGAINST NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS AND YELLOW FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysidis, Stavros N; Koulisis, Nicole; Patel, Vivek R; Kashani, Amir H; Rao, Narsing A; Humayun, Mark S; Rodger, Damien C

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of small retinal vessel vasculopathy postvaccination. We report the case of a 41-year-old white man who presented with a "second blind spot," describing a nasal scotoma in the right eye that started 4 days after vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis and the yellow fever virus, and after a 2-month period of high stress and decreased sleep. Clinical examination, Humphrey visual field testing, and multimodal imaging with fundus photographs, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and angiography were performed. Clinical examination revealed a well-circumscribed, triangular area of retinal graying of about 1-disk diameter in size, located at the border of the temporal macula. This corresponded to a deep scotoma similar in size to the physiologic blind spot on Humphrey visual field 24-2 testing. There was mild hypoautofluoresence of this lesion on autofluorescence, hypofluorescence on fluorescein angiography, and focal attenuation of a small artery just distal to the bifurcation of an artery supplying the involved area. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography through the lesion conveyed hyperreflectivity most prominent in the inner and outer plexiform layers, with extension of the hyperreflectivity into the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography demonstrated arteriolar and capillary dropout, more pronounced in the superficial retinal layer compared to the deeper retinal layer. At 1-month follow-up, his scotoma improved with monitoring, with reduction from -32 dB to -7 dB on Humphrey visual field testing. There was clinical resolution of the area of graying and decreased hyperreflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, with atrophy of the inner retina. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography showed progression of arteriolar and capillary dropout, more so in the superficial than in the deep capillary

  5. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

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    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Online platform for applying space-time scan statistics for prospectively detecting emerging hot spots of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Teng, Yung-Chu; Lin, Bo-Cheng; Fan, I-Chun; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2016-11-25

    Cases of dengue fever have increased in areas of Southeast Asia in recent years. Taiwan hit a record-high 42,856 cases in 2015, with the majority in southern Tainan and Kaohsiung Cities. Leveraging spatial statistics and geo-visualization techniques, we aim to design an online analytical tool for local public health workers to prospectively identify ongoing hot spots of dengue fever weekly at the village level. A total of 57,516 confirmed cases of dengue fever in 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC). Incorporating demographic information as covariates with cumulative cases (365 days) in a discrete Poisson model, we iteratively applied space-time scan statistics by SaTScan software to detect the currently active cluster of dengue fever (reported as relative risk) in each village of Tainan and Kaohsiung every week. A village with a relative risk >1 and p value dengue fever transmission on a weekly basis at the village level by using the routine surveillance data.

  7. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue fever (DF in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space–time clusters and dispersion of DF. Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34. The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9% districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest. Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

  8. Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Ticks and Serological and Clinical Outcomes in Tick-Bitten Individuals in Sweden and on the Åland Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lindblom

    Full Text Available Tick-transmitted diseases are an emerging health problem, and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector for Borrelia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus and most of the spotted fever Rickettsiae in Europe. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of rickettsial infection in the southernmost and south central parts of Sweden and the Åland Islands in Finland, the risk of infection in humans and its correlation with a bite of a Rickettsia-infected tick, the self-reported symptoms of rickettsial disease, and the prevalence of co-infection between Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Persons with a recent tick bite were enrolled through public media and asked to answer a questionnaire, provide a blood sample and bring detached ticks at enlistment and at follow-up three months later. Blood samples were previously analysed for Borrelia spp. antibodies and, for this report, analysed for antibodies to Rickettsia spp. by immunofluorescence and in 16 cases also using Western Blot. Ninety-six (44.0% of the 218 participants were seropositive for IgG antibodies to Rickettsia spp. Forty (18.3% of the seropositive participants had increased titres at the follow-up, indicating recent/current infection, while four (1.8% had titres indicating probable recent/current infection (≥1:256. Of 472 ticks, 39 (8.3% were Rickettsia sp. positive. Five (31.3% of 16 participants bitten by a Rickettsia-infected tick seroconverted. Experience of the self-reported symptoms nausea (p = 0.006 and radiating pain (p = 0.041 was more common among those with recent, current or probable infection compared to those who did not seroconvert. Participants who showed seroreactivity or seroconversion to Rickettsia spp. had more symptoms than those who were seronegative. Seven (3.2% participants showed seroconversion to Borrelia spp., and three (1.4% of these showed seroconversion to both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp., in accordance with previous studies in Sweden

  9. Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Ticks and Serological and Clinical Outcomes in Tick-Bitten Individuals in Sweden and on the Åland Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Anders; Wallménius, Katarina; Sjöwall, Johanna; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Tick-transmitted diseases are an emerging health problem, and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector for Borrelia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus and most of the spotted fever Rickettsiae in Europe. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of rickettsial infection in the southernmost and south central parts of Sweden and the Åland Islands in Finland, the risk of infection in humans and its correlation with a bite of a Rickettsia-infected tick, the self-reported symptoms of rickettsial disease, and the prevalence of co-infection between Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Persons with a recent tick bite were enrolled through public media and asked to answer a questionnaire, provide a blood sample and bring detached ticks at enlistment and at follow-up three months later. Blood samples were previously analysed for Borrelia spp. antibodies and, for this report, analysed for antibodies to Rickettsia spp. by immunofluorescence and in 16 cases also using Western Blot. Ninety-six (44.0%) of the 218 participants were seropositive for IgG antibodies to Rickettsia spp. Forty (18.3%) of the seropositive participants had increased titres at the follow-up, indicating recent/current infection, while four (1.8%) had titres indicating probable recent/current infection (≥1:256). Of 472 ticks, 39 (8.3%) were Rickettsia sp. positive. Five (31.3%) of 16 participants bitten by a Rickettsia-infected tick seroconverted. Experience of the self-reported symptoms nausea (p = 0.006) and radiating pain (p = 0.041) was more common among those with recent, current or probable infection compared to those who did not seroconvert. Participants who showed seroreactivity or seroconversion to Rickettsia spp. had more symptoms than those who were seronegative. Seven (3.2%) participants showed seroconversion to Borrelia spp., and three (1.4%) of these showed seroconversion to both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp., in accordance with previous studies in Sweden. Symptoms

  10. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and R. slovaca in Melophagus ovinus, the sheep ked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-11-01

    extends the geographical range of spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  11. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and R. slovaca in Melophagus ovinus, the sheep ked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wureli, Ha-Zi; Wang, Shi-Wei; Tu, Chang-Chun; Chen, Chuang-Fu

    2016-11-25

    Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a hematophagous ectoparasite, is mainly found in Europe, Northwestern Africa, and Asia. This wingless fly infests sheep, rabbits, and red foxes, and causes inflammation, wool loss and skin damage. Furthermore, this parasite has been shown to transmit diseases, and plays a role as a vector. Herein, we investigated the presence of various Rickettsia species in M. ovinus. In this study, a total of 95 sheep keds were collected in Kuqa County and Alaer City southern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. First, collected sheep keds were identified on the species level using morphological keys and molecular methods based on a fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene (18S rDNA). Thereafter, to assess the presence of rickettsial DNA in sheep keds, the DNA of individual samples was screened by PCR based on six Rickettsia-specific gene fragments originating from six genes: the 17-kilodalton antigen gene (17-kDa), 16S rRNA gene (rrs), surface cell antigen 4 gene (sca4), citrate synthase gene (gltA), and outer membrane protein A and B genes (ompA and ompB). The amplified products were confirmed by sequencing and BLAST analysis ( https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi?PROGRAM=blastn&PAGE_TYPE=BlastSearch&LINK_LOC=blasthome ). According to its morphology and results of molecular analysis, the species was identified as Melophagus ovinus, with 100% identity to M. ovinus from St. Kilda, Australia (FN666411). DNA of Rickettsia spp. were found in 12 M. ovinus samples (12.63%, 12/95). Rickettsia raoultii and R. slovaca were confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis, although the genetic markers of these two rickettsial agents amplified in this study showed molecular diversity. This is the first report of R. raoultii and R. slovaca DNA in M. ovinus. Rickettsia slovaca was found for the first time around the Taklimakan Desert located in China. This finding extends the geographical range of spotted fever group

  12. Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Labib Imran; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Gurley, Emily S; Massung, Robert F; Alamgir, A S M; Galloway, Renee L; Powers, Ann M; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Nicholson, William L; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-02-13

    We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh. We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever. Ten patients were identified with Coxiella. We isolated Leptospira from two patients and Bartonella from one patient. Ten patients had antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The proportion of patients who died was higher with rickettsial fever (5%) compared to those without a diagnosis of rickettsial infection (2%). None of the patients were initially diagnosed with rickettsial fever. Rickettsial infections are frequent yet under-recognized cause of febrile illness in Bangladesh. Clinical guidelines should be revised so that local clinicians can diagnose rickettsial infections and provide appropriate drug treatment.

  13. Serological evidence of Rickettsia infections in forestry rangers in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M; Luzzati, R; Mascioli, M; Floris, R; Brouqui, P

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae and other tick-borne microrganisms in the sera of 181 forestry rangers from Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Italy, was examined. Seven (3.9%) sera were positive for Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia helvetica, as single or dual infections; four of these sera had been found previously to be positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii were detected in five (2.8%) sera, four of which were also positive for B. burgdorferi. These findings indicate that patients in this north-eastern Italian region with fever subsequent to tick-bite should be investigated for Rickettsia and Coxiella infections.

  14. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections , sinus infections , mononucleosis , bronchitis , pneumonia , and tuberculosis Urinary tract infections Viral gastroenteritis and bacterial gastroenteritis Children may have a low-grade fever for 1 ...

  15. DNA Microarray Analysis of Human Monocytes Early Response Genes upon Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, Chien-Chung

    2004-01-01

    Rickettsia are arthropod-borne bacteria which have caused diseases that have had a military impact by sweeping through troops and incapacitating them, such as the so called Trench Fevers of World War I and II...

  16. Online platform for applying space–time scan statistics for prospectively detecting emerging hot spots of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of dengue fever have increased in areas of Southeast Asia in recent years. Taiwan hit a record-high 42,856 cases in 2015, with the majority in southern Tainan and Kaohsiung Cities. Leveraging spatial statistics and geo-visualization techniques, we aim to design an online analytical tool for local public health workers to prospectively identify ongoing hot spots of dengue fever weekly at the village level. Methods A total of 57,516 confirmed cases of dengue fever in 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC. Incorporating demographic information as covariates with cumulative cases (365 days in a discrete Poisson model, we iteratively applied space–time scan statistics by SaTScan software to detect the currently active cluster of dengue fever (reported as relative risk in each village of Tainan and Kaohsiung every week. A village with a relative risk >1 and p value <0.05 was identified as a dengue-epidemic area. Assuming an ongoing transmission might continuously spread for two consecutive weeks, we estimated the sensitivity and specificity for detecting outbreaks by comparing the scan-based classification (dengue-epidemic vs. dengue-free village with the true cumulative case numbers from the TCDC’s surveillance statistics. Results Among the 1648 villages in Tainan and Kaohsiung, the overall sensitivity for detecting outbreaks increases as case numbers grow in a total of 92 weekly simulations. The specificity for detecting outbreaks behaves inversely, compared to the sensitivity. On average, the mean sensitivity and specificity of 2-week hot spot detection were 0.615 and 0.891 respectively (p value <0.001 for the covariate adjustment model, as the maximum spatial and temporal windows were specified as 50% of the total population at risk and 28 days. Dengue-epidemic villages were visualized and explored in an interactive map. Conclusions We designed an online analytical tool for

  17. The enzootic life-cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Król, Nina; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Nader, Julian; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) by qPCR targeting the gltA and p41 genes, respectively. Partial sequencing of the rickettsial ompB gene and an MLST of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) were conducted for species determination. In total, 673 small mammals belonging to eight species (Apodemus agrarius, n = 7; A. flavicollis, n = 214; Microtus arvalis, n = 8; Microtus agrestis, n = 1; Mustela nivalis, n = 2; Myodes glareolus, n = 435; Sorex araneus, n = 5; and Talpa europaea, n = 1) were collected and examined. In total, 916 questing ticks belonging to three species (Ixodes ricinus, n = 741; Dermacentor reticulatus, n = 174; and I. trianguliceps, n = 1) were collected. Of these, 474 ticks were further investigated. The prevalence for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in the investigated small mammals was 25.3 and 31.2%, respectively. The chance of encountering Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus was seven times higher for specimens infested with D. reticulatus than for those which were free of D. reticulatus (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 3.3-14.7; P < 0.001). In total, 11.4% of questing I. ricinus and 70.5% of D. reticulatus were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was detected only in I. ricinus (5.5%). Sequence analysis revealed 9 R. helvetica, 5 R. raoultii, and 1 R. felis obtained from 15 small mammal samples. Small mammals may serve as reservoirs for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.). While the prevalence for Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus is most

  18. Vector competence of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) for Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Zemtsova, Galina E; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Schumacher, Lauren B M

    2017-06-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) - is widely spread across the Americas. In the US, Dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of R. rickettsii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the Southwest. Conversely, ticks of the genus Amblyomma are recognized vectors of RMSF in Central and South America, but not in the US. A. americanum is one of the most aggressive human-biting ticks in the US, whose geographical range overlaps with that of reported RMSF cases. Despite sporadic findings of R. rickettsii DNA in field-collected A. americanum and circumstantial association of this species with human RMSF cases, its vector competence for R. rickettsii has not been appropriately studied. Therefore, we assessed the ability of A. americanum to acquire and transmit two geographically distant isolates of R. rickettsii. The Di-6 isolate of R. rickettsii used in this study originated in Virginia and the AZ-3 isolate originated in Arizona. Under laboratory conditions, A. americanum demonstrated vector competence for both isolates, although the efficiency of acquisition and transovarial transmission was higher for Di-6 than for AZ-3 isolate. Uninfected larvae acquired the pathogen from systemically infected guinea pigs, as well as while feeding side by side with Rickettsia-infected ticks on non-rickettsiemic hosts. Once acquired, R. rickettsii was successfully maintained through the tick molting process and transmitted to susceptible animals during subsequent feedings. Guinea pigs and dogs infested with infected A. americanum developed fever, scrotal edema and dermatitis or macular rash. R. rickettsii DNA was identified in animal blood, skin, and internal organs. The prevalence of infection within tick cohorts gradually increased due to side-by-side feeding of infected and uninfected individuals from 33 to 49% in freshly molted nymphs to 71-98% in

  19. The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis identifies the first putative conjugative plasmid in an obligate intracellular parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp and a long (62,829 bp form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, several chromosomal toxin-antitoxin genes, many more spoT genes, and a very large number of ankyrin- and tetratricopeptide-motif-containing genes. Host-invasion-related genes for patatin and RickA were found. Several phenotypes predicted from genome analysis were experimentally tested: conjugative pili and mating were observed, as well as beta-lactamase activity, actin-polymerization-driven mobility, and hemolytic properties. Our study demonstrates that complete genome sequencing is the fastest approach to reveal phenotypic characters of recently cultured obligate intracellular bacteria.

  20. The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis identifies the first putative conjugative plasmid in an obligate intracellular parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroyuki; Renesto, Patricia; Audic, Stéphane; Robert, Catherine; Blanc, Guillaume; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Parinello, Hugues; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2005-08-01

    We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp) and a long (62,829 bp) form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, several chromosomal toxin-antitoxin genes, many more spoT genes, and a very large number of ankyrin- and tetratricopeptide-motif-containing genes. Host-invasion-related genes for patatin and RickA were found. Several phenotypes predicted from genome analysis were experimentally tested: conjugative pili and mating were observed, as well as beta-lactamase activity, actin-polymerization-driven mobility, and hemolytic properties. Our study demonstrates that complete genome sequencing is the fastest approach to reveal phenotypic characters of recently cultured obligate intracellular bacteria.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: serological survey of dogs and horses in an endemic area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos epidemiológicos da febre maculosa brasileira: inquérito sorológico em cães e equinos em uma área endêmica no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on Brazilian spotted fever, a study in domestic animals was performed in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, where 17 human cases had been notified. Serum samples obtained from animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for detectable antibodies to spotted fever-group rickettsiae. Seropositivity was revealed in 12 (36.4% of 33 dogs and seven (77.8% of nine horses from the endemic area. For comparison, blood samples from dogs and horses from non endemic area were tested and four (12.9% of 31 dogs and three (27.3% of 11 horses were positive. The highest titers of antibodies by IFA (IgG > 1:1024 were found only in three dogs and six horses from endemic area. The results suggest that dogs as horses may serve as environmental sentinels for estabilishing the prevalence of foci of spotted fever in Brazil.Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a febre maculosa brasileira, um estudo em animais domésticos foi conduzido no município de Pedreira, São Paulo, Brasil, onde 17 casos humanos foram notificados. Amostras de soro obtidas de animais foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos para rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa. Soro reatividade foi observada em 12 (36,4% dos 33 cães e sete (77,8% dos nove eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica. Para comparação, amostras de sangue de cães e de eqüinos procedentes de área não endêmica foram testadas e quatro (12,9% dos 31 cães e três dos 10 eqüinos foram positivos. Somente três cães e seis eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica tinham títulos de anticorpos imunofluorescentes elevados (> 1:1024. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que além dos cães, os eqüinos poderiam servir também como animal sentinela na febre maculosa brasileira

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Climatic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K Raghavan

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF prevalence in four contiguous states of Midwestern United States, and to determine the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors associated with this disease. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify space and time only trends and spatio-temporal interaction effect in the case reports submitted to the state health departments in the region. Various socio-economic, environmental and climatic covariates screened a priori in a bivariate procedure were added to a main-effects Bayesian model in progressive steps to evaluate important drivers of RMSF space-time patterns in the region. Our results show a steady increase in RMSF incidence over the study period to newer geographic areas, and the posterior probabilities of county-specific trends indicate clustering of high risk counties in the central and southern parts of the study region. At the spatial scale of a county, the prevalence levels of RMSF is influenced by poverty status, average relative humidity, and average land surface temperature (>35°C in the region, and the relevance of these factors in the context of climate-change impacts on tick-borne diseases are discussed.

  3. Identification of novel surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by affinity purification and proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs, which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens.

  4. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis in Different Ecological Regions of Argentina and Its Association with Amblyomma tigrinum as a Potential Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Yamila; Nava, Santiago; Govedic, Francisco; Cicuttin, Gabriel; Denison, Amy M.; Singleton, Joseph; Kelly, Aubree J.; Kato, Cecilia Y.; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a newly recognized tick-borne pathogen of humans in the Americas, is a confirmed cause of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Argentina. Until recently, almost all cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in Argentina have originated from the Paraná River Delta, where entomological surveys have identified populations of R. parkeri-infected Amblyomma triste ticks. In this report, we describe confirmed cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis from Córdoba and La Rioja provinces, which are located several hundred kilometers inland, and in a more arid ecological region, where A. triste ticks do not occur. Additionally, we identified questing A. tigrinum ticks naturally infected with R. parkeri in Córdoba province. These data provide evidence that another human-biting tick species serves as a potential vector of R. parkeri in Argentina and possibly, other countries of South America. PMID:25349376

  5. Catalase is a determinant of the colonization and transovarial transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, K; Kumar, D; Karim, S

    2017-08-01

    The Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum) has evolved as a competent vector of the spotted-fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia parkeri. In this study, the functional role of catalase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of toxic hydrogen peroxide, in the colonization of the tick vector by R. parkeri and transovarial transmission of this pathogen to the next tick generation, was investigated. Catalase gene (CAT) expression in midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues exhibited a 2-11-fold increase in transcription level upon R. parkeri infection. Depletion of CAT transcripts using an RNA-interference approach significantly reduced R. parkeri infection levels in midgut and salivary gland tissues by 53-63%. The role of CAT in transovarial transmission of R. parkeri was confirmed by simultaneously blocking the transcript and the enzyme by injecting double-stranded RNA for CAT and a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) into gravid females. Simultaneous inhibition of the CAT transcript and the enzyme significantly reduced the egg conversion ratio with a 44% reduction of R. parkeri transovarial transmission. These data suggest that catalase is required for rickettsial colonization of the tick vector and transovarial transmission to the next generation. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Structure of 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase from Rickettsia prowazekii at 2.25 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Sandhya; Abendroth, Jan; Phan, Isabelle Q. H.; Olsen, Christian; Staker, Bart L.; Napuli, A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Stacy, Robin; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The R. prowazekii 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase is similar to those from other prokaryotic pathogens but differs significantly from the mammalian orthologue, strengthening its case as a potential drug target. Rickettsia prowazekii, a parasitic Gram-negative bacterium, is in the second-highest biodefense category of pathogens of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, but only a handful of structures have been deposited in the PDB for this bacterium; to date, all of these have been solved by the SSGCID. Owing to its small genome (about 800 protein-coding genes), it relies on the host for many basic biosynthetic processes, hindering the identification of potential antipathogenic drug targets. However, like many bacteria and plants, its metabolism does depend upon the type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS) pathway for lipogenesis, whereas the predominant form of fatty-acid biosynthesis in humans is via the type I pathway. Here, the structure of the third enzyme in the FAS pathway, 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase, is reported at a resolution of 2.25 Å. Its fold is highly similar to those of the existing structures from some well characterized pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Burkholderia pseudomallei, but differs significantly from the analogous mammalian structure. Hence, drugs known to target the enzymes of pathogenic bacteria may serve as potential leads against Rickettsia, which is responsible for spotted fever and typhus and is found throughout the world

  7. Structure of fumarate hydratase from Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of typhus and suspected relative of the mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Isabelle; Subramanian, Sandhya; Olsen, Christian; Edwards, Thomas E.; Guo, Wenjin; Zhang, Yang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Fumarate hydratase is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, one of the metabolic pathways characteristic of the mitochondria. The structure of R. prowazekii class II fumarate hydratase is reported at 2.4 Å resolution and is compared with the available structure of the human homolog. Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells that are the causative agents responsible for spotted fever and typhus. Their small genome (about 800 protein-coding genes) is highly conserved across species and has been postulated as the ancestor of the mitochondria. No genes that are required for glycolysis are found in the Rickettsia prowazekii or mitochondrial genomes, but a complete set of genes encoding components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory-chain complex is found in both. A 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of R. prowazekii fumarate hydratase, an enzyme catalyzing the third step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway that ultimately converts phosphoenolpyruvate into succinyl-CoA, has been solved. A structure alignment with human mitochondrial fumarate hydratase highlights the close similarity between R. prowazekii and mitochondrial enzymes

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

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  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may be done include: Antibody titer by complement fixation or immunofluorescence Complete blood count (CBC) Kidney ... Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of ...

  10. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 268/1626 ticks, 136 fleas, 11 Nycteribiidae flies and 16 spleens of domestic and/or wild animals from the El Tarf and Souk Ahras areas. For the first time in Algeria, Bartonella tamiae was detected in 12/19 (63.2%) Ixodes vespertilionis ticks, 8/11 (72.7%) Nycteribiidae spp. flies and in 6/10 (60%) bat spleens (Chiroptera spp.). DNA from Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, was also identified in 3/19 (15.8%) I. vespertilionis from bats. Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy, was detected in 1/1 (100%) Haemaphysalis punctata and 2/3 (66.7%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from two boars (Sus scrofa algira) respectively. Ri. massiliae, an agent of spotted fever, was detected in 38/94 (40.4%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from cattle, sheep, dogs, boars and jackals. DNA of Ri. aeschlimannii was detected in 6/20 (30%) Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and 6/20 (30%) Hy. scupense from cattle. Finally, Ri. felis, an emerging rickettsial pathogen, was detected in 80/110 (72.7%) Archaeopsylla erinacei and 2/2 (100%) Ctenocephalides felis of hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus). In this study, we expanded knowledge about the repertoire of ticks and flea-borne bacteria present in ectoparasites and/or tissues of domestic and wild animals in Algeria.

  11. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  12. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Costa Luís

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria.

  13. [Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, M; Socolovschi, C; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was first isolated 20 years ago in Asia but has now been identified on three continents. Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus pusillus ticks are vectors but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, mainly on the Mediterranean coast. This bacterium induces the lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, a still unfamiliar rickettsiosis that is mainly characterized by fever with a rope-like lymphangitis and/or lymphadenopathy and skin eschar occurring after tick bites. These features are especially evocative if they occur in spring. Sequellae are very rare and treatment with doxycycline is recommended. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  15. Penicillin Dried Blood Spot Assay for Use in Patients Receiving Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G and Other Penicillin Preparations To Prevent Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Coward, Jonathan; Moore, Brioni R; Salman, Sam; Marshall, Lewis; Davis, Timothy M E; Batty, Kevin T; Manning, Laurens

    2017-08-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains an important global health challenge. Administration of benzathine penicillin (BPG) every 3 to 4 weeks is recommended as a secondary prophylaxis to prevent recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever and subsequent RHD. Following intramuscular injection, BPG is hydrolyzed to penicillin G (benzylpenicillin). However, little is known of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPG in pediatric populations at high risk of RHD or of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship between penicillin exposure and clinically relevant outcomes. Dried blood spot (DBS) assays can facilitate PK studies in situations where frequent venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy assay for penicillin G in plasma and DBS was developed and validated. Application of the DBS assay for PK studies was confirmed using samples from adult patients receiving penicillin as part of an infection management plan. The limit of quantification for penicillin G in DBS was 0.005 mg/liter. Penicillin G is stable in DBS for approximately 12 h at room temperature (22°C), 6 days at 4°C, and >1 month at -20°C. Plasma and DBS penicillin G concentrations for patients receiving BPG and penicillin G given via bolus doses correlated well and had comparable time-concentration profiles. There was poor correlation for patients receiving penicillin via continuous infusions, perhaps as a result of the presence of residual penicillin in the peripherally inserted central catheter, from which the plasma samples were collected. The present DBS penicillin G assay can be used as a surrogate for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK data for studies of BPG and other penicillin preparations developed to prevent rheumatic fever and RHD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  17. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. Transmission dynamics and control of Rickettsia rickettsii in populations of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Amblyomma sculptum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Polo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF, caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the tick-borne disease that generates the largest number of human deaths in the world. In Brazil, the current increase of BSF human cases has been associated with the presence and expansion of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, which act as primary hosts for the tick Amblyomma sculptum, vector of the R. rickettsii in this area.We proposed a semi-discrete-time stochastic model to evaluate the role of capybaras in the transmission dynamics of R. rickettsii. Through a sensitivity analysis, we identified the parameters with significant influence on the R. rickettsii establishment. Afterward, we implemented the Gillespie's algorithm to simulate the impact of potential public health interventions to prevent BSF human cases.The introduction of a single infected capybara with at least one infected attached tick is enough to trigger the disease in a non-endemic area. We found that to avoid the formation of new BSF-endemic areas, it is crucial to impede the emigration of capybaras from endemic areas by reducing their birth rate by more than 58%. Model results were corroborated by ex-situ data generated from field studies, and this supports our proposal to prevent BSF human cases by implementing control strategies focused on capybaras.The proposed stochastic model illustrates how strategies for the control and prevention of vector-borne infectious diseases can be focused on amplifier hosts management practices. This work provides a basis for future prevention strategies for other neglected vector-borne diseases.

  19. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  20. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Rickettsia rickettsii for identification of drug and vaccine targets: tolC as a proposed candidate for case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Swati; Mani, Ashutosh

    2018-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development. Further the putative targets were subjected to series of molecular dockings with ligands obtained from PDB ligand database to identify suitable potential inhibitors. The comparative genomic analysis revealed 606 non-homologous proteins and 233 essential non-homologous proteins of R. rickettsii. The metabolic pathway analysis predicted 120 proteins as putative drug targets, out of which 56 proteins were found to be associated with metabolic pathways unique to the bacteria and further subcellular localization analysis revealed that 9 proteins as potential drug targets which are secretion proteins, involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, folate biosynthesis and bacterial secretion system. As secretion proteins are more feasible as vaccine candidates, we have selected a most potential target i.e. tolC, an outer membrane efflux protein that belongs to type I secretion system and has major role in pathogen survival as well as MDR persistence. So for case study, we have modelled the three dimensional structure of tolC (tunnel protein). The model was further subjected to virtual screening and in-silico docking. The study identified three potential inhibitors having PDB Id 19V, 6Q8 and 39H. Further we have suggested that the above study would be most

  2. Rickettsiae in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-138 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia spp. * Rickettsia helvetica * Rickettsia monacensis * Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  3. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Reimerink, J.H.J.; Sprong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult

  4. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Amália R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-07-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador.

  5. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušková, Eva; Literák, I.; Papoušek, I.; Costa, F.B.; Nováková, M.; Labruna, M. B.; Zdražilová-Dubská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2016), s. 482-486 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rickettsiae * Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii * Ixodes ricinus * basal group rickettsiae * ticks * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  6. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam. (Special Issue: Public health in Vietnam: here's the data, where's the action?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Thi Thanh, Toan; Hu, WenBiao; Pham Quang, Thai; Luu Ngoc, Hoat; Wright, P; Martens, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The

  7. Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Dermacentor silvarum ticks in China-Russia border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiao, Dan; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yao, De-Hai; Liu, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Gang; Ju, Wen-Dong; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Yi-Jing; Sun, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Since the year 2000, clinical patterns resembling tick-borne rickettsioses have been noticed in China-Russia border areas. Epidemiological data regarding species of the aetiological agent, tick vector prevalence and distribution as well as incidence of human cases in the areas are still sparse to date. In order to identify Rickettsia species occurring in the areas, we investigated Dermacentor silvarum collected in the selected areas. Rickettsia raoultii was the predominant Rickettsia found in D. silvarum evident with ompA, ompB, gltA and 17 kDa protein genes. The Rickettsia prevalence in D. silvarum appeared to be 32.25 % with no sex difference. The results extend the common knowledge about the geographic distribution of R. raoultii and its candidate vector tick species, which suggest an emerged potential threat of human health in the areas.

  8. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker in Rickettsia typhi Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Jill Michelle; Radulovic, Suzana; Azad, Abdu F.

    1999-01-01

    Transformation of rickettsiae is a recent accomplishment, but utility of this technique is limited due to the paucity of selectable markers suitable for use in this intracellular pathogen. We chose a green fluorescent protein variant optimized for fluorescence under UV lights (GFPUV) as a fluorometric marker and transformed Rickettsia typhi with an rpoB-GFPUV fusion construct. The rickettsiae were subsequently grown in Vero cells, and cultures were screened by PCR and restriction fragment len...

  9. Noneruptive fever revealing murine typhus in a traveler returning from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellier, Laura; Lanternier, Fanny; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Rivière, Sébastien; Raoult, Didier; Lortholary, Olivier; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia species are increasingly being recognized as a cause of infection among returning travelers. Murine typhus (MT) was mistakenly thought to have disappeared in the 1970s in Tunisia, yet recent serological data show that Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of MT, still circulates in the Tunisian population. We report here a case of MT in a woman returning from Tunisia and hospitalized in France. Her presentation was nonspecific, with acute noneruptive fever. Diagnosis was confirmed by cross-adsorption and immunoblotting. Clinicians taking care of returning travelers with fever should be aware of MT, and know how to diagnose and treat it. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of diseases caused by virus-like bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsiae and...

  11. Rickettsia Species in Ticks Removed from Humans in Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M.; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kar, Sırrı

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from humans in Turkey. The presence of R. africae also had not been previously described, either in Hyalomma ticks or in any European tick species. In addition, R. aeschlimannii and R. felis had not been found associated with Rhipicephalus bursa specimens. The presence of human pathogenic Rickettsia in ticks removed from humans provides information about the risk of tick-borne rickettsioses in Turkey. PMID:22925016

  12. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF case in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45% and 4 dogs (20% were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso humano relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram

  13. Situação da febre maculosa na Região Administrativa de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Spotted fever in Campinas region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A febre maculosa brasileira foi detectada pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo em 1929. No entanto, não há registro sistemático de casos neste Estado. Em 1985 ocorreram três casos desta doença no Município de Pedreira, situado na região de Campinas, que fica no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, correspondendo à 5ª Região Administrativa, e compreendendo 88 municípios. Alguns estudos foram realizados no Município de Pedreira, mas a falta de registro de casos foi um obstáculo encontrado. Com a finalidade de recuperar o histórico da doença, resolveu-se pesquisar e registrar as ocorrências de febre maculosa na região no período de 1985 a 2000 e analisar o seu comportamento. Foram recuperados todos os registros da doença nos diversos serviços de saúde pública. Observou-se uma ampliação da área de transmissão e a ocorrência de um aumento dos casos suspeitos a partir de 1996, ano em que a doença foi determinada como de notificação compulsória na região. Esta doença foi causa de óbito na maioria dos anos do período de estudo. Conclui-se que a febre maculosa está em ascensão na região e estudos bioecológicos complementares estão sendo desenvolvidos para melhor compreensão da epidemiologia dessa doença, que é mundialmente reconhecida como um problema emergente de saúde pública.Brazilian spotted fever was detected for the first time in the State of São Paulo in 1929. However, there is no systematic reporting of the disease in the State. In 1985, three cases of the disease occurred in the municipality of Pedreira, located in the Campinas Region, belonging to the 5th Administrative Region, in the Northeast part of the State, including 88 municipalities. An investigation was conducted at the time, but the lack of case registry limited its scope. The present study was undertaken with the aim of recovering the history of the disease in the Region. Data recovered from several public health services for

  14. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil.

  15. Murine typhus and leptospirosis as causes of acute undifferentiated fever, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Adi, Mateus S.; Isbandrio, Bambang B.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Rolain, Jean Marc; Raoult, Didier; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients

  16. Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M.H.; Wagenaar, J.F.P.; Goris, M.G.A.; Adi, M.S.; Isbandrio, B.B.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Rolain, J.M.; Raoult, D.; van Gorp, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients

  17. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Günther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas. PMID:22153360

  18. The Distinct Transcriptional Response of the Midgut of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks to Rickettsia rickettsii Correlates to Their Differences in Susceptibility to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. Fogaça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii is a tick-borne obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF. In Brazil, two species of ticks in the genus Amblyomma, A. sculptum and A. aureolatum, are incriminated as vectors of this bacterium. Importantly, these two species present remarkable differences in susceptibility to R. rickettsii infection, where A. aureolatum is more susceptible than A. sculptum. In the current study, A. aureolatum and A. sculptum ticks were fed on suitable hosts previously inoculated with R. rickettsii, mimicking a natural infection. As control, ticks were fed on non-infected animals. Both midgut and salivary glands of all positively infected ticks were colonized by R. rickettsii. We did not observe ticks with infection restricted to midgut, suggesting that important factors for controlling rickettsial colonization were produced in this organ. In order to identify such factors, the total RNA extracted from the midgut (MG was submitted to next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The majority of the coding sequences (CDSs of A. sculptum differentially expressed by infection were upregulated, whereas most of modulated CDSs of A. aureolatum were downregulated. The functional categories that comprise upregulated CDSs of A. sculptum, for instance, metabolism, signal transduction, protein modification, extracellular matrix, and immunity also include CDSs of A. aureolatum that were downregulated by infection. This is the first study that reports the effects of an experimental infection with the highly virulent R. rickettsii on the gene expression of two natural tick vectors. The distinct transcriptional profiles of MG of A. sculptum and A. aureolatum upon infection stimulus strongly suggest that molecular factors in this organ are responsible for delineating the susceptibility to R. rickettsii. Functional studies to determine the role played by proteins encoded by differentially expressed CDSs in the acquisition of R

  19. Trapping of Rift Valley Fever (RVF vectors using Light Emitting Diode (LED CDC traps in two arboviral disease hot spots in Kenya

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    Tchouassi David P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes’ response to artificial lights including color has been exploited in trap designs for improved sampling of mosquito vectors. Earlier studies suggest that mosquitoes are attracted to specific wavelengths of light and thus the need to refine techniques to increase mosquito captures following the development of super-bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs which emit narrow wavelengths of light or very specific colors. Therefore, we investigated if LEDs can be effective substitutes for incandescent lamps used in CDC light traps for mosquito surveillance, and if so, determine the best color for attraction of important Rift Valley Fever (RFV vectors. Methods The efficiency of selected colored LED CDC light traps (red, green, blue, violet, combination of blue-green-red (BGR to sample RVF vectors was evaluated relative to incandescent light (as control in a CDC light trap in two RVF hotspots (Marigat and Ijara districts in Kenya. In field experiments, traps were baited with dry ice and captures evaluated for Aedes tricholabis, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Mansonia uniformis, Mn. africana and Culex pipiens, following Latin square design with days as replicates. Daily mosquito counts per treatment were analyzed using a generalized linear model with Negative Binomial error structure and log link using R. The incidence rate ratios (IRR that mosquito species chose other treatments instead of the control, were estimated. Results Seasonal preference of Ae.mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus at Ijara was evident with a bias towards BGR and blue traps respectively in one trapping period but this pattern waned during another period at same site with significantly low numbers recorded in all colored traps except blue relative to the control. Overall results showed that higher captures of all species were recorded in control traps compared to the other LED traps (IRR  Conclusion Based on our trapping design and color, none of the LEDs

  20. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

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    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  1. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L; Dasch, Gregory A; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal(2) in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis.

  2. Rickettsia and Bartonella species in fleas from Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Usefulness of the early molecular diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsial diseases in patients with fever of intermediate duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-12-01

    Most cases of fever of intermediate duration (FDI) in Spain are associated with infectious diseases (mainly Q fever and rickettsia infections). In clinical practice, the causal diagnosis of these entities is based on immunodiagnostic techniques, which are of little help in the early stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsia diseases in patients with FDI. A PCR method was used to detect the presence of genetic material of Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in blood specimens from 271 patients with FDI. The specificity of both techniques is high, allowing diagnosis in cases undiagnosed by specific antibodies detection. These data suggest that the use of molecular techniques, with proper selection of the study specimen, and using appropriate primers is a useful tool in the early diagnosis of the main causes of FDI, especially if serology is negative or inconclusive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often with a runny ... eyes Your health care provider may diagnose hay fever based on a physical exam and your symptoms. ...

  5. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  6. Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... French Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  7. Rheumatic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatic fever is still common in countries that have a lot of poverty and poor health systems. It does not often occur in the United States and other developed countries. When rheumatic fever does occur in the United ...

  8. Development of shuttle vectors for transformation of diverse Rickettsia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Y Burkhardt

    Full Text Available Plasmids have been identified in most species of Rickettsia examined, with some species maintaining multiple different plasmids. Three distinct plasmids were demonstrated in Rickettsia amblyommii AaR/SC by Southern analysis using plasmid specific probes. Copy numbers of pRAM18, pRAM23 and pRAM32 per chromosome in AaR/SC were estimated by real-time PCR to be 2.0, 1.9 and 1.3 respectively. Cloning and sequencing of R. amblyommii AaR/SC plasmids provided an opportunity to develop shuttle vectors for transformation of rickettsiae. A selection cassette encoding rifampin resistance and a fluorescent marker was inserted into pRAM18 yielding a 27.6 kbp recombinant plasmid, pRAM18/Rif/GFPuv. Electroporation of Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia bellii with pRAM18/Rif/GFPuv yielded GFPuv-expressing rickettsiae within 2 weeks. Smaller vectors, pRAM18dRG, pRAM18dRGA and pRAM32dRGA each bearing the same selection cassette, were made by moving the parA and dnaA-like genes from pRAM18 or pRAM32 into a vector backbone. R. bellii maintained the highest numbers of pRAM18dRGA (13.3 - 28.1 copies, and R. parkeri, Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia montanensis contained 9.9, 5.5 and 7.5 copies respectively. The same species transformed with pRAM32dRGA maintained 2.6, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.6 copies. pRM, the plasmid native to R. monacensis, was still present in shuttle vector transformed R. monacensis at a level similar to that found in wild type R. monacensis after 15 subcultures. Stable transformation of diverse rickettsiae was achieved with a shuttle vector system based on R. amblyommii plasmids pRAM18 and pRAM32, providing a new research tool that will greatly facilitate genetic and biological studies of rickettsiae.

  9. Relapsing fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is characterized by repeated episodes of fever. Causes Relapsing fever is an infection caused by several species of ... death of very large numbers of borrelia bacteria causes shock) Weakness Widespread bleeding ... health care provider right away if you develop a fever after returning from a trip. Possible infections need ...

  10. Rheumatic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, can lead to congestive heart failure. What causes rheumatic fever? Rheumatic fever is not an infection itself, but ... If the antibodies attack your heart, they can cause your heart valves to swell, which can ... is at risk for rheumatic fever? Fewer than 0.3% of people who have ...

  11. Cardiac involvement in a patient with clinical and serological evidence of African tick-bite fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare complications of rickettsiosis, usually associated with Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii. African tick-bite fever (ATBF is generally considered as a benign disease and no cases of myocardial involvement due to Rickettsia africae, the agent of ATBF, have yet been described. Case presentation The patient, that travelled in an endemic area, presented typical inoculation eschars, and a seroconversion against R. africae, was admitted for chest pains and increased cardiac enzymes in the context of an acute myocarditis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ATBF, that usually presents a benign course, may be complicated by an acute myocarditis.

  12. Detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes boliviensis from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Carranza, Marco; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes boliviensis is a tick of carnivores that is common on domestic dogs. The only Rickettsia that has been detected previously in this species is 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae'. We report the detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp., named strain IbR/CRC, in I. boliviensis collected from dogs in Costa Rica. Analyses of gltA, ompA, and htrA partial sequences place Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in the group of R. monacensis, also close to an endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis and other undescribed rickettsiae. It was not possible to isolate Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in Vero E6 or C6/36 cell lines. Isolation and further characterization of Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC and the other undescribed rickettsiae are required to determine their taxonomic status and pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutropenic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lindsey; Ybarra, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Fever is a common presenting complaint among adult or pediatric patients in the emergency department setting. Although fever in healthy individuals does not necessarily indicate severe illness, fever in patients with neutropenia may herald a life-threatening infection. Therefore, prompt recognition of patients with neutropenic fever is imperative. Serious bacterial illness is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for neutropenic patients. Neutropenic fever should trigger the initiation of a rapid work-up and the administration of empiric systemic antibiotic therapy to attenuate or avoid the progression along the spectrum of sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock syndrome, and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  16. Diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Blaney, Alexandra; Clifford, Deana; Gabriel, Mourad; Wengert, Greta; Foley, Patrick; Brown, Richard N; Higley, Mark; Buckenberger-Mantovani, Sarah; Foley, Janet

    2017-06-01

    Far northern California forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. The proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. The current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and peri-domestic environments near this community. Blood samples from people, domestic animals (dogs, cats, and horses) and wild carnivores were tested for Rickettsia spp. antibodies and DNA (people and domestic animals only) by serology and real time (RT)-PCR, respectively. Ectoparasites were collected from dogs, wild carnivores and from vegetation by flagging, and tested for Rickettsia spp. DNA by RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of the rickettsial 17kDa protein gene or the ompA gene was used for species identification. Despite a seroprevalence of 3% in people, 42% in dogs, 79% in cats, 33% in gray foxes, and 83% in bobcats, RT-PCR on blood was consistently negative, likely because the sensitivity of this test is low, as Rickettsia spp. do not often circulate in high numbers in the blood. Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in four flea species collected from bobcats and Ctenocephalides felis collected from domestic dogs. All amplicons sequenced from fleas were R. felis. Ixodes pacificus collected by flagging were commonly infected with a Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont. Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was found in Dermacentor variabilis from dogs, black bears, a gray fox, and a D. occidentalis collected by flagging. Dermacentor variabilis from dogs and black bears also contained R. montanensis DNA. Multiple Rickettsia spp. (including species with zoonotic and pathogenic potential) were found among human biting arthropod vectors of both wild and domestic carnivores and on flags. Knowledge of the

  17. Molecular Evidence of Different Rickettsia Species in Villeta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Forero-Becerra, Elkin; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Escandón, Patricia; Rodas, Juan D; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to detect and identify Rickettsia species in ticks collected in rural areas of Villeta, Colombia. Tick specimens were collected from domestic animals and walls of houses in five rural villages of Villeta town and from humans in Naranjal village (same town). Moreover, a flea collected from the same area was also processed. DNA was extracted and tested by conventional, semi-nested, and nested PCR reactions targeting rickettsial genes. In the ticks collected from humans from Naranjal village, a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato was amplified using primers for ompA and sequenced (100% identity with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii"). Last, three amplicons from the Ctenocephalides felis flea, corresponding to gltA, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes, showed high identity with R. felis (98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.2%, respectively) and "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" (99.7% and 100%, respectively). To our knowledge, these results correspond to the first molecular detection in Colombia of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" in fleas.

  18. THE ANTIGENIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROTEUS X-19 AND TYPHUS RICKETTSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, M. Ruiz

    1934-01-01

    A soluble specific substance was isolated from Mexican typhus Rickettsia which gave, with Proteus X-19 antiserum and typhus human serum, the same precipitation reactions as the polysaccharides extracted from B. proteus OX-19. The soluble specific substance extracted from Rickettsia and Proteus OX-19 is likely to be of a polysaccharide nature owing to the strong Molisch reactions obtained with such extracts, the heat stability and the negative protein reactions (biuret). Since, however, it still contains 7 per cent nitrogen, this is not certain. In the antigenic composition of both Proteus X-19 and typhus Rickettsia there is a common soluble specific factor which is responsible for the Weil-Felix reaction. PMID:19870282

  19. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Ricket . Diseases. Jan 󈨂 - yolk sac 132P. i Isolated from Tatera, in Sialkot, Pakistan 10/3/64. j Obtained from Walter Reed, Dept. of Ricket . Diseases...purified C, burneti was obtained from Dr. Oswald Baca, University of New Mexico , Albuquerque. The DNA was purified by a combination of enzyme digestions

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  1. Novos relatos de carrapatos infectados por Rickettsia bellii no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Borges Costa; Amália Regina Barbieri; Matias pablo Juan Szabó; Vanessa Nascimento Ramos; Ubiratan Piovezan; Marcelo Bahia Labruna

    2017-01-01

    O presente trabalho investigou a ocorrência de infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos coletados em animais selvagens de duas áreas do Brasil. Carrapatos da espécie Amblyomma dubitatum foram coletados de uma capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) no município de Guarda-Mor, Minas Gerais, enquanto exemplares da espécie Amblyomma pseudoconcolor foram coletados de um tatu-peba (Euphractus sexcinctus) do município de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. Tentativas para isolar Rickettsia em cultura de células...

  2. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Núncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal.

  3. Rickettsioses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Dengue fever is caused by dengue viruses. (DENV). Transmission of DENV has increased dramatically in the past two decades making DENV the most important human pathogens among arthropod-borne viruses (1). About 50-. 100 million dengue fever infections occur every year in tropical and subtropical.

  5. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  6. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  7. Serological evidence of infection with Rickettsia typhi among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor sanitary conditions/personal hygiene, history of fleabite/contact with animals and overcrowding in the prison were found to be significantly associated with the infection in this population (p< 0.05). Our data seem to reveal the presence of Rickettsia typhi among prison inmates in Jos. Conclusion: Rodent and flea control ...

  8. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas. In Mexico, the higher number of murine typhus cases have ...

  9. Plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Rickettsia endosymbiont between different whitefly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Han; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Li, Shao-Jian; Lv, Ning; Shi, Pei-Qiong; Chen, Xiao-Sheng; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2017-12-01

    A growing number of studies have revealed the presence of closely related endosymbionts in phylogenetically distant arthropods, indicating horizontal transmission of these bacteria. Here we investigated the interspecific horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between two globally invasive whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED, via cotton plants. We found both scattered and confined distribution patterns of Rickettsia in these whiteflies. After entering cotton leaves, Rickettsia was restricted to the leaf phloem vessels and could be taken up by both species of the Rickettsia-free whitefly adults, but only the scattered pattern was observed in the recipient whiteflies. Both the relative quantity of Rickettsia and the efficiency of transmitting Rickettsia into cotton leaves were significantly higher in MEAM1 females than in MED females. The retention time of Rickettsia transmitted from MEAM1 into cotton leaves was at least 5 days longer than that of MED. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gltA genes confirmed that the Rickettsia extracted from the donor MEAM1, the cotton leaves, the recipient MEAM1 and the recipient MED were all identical. We conclude that cotton plants can mediate horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between different insect species, and that the transmission dynamics of Rickettsia vary with different host whitefly species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Equids and Molecular Detection of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Amblyomma cajennense Sensu Lato Ticks From the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alvair Da S; Melo, Andréia L T; Amorim, Marcus V; Borges, Alice M C M; Gaíva E Silva, Lucas; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure of equids to rickettsial agents (Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Rickettsia bellii) and rickettsial infection in ticks of a Pantanal region of Brazil. Sera of 547 equids (500 horses and 47 donkeys) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In total, 665 adults and 106 nymphal pools of Amblyomma cajennense F. sensu lato, 10 Dermacentor nitens Neumann ticks, and 88 larval pools of Amblyomma sp. were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 337 (61.6%) equids were reactive (titer ≥64) to at least one antigen of Rickettsia spp. The prevalence values for Rickettsia were 66%, and the highest endpoint titers were observed for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. By PCR 3 (0.45%) A. cajennense s.l. females were positive for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. Minimum infection rates of 0.75% for nymphs and 0.34% for larvae were calculated. Positive samples of ticks have had a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequenced and sequences showed 99% identity to Amblyomma sculptum Berlese. This study reports a wide exposure of equids to Rickettsia agents, and PCR evidence of infection with 'Ca. R. amblyommii', for the first time, in A. sculptum. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa. Anyone can get yellow fever, but older people ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  14. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  15. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  16. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  17. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  18. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  19. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  20. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas McIntosh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha, which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  1. Evaluation of pathogenic potential of Rickettsia amblyommii in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas Mejias, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of R. amblyommii 9-CC-3-1 is evaluated in guinea pigs, through measurements of temperature, weight and behavioral observations; also, the detection of bacteria in different organs. The protective immunity that this bacterium can offer in guinea pigs is evaluated, against a subsequent infection with pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii NRH-2010. The production of specific IgG antibodies, mild disease and the presence of the bacterium to testicular level in guinea pigs is evidenced, before experimental infection, with isolation of R. amblyommii 9-CC-3-1, indicating mild or localized infection and production of response immune against R. amblyommii. Immuno protection offered by the strain R. rickettsii NRH-2010 is evidenced to a subsequent infection of a pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii NRH-2010. The decrease of symptoms and severity of the disease has been evident; but, without prevent infection caused by R. rickettsii in guinea pigs. The tropism of R. amblyommii 9-CC-3-1 has been, possibly, a causative agent of infection and clinical pictures by spotted fevers [es

  2. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garg A, Garg J, Rao YK et al. Prevalence of dengue. 8. among clinically suspected febrile episodes at a teaching hospital in North India. Journal of Infectious Diseases and. Immunity 2011; 3 (5): 85 – 89. Reiter P. Yellow fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? 9. Euro Surveill 2010; 15 (10): 11 – 16. Gibbons RV, Vaughn DW.

  3. Orchid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  4. Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DHF, which is a medical emergency. To treat severe cases of dengue fever at a hospital, doctors will give intravenous (IV) fluids and electrolytes (salts) to replace those lost through vomiting or ... enough to effectively treat the disease. In more advanced cases, doctors may ...

  5. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  6. Dark Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  7. Bartonella quintana and Typhus Group Rickettsiae Exposure among Homeless Persons, Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Márquez, Andrea C; Bravo-Estupiñan, Diana M; Calixto, Omar-Javier; López-Castillo, Christian A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin; Cuervo, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Public health professionals should start preemptive measures and active vector control.

  8. Tri-phasic fever in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Pradeepa H; Rao, Sathish B; B, Ganaraj; Bhat, Gopalakrishna; M, Chakrapani

    2018-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness with a duration of 2-12 days. Our observational study observed the 24-h continuous tympanic temperature pattern of 15 patients with dengue fever and compared this with 26 others with fever due to a non-dengue aetiology. A tri-phasic fever pattern was seen among two-thirds of dengue fever patients, but in only one with an inflammatory disease. One-third of dengue fever patients exhibited a single peak temperature. Continuous temperature monitoring and temperature pattern analysis in clinical settings can aid in the early differentiation of dengue fever from non-dengue aetiology.

  9. Typhoid fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    , especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar...... cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow...... with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main...

  10. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  11. Typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fundus Findings in Dengue Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Berna; Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Marangoz, Deniz; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2015-10-01

    Dengue fever is a flavivirus infection transmitted through infected mosquitoes, and is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Pacific, Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region. A 41-year-old male patient had visual impairment after travelling to Thailand, which is one of the endemic areas. Cotton wool spots were observed on fundus examination. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed minimal vascular leakage from areas near the cotton wool spots and dot hemorrhages in the macula. Dengue fever should be considered in patients with visual complaints who traveled to endemic areas of dengue fever.

  13. Dengue Fever Presenting as Purtscher-like Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz H; Vianello, Silvana; Pimentel, Sérgio; Costa de Andrade, Gabriel; Zett, Claudio; Muller, Léo; Farah, Michel E; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-03-21

    To report the fundus manifestations and spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) features of dengue fever presenting as Purtscher-like retinopathy. Retrospective review of two cases of dengue fever. Color fundus photograph revealed the presence of cotton-wool spots in a Purtscher-like configuration in the posterior pole of all study eyes. SD-OCT demonstrated increased reflectivity signal in the inner retinal layers, and after a variable follow-up period, there was complete disappearance of cotton-wool spots and persistence of the hyperreflectivity signal. We report two unique cases of dengue fever associated with retinal lesions in a configuration of Purtscher-like retinopathy.

  14. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, J A; Paddock, C D; Childs, J E

    2001-01-01

    The last half of the 20th Century witnessed an increase in the occurrence and recognition of urban zoonoses caused by members of the genera Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia, all traditionally considered to be members of the family Rickettsiaceae. In recent years, new human pathogens (Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella henselae, and Rickettsia felis) have been recognized in urban environments. Other newly recognized pathogens (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila in the United States) have sylvan zoonotic cycles but are present in urban areas because their vertebrate hosts and associated ectoparasitic arthropod vectors are able to survive in cities. Still other agents, which were primarily of historical importance (Bartonella quintana) or have not traditionally been associated with urban environments (Rickettsia rickettsii), have been recognized as causes of human disease in urban areas. Some diseases that have traditionally been associated with urban environments, such as rickettsialpox (caused by Rickettsia akari) and murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), still occur in large cities at low or undetermined frequencies and often go undetected, despite the availability of effective measures to diagnose and control them. In addition, alternate transmission cycles have been discovered for Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia prowazekii, and R. typhi that differ substantially from their established, classic cycles, indicating that the epidemiology of these agents is more complex than originally thought and may be changing. Factors leading to an increase in the incidence of illnesses caused by these bacteria in urban areas include societal changes as well as intrinsic components of the natural history of these organisms that favor their survival in cities. Transovarial and transstadial transmission of many of the agents in their arthropod hosts contributes to the highly focal nature of many of the diseases they cause by allowing the pathogens

  15. Sca1, a previously undescribed paralog from autotransporter protein-encoding genes in Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the 17 genes encoding autotransporter proteins of the "surface cell antigen" (sca family in the currently sequenced Rickettsia genomes, ompA, sca5 (ompB and sca4 (gene D, have been extensively used for identification and phylogenetic purposes for Rickettsia species. However, none of these genes is present in all 20 currently validated Rickettsia species. Of the remaining 14 sca genes, sca1 is the only gene to be present in all nine sequenced Rickettsia genomes. To estimate whether the sca1 gene is present in all Rickettsia species and its usefulness as an identification and phylogenetic tool, we searched for sca1genes in the four published Rickettsia genomes and amplified and sequenced this gene in the remaining 16 validated Rickettsia species. Results Sca1 is the only one of the 17 rickettsial sca genes present in all 20 Rickettsia species. R. prowazekii and R. canadensis exhibit a split sca1 gene whereas the remaining species have a complete gene. Within the sca1 gene, we identified a 488-bp variable sequence fragment that can be amplified using a pair of conserved primers. Sequences of this fragment are specific for each Rickettsia species. The phylogenetic organization of Rickettsia species inferred from the comparison of sca1 sequences strengthens the classification based on the housekeeping gene gltA and is similar to those obtained from the analyses of ompA, sca5 and sca4, thus suggesting similar evolutionary constraints. We also observed that Sca1 protein sequences have evolved under a dual selection pressure: with the exception of typhus group rickettsiae, the amino-terminal part of the protein that encompasses the predicted passenger domain, has evolved under positive selection in rickettsiae. This suggests that the Sca1 protein interacts with the host. In contrast, the C-terminal portion containing the autotransporter domain has evolved under purifying selection. In addition, sca1 is transcribed in R. conorii

  16. Zika fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between Zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Horizontal transmission of the insect symbiont Rickettsia is plant-mediated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Inbar, Moshe; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Belausov, Eduard; Hunter, Martha S.; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsia, best known as vertebrate pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods, can also be found in phytophagous insects. The presence of closely related bacterial symbionts in evolutionarily distant arthropod hosts presupposes a means of horizontal transmission, but no mechanism for this transmission has been described. Using a combination of experiments with live insects, molecular analyses and microscopy, we found that Rickettsia were transferred from an insect host (the whitefly Bemisia tabaci) to a plant, moved inside the phloem, and could be acquired by other whiteflies. In one experiment, Rickettsia was transferred from the whitefly host to leaves of cotton, basil and black nightshade, where the bacteria were restricted to the phloem cells of the plant. In another experiment, Rickettsia-free adult whiteflies, physically segregated but sharing a cotton leaf with Rickettsia-plus individuals, acquired the Rickettsia at a high rate. Plants can serve as a reservoir for horizontal transmission of Rickettsia, a mechanism which may explain the occurrence of phylogenetically similar symbionts among unrelated phytophagous insect species. This plant-mediated transmission route may also exist in other insect–symbiont systems and, since symbionts may play a critical role in the ecology and evolution of their hosts, serve as an immediate and powerful tool for accelerated evolution. PMID:22113034

  18. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  19. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Hay Fever Medications Share | Hay Fever and Allergy Medications This article has been reviewed ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever symptoms range from being mildly annoying to seriously ...

  20. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, rashes and muscle and joint aches. Treatment includes rehydration and recovery is expected. A second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue ...

  1. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Establishment of a replicating plasmid in Rickettsia prowazekii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Wood

    Full Text Available Rickettsia prowazekii, the causative agent of epidemic typhus, grows only within the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. This obligate intracellular lifestyle has restricted the genetic analysis of this pathogen and critical tools, such as replicating plasmid vectors, have not been developed for this species. Although replicating plasmids have not been reported in R. prowazekii, the existence of well-characterized plasmids in several less pathogenic rickettsial species provides an opportunity to expand the genetic systems available for the study of this human pathogen. Competent R. prowazekii were transformed with pRAM18dRGA, a 10.3 kb vector derived from pRAM18 of R. amblyommii. A plasmid-containing population of R. prowazekii was obtained following growth under antibiotic selection, and the rickettsial plasmid was maintained extrachromosomally throughout multiple passages. The transformant population exhibited a generation time comparable to that of the wild type strain with a copy number of approximately 1 plasmid per rickettsia. These results demonstrate for the first time that a plasmid can be maintained in R. prowazekii, providing an important genetic tool for the study of this obligate intracellular pathogen.

  3. Role of cattle in the epidemiology of tick-bite fever in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P J; Mason, P R; Manning, T; Slater, S

    1991-02-01

    Almost 100% of 52 cattle tested from the southern areas of Zimbabwe were found to have antibodies reactive with Rickettsia conorii compared with less than 30% of 120 cattle from the north. Steers artificially infected with R. conorii isolated from Amblyomma hebraeum were found to show no hematological or biochemical signs of disease but did seroconvert. Clinical signs of infection were restricted to regional lymphadenopathy and dermal erythema, edema, and tenderness at the inoculation site. Rickettsemia was detectable for at least 32 days postinfection. Our findings indicate that cattle could be involved in the transmission of rickettsias by A. hebraeum and may serve as a reservoir of human tick-bite fever in southern Africa.

  4. Role of cattle in the epidemiology of tick-bite fever in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P J; Mason, P R; Manning, T; Slater, S

    1991-01-01

    Almost 100% of 52 cattle tested from the southern areas of Zimbabwe were found to have antibodies reactive with Rickettsia conorii compared with less than 30% of 120 cattle from the north. Steers artificially infected with R. conorii isolated from Amblyomma hebraeum were found to show no hematological or biochemical signs of disease but did seroconvert. Clinical signs of infection were restricted to regional lymphadenopathy and dermal erythema, edema, and tenderness at the inoculation site. Rickettsemia was detectable for at least 32 days postinfection. Our findings indicate that cattle could be involved in the transmission of rickettsias by A. hebraeum and may serve as a reservoir of human tick-bite fever in southern Africa. PMID:2007631

  5. Treatable bacterial infections are underrecognized causes of fever in Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Sara J; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lockamy, Kameron P; Mulu-Droppers, Ruth; Mulu, Moges; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2012-07-01

    Febrile illnesses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries, but too often, tests are not available to determine the causes, leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. To determine the cause of febrile illnesses, we recovered the malaria smears from 102 children presenting with fever to Soddo Christian Hospital in Wolaitta Soddo, Ethiopia. DNA was isolated from the smears and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified pathogen DNA with probes for Plasmodium spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rickettsia spp., Salmonella spp., and Borrelia spp. Overall, we showed that it is possible to isolate high-quality DNA and identify treatable pathogens from malaria blood smears. Furthermore, our data showed that bacterial pathogens (especially Pneumococcus, Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia spp.) are common and frequently unrecognized but treatable causes of febrile illnesses in Ethiopian children.

  6. Murine typhus as a cause of Fever in travelers from Tunisia and mediterranean areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Botelho, Elizabeth; Socolovschi, Cristina; Sobas, Chantal Roure; Piketty, Christophe; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Travelers are exposed to a variety of health risks in unfamiliar environments and fever is a common problem in patients returning from travel abroad. Rickettsial diseases are increasingly frequently being reported among international travelers. Here we present cases of Rickettsia typhi infection, the agent of murine typhus, that were identified in our laboratory the last year, in travelers from Tunisia. For each patient we tested an acute-phase serum sample and for one patient we tested a convalescent-phase serum sample. IgG and IgM antibody titers were estimated with use of the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) assay. Western blot (WB) assay was performed for all the patients. We identified three cases of murine typhus after a travel in Tunisia. All cases were observed during late summer and early autumn and patients were suffering by persistent fever. None of them presented rash or inoculation eschar. MIF was positive for Rickettsia sp. in the acute-phase serum samples of two patients. In one patient, two acute-phase serum samples were Rickettsia sp. negative whereas a third convalescent-phase serum sample that was obtained 2 weeks after was Rickettsia sp. positive. By WB assay we identified infection by R typhi. A treatment was immediately started and patients became apyretic. In the countries of North Europe, although autochthones cases of murine typhus have not been described, sporadic cases of R typhi infection are identified in travelers who visited murine typhus endemic areas. Murine typhus should be considered in the diagnosis of febrile illness without rash in travelers returning from disease endemic areas, like the south Mediterranean area. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. Sequencing and comparison of the Rickettsia genomes from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Tong; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Rao, Qiong; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ghanim, Murad; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-08-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, harbors the primary symbiont 'Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum' and a variety of secondary symbionts. Among these secondary symbionts, Rickettsia is the only one that can be detected both inside and outside the bacteriomes. Infection with Rickettsia has been reported to influence several aspects of the whitefly biology, such as fitness, sex ratio, virus transmission and resistance to pesticides. However, mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear, largely due to the lack of genomic information of Rickettsia. In this study, we sequenced the genome of two Rickettsia strains isolated from the Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the B. tabaci complex in China and Israel. Both Rickettsia genomes were of high coding density and AT-rich, containing more than 1000 coding sequences, much larger than that of the coexisted primary symbiont, Portiera. Moreover, the two Rickettsia strains isolated from China and Israel shared most of the genes with 100% identity and only nine genes showed sequence differences. The phylogenetic analysis using orthologs shared in the genus, inferred the proximity of Rickettsia in MEAM1 and Rickettsia bellii. Functional analysis revealed that Rickettsia was unable to synthesize amino acids required for complementing the whitefly nutrition. Besides, a type IV secretion system and a number of virulence-related genes were detected in the Rickettsia genome. The presence of virulence-related genes might benefit the symbiotic life of the bacteria, and hint on potential effects of Rickettsia on whiteflies. The genome sequences of Rickettsia provided a basis for further understanding the function of Rickettsia in whiteflies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's Guide to Fever ... change into some lighter-weight pajamas. Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  9. The changing etiology of fever of intermediate duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nuria; Cañas, Elías; Bernabeu-Wittel, Máximo; Martín, Amalia; Viciana, Pompeyo; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2010-01-01

    Fever of intermediate duration (FID) is a common condition. Currently, its most frequent causes are not well defined. Prospective study of FID cases attended at a hospital in 2 periods: 1983-1989 and 2004-2005. Blood cultures and serologic studies for Brucella melitensis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were performed on all patients. Other microbiological, serological, radiological, or invasive procedures were performed according to clinician-in-charge criteria. A total of 505 patients were included from 1983 to 1989, and 179 from 2004 to 2005. A diagnosis was reached in 410 (81.1%) and 109 patients (60.9%), respectively. The cause of FID was an infectious disease in 389 patients from the first period (94.8% of those with a final diagnosis) and 92 from the second (84.4%). Most were systemic infections, 328 (80%) in 1983-1989 and 74 (67.8%) in 2004-2005, followed by focal infections, 9.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Q fever was the most frequent etiology in both periods. In 2004-2005, brucellosis decreased and HIV infection emerged as a cause of FID. The origin of FID was non-infectious in 5.1% and 15.5%, respectively. Q fever is the most frequent cause of FID in southern Spain. Studies over time are needed to identify changes in the etiologic spectrum of this condition. Important viral etiologies, such as HIV infection, may be detected as causes of FID. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of other agents as causes of FID. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome sequence of Rickettsia bellii illuminates the role of amoebae in gene exchanges between intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ogata

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently sequenced Rickettsia felis genome revealed an unexpected plasmid carrying several genes usually associated with DNA transfer, suggesting that ancestral rickettsiae might have been endowed with a conjugation apparatus. Here we present the genome sequence of Rickettsia bellii, the earliest diverging species of known rickettsiae. The 1,552,076 base pair-long chromosome does not exhibit the colinearity observed between other rickettsia genomes, and encodes a complete set of putative conjugal DNA transfer genes most similar to homologues found in Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, an obligate symbiont of amoebae. The genome exhibits many other genes highly similar to homologues in intracellular bacteria of amoebae. We sought and observed sex pili-like cell surface appendages for R. bellii. We also found that R. bellii very efficiently multiplies in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and survives in the phagocytic amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. These results suggest that amoeba-like ancestral protozoa could have served as a genetic "melting pot" where the ancestors of rickettsiae and other bacteria promiscuously exchanged genes, eventually leading to their adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle within eukaryotic cells.

  11. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RICKETTSIA IN THE TISSUES OF INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdry, E V

    1923-03-31

    In the absence of a satisfactory definition of Rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and Gram-negative. Rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: Amblyomma americana, Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Atomus sp., Casinaria infesta, Chrysopa oculata, Ctenocephalus canis, Dermacentor variabilis, Lepisma saccharina, Lucoppia curviseta, Margaropus annulatus, Margaropus annulatus australis, Ornithodoros turicata, Pulex irritans, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi, and Salticus scenicus. Since intracellular, Gram-negative Rickettsia have been recorded in the literature as existing in Cimex lectularius, Dermacentor venustus, Melophagus ovinus, and Pediculus humanus, the occasional occurrence of such bodies must be conceded in the following groups not closely related phylogenetically: Attidae, Trombidiidae, Argasidae, lxodidae, Cinura, Acanthiidae, Pediculidae, Hippoboscidae, Chrysopidae, Pulicidae, and Ichneumonidae. The species which harbor Rickettsia differ widely in diet and habitat. One such species is insectivorous throughout life, two are insectivorous in larval stages, becoming vegetarian in the adult condition, one is chiefly vegetarian but partakes of some animal products, and two are usually entirely vegetarian; while the remainder subsist wholly upon a diet of mammalian blood. Rickettsia are associated, in only a few cases, with diseases in mammals. The evidence at hand does not lead beyond the conclusion that the Rickettsia mentioned above are true Gram-negative microorganisms, easily distinguishable from mitochondria and all other cytoplasmic and nuclear granulations, rather completely adapted to an intracellular existence, exhibiting in some cases a remarkable degree of host specificity, and often inherited through the eggs.

  12. THE ANTIGENIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BACILLUS PROTEUS X-19 AND RICKETTSIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, M. Ruiz

    1935-01-01

    Two substances differing in immunological behavior as well as in certain chemical properties have been isolated from soluble extracts of B. proteus X-19. Both substances appear to be polysaccharides. The first substance is precipitated from X-19 crude extracts by a relatively low percentage of alcohol and electrolytes (from one to two and a half volumes of alcohol). When purified as far as possible, it gives a negative biuret reaction, a positive Molish and has a nitrogen content of 4 per cent. This material, which we call X factor, has the immunological properties of the common antigenic factor in Proteus X-19 and typhus Rickettsiae, described elsewhere. It has the property of precipitating with typhus serum as well as anti-Proteus serum, even after treatment with hot alkali. The second substance we call P factor, suggesting a material which is proper to Proteus X-19 and has nothing to do with the Weil-Felix reaction. It is obtained from the crude extracts of B. proteus X-19 by treating the fluids from which the X factor has been removed with an excess of alcohol (seven to ten volumes, according to electrolytes in solution). The purified material shows a nitrogen content of a little less than 1 per cent, gives a negative biuret and a positive Molish reaction. The P factor produces precipitates with anti-Proteus serum in considerable dilution, but has no effect on typhus serum. It is quickly destroyed on treating with alkali, a fact in accordance with the results already cited, which were obtained by White with whole extracts of B. proteus X-19. The duality of the X-19 extracts seems to be explained by the isolation of two immunologically different factors; one which is alkali-labile and which is proper to B. proteus X-19; and the other which is alkali-stable and is the common antigenic factor in Proteus X-19 and typhus Rickettsiae. PMID:19870415

  13. Wholly Rickettsia! Reconstructed Metabolic Profile of the Quintessential Bacterial Parasite of Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Driscoll

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reductive genome evolution has purged many metabolic pathways from obligate intracellular Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiaceae. While some aspects of host-dependent rickettsial metabolism have been characterized, the array of host-acquired metabolites and their cognate transporters remains unknown. This dearth of information has thwarted efforts to obtain an axenic Rickettsia culture, a major impediment to conventional genetic approaches. Using phylogenomics and computational pathway analysis, we reconstructed the Rickettsia metabolic and transport network, identifying 51 host-acquired metabolites (only 21 previously characterized needed to compensate for degraded biosynthesis pathways. In the absence of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, cell envelope glycoconjugates are synthesized from three imported host sugars, with a range of additional host-acquired metabolites fueling the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid and glycerophospholipid pathways also initiate from host precursors, and import of both isoprenes and terpenoids is required for the synthesis of ubiquinone and the lipid carrier of lipid I and O-antigen. Unlike metabolite-provisioning bacterial symbionts of arthropods, rickettsiae cannot synthesize B vitamins or most other cofactors, accentuating their parasitic nature. Six biosynthesis pathways contain holes (missing enzymes; similar patterns in taxonomically diverse bacteria suggest alternative enzymes that await discovery. A paucity of characterized and predicted transporters emphasizes the knowledge gap concerning how rickettsiae import host metabolites, some of which are large and not known to be transported by bacteria. Collectively, our reconstructed metabolic network offers clues to how rickettsiae hijack host metabolic pathways. This blueprint for growth determinants is an important step toward the design of axenic media to rescue rickettsiae from the eukaryotic cell.

  14. Mapping of Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites on CNBr Fragments of the S- Layer Protein Antigens of Rickettsia Typhi and Rickettsia Prowazekii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Security Clasification ) Mapping of monoclonal antibody binding sites on CNBr fragments o; the S-layer protein antigens of Rickettsia Typhi and...homology was found in all the viral polypeptides have long fatty acids attached to fragments which react with type I antibody (Fig. 4). A their N-termini

  15. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  16. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  17. Q fever - early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks. Causes Q fever is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii , which ... Prevention Pasteurization of milk destroys the bacteria that cause early Q fever. Domestic animals should be inspected for signs of ...

  18. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  19. Presence of Pathogenic Rickettsiae and Protozoan in Samples of Raw Milk from Cows, Goats, and Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Sroka, Jacek; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) and protozoan (Toxoplasma gondii). The only prevalent pathogen was T. gondii, which was found in 10 samples of cow milk (15.9%), in one sample of goat milk (3.4%), and in one sample of sheep milk (3.7%). One sample of cow milk was positive for C. burnetii; however, the sequence analysis did not confirm any species of Coxiella or Coxiella-like organisms, but showed 100% homology to Psychrobacter alimentarius. None of the examined samples showed the presence of A. phagocytophilum or Rickettsia spp. The results of this study suggest a potential hazard of milk-borne Toxoplasma infection, mostly by consumption of raw cow milk. The milk-borne spread seems to be limited or nonsignificant in the case of C. burnetii, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. The false-positive sample for Coxiella spp. suggests that some care should be taken in the interpretation of the results obtained by using the PCR method.

  20. Rickettsia lusitaniae associated with Ornithodoros yumatensis (Acari: Argasidae) from two caves in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Martínez-Nájera, Yecenia; Becker, Ingeborg; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Additionally one larva collected in a cave from Chiapas, Mexico, and associated with Desmodus rotundus was used to corroborate the tick taxonomic determination. Of these, nine ticks (43%) yielded expected PCR products for the rickettsial gltA gene. These PCR-positive ticks were tested with additional PCR protocols targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA and ompB. DNA partial sequences from these genes showed 99-100% identities with Rickettsia lusitaniae, an agent isolated from O. erraticus in Portugal, and closely related to R. felis and R. hoogstraalii. Based on the results from this study, the inventory of rickettsiae distributed in Mexico increases from six to seven species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  2. Evidence of Extensive Homologous Recombination in the Core Genome of Rickettsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of homologous recombination has been extensively demonstrated to be fundamental for genetic variation in bacterial genomes. In contrast to extracellular or facultative intracellular bacteria, obligate intracellular bacteria are considered to be less prone to recombination, especially for their core genomes. In Rickettsia, only antigen-related genes were identified to have experienced homologous recombination. In this study, we employed evolutionary genomic approaches to investigate the impact of recombination on the core genome of Rickettsia. Phylogenetic network and phylogenetic compatibility matrix analyses are clearly consistent with the hypothesis that recombination has occurred frequently during Rickettsia evolution. 28% of Rickettsia core genes (194 out of 690 are found to present the evidence of recombination under four independent statistical methods. Further functional classification shows that these recombination events occur across all functional categories, with a significant overrepresentation in the cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, which may provide a molecular basis for the parasite adaptation to host immunity. This evolutionary genomic analysis provides insight into the substantial role of recombination in the evolution of the intracellular pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia.

  3. Rickettsia parkeri infecting free-living Amblyomma triste ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Andréia L T; Alves, Alvair S; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Martins, Thiago F; Witter, Rute; Pacheco, Thábata A; Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of rickettsiae in 151 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 59 Amblyomma ovale, 166 Amblyomma triste, one Amblyomma dissimile and four Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in the municipality of Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, within the Pantanal biome of Brazil. Ticks were individually processed by the hemolymph test with Gimenez staining, isolation of rickettsia in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the citrate synthase rickettsial gene. Through the shell vial technique, rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in Vero cell culture from one free-living A. triste female tick, which previously showed to contain Rickettsia-like organisms by the hemolymph test. Molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate was achieved through DNA partial sequences of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, ompB), which showed to be all 100% identical to Rickettsia parkeri. After testing all ticks by PCR, the frequency of R. parkeri infection was 7.23% (12/166) in A. triste adult ticks. The remaining ticks were negative by PCR. This is the first report of in vitro isolation of R. parkeri in the Pantanal biome, confirming the occurrence of this emerging rickettsial pathogen in this natural area of South America. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the

  5. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  6. Molecular detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma americanum parasitizing humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Yarina, Tamasin; Miller, Melissa K; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Richards, Allen L

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and quantify a portion of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) of Rickettsia amblyommii was employed to assess the threat of R. amblyommii exposure to humans parasitized by Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick). A total of 72 pools of lone star ticks removed from humans were acquired from two collections and used in this study: 44 pools of A. americanum submitted to the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program in 2003 collected from 220 individuals from 14 states, and 28 pools of A. americanum representing 120 ticks obtained from boy scouts and adult leaders at the Boy Scouts of America National Jamboree held at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia, in 2005. Of the 72 lone star tick pools representing 340 lone star ticks, 58 pools (80.5%) were positive for R. amblyommii. In addition, individual A. americanum ticks parasitizing humans collected as part of the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program in 2002 and 2003 from 17 states were evaluated. It was found that 244 of 367 (66.5%) individual A. americanum ticks tested positive for the presence of R. amblyommii DNA. These results clearly show that lone star ticks parasitizing humans are highly infected with R. amblyommii, which may potentiate rickettsial infection of and possibly disease in humans.

  7. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  8. Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures.

  9. Ectoparasite Infestations and Canine Infection by Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araes-Santos, Ana Isabel; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Peixoto, Renata M; Spolidorio, Mariana G; Azevedo, Sérgio S; Costa, Mateus M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Mauricio C

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs and their ectoparasites from rural and urban areas of two municipalities, Petrolina and Juazeiro, within a semiarid region (Caatinga biome) of northeastern Brazil, by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 12.1% (61/504) and 23.0% (116/504) of canine plasma samples had antibodies reactive to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis. E. canis DNA was detected by PCR in 8.3% (42/504) of canine blood samples, whereas no blood sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. The infection by E. canis was determined by PCR in 4.9% (14/285) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks and by Rickettsia felis in 1.1% (3/285) and 40.6% (74/182) ticks and fleas, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated statistically with the variables "to reside in Petrolina" and "presence of ectoparasites." Our results indicate that canine infection by E. canis might be endemic in the Caatinga biome as it is in other Brazilian biomes. Although no previous serosurvey for Rickettsia spp. has been conducted on dogs from the Caatinga biome, our values are much lower than the ones reported for rural dogs from other Brazilian biomes. These differences are likely related to the semiarid climate of the aatinga biome, which minimizes the exposure of rural dogs to Amblyomma spp. ticks, the most common vectors of Rickettsia spp. in Brazil. Considering that dogs are excellent sentinels for human exposure to Rickettsia spp., we can infer that the risks of human acquiring tick-borne rickettsiosis in the Caatinga region of the present study are low. The rickettsial infection rates in fleas and ticks were not related to canine seropositivity; i.e., areas with higher Rickettsia infection rates in fleas had the lowest canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp.

  10. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J

    2015-01-01

    , Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. FINDINGS: 1051 (95%) of 1112...... patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than...... conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; pLeptospira spp combined, and 33% (13/39) for conventional bacterial...

  11. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Early Detection and Response to Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal diseasehost/ reservoir, and human disease...Peru (37 of 742 {5 percent {ectoparasites from domestic animals were positive for rickettsiae, including R. parkeri {Tidewater spotted fever...rickettsiae diagnostic assays, NMRC used them to test arthropod vectors, animal hosts and specimens from human cases for rickettsial infections [48]. NMRC

  12. Rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): a new proposed Rickettsia detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) from iguanas and free-living larvae ticks from vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Mattar, Salim

    2012-07-01

    From January to December 2009, 55 Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) ticks removed from iguanas in the municipality of Monteria and 3,114 ticks [458 Amblyomma sp. larvae, 2,636 Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs] collected over vegetation in Los Cordobas were included in the study. The ticks were pooled into groups from which DNA was extracted. For initial screening of Rickettsia sp., each pool was analyzed by gltA real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive pools were further studied using gltA, ompA, and ompB conventional PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Rickettsial DNA was found in 28 pools of ticks (16 A. dissimile pools and 12 free-living larvae pools) out of 113 (24.7%) using real-time PCR. The same 28 pools were also positive using conventional PCR assays aimed to amplify gltA, ompA, and ompB. For each gene analyzed, PCR products obtained from 4/28 pools (two pools of A. dissimile, one pool of Amblyomma sp. larvae and one pool of Rh. microplus larvae) were randomly chosen and sequenced twice. Nucleotide sequences generated were identical to each other for each of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB, and showed 99.4, 95.6, and 96.4% identity with those of Rickettsia tamurae. They were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers JF905456, JF905458, and JF905457, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first molecular evidence of a novel Rickettsia (Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi) infecting A. dissimile ticks collected from iguanas, and also Rh. microplus and unspeciated Amblyomma larvae from vegetation in Colombia.

  13. First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie C. Cunha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, where occurred five human cases of BSF in 2006. The ticks were identified under a stereoscopic microscope and separated in pools by stages, species and sex. DNA extraction was carried out using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN®. The DNA was submitted to PCR amplification using 04 set of primers: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa protein-encoding gene, 246bp and RpCS.877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels and visualized under ultraviolet light with ethidium bromide. PCR products of the expected sizes were purified by QIAquick® and sequenced by ABI PRISM®. The generated nucleotide sequences were edited with using Bioedit® software and compared with the corresponding homologous sequences available through GenBank, using Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. It was confirmed R. rickettsii by sequencing of the material (GenBank FJ356230. The molecular characterization of R. rickettsii in the tick R. sanguineus emphasizes the role of dogs as carriers of ticks from the environment to home. Moreover, this result suggests that there is a considerable chance for active participation of R. sanguineus as one of tick species in the transmission of R. ricketsii to human being in the Brazilian territory.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida por carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, mais freqüentemente pela espécie Amblyomma cajennense. Este

  14. Psychosis in dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Suprakash Chaudhury; Biswajit Jagtap; Deepak Kumar Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    An 18-year-old male student developed abnormal behavior while undergoing treatment for dengue fever. He was ill-kempt, irritable and had auditory and visual hallucinations and vague persecutory delusions in clear sensorium with impaired insight. The psychotic episode had a temporal correlation with dengue fever. Psychiatric comorbidities of dengue fever including mania, anxiety, depression, and catatonia are mentioned in literature but the literature on the psychosis following dengue is spars...

  15. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  16. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Chriél, Mariann; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy...

  17. Rickettsia bellii in ticks Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, from birds in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Čapek, Miroslav; Labruna, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 254-256 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia bellii * ticks * Amblyomma calcaratum * birds * Peru Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  18. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  19. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duscher, G. G.; Hodžić, A.; Weiler, M.; Vaux, A. G. C.; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, W.; Medlock, J. M.; Versteirt, V.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2016), s. 720-722 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia raoultii * Dermacentor reticulatus * TIBOLA * DEBONEL * Austria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  20. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Warashina, Wesley R.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Olmsted, Gregory K.; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  1. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Warashina, Wesley R; Sturgeon, Michele M; Buchholz, Arlene E; Olmsted, Gregory K; Park, Sarah Y; Effler, Paul V; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2008-10-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks collected from snakes in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumrandee, C.; Hirunkanokpun, S.; Doornbos, K.; Kitthawee, S.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Trinachartvanit, W.; Ahantarig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2014), s. 632-640 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Rickettsia spp. * Amblyomma varanense * Amblyomma helvolum * Snake * Thailand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  3. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov

    Full Text Available Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL. Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as

  4. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pesquisa de Rickettsia spp em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum no Estado de São Paulo Survey of Rickettsia spp in the ticks Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Campos Pacheco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a presença de riquétsias em 3.545 carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e 2.666 Amblyomma dubitatum. Através do teste de hemolinfa, reação em cadeia pela polimerase e isolamento de rickettsia em cultivo celular, todos os Amblyomma cajennense foram negativos, sendo que 634 (23,8% Amblyomma dubitatum mostraram-se infectados com Rickettsia bellii.The presence of rickettsial infection was surveyed in 3,545 Amblyomma cajennense ticks and 2,666 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Using the hemolymph test, polymerase chain reaction and isolation of Rickettsia in cell cultures, all of the Amblyomma cajennense were negative, whereas 634 (23.8% of the Amblyomma dubitatum ticks were shown to be infected with Rickettsia bellii.

  7. Fever of unknown origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) often is defined as a fever greater than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory tests. In general, infection accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of FUO, followed by neoplasm and

  8. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  9. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  10. Molecular Pathogenesis of Rickettsioses and Development of Novel Anti-Rickettsia Treatment by Comginatorial Peptide-Based Libraries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, David H; Olano, Juan P

    2005-01-01

    ...) library and challenge with R. prowazekii, R. rickettsii, and 0. tsutsugamushi; 2) To determine the role of NF-KB, cytokines, ROS and NO in intracellular killing of rickettsia-infected monolayers containing adapteins and 3...

  11. An anomalous type IV secretion system in Rickettsia is evolutionarily conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Gillespie

    Full Text Available Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs comprise a diverse transporter family functioning in conjugation, competence, and effector molecule (DNA and/or protein translocation. Thirteen genome sequences from Rickettsia, obligate intracellular symbionts/pathogens of a wide range of eukaryotes, have revealed a reduced T4SS relative to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens archetype (vir. However, the Rickettsia T4SS has not been functionally characterized for its role in symbiosis/virulence, and none of its substrates are known.Superimposition of T4SS structural/functional information over previously identified Rickettsia components implicate a functional Rickettsia T4SS. virB4, virB8 and virB9 are duplicated, yet only one copy of each has the conserved features of similar genes in other T4SSs. An extraordinarily duplicated VirB6 gene encodes five hydrophobic proteins conserved only in a short region known to be involved in DNA transfer in A. tumefaciens. virB1, virB2 and virB7 are newly identified, revealing a Rickettsia T4SS lacking only virB5 relative to the vir archetype. Phylogeny estimation suggests vertical inheritance of all components, despite gene rearrangements into an archipelago of five islets. Similarities of Rickettsia VirB7/VirB9 to ComB7/ComB9 proteins of epsilon-proteobacteria, as well as phylogenetic affinities to the Legionella lvh T4SS, imply the Rickettsiales ancestor acquired a vir-like locus from distantly related bacteria, perhaps while residing in a protozoan host. Modern modifications of these systems likely reflect diversification with various eukaryotic host cells.We present the rvh (Rickettsiales vir homolog T4SS, an evolutionary conserved transporter with an unknown role in rickettsial biology. This work lays the foundation for future laboratory characterization of this system, and also identifies the Legionella lvh T4SS as a suitable genetic model.

  12. “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” en Amblyomma tigrinum, San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel CICUTTIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue detectar especies del género Rickettsia en garrapatas de la especie Amblyomma tigrinum colectadas sobre carnívoros domésticos y en sangre de caninos domésticos de la provincia de San Luis (Argentina. Entre 2013 y 2015 se colectaron 56 garrapatas adultas de la especie A. tigrinum sobre caninos y felinos domésticos, y se obtuvieron 65 muestras sanguíneas de caninos. Tres garrapatas resultaron positivas mediante la amplificación de un fragmento del espacio intergénico 23S-5S ARNr del género Rickettsia, lográndose secuenciar uno de los productos positivos. La muestra positiva secuenciada también resultó positiva por PCRs de los fragmentos de los genes gltA y ompA. Las secuencias obtenidas resultaron tener una identidad del 100 % de identidad con “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae”. Todas las muestras sanguíneas resultaron negativas. “Ca. R. andeanae” no ha sido asociada con enfermedad en humanos o animales, sin embargo, es necesario realizar nuevas investigaciones para lograr un mayor conocimiento del riesgo potencial de transmisión de rickettsiosis en la región. SUMMARY. “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks from San Luis (Argentina. The aim of this study was to detect species of Rickettsia in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from domestic carnivores and blood of domestic dogs of San Luis (Argentina. Between 2013 and 2015, 56 adults of A. tigrinum from dogs and cats and 65 blood from dogs were collected. Three ticks were positive by amplification of a 23S-5S rRNA fragment, and the sequence of one of the positive products was obtained. The positive sample sequenced was positive by PCRs of fragments of genes gltA and ompA. The sequences obtained were 100% identical with "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae". All blood samples were negative. “Ca. R. andeanae” has not been associated with disease in humans or animals; however, further research is necessary to achieve greater

  13. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  14. DENGUE FEVER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zvereva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia number of cases of dengue fever in adults grows up, whereas in endemic areas, due to the wide spread of the disease is more common in children, which symptoms has its own characteristics. In the article is reviewed a clinical case of girl living in Moscow who has been returned from the Thailand vacation — the first registered case of dengue fever in childhood. In the article were discussed the problems of diagnostics of the disease, an algorithm for diagnosis of dengue fever.

  15. Mania in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Jhanjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, also known as break bone fever, is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness. During the last few years, there had been increasing reports of dengue fever with unusual manifestations, primarily with neurological symptoms. Psychiatric morbidity during acute dengue infection has rarely been reported. There has not been any systemic study mentioning the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric sequelae. We report a 28-year-old male who after an acute dengue infection developed an episode of mania which was successfully treated.

  16. Rickettsia amblyommatis infecting ticks and exposure of domestic dogs to Rickettsia spp. in an Amazon-Cerrado transition region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.

  17. Fever origins in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, W T; Mangalaboyi, L J; M'Belepe, M R; Ditu, M S

    1982-01-01

    The causes of fever were attempted to identify in a prospective study on 300 adult in- and outpatients with fever at Kinshasa Teaching Hospital, Zaire. Infection was by far the primary cause of fever (87%). Tuberculosis occurred in 15% of the inpatients. Malaria was the most frequent febrile disease: one fever in two was malaria. Connective tissue diseases and neoplasms were rare.

  18. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  19. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both human...

  20. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J; Panyanivong, Phonepasith; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Blacksell, Stuart D; Dance, David A B; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Sengduangphachanh, Amphone; Phoumin, Phonelavanh; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-02-01

    Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. 1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; pLaos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention. Wellcome Trust UK. Copyright © 2015 Dittrich et al. Open Access article published under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All

  1. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and R. slovaca in Melophagus ovinus, the sheep ked

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wureli, Ha-zi; Wang, Shi-Wei; Tu, Chang-Chun; Chen, Chuang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a hematophagous ectoparasite, is mainly found in Europe, Northwestern Africa, and Asia. This wingless fly infests sheep, rabbits, and red foxes, and causes inflammation, wool loss and skin damage. Furthermore, this parasite has been shown to transmit diseases, and plays a role as a vector. Herein, we investigated the presence of various Rickettsia species in M. ovinus. Methods In this study, a total of 95 sheep keds were collected in Kuqa...

  2. Carrapatos do gênero amblyomma (acari: ixodidae e suas relações com os hospedeiros em área endêmica para febre maculosa no Estado de São Paulo Ticks of genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2008-12-01

    vulture (Cathartidae had the heaviest infestation (69.9% followed by species of the Thamnophilidae and Turdidae families. Adult ticks collected on capybaras were A. cajennense (80.8% and A. dubitatum (19.2%. Both tick species were also found on opossums corresponding to 72.4% and 27.6%, respectively. Due to easy capture and attractiveness for ticks, opossums could be used as bioindicators in Brazilian zoonotic areas with spotted fever. Considering the prevalence and also abundance of ticks, host attractiveness, proliferation and susceptibly for R. rickettsi infection, capybaras and opossums are the main amplifying hosts for this microorganism at the ESALQ/Campus, while horses, black vultures and stray cats act as secondary hosts.

  3. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  4. First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Chikeka, Ijeuru; Miles, Jeremy J; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando J

    2016-12-01

    Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America. We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed. We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither rickettsial infections nor Q fever were considered or treated. Further study is warranted to define the burden of these infections in Central America.

  5. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  6. Co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia species in ticks and in an erythema migrans patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Sprong, Hein; Pandak, Nenad

    2013-12-10

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Ixodes ricinus also carries other pathogenic bacteria, but corresponding human diseases are rarely reported. Here, we compared the exposure to Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis with that to Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We assumed that their exposure corresponds to their infection rate in questing I. ricinus. Three Rickettsia species were detected in ticks with a total prevalence of 7.9%, of which the majority was R. helvetica (78%) and R. monacensis (21%). From the same geographic area, skin biopsies of erythema migrans patients were investigated for possible co-infections with Rickettsia spp.. Forty-seven out of 67 skin biopsies were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and one sample was positive for R. monacensis. The Borrelia genospecies from the R. monacensis positive patient was identified as Borrelia afzelii. The patient did not show any symptoms associated with rickettsiosis. Co-infections of I. ricinus with Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. were as high as expected from the individual prevalence of both pathogens. Co-infection rate in erythema migrans patients corresponded well with tick infection rates. To our knowledge, this is the first reported co-infection of B. afzelii and R. monacensis.

  7. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Sanders, Felicia; Spinks, Mark D; Wills, William; Denison, Amy M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Carios capensis, a tick of seabirds, infests the nests of brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, and other ground nesting birds along the coast of South Carolina. This tick is associated with pelican nest abandonment and could pose a threat to humans visiting pelican rookeries if visitors are exposed to ticks harboring infectious agents. We collected ticks from a pelican rookery on Deveaux Bank, South Carolina and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Ticks harbored DNA from "Borrelia lonestari", a novel Coxiella sp., and three species of Rickettsia, including Rickettsia felis and two undescribed Rickettsia spp. DNA from the Coxiella and two undescribed Rickettsia were detected in unfed larvae that emerged in the laboratory, which implies these agents are transmitted vertically by female ticks. We partially characterize the novel Coxiella by molecular means.

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  9. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total...... patients, 4,968 received preoperative antibiotics, were supplied with complete information and included in this analysis. The lithotrites assessed included no fragmentation, ultrasonic, laser, pneumatic and combination ultrasonic/pneumatic. Risk of fever was estimated using multivariate logistic regression...... with adjustment for diabetes, steroid use, a history of positive urine culture, the presence of staghorn calculi or preoperative nephrostomy, stone burden and lithotrite. RESULTS: The overall fever rate was 10%. Pneumatic lithotrites were used in 43% of the cohort, followed by ultrasonic (24%), combination...

  10. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  11. Cotton-wool spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E

    1985-01-01

    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  12. Q fever in Quebec (1989–93: Report of 14 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Goyette

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever, a zoonosis acquired by inhalation of the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii, is rarely diagnosed in Canada. The world incidence has been increasing since 1960, because of progressive dissemination of this microorganism in animal populations, particularly domestic ruminants. Some recent outbreaks were caused by cats. Of 14 cases reported in Quebec between 1989 and the beginning of 1993, nine occurred successively in an 18-month period in the rural region surrounding Trois-Rivières, after contact with livestock or cats. These cases are reported here, with the results of serological screening of the workers of an abattoir where one of the cases worked. Five additional cases reported in Quebec during the same period are briefly reviewed.

  13. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. in keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; de la Fuente, José; Biró, Nóra; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Meli, Marina L; Elek, Vilmos; Gönczi, Eniko; Meili, Theres; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. DNA was extracted individually or in pools. Anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living deer keds. Rickettsia helvetica or other, unidentified rickettsiae were also present in one pool of sheep keds, and in four pools of deer keds from both red deer and roe deer. This is the first account of polymerase chain reaction positivity of hippoboscid flies for A. ovis and rickettsiae. These results raise the possibility that-apart from cattle and roe deer as already reported-sheep and red deer might also play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of rickettsioses.

  14. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YFV transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow fever has ... this table are not contained on the official World Health Organization list of countries with risk of YFV transmission ( ...

  16. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  17. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  18. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  19. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  20. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  1. Detection of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudman, D A; Sargentini, N J

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) in northeast Missouri for the presence of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria. We collected actively questing ticks from four sites within Adair County, Missouri. A total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; American dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 308 pools tested, 229 (74.4%) were infected with bacteria and the overall MLE of the infection rate per 100 ticks was calculated as 2.9% (CI 2.61-3.21). Infection rates varied among life stages, 28.6% (CI 23.89-33.97) in adults, 7.0% (CI 5.10-9.86) in nymphs, and 1.0% (CI 0.75-1.20) in larvae. In the 116 adult lone star pools, infection rates were calculated for Borrelia lonestari (1.4%), Borrelia spp. (2.7%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (6.1%), Ehrlichia ewingii (3.3%), Rickettsia amblyommii (18.3%), and Rickettsia montanensis (0.4%). Infection rates for the 52 nymphal lone star pools were calculated as B. lonestari (1.03%), Borrelia spp. (0.40%), E. chaffeensis (2.02%), E. ewingii (0.24%), and R. amblyommii (2.70%). In the 20 adult American dog tick pools, infection rates were determined as E. chaffeensis (9.47%), E. ewingii (5.47%), and R. montanensis (8.06%). Eight Borrelia samples were sequenced with five 99-100% identical to B. burgdorferi (s.l.) and three 99% identical to B. lonestari. Eight samples were sequenced for E. chaffeensis (all 99-100% identical) and one sample was sequenced for E. ewingii (99% identical). Seven samples were sequenced for Rickettsia and three were 99% identical to R. montanensis and four were 100% identical to R. amblyommii. This study demonstrates B. lonestari, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, R. amblyommii, and R. montanensis in northeast

  2. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  3. Hard ticks and their bacterial endosymbionts (or would be pathogens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Trinachartvanit, W.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2013), s. 419-428 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii * Francisella-like endosymbionts * vector Ambylomma americanum * fever group Rickettsiae * Dermacentor and ersoni * spotted fever * borne pathogens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2013

  4. Ocular disease in patients with TB and HIV presenting with fever in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the patients with AIDS, 32 (17%) had retinal microangiopathy manifest by cotton wool spots; one (0.5%) had signs of active cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. The presence of microangiopathy was not related to TB. Conclusions. In Malawian patients with TB presenting acutely with fever, choroidal granulomas were ...

  5. Treatment of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo,Chaturaka; Rajapakse,Anoja Chamarie

    2012-01-01

    Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decad...

  6. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum from imported red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Avni, Zvi; King, Rony; Shkap, Varda

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens through international animal trade (farm animals and pets) is a serious threat to public health and local fauna. Rapid and correct identification of potential threats is an important step on the way to conduct an efficient control of imported pests. In this report we describe the molecular identification of the neotropic tick Amblyomma rotundatum intercepted from red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), imported to Israel from Florida, USA. Molecular analysis of the ticks conducted upon their identification, revealed that they were infected with Rickettsia bellii. Following their collection, the ticks were examined morphologically and five molecular markers were used to determine their taxonomic identity: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), cytochrome b (CytB), 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS-2). Molecular analysis indicated that all of the collected ticks were Amblyomma rotundatum. Using rickettsial gltA (citrate synthase) gene in real-time PCR analysis we found that approximately 25% of the intercepted ticks (8 of 33) were infected with Rickettsia bellii. It is concluded that accurate and timely identification of imported exotic ticks prevented their introduction to Israel, and that use of molecular tools may further improve the response to such potential threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  8. Investigation of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ectoparasites collected from domestic animals, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayssa Keren da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of emerging arthropod-borne pathogens Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera collected from dogs and horses within municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro State, Southern Brazil. Samples from 280 ticks and two fleas were subjected to family or/and genus specific PCR for Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. In ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from dogs the DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis was detected in 6.8% and 2.2% samples respectively. In two R. sanguineus confection with two pathogens was observed. In Dermacentor nitens ticks, collected from horses Francisella-like endosymbiont was found in 42.8% samples. DNA of Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia pi-petens was detected in fleas Ctenocephalides canis fleas. No DNA of Rickettsia was found in tested ticks. The findings contribute to our knowledge of tick-borne bacteria, ticks and endosymbionts distribution in Brazil.

  9. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

  10. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  11. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  12. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  13. RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii is a novel aspartic protease with properties of retropepsin-like enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the species Rickettsia are obligate intracellular, gram-negative, arthropod-borne pathogens of humans and other mammals. The life-threatening character of diseases caused by many Rickettsia species and the lack of reliable protective vaccine against rickettsioses strengthens the importance of identifying new protein factors for the potential development of innovative therapeutic tools. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a novel membrane-embedded retropepsin-like homologue, highly conserved in 55 Rickettsia genomes. Using R. conorii gene homologue RC1339 as our working model, we demonstrate that, despite the low overall sequence similarity to retropepsins, the gene product of rc1339 APRc (for Aspartic Protease from Rickettsia conorii is an active enzyme with features highly reminiscent of this family of aspartic proteases, such as autolytic activity impaired by mutation of the catalytic aspartate, accumulation in the dimeric form, optimal activity at pH 6, and inhibition by specific HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Moreover, specificity preferences determined by a high-throughput profiling approach confirmed common preferences between this novel rickettsial enzyme and other aspartic proteases, both retropepsins and pepsin-like. This is the first report on a retropepsin-like protease in gram-negative intracellular bacteria such as Rickettsia, contributing to the analysis of the evolutionary relationships between the two types of aspartic proteases. Additionally, we have also shown that APRc is transcribed and translated in R. conorii and R. rickettsii and is integrated into the outer membrane of both species. Finally, we demonstrated that APRc is sufficient to catalyze the in vitro processing of two conserved high molecular weight autotransporter adhesin/invasion proteins, Sca5/OmpB and Sca0/OmpA, thereby suggesting the participation of this enzyme in a relevant proteolytic pathway in rickettsial life-cycle. As a

  14. Fever in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasikhova, Yanina; Ludlow, Steven; Baluch, Aliyah

    2017-04-01

    The definition of fever is flexible and depends on the clinical context. Fever is frequently observed in patients with cancer. Infectious and noninfectious causes of fever in patients with various oncological and hematological malignancies and the usefulness of biomarkers are discussed. To treat patients in a timely manner and to minimize morbidity and mortality, it is paramount that health care professionals determine the cause of fever. The usefulness of biomarkers in febrile patients with cancer continues to be controversial. Fever is frequently seen in patients with cancer and can be associated with a variety of infectious and noninfectious causes. The utility of acute-phase reactants, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin, along with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug challenge should be further evaluated as adjunct tools for the workup of fever in patients with cancer.

  15. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000...

  16. Fever in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robyn; Dor, Maya R; McQuilkin, Patricia A

    2013-11-01

    Fever is the most common reason that children and infants are brought to emergency departments. Emergency physicians face the challenge of quickly distinguishing benign from life-threatening conditions. The management of fever in children is guided by the patient's age, immunization status, and immune status as well as the results of a careful physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests and radiographic views. In this article, the evaluation and treatment of children with fevers of known and unknown origin are described. Causes of common and dangerous conditions that include fever in their manifestation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  18. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  19. Relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the incidence of tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) during the last 50 years, once like malaria an endemic disease in Sengerema, Tanzania. Design: By analyzing the annual reports, focusing on the number of admissions, maternal deaths, blood smears of patients with fever for Borrelia.

  20. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What About My Child and Rheumatic Fever? Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction that can occur after ... strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  2. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  3. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis felis from Five Geographic Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mauricio C.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Azevedo, Milka C.; Costa, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in 701 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas that were collected from dogs and cats in 31 municipalities, encompassing all regions and major biomes of Brazil. A total of 268 (38.2%) fleas from 30 municipalities were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the rickettsial gltA gene. The PCR products from 44 fleas, consisting of at least 1 PCR-positive flea from each of 30 municipalities, generated DNA sequences identical to Rickettsia felis. Rickettsial prevalence was highly variable among 30 municipalities, with values ranging from 2.9% to 100%. Significantly higher infection rates by R. felis were associated with the Pampa biome (southern Brazil), and the temperate climate that prevails in southern Brazil. In contrast, lowest R. felis-infection rates were significantly associated with the Caatinga biome, and its semiarid climate. Further studies should evaluate the effect of temperature and moisture on the R. felis infection in Ctenocephalides fleas world widely. PMID:24778194

  4. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  5. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  6. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

  7. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, M’hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle

    2009-01-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  8. Novel Rickettsia raoultii strain isolated and propagated from Austrian Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Wijnveld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Methods Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Results Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99–100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. Conclusions R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and

  9. Pregnancy outcome in relation to treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus infection: a fever cohort and a case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus.Data were analyzed from: i pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms "scrub typhus" (ST, "murine typhus" (MT, "Orientia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia typhi", "rickettsiae", "typhus", or "rickettsiosis"; and "pregnancy", until February 2014 and iii an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn.There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours were 25 [16-42] for azithromycin (n=5, 34 [20-53] for antimalarials (n=5 and 92 [6-260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n=16. There were 36.4% (8/22 with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81 and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67 were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p=0.050, linear trend. Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p=0.610.The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and

  10. ETIOLOGY OF OROYA FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1926-01-01

    The experiments reported here were carried on in the main with passage strains of Bartonella bacilliformis, and the results indicate that the virulence of the organism has been considerably enhanced by passage through susceptible animals. While the animals of the earlier experimental series showed no anemia, some of the present group manifested a definite reduction in the number of red cells and in hemoglobin, and in one instance (M. rhesus 25) anemia was of the extreme type so often associated with Oroya fever in man. The anemic condition appeared to be secondary in character, however, nucleated red cells being few in number. In this animal also Bartonella bacilliformis was readily demonstrated in the erythrocytes by means of stained smears, though the number of cells invaded by the parasites was by no means so great as in the human infection. In most instances of experimental Bartonella infection so far induced the demonstration of the parasites by ordinary routine examination of stained film preparations is possible only when the titer of the blood exceeds 1:1,000. Prolonged search of many slides has not been attempted, however. The number of microorganisms in the blood, as shown by culture tests of ascending dilutions, was in most instances highest (1:100,000 to 1:10,000,000) during the early period of the infection coincident usually with the period of highest fever, falling to a titer of 1:10 during the last half of the disease. In one of the fatally infected monkeys, however, the titer increased from 1:10 on the 4th day to 1:1,000,000 on the 24th day. The titer of the blood was equally great in Monkeys 5 and 6, although the former was inoculated locally, the other intravenously and intraperitoneally. The largest proportion of infected red cells was found in Monkey 25, while the blood titer, as shown by culture test, was highest in Monkey 7. The febrile reaction varied in the animals of this series from a severe continuous fever of 104–105°F., lasting 2 to

  11. Identification of Rickettsia africae and Wolbachia sp. in Ceratophyllus garei fleas from Passerine birds migrated from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeyová, Zuzana; Mediannikov, Oleg; Roux, Véronique; Subramanian, Geetha; Spitalská, Eva; Kristofík, Jano; Darolová, Alžbeta; Raoult, Didier

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal new aspects of the role of flea vector taken from migratory birds by screening of specimens with molecular biological methods. A field study was done in fishponds in Slovakia. Actually, 47 fleas were collected from reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and their nests. DNA was extracted and analyzed for representatives of the orders Rickettsiales. A rickettsia that shares 99.7% of identity by gltA gene with Rickettsia africae was identified in Ceratophyllus garei collected from A. scirpaceus. Moreover, two Wolbachia sp. were also detected in fleas. This is the first record of R. africae and Wolbachia sp. identified so far in Central Europe in fleas collected from migratory bird returning from Africa. This molecular study extends the geographic range and vector spectrum of arthropod-borne agents.

  12. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  13. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  14. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Sousa, Rita; Gegúndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including...

  15. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii.

  17. Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Xing; Wang, Jin; Lin, Hualiang; Chen, Lingling; Wu, Zhifeng; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-07-17

    Background : Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods : Moran's I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results : Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature ( q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation ( q = 0.24), road density ( q = 0.24), and water body area ( q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions : Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou.

  18. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Humidifier fever 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    MRC Symposium (1977).Thorax, 32, 653-663. Humidifier fever. In enclosed environments, it may be necessary to regulate temperature, ventilation, and humidity to maintain comfortable working conditions. Several systems can be used although in terms of installation and running costs a simple radiator system is far more economical than air conditioning with complete temperature and humidity control. Humidity control requires the introduction of water into a moving current of air, and in such a system baffle plates are often used to eliminate large droplets; also any unused water is usually recirculated. Organic dust drawn into the system and settling on the baffle plates and in the mixing chamber may be utilised by micro-organisms introduced from the atmosphere and from the water supply, and a biomass builds up. Microbial material is then voided into the working atmosphere by the ventilation system. Under appropriate exposure conditions susceptible individuals may succumb to an episode of humidifier fever, an influenza-like illness with pyrexia and malaise as the main symptoms, but cough, chest tightness, dyspnoea and weight loss may also be seen. The episodes usually occur after absence from work for a few days and have been termed `Monday sickness'. Individuals are often able to return to work the next day and appear refractory to further exposure. The disease is of the winter months probably due to the larger amount (up to 90%) of fresh air drawn into the humidifier during the summer. In the blood of exposed subjects precipitins are usually present to extracts of baffle plate material and recirculating water although they are not necessarily indicative of disease. Skin tests may be positive and inhalation challenge has reproduced the disease in susceptible individuals. Many organisms may be isolated from baffle plates and recirculating water but only amoeba extracts have produced consistently positive reactions with sera from affected individuals. Remedial actions

  20. Management of Typhoid Fever and Bacterial Meningitis by Chloramphenicol in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria and is usually bacteriostatic but is bactericidal against Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitis. Chloramphenicol penetrates all body tissues well. The cerebrospinal fluid concentration averages 60% of the serum level, while brain levels are 9 times higher because of high lipid solubility of this drug. Chloramphenicol acts primarily by binding reversibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit. This antibiotic is the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers and bacterial meningitis. Chloramphenicol possesses a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Strains are considered sensitive if they are inhibited by chloramphenicol concentrations of ≤ 8 µg/ml. Neisseria gonorrhea, Brucella species, Bordetella pertussis, gram-positive cocci, Clostridium species, and gram-negative rods including Bacillus fragilis are inhibited by chloramphenicol. Most anaerobic bacteria including Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsiae, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are inhibited by this antibiotic. The doses of chloramphenicol are 40.5 mg/kg/day for neonates and 75.5 mg/kg/day for older children. The therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol are 10-25 µg/ml. Peak therapeutic concentrations are obtained in 60% and therapeutic trough concentrations are found in 42% of children. Children affected by typhoid fever are cu red by chloramphenicol and the sensitivity to this antibiotic is 100%. Acute bacterial meningitis is the most dangerous infections disease in children. The causative organisms are gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and chloramphenicol is effective in killing these microorganisms. The aim of this study is to review the management of typhoid fever and bacterial meningitis in infants and children by chloramphenicol.

  1. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  2. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  3. Isolamento de Rickettsia em cultura de células vero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melles Heloisa Helena Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o diagnóstico da febre maculosa baseie-se em sinais e sintomas característicos, o mesmo requer confirmação laboratorial, pois existem alguns diagnósticos diferenciais possíveis como meningococcemia, leptospirose, infecção por enterovírus e febre tifóide. A confirmação laboratorial pode ser feita através da pesquisa de anticorpos específicos, possível somente alguns dias após o aparecimento da doença, através do isolamento do agente em amostras de sangue e/ou biópsia de pele, e ainda, de amostras de carrapatos coletados do paciente ou de animais reservatório. O isolamento a partir de sangue ou biópsia de pele resulta em diagnóstico precoce da doença, pois na fase de rickettsemia ainda não há anticorpos detectáveis no sangue. Assim, com o objetivo de facilitar o diagnóstico precoce da febre maculosa, estabelecemos um método de isolamento de rickettsia em cultura de células vero. Para a padronização foi inoculada amostra padrão de Rickettsia rickettsii, cepa Sheyla Smith, cedida pelo CDC. A identificação foi feita através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. A presença de microrganismos verdes fluorescentes visualizados no interior do citoplasma das células caracterizou o crescimento do agente. Posteriormente, a metodologia foi confirmada pelo isolamento do agente da febre maculosa em amostras de biópsia de pele de paciente proveniente de área endêmica no Estado de São Paulo, bem como, de amostras de carrapato do gênero Amblyomma, considerado o reservatório e transmissor da doença no Brasil.

  4. [Detection of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the Cerro Chucanti private reserve and from neighboring towns, Panamá, 2007-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Sergio; Miranda, Roberto; Zaldívar, Yamitze; González, Publio; Berguido, Guido; Trejos, Diomedes; Pascale, Juan M; Labruna, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, however, limited data are available concerning the arthropod species that serve as vectors or reservoirs. Data are presented concerning the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve and in neighboring villages. Nine humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild mammals were examined. Twenty-one species of ectoparasites were obtained, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites. These were preserved in 95% ethanol. Later, the DNA was extracted from the ticks and fleas and analyzed by molecular techniques to detect presence of Rickettsia. Of a total of 425 PCR reactions, 270 were positive for Rickettsia and 155 negative. Among the positive samples, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives) and 41 of these also amplified the ompA gene. DNA of Rickettsia amblyommii was found in horses ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens), dogs ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and free living nymphs in the forest. Additionally, DNA of R. felis was found in fleas from dogs Ctenocephalides felis. The presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis was detected in ticks and fleas of domestic animals in villages near Cerro Chucanti; however no Rickettsia DNA was found in ectoparasites of non-domestic wildlife.

  5. Saliva, Salivary Gland, and Hemolymph Collection from Ixodes scapularis Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Toni G.; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C.; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) 1-8. To be properly tran...

  6. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  7. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  8. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  10. The hemodyafiltration in the acute renal failure at the patients’ haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Trusov, V.; Shaklein, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Udmurt Republic is the natural focus and the hot spot of the haemorrhagic fever with the nephritic syndrome (HFNS). The acute renal failure (ARF), by our data, is being developed from 24 up to 49 % of the HFNS diseased persons, at the severe forms of which, side by side with the medicamental therapy, the hemodialysis is being used. In the last years, the efferent therapy new methods such, as the hemofiltration, the hemodyafiltration (HDF) are being used for the ARF medical treatment.

  11. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  12. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  13. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  16. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  17. Diversity of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing Ixodes ricinus: a longitudinal study in urban, pasture, and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-08-01

    In a previous study, our group investigated the Babesia spp. prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from nine city parks in South Germany in the years 2009 and 2010. We showed predominant prevalence of B. venatorum (in previous literature also known as Babesia sp. EU1), especially in those parks in a more natural condition and with occurrence of large wild animals, such as roe deer. To obtain longitudinal data and to broaden the knowledge about this pathogen, further investigations were carried out in 2011 and 2012 in four of those city parks. Two additional habitat types were chosen for comparison of prevalence data and species analysis focusing on occurrence of potential reservoir hosts. A total of 10,303 questing I. ricinus were collected in four city parks, a pasture, and a natural area in Bavaria, and a representative number of samples were investigated for prevalence of DNA of Babesia spp. (n=4381) and Rickettsia spp. (n=2186) by PCR. In the natural and pasture area, a significantly higher Babesia spp. prevalence compared to the urban area was detected. The natural area revealed sequences of B. microti, B. venatorum, and B. capreoli. In the pasture and urban habitat, predominantly B. venatorum was found, whereas B. capreoli was less frequent and only one B. microti-infected tick was found. All B. microti sequences were 100% identical to the zoonotic Jena/Germany strain. For Rickettsia spp., the significantly highest prevalence was also detected in the natural and pasture areas, whereas lower prevalence was found in the urban area. Sequence analysis revealed R. helvetica (98%) and R. monacensis (2%). Prevalence rates and occurrence of Babesia spp. and Rickettsia spp. differed in urban, pasture and natural sites, most likely depending on the habitat structure (natural or cultivated) and therefore on the appearance and availability of reservoir hosts like roe deer or small mammals.

  18. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  19. Sadfly fever: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-01-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as ‘three-day fever’ or ‘pappataci fever’ or ‘Phlebotomus fever’ is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver functi...

  20. Dengue fever: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-07-01

    Dengue fever is a common tropical infection. This acute febrile illness can be a deadly infection in cases of severe manifestation, causing dengue hemorrhagic shock. In this brief article, I will summarize and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. For diagnosis of dengue, most tropical doctors make use of presumptive diagnosis; however, the definite diagnosis should be based on immunodiagnosis or viral study. Focusing on treatment, symptomatic and supportive treatment is the main therapeutic approach. The role of antiviral drugs in the treatment of dengue fever has been limited, but is currently widely studied.

  1. relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... Increase of gold mining, improved local economy, housing and standards of living after the nineties ... countries, Central Asia, the Middle East and the. Americas, tick borne relapsing fever is rare. It is often ... ten miles and 30% from over 10 miles, but inside the district. Figure 1. Admission. 30000. 25000.

  2. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  3. Rhinitis (Hay Fever): Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Rhinitis TTR Share | Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Do you suffer from frequent sneezing, congestion or ... Triggers Seasonal allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is triggered by outdoor allergens such as pollen ...

  4. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English (US) ... and 15 years old. People Can Spread Scarlet Fever Germs to Others Group A strep bacteria can ...

  5. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search the CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  6. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes t...

  7. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, James M; Wolff, Jacob De; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treat...

  8. CLINICAL STUDY OF FEVER WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha; Sumangala; Ishwarya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent days fever with Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical presentation in the medical wards. This study has been undertaken to know the modes of clinical presentations and possible causes of fever with Thrombocytopenia. OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine possible infective etiology for fever with Thrombocytopenia. 2. To correlate clinical features, laboratory studies and infective etiology. METHODS: Case record analysis of fever with Thrombocytopenia admitted to ...

  9. Factors Associated with Fever in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, Sabreena J; Ouyang, Bichun; Lee, Vivien H; John, Sayona

    2017-06-01

    Fever is common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify predictors of fever in patients hospitalized with ICH, and compare infectious fever with noninfectious fever. A retrospective review on consecutive spontaneous ICH patients from April 2009 to March 2010 was performed. Fever was defined as temperature 100.9°F or higher and attributed to infectious versus noninfectious etiology, based upon the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to determine factors associated with fever and with infection. Among the 351 ICH patients, 136 (39%) developed fever. Factors associated with fever included mean ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), external ventricular drain (EVD) placement or surgical evacuation, positive microbial cultures, longer length of stay (LOS), and higher in-hospital mortality. Among patients with fever, 96 (71%) were noninfectious and 40 (29%) were infectious. Infectious fever was associated with higher LOS. Noninfectious fever was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. In multivariable analysis, ICH volume (OR = 1.01, P = .04), IVH (OR = 2.0, P = .03), EVD (OR = 3.7, P fever. Infectious fever (OR = 5.26, P = .004), EVD (OR = 4.86, P = .01), and surgical evacuation (OR = 4.77, P = .04) correlated with prolonged LOS when dichotomized using a median of 15 days. Fever is common in ICH patients and is not associated with a clear infectious etiology in the majority of patients. Patients with noninfectious fever have higher in-hospital mortality, but survivors have shorter LOS. Further studies are warranted to better understand fevers in ICH. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  11. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  12. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    touching their forehead, while 21 (13.9%) used thermometer. Commonest action taken when there was fever was to administer Paracetamol (107 (70.9%)). Commonest identified complication of fever was convulsion (86(67.7%)). Conclusion: Knowledge of fever is good amongst mothers in Port Harcourt; however there is ...

  13. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  14. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  15. Katayama fever ID scuba divers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... A. C. EVANS, D. J. MARTIN, B. D. GINSBURG. Summary. Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had contact with a large dam in an·endemic area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld at the same time ...

  16. THE TRANSMISSION OF YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.

    1930-01-01

    1. Saimiri sciureus has been infected with yellow fever virus, both by the inoculation of infectious blood and by the bites of infective mosquitoes. Some of the monkeys have died, showing lesions, including hepatic necrosis, suggesting yellow fever as seen in human beings and in rhesus monkeys. Virus has been transferred back to M. rhesus from infected Saimiri both by blood inoculation and by mosquito bites. The virus undoubtedly has been maintained through four direct passages in Saimiri. Reinoculations of infectious material into recovered monkeys have not given rise to invasion of the blood stream by virus. Sera from recovered animals have protected M. rhesus against the inoculation of virus. 2. It has been possible to pass the virus to and from Ateleus ater by the injection of blood or liver and by the bites of mosquitoes. The livers from two infected animals have shown no necrosis. The serum from one recovered monkey proved to be protective for M. rhesus. 3. Only three out of twelve Lagothrix lagotricha have reacted to yellow fever virus by a rise in temperature. Probably none have died as a result of the infection. In only one instance has the virus been transferred back to M. rhesus. The sera of recovered animals have had a protective action against yellow fever virus. PMID:19869721

  17. Diarrhea associated with typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Butler, T.; Nath, S.; Rahman, H.; Stoll, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    To study the pathogenesis of diarrhea occurring with typhoid fever, we selected 42 patients with diarrhea and blood cultures positive for Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, but without diarrheal copathogens, for measurement of stool output and examination of fecal composition. The mean

  18. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  19. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  20. Evaluation of serological tests for the diagnosis of rickettsiosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke

    2009-01-01

    . When analyzing the data using the manufacturers' cut-off values, 41% of samples from presumably healthy blood donors were found positive for spotted fever group Rickettsia antibodies. This does not correlate to the general picture of rickettsiosis in Denmark. Furthermore, sera with Coxiella burnetii...

  1. Serum levels of copper, selenium and manganese in forestry workers testing IgG positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Simona; Giorgianni, Concetto; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Brecciaroli, Renato; Catanoso, Rosaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Spatari, Giovanna; Gangemi, Silvia; Abbate, Carmelo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the alterations in the trace levels of serum copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in forestry workers testing immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. The study was conducted on a sample of 758 subjects (560 male and 198 female). All the subjects underwent medical examinations, which investigated particularly the presence of clinical signs compatible with zoonoses, and routine blood tests from venous blood sample, which tested previous immunisation versus cited microorganisms and serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Mn. The subjects were divided according to IgG positivity versus the cited microorganisms. The group of subjects with IgG positive versus Brucella showed statistically significant higher Cu levels than controls, while the Mn levels were not; the group of subjects with IgG positive versus Rickettsia showed higher levels of all three tested metals. The concentration of the examined metals did not show statistically significant difference between IgG-positive subjects versus subjects with Borrelia compared to controls. These data could confirm the role of both Cu and Se  in the regulation of immune response.

  2. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces.We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced.Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms.For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  3. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae DNA in Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Northeastern European Russia (Komi Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Mikhail Yu; Glushkova, Ludmila I; Mikryukova, Tamara P; Korabelnikov, Igor V; Egorova, Yulia I; Tupota, Natalia L; Protopopova, Elena V; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2017-06-01

    The number of tick-borne infections in the northern European regions of Russia has increased considerably in the last years. In the present study, 676 unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected in the Komi Republic from 2011 to 2013 to study tick-borne rickettsioses. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by PCR in 51 (7.6%) ticks. The nucleotide sequence analysis of gltA fragments (765bp) from 51 ticks indicated that 60.8% and 39.2% of the ticks were infected with Rickettsia helvetica and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. The gltA fragments showed 100% identity with those of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae previously discovered in Siberia and China, whereas R. helvetica showed 99.9% sequence identity with European isolates. The ompB had 8 nucleotide substitutions, 6 of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. In the sca9 gene, 3 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one resulted in amino acid substitution. The smpA, ompW, and β-lactamase genes of R. helvetica also showed a high level of sequence identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Ficová, Martina; Prokop, Pavol; Betáková, Tatiana

    2011-02-01

    An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system--green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates.

  5. Evaluation of fever in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Sarah; Chavez, Summer A; Perkins, Jack; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Fever is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED) and is more complex than generally appreciated. The broad differential diagnosis of fever includes numerous infectious and non-infectious etiologies. An essential skill in emergency medicine is recognizing the pitfalls in fever evaluation. This review provides an overview of the complaint of fever in the ED to assist the emergency physician with a structured approach to evaluation. Fever can be due to infectious or non-infectious etiology and results from the body's natural response to a pyrogen. Adjunctive testing including C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and procalcitonin has been evaluated in the literature, but these tests do not have the needed sensitivity and specificity to definitively rule in a bacterial cause of fever. Blood cultures should be obtained in septic shock or if the results will change clinical management. Fever may not be always present in true infection, especially in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Oral temperatures suffer from poor sensitivity to diagnose fever, and core temperatures should be utilized if concern for fever is present. Consideration of non-infectious causes of elevated temperature is needed based on the clinical situation. Any fever evaluation must rigorously maintain a broad differential to avoid pitfalls that can have patient care consequences. Fever is complex and due to a variety of etiologies. An understanding of the pathophysiology, causes, and assessment is important for emergency physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-30

    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  8. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  9. Molecular Survey on Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Infesting Dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia

    2017-11-01

    Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.

  10. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a...

  11. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  12. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R

    1987-01-01

    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  13. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  14. Development of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi or Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chao

    Full Text Available Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi, the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37°C followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39°C. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus.

  15. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  17. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  18. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  20. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  2. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  3. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  4. Fever in the critically ill medical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupland, Kevin B

    2009-07-01

    Fever, commonly defined by a temperature of >or=38.3 degrees C (101 degrees F), occurs in approximately one half of patients admitted to intensive care units. Fever may be attributed to both infectious and noninfectious causes, and its development in critically ill adult medical patients is associated with an increased risk for death. Although it is widespread and clinically accepted practice to therapeutically lower temperature in patients with hyperthermic syndromes, patients with marked hyperpyrexia, and selected populations such as those with neurologic impairment, it is controversial whether most medical patients with moderate degrees of fever should be treated with antipyretic or direct cooling therapies. Although treatment of fever may improve patient comfort and reduce metabolic demand, fever is a normal adaptive response to infection and its suppression is potentially harmful. Clinical trials specifically comparing fever management strategies in neurologically intact critically ill medical patients are needed.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  6. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  7. [Rickettsiosis after tick bite: A subtle clinic picture on many occasions, we must be vigilant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterde-Álvarez, Maria Laura; Calbet-Ferré, Clara; Rius-Gordillo, Neus; Pujol-Bajador, Isabel; Ballester-Bastardie, Frederic; Escribano-Subías, Joaquín

    2017-02-01

    Rickettsia diseases are a group of tick-borne transmitted diseases, classified into 2 large groups: spotted fevers and typhus fevers. In addition, a new condition has been described recently, known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy. A retrospective series is presented of paediatric cases of rickettsia diseases diagnosed in 2013 and 2014. A total of 8 patients were included, of which 2 of them were diagnosed as Mediterranean spotted fever, and 6 as tick-borne lymphadenopathy. Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Rickettsia massiliae were identified in 3 of them. Aetiology, clinical features and treatment carried out in each of them are described. The interest of these cases is that, although most have a benign course, the high diagnostic suspicion and early treatment seem to be beneficial for its outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsial Infection in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    tn~::.ifo n ’ Davis, California; Instituto Veterinario de Investtgacrones Troptcales y de Altura , lquttos, P~ru, US. Naval Me~ Silver...dominiqueeeza@yahoo.co.uk. Hugo Galvez, Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura , lquitos, Peru, E-mail: ivitaiq@terra.com.pe

  9. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  10. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  11. Dengue fever and international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Irani; Leder, Karin; Black, Jim; Torresi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a leading public health problem with an expanding global burden. Dengue virus is also a significant cause of illness in international travelers with an increasing number of cases of dengue fever identified in travelers returning from dengue-endemic countries. This review focuses on the clinical illness of dengue infection in international travelers and provides a summary of the risk of infection for travelers, clinical features of infection, and an overview of dengue vaccines and their potential applicability to travelers. Four prospective studies of travelers to dengue-endemic destinations have shown that the dengue infection incidence ranges from 10.2 to 30 per 1,000 person-months. This varies according to travel destination and duration and season of travel. Dengue is also a common cause of fever in returned travelers, accounting for up to 16% of all febrile illnesses in returned travelers. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, a small proportion of travelers develop dengue hemorrhagic fever. The diagnosis of dengue in travelers requires a combination of serological testing for IgG and IgM together with either nucleic acid or NS1 antigen testing. Several vaccine candidates have now entered into clinical trials including ChimeriVax Dengue, which is currently in phase 3 trials, live-attenuated chimeric vaccines (DENV-DENV Chimera, Inviragen), live-attenuated viral vaccines, recombinant protein subunit vaccines, and DNA vaccines. Dengue infection in international travelers is not infrequent and may be associated with substantial morbidity. Furthermore, an accurate diagnosis of dengue in travelers requires the use of a combination of diagnostic tests. Although a vaccine is not yet available a number of promising candidates are under clinical evaluation. For now travelers should be provided with accurate advice regarding preventive measures when visiting dengue-endemic areas. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Putu Sutirta-Yasa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue has gradually increased during the past decade. Today, dengue is considered one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseasases in humans in term of morbidity and mortality. Dengue infection   a potential life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF / dengue shock syndrome(DSS, characterized by thrombocytopenia and increased vascular permiability. Thrombocytopenia causes bleeding, but in   DHF patients with thrombocytopenia do not always develop bleeding manifestation. The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia are not cleared. Multiple factors  may be involved in the machanisms leading to thrombocytopenia in DHF/DSS patients.

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. caregivers' knowledge and home management of fever in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    . Public Health Education should be implemented in order to enlighten caregivers on fever and advocate for the use of a clinical thermometer to monitor fever at home. INTRODUCTION. Fever is controlled increase in body ...

  15. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  16. Geographical Assessment of Rickettsioses in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Susana; Williams, Maya; Winoto, Imelda; Farzeli, Arik; Stoops, Craig A; Barbara, Kathryn A; Richards, Allen L; Blair, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    To expand the documentation of rickettsioses in Indonesia, we conducted an ectoparasite and small mammal investigation involving four major islands: Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Coastal and highland regions on each island surveyed were chosen to represent different ecologies in Indonesia. Indication of the presence of Rickettsia spp. was evident in all areas sampled. Typhus group rickettsiae-specific antibodies had significantly higher prevalence among small mammals captured in Java compared to the other islands surveyed (78% in coastal and 50% in highland regions) and the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae-specific antibodies was significantly higher in Kalimantan than the other islands investigated. Hosts and vectors were restricted by Rickettsia spp. but not by coastal or highland regions. Our findings expand the range in which rickettsial pathogens have been documented within the Indonesian archipelago and point to a significant risk to human health.

  17. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  18. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your children to do the same, especially before eating, after using the toilet, after spending time in a crowd or around someone who's sick, after petting animals, and during travel on public transportation. Show your ...

  19. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance problems in typhoid fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, R. H.; Purba, G. C. F.

    2018-03-01

    Typhoid fever (enteric fever) remains a burden in developing countries and a major health problem in Southern and Southeastern Asia. Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe and solely a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. Infection of S. typhi can cause fever, abdominal pain and many worsenonspecific symptoms, including gastrointestinal symptoms suchas nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin,and cotrimoxazole were the first-recommended antibiotics in treating typhoid fever. In the last two decades though, these three traditional drugs started to show resistance and developed multidrug resistance (MDR) S. typhi strains. In many parts of the world, the changing modes ofpresentation and the development of MDR have made typhoid fever increasingly difficult to treat.The use of first-line antimicrobials had been recommended to be fluoroquinolone as a replacement. However, this wassoonfollowedbyreportsof isolates ofS. typhi showing resistancetofluoroquinolones as well. These antimicrobial resistance problems in typhoid fever have been an alarming situation ever since and need to be taken seriously or else typhoid fever will no longer be taken care completely by administering antibiotics.

  2. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent ...

  3. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5%

  4. The immune response in Q fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as

  5. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever, but it is not contagious between animals and people. Valley fever in dogs is similar to valley ... Via Growth on Fomites. An Epidemic Involving Six Persons. Am Rev Respir Dis. ... aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 ...

  6. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  7. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  8. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  9. Typhoid Fever: Misdiagnosis or Overdiagnosis | Onyekwere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently there has been a public panic about an increase in cases of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever caused by salmonella typhi is common and constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa, South America and parts of Asia. Its clinical features are non-specific and available ...

  10. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  11. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus.

  12. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%-60% in terms of milk fever...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K......)-(Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle...

  13. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  14. DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are re-emerging diseases that are endemic in the Tropics. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in South-East Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Americas. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of Aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban population, and increasing air travel. Several Southeast Asian countries show that the age of the reported dengue cases has increased from 5-9 years, to older children and young adults. Dengue infection in adolescents and adults has also been recognized as a potential hazard to international travelers returning from endemic areas, especially SoutheastAsia. Dengue is one disease entity with different clinical presentations; often with unpredictable clinical evolutions and outcomes. Bleeding manifestations in adult patients, including petechiae and menorrhagia were also frequently found; however, massive hematemesis may occur in adult patients because of peptic ulcer disease and may not be associated with profound shock as previously reported in children. Although shock and plasma leakage seem to be more prevalent as age decreases, the frequency of internal hemorrhage rises as age increases. Increase in liver enzymes found in both children and adults indicated liver involvement during dengue infections. Pre-existing liver diseases in adults such as chronic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hemoglobinopathies may aggravate the liver impairment in dengue infection. Fulminant hepatitis is a rare but well described problem in adult patients with dengue infection. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent exists for dengue. The early recognition of dengue infection, bleeding tendency, and signs of circulatory collapse would reduce mortality rates in adult patients with dengue infection.

  15. Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kampschreur, Linda M.; Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identifi...

  16. Two Pathogens and One Disease: Detection and Identification of Flea-Borne Rickettsiae in Areas Endemic for Murine Typhus in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EREMEEVA, MARINA E.; KARPATHY, SANDOR E.; KRUEGER, LAURA; HAYES, ERICA K.; WILLIAMS, ASHLEY M.; ZALDIVAR, YAMITZEL; BENNETT, STEPHEN; CUMMINGS, ROBERT; TILZER, ART; VELTEN, ROBERT K.; KERR, NELSON; DASCH, GREGORY A.; HU, RENJIE

    2018-01-01

    Results of an environmental assessment conducted in a newly emergent focus of murine typhus in southern California are described. Opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, infested with cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Buché, in the suburban area were abundant. Animal and flea specimens were tested for the DNA of two flea-borne rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. R. felis was commonly detected in fleas collected throughout this area while R. typhi was found at a much lower prevalence in the vicinity of just 7 of 14 case-patient homes identified. DNA of R. felis, but not R. typhi, was detected in renal, hepatic, and pulmonary tissues of opossums. In contrast, there were no hematologic polymerase chain reaction findings of R. felis or R. typhi in opossums, rats, and cats within the endemic area studied. Our data suggest a significant probability of human exposure to R. felis in the area studied; however, disease caused by this agent is not recognized by the medical community and may be misdiagnosed as murine typhus using nondiscriminatory serologic methods. PMID:23270180

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the gltA and tlc genes in Rickettsia prowazekii growing in a respiration-deficient host cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J.; Winkler, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The regulation of the citrate synthase (gltA) and ATP/ADP translocase (tlc) genes of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia prowazekii, was analyzed in rickettsia-infected respiration-deficient G14 cells. The level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA was much lower in the total RNA isolated from the infected G 14 cells grown in 1 g/1 glucose (low glucose, GL) medium than in that from infected G 14 cells grown in 4.5 g/l glucose (high glucose, GH) medium. However, the level of the gltA mRNAI relative to 16 S rRNA was the same in GL and GH media. An increase in the level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA could be observed as early as 2 hrs after shifting from GL to GH medium. We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, the tlc promoter and the gltA promoter P2, but not gltA promoter P1, were transcriptionally regulated. Key words: Rickettsia prowazekii; gltA gene; tlC gene; transcriptional regulation; G 14 cells (authors)

  18. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  19. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  20. [Ebola fever: an emerging disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Z

    2001-04-01

    One of the most fatal diseases encountered by mankind so far is Ebola fever. Ebola fever is caused by a highly pathogenic virus from the Filoviridae family which is found in nature in four different sub-types which differ among others also by their pathogenicity for man. The hitherto detected EBO sub-types are stable do not change in the course of an epidemic nor in the course of the patient's illness, nor during passage of the virus from one subject to another. The author presents a historical review of epidemics, nosocomial and laboratory infections, spread and epizoonosis caused by the Ebola virus. The author presents a detailed clinical picture describing the frequency and evolution of different clinical symptoms and signs based on the observation of 103 patients infected with the Ebola virus in Kikwit, Zaire (nowadays Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1995. In the laboratory diagnosis individual tests are mentioned assessing the presence of the virus, viral antigens and antibodies, incl. the most recent immunohistochemical test. The author mentions the problem of patient care and his therapy, incl. available antiviral drugs and passive immunotherapy. He also discusses the possibility and probability of spread of the Ebola virus into our environment. He mentions principles for transport of subjects with suspected disease, demands for their strict isolation and maximum protection of the attending staff incl. barrier nursing technique. The author discusses also principles of epidemiological work, detection and isolation of sources, identification and follow up of contacts and epidemiological supervision of affected areas. Past epidemics made it possible to assemble many scientific findings and practical experience. These make it possible to cope nowadays with any attack of the Ebola virus not only in areas of its epizootic occurrence.

  1. Dengue fever outbreak: a clinical management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Illyas, M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever and compare the clinical and haematological characteristics of Dengue-probable and Dengue-proven cases. All patients with age above 14 years, who were either hospitalized or treated in medical outdoor clinic due to acute febrile illness, were evaluated for clinical features of Dengue Fever (DF), Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Patients showing typical clinical features and haematological findings suggestive of Dengue fever (As per WHO criteria) were evaluated in detail for comparison of probable and confirmed cases of Dengue fever. All other cases of acute febrile illness, not showing clinical features or haematological abnormalities of Dengue fever, were excluded. The clinical and laboratory features were recorded on SPSS 11.0 programme and graded where required, for descriptive and statistical analysis. Out of 5200 patients with febrile illness, 107 (2%) presented with typical features of DF, 40/107 (37%) were Dengue-proven while 67/107 (63%) were Dengue-probable. Out of Dengue-proven cases, 38 were of DF and 2 were of DHF. Day 1 temperature ranged from 99-105 degreeC (mean 101 degree C). Chills and rigors were noticed in 86 (80%), myalgia in 67%, headache in 54%, pharyngitis in 35%, rash in 28%, and bleeding manifestations in 2% cases. Hepatomegaly in 1(0.5%), lymphadenopathy in 1 (0.5%) and splenomegaly in 12 (11.2%) cases. Leucopoenia (count 40 U/L in 57% cases. Frequency of clinically suspected dengue virus infection was 107 (2%), while confirmed dengue fever cases were 40 (0.8%) out of 5200 fever cases. Fever with chills and rigors, body aches, headache, myalgia, rash, haemorrhagic manifestations, platelet count, total leukocyte count, and ALT, are parameters to screen the cases of suspected dengue virus infection, the diagnosis cannot be confirmed unless supported by molecular studies or dengue specific IgM. (author)

  2. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  3. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effa, Emmanuel E; Lassi, Zohra S; Critchley, Julia A; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-10-05

    Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics. To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating children and adults with enteric fever. We searched The Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (February 2011); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011); EMBASE (1974 to February 2011); and LILACS (1982 to February 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) in February 2011. Randomized controlled trials examining fluoroquinolone antibiotics, in people with blood, stool or bone marrow culture-confirmed enteric fever. Two authors independently assessed the trial's methodological quality and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Comparative effectiveness has been interpreted in the context of; length of treatment, dose, year of study, known levels of antibiotic resistance, or proxy measures of resistance such as the failure rate in the comparator arm. Twenty-six studies, involving 3033 patients, are included in this review.Fluoroquinolones versus older antibiotics (chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin and ampicillin)In one study from Pakistan in 2003-04, high clinical failure rates were seen with both chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, although resistance was not confirmed microbiologically. A seven-day course of either ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin were found to be superior. Older studies of these comparisons failed to show a difference (six trials, 361 participants).In small studies conducted almost two decades ago, the fluoroquinolones were demonstrated to have fewer

  4. Rapid, simple and sensitive detection of Q fever by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the htpAB gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is the most widespread zoonosis, and domestic animals are the most common sources of transmission. It is not only difficult to distinguish from other febrile diseases because of the lack of specific clinical manifestations in humans, but it is also difficult to identify the disease in C. burnetii-carrying animals because of the lack of identifiable features. Conventional serodiagnosis requires sera from the acute and convalescent stages of infection, which are unavailable at early diagnosis. Nested PCR and real-time PCR require equipment. In this study, we developed a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP assay to identify C. burnetii rapidly and sensitively. METHODS: A universal LAMP primer set was designed to detect the repeated sequence IS1111a of the htpAB gene of C. burnetii using PrimerExplorer V4 software. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated using known quantities of recombined reference plasmids containing the targeted genes. The specificity of the developed LAMP assay was determined using 26 members of order Rickettsiae and 18 other common pathogens. The utility of the LAMP assay was further compared with real time PCR by the examination 24 blood samples including 6 confirmed and 18 probable Q fever cases, which diagnosed by IFA serological assessment and real time PCR. In addition, 126 animal samples from 4 provinces including 97 goats, 7 cattle, 18 horses, 3 marmots and 1 deer were compared by these two methods. RESULTS: The limits of detection of the LAMP assay for the htpAB gene were 1 copy per reaction. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and no cross-reaction was observed among the bacteria used in the study. The positive rate of unknown febrile patients was 33.3%(95%CI 30.2%-36.4% for the LAMP assay and 8.3%(95%CI 7.4%-9.2% for the real time PCR(P<0.05. Similarly, the total positive rate of animals was 7.9%(95%CI 7.1%-8.7% for the LAMP assay and 0.8%(95%CI 0.7%-0.9%for the real time

  5. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  7. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  8. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  9. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  10. Enterobacter agglomerans--associated cotton fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, R; Feeney, C; Chirurgi, V A

    1993-10-25

    Cotton fever is usually a benign febrile, leukocytic syndrome of unknown etiology seen in intravenous narcotic abusers. Cotton and cotton plants are heavily colonized with Enterobacter agglomerans. We report a case of cotton fever associated with E agglomerans in which the organism was first isolated from the patient's blood and secondarily from cotton that he had used to filter heroin. Enterobacter agglomerans is with most probability the causal agent of cotton fever. Patients presenting with the classic history should have blood cultures performed and should be started on a regimen of empiric antibiotic therapy.

  11. Appendicular perforation in dengue fever: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Desai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections have become one of major emerging infectious diseases in the tropics. Acute abdomen occurring in dengue viral infection is not uncommon. The spectrums of acute surgical emergencies which raise suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe in patients presenting with dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, non-specific peritonitis and very rarely acute appendicitis. The presence of low white cell count and platelet count can raise suspicion of a diagnosis of dengue in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, during a dengue epidemic. We herein report three patients with dengue fever who had appendicular perforation during the course of their viral fever.

  12. Epidural Labor Analgesia and Maternal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emily E; Arendt, Katherine W

    2017-06-01

    Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. With these consequences, understanding and preventing maternal fever is imperative.

  13. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  14. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  15. Detecção de proteínas imunorreativas de Rickettsia sp. cepa Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma doença infecciosa, transmitida por carrapatos ao homem. Uma nova riquetsiose humana foi descrita como causadora de Febre Maculosa no Estado de São Paulo, sendo denominada de Rickettsia sp. cepa Mata Atlântica. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar e identificar proteínas com potencial de estimular o sistema imune de hospedeiro mamífero, desta nova cepa descrita. Para tanto, foi realizado a extração proteica total de Rickettsia sp. cepa Mata Atlântica. As proteínas extraídas foram fracionadas por eletroforese. As bandas proteicas foram transferidas para membranas de nitrocelulose por migração elétrica e submetidas à técnica de Western-blot, para detecção proteica. Ao todo sete proteínas imunorreativas foram detectadas. Duas proteínas apresentaram maior abundancia, com peso molecular, de 200 e 130 kDa respectivamente. Através da comparação de mapas proteômicos existentes e pelo peso molecular que estas proteínas apresentaram, sugere-se que as duas proteínas detectadas representem rOmpA (200 kDa e rOmpB (130 kDa. As demais proteínas detectadas apresentaram menor ocorrência e peso molecular inferior a 78 kDa, podendo representar membros da família de antígenos de superfície celular (Sca - Surface cell antigen. As proteínas detectadas poderão servir como base de estudo na elaboração de métodos diagnósticos sensíveis e específicos, no desenvolvimento de vacinas, além de possibilitarem novos estudos para terapias mais eficazes.

  16. Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identified, of which 151 (53.7%) had proven, 64 (22.5%) probable, and 69 (24.3%) possible chronic Q fever. Among proven and probable chronic Q fever patients, vascular infection focus (56.7%) was more prevalent than endocarditis (34.9%). An acute Q fever episode was recalled by 27.0% of the patients. The all-cause mortality rate was 19.1%, while the chronic Q fever-related mortality rate was 13.0%, with mortality rates of 9.3% among endocarditis patients and 18% among patients with a vascular focus of infection. Increasing age (P = 0.004 and 0.010), proven chronic Q fever (P = 0.020 and 0.002), vascular chronic Q fever (P = 0.024 and 0.005), acute presentation with chronic Q fever (P = 0.002 and P fever (P = 0.025 and P fever-related mortality, respectively. PMID:24599987

  17. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can cause: • fever and flu-like symptoms • jaundice (yellow skin or ... vaccine? fromyellow A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a ... problems Yellow fever vaccine has been associated with fever, and with ...

  18. Clinical Features Of Malaria And Typhoid Fever | Mba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Features to distinguish Malaria from Typhoid fever. These can be discerned from a good and detailed clinical history, in addition to a thorough physical examination. The following would help. The paroxysms of malaria fever as against the step ladder pattern fever of typhoid fever. The prominence of headaches in typhoid ...

  19. Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, G; De Clercq, E

    1993-09-01

    Viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in man belong to the following virus groups: togavirus (Chikungunya), flavivirus (dengue, yellow fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever), arenavirus (Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever), filovirus (Ebola, Marburg), phlebovirus (Rift Valley fever), nairovirus (Crimian-Congo hemorrhagic fever) and hantavirus (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathic epidemia). Hemorrhagic fever virus infections can be approached by different therapeutic strategies: (i) vaccination; (ii) administration of high-titered antibodies; and (iii) treatment with antiviral drugs. Depending on the molecular target of their interaction, antiviral agents could be classified as follows: IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors (i.e., ribavirin and its derivatives); OMP decarboxylase inhibitors (i.e., pyrazofurin); CTP synthetase inhibitors (i.e., cyclopentylcytosine and cyclopentenylcytosine); SAH hydrolase inhibitors (i.e., neplanocin A); polyanionic substances (i.e., sulfated polymers); interferon and immunomodulators.

  20. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Buckle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain important causes of morbidity worldwide. Accurate disease burden estimates are needed to guide policy decisions and prevention and control strategies.

  1. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  2. Nutritional management in Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamon Chaiyasit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral infection causing a major health problem worldwide. In this short article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the nutritional management (energy, protein, fat and micronutrient in management of Ebola infection.

  3. Biological control of cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive livestock pests that are endemic to Mexico and invasive along the Texas – Mexico border. Acaricide resistance, alternate wildlife hosts, and pathogenic landscape forming weeds present challenges for sustainable...

  4. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2014-05-01

    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare.

  5. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Khetarpal, Niyati; Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and...

  6. Acute pancreatitis complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalenahalli Jagadish; Chandrashekar, Anitha; Basavaraja, Chetak Kadabasal; Kumar, Halasahalli Chowdegowda Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection can have spectrum of manifestations, often with an unpredictable clinical progression and outcome. There have been increasing reports of atypical manifestations. Abdominal pain or tenderness and persistent vomiting (warning signs) are present in the majority of cases with severe dengue prior to clinical deterioration. We report a 10-year-old child who presented with fever, persistent vomiting, and abdominal pain. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. This is a very infrequently reported complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  7. Malignant causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foggo, Vanessa; Cavenagh, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    The presence of fever in malignancy usually indicates infection, though transfusion, thrombosis and drugs are also culprits. However, particularly in some tumour types, fever can also be a paraneoplastic syndrome, caused by the malignancy itself. This can be a difficult diagnosis to establish and presents a therapeutic challenge to the physician when the underlying malignancy is not easily treated. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  8. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  9. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  10. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  11. Global Spread of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Predicting Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Souris, Marc; Valdivia-Granda, Willy

    2018-01-01

    As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers. Other pathogens that are remarkable for their epidemic expansions include the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus diseases carried by rodents over great geographic distances and the arthropod-borne viruses (West Nile, chikungunya and Zika) enabled by ecology and vector adaptations. Did we learn from the past epidemics? Are we prepared for the worst?The ultimate goal is to develop a resilient global health infrastructure. Besides acquiring treatments, vaccines, and other preventive medicine, bio-surveillance is critical to preventing disease emergence and to counteracting its spread. So far, only the western hemisphere has a large and established monitoring system; however, diseases continue to emerge sporadically, in particular in Southeast Asia and South America, illuminating the imperfections of our surveillance. Epidemics destabilize fragile governments, ravage the most vulnerable populations, and threaten the global community.Pandemic risk calculations employ new technologies like computerized maintenance of geographical and historical datasets, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Next Generation sequencing, and Metagenomics to trace the

  12. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  13. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  14. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  15. [Present status of an arbovirus infection: yellow fever, its natural history of hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digoutte, J P

    1999-12-01

    In the early 20th century, when it was discovered that the yellow fever virus was transmitted in its urban cycle by Aedes aegypti, measures of control were introduced leading to its disappearance. Progressive neglect of the disease, however, led to a new outbreak in 1927 during which the etiological agent was isolated; some years later a vaccine was discovered and yellow fever disappeared again. In the 1960s, rare cases of encephalitis were observed in young children after vaccination and the administration of the vaccine was forbidden for children under 10 years. Five years later, a new outbreak of yellow fever in Diourbel, Senegal, was linked to the presence of Aedes aegypti. In the late 1970s, the idea of a selvatic cycle for yellow fever arose. Thanks to new investigative techniques in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire, the yellow fever virus was isolated from the reservoir of virus and vectors. The isolated virus was identified in monkeys and several vectors: Aedes furcifer, Aedes taylori, Aedes luteocephalus. Most importantly, the virus was isolated in male mosquitoes. Until recently, the only known cycle had been that of Haddow in East Africa. The virus circulate in the canopea between monkeys and Aedes africanus. These monkeys infect Aedes bromeliae when they come to eat in banana plantations. This cycle does not occur in West Africa. Vertical transmission is the main method of maintenance of the virus through the dry season. "Reservoirs of virus" are often mentioned in medical literature, monkeys having a short viremia whereas mosquitoes remain infected throughout their life cycle. In such a selvatic cycle, circulation can reach very high levels and no child would be able to escape an infecting bite and yet no clinical cases of yellow fever have been reported. The virulence--as it affects man--of the yellow fever virus in its wild cycle is very low. In areas where the virus can circulate in epidemic form, two types of circulation can be distinguished

  16. Pink Spot - Literature Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petel, Roy; Fuks, Anna

    Pink spots in teeth were first described by Mummery in 1920, and were related to resorption. Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. Resorption can be generally classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes a pink spot that was diagnosed as a progressing resorption process. Early diagnosis enabled a successful management of the lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment of an internal resorption, clinically seen as a pink spot, in a primary central incisor may prevent its fast progress and subsequent loss.

  17. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  18. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  19. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  20. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  1. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  2. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  3. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pury, T.; Tsen, M.L.S.; Gray, F.L.; Stehr, R.E.; Konle, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  4. Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.; Delsing, C.E.; Groenwold, R.H.; Wegdam-Blans, M.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Jager-Leclercq, M.G. De; Hoepelman, A.I.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Buijs, J.; Renders, N.H.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Wever, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and

  5. Context dependency and generality of fever in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z. R.; Adamo, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Fever can reduce mortality in infected animals. Yet, despite its fitness-enhancing qualities, fever often varies among animals. We used several approaches to examine this variation in insects. Texas field crickets ( Gryllus texensis) exhibited a modest fever (1 °C increase in preferred body temperature, T pref) after injection of prostaglandin, which putatively mediates fever in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but they did not exhibit fever during chronic exposure to heat-killed bacteria. Further, chronic food limitation and mating status did not affect T pref or the expression of behavioural fever, suggesting limited context dependency of fever in G. texensis. Our meta-analysis of behavioural fever studies indicated that behavioural fever occurs in many insects, but it is not ubiquitous. Thus, both empirical and meta-analytical results suggest that the fever response in insects `is widespread, although certainly not inevitable' (Moore 2002). We highlight the need for future work focusing on standardizing an experimental protocol to measure behavioural fever, understanding the specific mechanism(s) underlying fever in insects, and examining whether ecological or physiological costs often outweigh the benefits of fever and can explain the sporadic nature of fever in insects.

  6. QUAD fever: beware of non-infectious fever in high spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jyoti; Jha, Rakesh; Bhatia, Paramjeet; Mani, Raj Kumar

    2017-06-18

    A case of cervical spinal cord injury and quadriparesis with prolonged fever is being described. Initially, the patient received treatment for well-documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. High spiking fever returned and persisted with no obvious evidence of infection. The usual non-infectious causes too were carefully excluded. QUAD fever or fever due to spinal cord injury itself was considered. The pathogenetic basis of QUAD fever is unclear but could be attributed to autonomic dysfunction and temperature dysregulation. Awareness of this little known condition could help in avoiding unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and in more accurate prognostication. Unlike several previous reported cases that ended fatally, the present case ran a relatively benign course. The spectrum of presentations may therefore be broader than hitherto appreciated. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Thermal Wave Imaging: Flying SPOT Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqian

    1993-01-01

    A novel "Flying Spot" infrared camera for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive characterization is presented. The camera scans the focal point of an unmodulated heating laser beam across the sample in a raster. The detector of the camera tracks the heating spot in the same raster, but with a time delay. The detector is thus looking at the "thermal wake" of the heating spot. The time delay between heating and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this time delay can be made arbitrarily small, the camera is capable of making thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. In addition, because the heat source is a very small spot, the heat flow is fully three-dimensional. This makes the camera system sensitive to features, like tightly closed vertical cracks, which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field heating. A detailed theory which relates the temperature profile around the heating spot to the sample thermal properties is also described. The camera represents a potentially useful tool for measuring thermal diffusivities of materials by means of fitting the recorded temperature profiles to the theoretical curves with the diffusivity as a fitting parameter.

  8. Early fever after trauma: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Holly E; Rowell, Susan; Morris, Cynthia; Lin, Amber L; Schreiber, Martin A

    2018-01-01

    Fever is strongly associated with poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that early fever is a direct result of brain injury and thus would be more common in TBI than in patients without brain injury and associated with inflammation. We prospectively enrolled patients with major trauma with and without TBI from a busy Level I trauma center intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were assigned to one of four groups based on their presenting Head Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale scores: multiple injuries: head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2, one other region greater than 2; isolated head: head AIS score greater than 2, all other regions less than 3; isolated body: one region greater than 2, excluding head/face; minor injury: no region with AIS greater than 2. Early fever was defined as at least one recorded temperature greater than 38.3°C in the first 48 hours after admission. Outcome measures included neurologic deterioration, length of stay in the ICU, hospital mortality, discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, and plasma levels of seven key cytokines at admission and 24 hours (exploratory). Two hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled, including subjects with multiple injuries (n = 59), isolated head (n = 97), isolated body (n = 100), and minor trauma (n = 12). The incidence of fever was similar in all groups irrespective of injury (11-24%). In all groups, there was a significant association between the presence of early fever and death in the hospital (6-18% vs. 0-3%), as well as longer median ICU stays (3-7 days vs. 2-3 days). Fever was significantly associated with elevated IL-6 at admission (50.7 pg/dL vs. 16.9 pg/dL, p = 0.0067) and at 24 hours (83.1 pg/dL vs. 17.1 pg/dL, p = 0.0025) in the isolated head injury group. Contrary to our hypothesis, early fever was not more common in patients with brain injury, though fever was associated with longer ICU stays and death in all groups. Additionally, fever was

  9. Congo crimean hemorrhagic fever in balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, A.B.; Shaikh, M.; Khan, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To observe the pattern and mortality of Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Balochistan. Two hundred and twenty-six febrile patients with bleeding of sudden onset, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, vomiting, red eyes, flushed face, red throat and petechiae on the palate of both sexes were screened for CCHF over a period of 10 years. Clinical criteria for initial diagnosis directed the subsequent diagnostic work-up. The ages of these patients ranged from 7 years to 74 years. Sixty-three percent of these patients were positive for CCHF. Males were 68% of the total patients. Over the years, CCHF showed a gradual increase ranging from 43% to 80%. Total mortality was 15%, all being secondary cases. Death was not observed in primary CCHF cases. In this study, suspicion of viral hemorrhagic fever was raised in 62% cases at the time of admission and the patients were immediately isolated, noninvasive procedures were instigated and barrier nursing was implemented. None of the family and hospital staff members who had close contact with the patient became ill, while those who were not suspected initially (38%) infected the health care workers and the family members. Although CCHF is rare, this study stresses the need for proper health facilities in Pakistan and to include VHF (viral hemorrhagic fevers) in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever with hemorrhagic tendencies of sudden onset. (author)

  10. Comparison of real-time quantitative PCR and culture for the diagnosis of emerging Rickettsioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolation of Rickettsia species from skin biopsies may be replaced by PCR. We evaluated culture sensitivity compared to PCR based on sampling delay and previous antibiotic treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin biopsies and ticks from patients with suspected Rickettsia infection were screened for Rickettsia spp. using qPCR, and positive results were amplified and sequenced for the gltA and ompA genes. Immunofluorescence for spotted fever group rickettsial antigens was done for 79 patients. All skin biopsies and only ticks that tested positive using qPCR were cultured in human embryonic lung (HEL fibroblasts using the centrifugation-shell vial technique. Patients and ticks were classified as definitely having rickettsioses if there was direct evidence of infection with a Rickettsia sp. using culture or molecular assays or in patients if serology was positive. Data on previous antibiotic treatments were obtained for patients with rickettsiosis. Rickettsia spp. infection was diagnosed in 47 out of 145 patients (32%, 41 by PCR and 12 by culture, whereas 3 isolates were obtained from PCR negative biopsies. For 3 of the patients serology was positive although PCR and culture were negative. Rickettsia africae was the most common detected species (n = 25, [17.2%] and isolated bacterium (n = 5, [3.4%]. The probability of isolating Rickettsia spp. was 12 times higher in untreated patients and 5.4 times higher in patients from our hometown. Rickettsia spp. was amplified in 24 out of 95 ticks (25% and we isolated 7 R. slovaca and 1 R. raoultii from Dermacentor marginatus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found a positive correlation between the bacteria copies and the isolation success in skin biopsies and ticks. Culture remains critical for strain analysis but is less sensitive than serology and PCR for the diagnosis of a Rickettsia infection.

  11. Effect of Rickettsia felis Strain Variation on Infection, Transmission, and Fitness in the Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sean P; Brown, Lisa D; Hagstrom, Melena R; Foil, Lane D; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    Rickettsia felis is a human pathogen transmitted by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (str. LSU), as well as an obligate symbiont of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) (str. LSU-Lb). The influence of genetic variability in these two strains of R. felis on host specialization and fitness and possible resulting differences on infection and transmission kinetics in C. felis is unknown. Utilizing an artificial host system, cat fleas were exposed to a R. felis str. LSU-Lb-infected bloodmeal and monitored for infection at 7-d intervals for 28 d. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine rickettsial load and infection density in newly exposed cat fleas, and transmission frequency between cat fleas. The effect of persistent R. felis infection on cat flea F1 progeny was also assessed. At 7 d postexposure 76.7% of the cat fleas successfully acquired R. felis str. LSU-Lb. In R. felis str. LSU-Lb-exposed cat fleas, the mean infection load (6.15 × 106), infection density (0.76), and infection prevalence (91/114) were significantly greater than R. felis str. LSU infection load (3.09 × 106), infection density (0.68), and infection prevalence (76/113). A persistent R. felis str. LSU-Lb infection was detected for 28 d in adult cat fleas but neither female:male ratio distortion nor vertical transmission was observed in F1 progeny. While infection kinetics differed, with higher intensity associated with R. felis str. LSU-Lb, no distinct phenotype was observed in the F1 progeny. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrakar Sushil B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

  13. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was undertaken from January to March 2015. Diseases status was determined by application of molecular plat-form, polymerase chain reaction (PCR with designation of specific primer for MHD (254F/R, 254F: 5’-CGA-GGA-CCA-GAG-ATG-GAC-CTT-3’ and 254R: 5’-GCT-CAT-TGT-CAC-CGC-CAT-TGT-3’ with PCR size product of 254 bp. and for cloned the pathogen was used TA-cloning Invitrogen for the DNA plasmid as positive control for other analysis. Several tissue samples i.e hepatopancreas, haemolymph, part of muscle hepatopancreas P. homarus and P. ornatus were taken from cage culture farms at Gerupuk Bay then preserved on 90% ethanol for further analysis by PCR and then the amplificated DNA were cloned into pCR®2.1 plasmid and transformed into competent E. coli. The result showed that almost all lobster samples from Gerupuk Bay were positive infected by MHD, as the results of PCR amplification whereas the band appeared at 254bp. Also MHD plasmid has been successfully cloned and will be used for further examination. Histopathologically in hepatopancreas infection have seen necrosis that contain numerous of rickettsia-like bacteria.

  14. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, R

    1989-11-01

    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  15. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  16. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  17. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  18. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-13

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.

  19. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  20. Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewska-Jakubik, Ewa; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. In 2014, annual, incidence rate of scarlet fever in Poland was about 9% lower in comparison to previous year. There were 22 855 cases all over the country and the incidence was 59.5 per 100,000 population; depending on the voivodeship ranged from 19.5 in podkarpackie to 93.2 in pomorskie. The highest incidence was noted among 4-year-old children (981.4) and 5-year-old children (971.0). However the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.7% of all cases. The incidence among men (67.2) was higher by 28.5% than incidence among women (52.3). Incidence rate in urban areas, in any size town, was higher than in rural areas. Overall incidence in urban areas was 66.4; in rural areas - 49.0. 1,11% of patients were hospitalized. There were no reported deaths related to scarlet fever. In the surveillance of scarlet fever it is necessary to ensure that the collected data will be valid and reliable. Very low specificity of this surveillance may not only impinge on the assessment of epidemiological situation of this disease in Poland but also overshadow the situation of other diseases, including diseases under elimination program (rubella, measles). This is one of the greatest challenges facing sanitary inspection in the coming years.

  1. Could peak proteinuria determine whether patient with dengue fever develop dengue hemorrhagic/dengue shock syndrome? - A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Sufi M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is a need to develop simple effective predictors that can distinguish whether a patient will progress from dengue fever (DF to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic (DHF or dengue shock syndrome (DSS. We explored whether proteinuria could be used as such a marker. Methods We included patients admitted to hospital with suspected dengue fever. Starting at enrollment until discharge, each patient's daily spot urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR was measured. We classified those with confirmed dengue infection as DF or DHF (including DSS based on WHO criteria. Peak and day of onset of proteinuria was compared between both groups. Results Compared to those with DF, patients with DHF had significantly higher median peak proteinuria levels (0.56 versus 0.08 g/day; p Conclusions Peak UPCR could potentially predict DHF in patients with dengue requiring close monitoring and treatment.

  2. Familial Mediterranean fever: An updated review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, İsmail; Birlik, Merih; Kasifoğlu, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder characterised by acute attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF primarily affects Jewish, Armenian, Turkish, and Arab populations. The disease is accompanied by a marked decrease in quality of life due to the effects of attacks and subclinical inflammation in the attack-free periods. Untreated or inadequately treated patients run the risk of amyloidosis, which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, the current information available on FMF is summarised. PMID:27708867

  3. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Araimi, Hanaa; Al-Jabri, Amal; Mehmoud, Arshad; Al-Abri, Seif

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 38 year-old Sri Lankan female who was referred to the surgeon on call with a picture of acute abdomen. She presented with a three-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoea; however, the physical examination was not consistent with acute abdomen. Her platelet count was 22 ×109/L. A diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was made and dengue serology was positive. Dengue epidemics have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms an...

  4. Fever and lymphadenitis in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouly, C; Cecere, N; Wilmes, D; Demoulin, N; Morelle, J

    2014-06-01

    Bartonella henselae infections are among the most common causes of fever and lymphadenopathies, but can lead to severe complications in immunocompromised hosts; early recognition of these infections is of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients. Here we report the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, lymphadenopathies, and a splenic abscess secondary to Bartonella henselae infection, successfully treated with doxycycline. We discuss the various clinical presentations of Bartonella henselae infections in immunocompromised patients and the available diagnostic tools for this potentially severe complication.

  5. Chikungunya fever: current status in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Nava-Frías

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever is a tropical vector-borne disease that has been spreading rapidly around the world during the last 10 years, and which has been usually misdiagnosed as dengue. Nowadays, this disease is increasing in Mexico, mainly in the southern and central zones of the country, being significantly more common in women, children and young adults (28% in < 20 years of age. The classical presentation includes fever, arthralgia, polyarthritis, back-pain, and skin rashes. Although symptoms and treatment are similar to those for dengue, there are key clinical features to differentiate these two diseases.

  6. Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østergaard S

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K – (Cl + S significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20 (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d. The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the

  7. Transmission Dinamics Model Of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debora; Rendy; Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    Dengue fever is an endemic disease that is transmitted through the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector. The disease is present in more than 100 countries in America, Africa, and Asia, especially tropical countries. Differential equations can be used to represent the spread of dengue virus occurring in time intervals and model in the form of mathematical models. The mathematical model in this study tries to represent the spread of dengue fever based on the data obtained and the assumptions used. The mathematical model used is a mathematical model consisting of Susceptible (S), Infected (I), Viruses (V) subpopulations. The SIV mathematical model is then analyzed to see the solution behaviour of the system.

  8. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  9. [Q fever. Description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Irún, Á; González Santamaría, A R; Munguía Rozadilla, F; Herrero González, J L

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis of global distribution with an incidence of 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year. A variety of animals can be the coxiella reservoir which always must be taken into account when faced with a fever process in a compatible context. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve the prognosis, and prevent the development of chronic infection or other potential complications associated with the coxelliosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  11. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Góngora, Delzi Vinha Nunes de; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  12. Genome analysis of Rift Valley fever virus, Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Zeller, Hervé; Grandadam, Marc; Caro, Valérie; Pettinelli, François; Bouloy, Michèle; Cardinale, Eric; Albina, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    As further confirmation of a first human case of Rift Valley fever in 2007 in Comoros, we isolated Rift Valley fever virus in suspected human cases. These viruses are genetically closely linked to the 2006-2007 isolates from Kenya.

  13. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Dengue fever vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Dengue fever vaccines : 03/12/2018 To use the sharing features ... decision to curtail the availability of an approved vaccine for dengue fever is a setback against the ...

  14. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen Share Tweet ... re in the drug store, looking for a fever-reducing medicine for your children. They range in ...

  15. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ≈ 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  16. Evidencia serológica de la presencia de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Sihuincha M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de demostrar la existencia de transmisión de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, se tomaron muestras de sangre a pacientes febriles agudos en establecimientos de salud de la ciudad de Iquitos, la ciudad más poblada de la Amazonía del Perú. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta para medir anticuerpos totales e IgG específica para el grupo de fiebre de las manchadas. Entre enero y julio de 2006, se obtuvieron muestras de 250 pacientes. El 37% de las muestras tuvieron títulos positivos de IgG, demostrando así haber tenido contacto con el agente, de ellas, nueve fueron clasificadas como casos agudos, en los que se descartó otras infecciones endémicas como dengue, malaria y leptospirosis. Los casos presentaron una enfermedad febril acompañada de síntomas como tos, sarpullido y hemoptisis. Cuatro casos fueron hospitalizados, dos fueron graves y uno de ellos falleció. En conclusión, existe evidencia serológica de la circulación de Rickettsias del grupo de las fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, por su frecuencia y potencial gravedad debería ser tomada en cuenta como diagnóstico diferencial del síndrome febril agudo en esta región.

  17. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    2015 14. ABSTRACT Sandfly fever group viruses in the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) are widely distributed across the globe and are a cause ...Sandfly fever group viruses in the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) are widely distributed across the globe and are a cause of disease in... causes sporadic epidemics of Pappataci fevers in humans (Brett-Major and Claborn 1997). Rift Valley fever virus and Arumowot virus are transmitted by

  18. Spotting Stellar Activity Cycles in Gaia Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-03-01

    Astrometry from Gaia will measure the positions of stellar photometric centroids to unprecedented precision. We show that the precision of Gaia astrometry is sufficient to detect starspot-induced centroid jitter for nearby stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) sample with magnetic activity similar to the young G-star KIC 7174505 or the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, but is insufficient to measure centroid jitter for stars with Sun-like spot distributions. We simulate Gaia observations of stars with 10 year activity cycles to search for evidence of activity cycles, and find that Gaia astrometry alone likely can not detect activity cycles for stars in the TGAS sample, even if they have spot distributions like KIC 7174505. We review the activity of the nearby low-mass stars in the TGAS sample for which we anticipate significant detections of spot-induced jitter.

  19. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary inflammatory periodic disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, synovitis and pleurisy. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distri- bution of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutations and to investigate the ...

  20. Lassa fever: A case report | Chundusu | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Severe Lassa fever with high mortality among health care providers is usually a human to human infection that requires high index of suspicion to diagnose. This case report is to describe a peculiar case of Lassa fever among health worker. Result: A severe form of Lassa fever was diagnosed early in a healthcare ...