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Sample records for spotted centaurea maculosa

  1. Cellular protein receptors of maculosin, a host specific phytotoxin of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Strobel, G A

    1994-01-05

    Maculosin (the diketopiperazine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Tyr)) is a host specific phytotoxin produced by Alternaria alternata on spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa L.). Receptors for this phytotoxin have been isolated from spotted knapweed. Knapweed leaves possess most of the maculosin-binding activity in the cytosolic fraction. However, activity was also observed in the whole membrane fraction of the leaf. The binding component of the cytosolic fraction was identified as a protein(s) because of its heat-lability and sensitivity to proteases. A 16-fold purification of a toxin-binding protein was carried out by ammonium sulfate fractionation, and Sephadex G-200, and maculosin-affinity column chromatography. The affinity column was prepared with epoxy activated Sepharose 6B to which the phenolic group of maculosin was attached. The receptor was estimated to contain more than one binding protein by native and SDS-PAGE. At least one of the maculosin-binding proteins was identified as ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase).

  2. Structure-dependent phytotoxicity of catechins and other flavonoids: flavonoid conversions by cell-free protein extracts of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Walker, Travis S; Kennan, Alan J; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2003-02-12

    Invasive plants are believed to succeed in part by secretion of allelochemicals, thus displacing competing plant species. Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) provides a classic example of this process. We have previously reported that spotted knapweed roots secrete (+/-)-catechin and that (-)-catechin, but not (+)-catechin, is phytotoxic and hence may be a major contributor to C. maculosa's invasive behavior in the rhizosphere. In this communication, we explore both structure/activity relationships for flavonoid phytotoxicity and possible biosynthetic pathways for root production of (+/-)-catechin. Kaempferol and dihydroquercetin were shown to be phytotoxic, while quercetin was not. Kaempferol was converted to dihydroquercetin and (+/-)-catechin when treated with total root protein extracts from C. maculosa, but quercetin was not. This finding suggests an alteration in the standard flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in C. maculosa roots, whereby kaempferol is not a dead-end product but serves as a precursor to dihydroquercetin, which in turn leads to (+/-)-catechin production.

  3. Intraspecific and interspecific interactions mediated by a phytotoxin, (-)-catechin, secreted by the roots of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2003-11-01

    Centarea maculosa Lam. (spotted knapweed) is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in the western United States, particularly in pastures and rangelands. One of the components that may contribute to its invasiveness is the naturally produced, root-secreted allelochemical (-)-catechin. This compound has been shown to have broad-spectrum phytotoxic activity, possibly assisting C. maculosa in displacing native plant communities. As a recently characterized phytochemical, little is known about the specific effect of (-)-catechin on either C. maculosa or other plant species. We have found that, in vitro, C. maculosa begins to secrete phytotoxic levels of (-)-catechin within 2-3 weeks of seedling emergence. Furthermore, (-)-catechin concentrations consistent with those naturally secreted by C. maculosa were sufficient to inhibit germination in all species tested, including C. maculosa. These concentrations were also often either phytotoxic or growth inhibitory to seedlings in a range of plant species, while having no negative effects on the growth of C. maculosa seedlings. However, our results also indicate that different levels of resistance and susceptibility to (-)-catechin exist in plant populations, suggesting that the capability of C. maculosa to invade an area through allelochemistry may be dependent on the age and species composition of plants in that area.

  4. Concentrations of the Allelochemical (+/-)-catechin IN Centaurea maculosa soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Callaway, Ragan M; Paschke, Mark W; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-12-01

    The phytotoxin (+/-)-catechin has been proposed to mediate invasion and autoinhibition by the Eurasian plant Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). The importance of (+/-)-catechin to C. maculosa ecology depends in part on whether sufficient catechin concentrations occur at appropriate times and locations within C. maculosa soil to influence neighboring plants. Previous research on catechin in C. maculosa soils has yielded conflicting results, with some studies finding high soil catechin concentrations and other, more recent studies finding little or no catechin in field soils. Here, we report the most extensive study of soil catechin concentrations to date. We examined soil catechin concentrations in 402 samples from 11 C. maculosa sites in North America sampled in consecutive months over 1 yr, excluding winter months. One site was sampled on seven dates, another was sampled twice, and the remaining nine sites were each sampled once on a range of sampling dates. Methods used were similar to those with which we previously measured high soil catechin concentrations. We detected catechin only in the site that was sampled on seven dates and only on one sampling date in that site (May 16 2006), but in all samples collected on that date. The mean soil catechin concentration on that date was 0.65 +/- 0.45 (SD) mg g(-1), comparable to previously reported high concentrations. There are a number of possible explanations for the infrequency with which we detected soil catechin in this work compared to previous studies. Differences in results could reflect spatial and temporal variation in catechin exudation or degradation, as we examined different sites in a different year from most previous studies. Also, large quantities of catechin were detected in blanks for two sampling periods in the present study, leading us to discard those data. This contamination suggests that previous reports of high catechin concentrations that did not include blanks should be viewed with caution

  5. First Report of a Root and Crown Disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on Centaurea maculosa in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted knapweed (SKW) (Centaurea maculosa Lamarck) is a non-indigenous species that is invasive over large areas in the U.S., especially in the western U. S. and Canada. It has been estimated that infestations of SKW cause $42 million in direct and indirect economic losses annually and the weed cou...

  6. Soil fungal abundance and diversity: another victim of the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Manter, Daniel K; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-12-01

    Interactions between plants and soil microbes are important determinants of both above- and belowground community composition, and ultimately ecosystem function. As exotic plants continue to invade and modify native plant communities, there has been increasing interest in determining the influence of exotic invasives on native soil microbial communities. Here, using highly sensitive molecular techniques, we examine fungal abundance and diversity in the soil surrounding a particularly aggressive invasive plant species in North America, Centaurea maculosa Lam. In mixed stands, we show that this invasive weed can alter the native fungal community composition within its own rhizosphere and that of neighboring native plants. At higher densities, the effect of C. maculosa on native soil fungal communities was even greater. Our results demonstrate that this invasive weed can have significant effects not only on visible aboveground biodiversity but also on the native soil microbial community that extends beyond its rhizosphere.

  7. Simulated warming differentially affects the growth and competitive ability of Centaurea maculosa populations from home and introduced ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming He

    Full Text Available Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range and North America (introduced range under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors.

  8. Simulated warming differentially affects the growth and competitive ability of Centaurea maculosa populations from home and introduced ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors.

  9. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

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    Treier, Urs A; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Guisan, Antoine; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Polyploidy is often assumed to increase the spread and thus the success of alien plant species, but few empirical studies exist. We tested this hypothesis with Centaurea maculosa Lam., a species native to Europe and introduced into North America approximately 120 years ago where it became highly invasive. We analyzed the ploidy level of more than 2000 plants from 93 native and 48 invasive C. maculosa populations and found a pronounced shift in the relative frequency of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. In Europe diploid populations occur in higher frequencies than tetraploids and only four populations had both cytotypes, while in North America diploid plants were found in only one mixed population and thus tetraploids clearly dominated. Our results showed a pronounced shift in the climatic niche between tetraploid populations in the native and introduced range toward drier climate in North America and a similar albeit smaller shift between diploids and tetraploids in the native range. The field data indicate that diploids have a predominately monocarpic life cycle, while tetraploids are often polycarpic. Additionally, the polycarpic life-form seems to be more prevalent among tetraploids in the introduced range than among tetraploids in the native range. Our study suggests that both ploidy types of C. maculosa were introduced into North America, but tetraploids became the dominant cytotype with invasion. We suggest that the invasive success of C. maculosa is partly due to preadaptation of the tetraploid cytotype in Europe to drier climate and possibly further adaptation to these conditions in the introduced range. The potential for earlier and longer seed production associated with the polycarpic life cycle constitutes an additional factor that may have led to the dominance of tetraploids over diploids in the introduced range.

  10. Simulated Warming Differentially Affects the Growth and Competitive Ability of Centaurea maculosa Populations from Home and Introduced Ranges

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competi...

  11. Phytotoxic properties of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone fromcentaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, R G; Locken, L J

    1987-01-01

    Water and solvent extracts from the aerial tissues ofCentaurea maculosa, spotted knapweed, inhibited the root growth of lettuce. Column chromatography and lettuce bioassay of a chloroform extract led to the isolation of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone. Pure cnicin was bioassayed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/5 ml water with lettuce, created wheatgrass, bluebunch wheatgrass, rough fescue, western larch, lodgepole pine, and spotted knapweed. Germination was inhibited at one or more concentrations for all species except lodgepole pine and spotted knapweed. Growth, particularly of the roots, was retarded between 1 and 4 mg of cnicin. Lettuce, bluebunch wheatgrass, and spotted knapweed were inhibited significantly at all concentrations tested.

  12. Novel weapons and invasion: biogeographic differences in the competitive effects of Centaurea maculosa and its root exudate (+/-)-catechin.

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    He, Wei-Ming; Feng, Yulong; Ridenour, Wendy M; Thelen, Giles C; Pollock, Jarrod L; Diaconu, Alecu; Callaway, Ragan M

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the invasive success of Centaurea maculosa may be related to its stronger allelopathic effects on native North American species than on related European species, one component of the "novel weapons" hypothesis. Other research indicates that C. maculosa plants from the invasive range in North America have evolved to be larger and better competitors than conspecifics from the native range in Europe, a component of the "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, but this evidence sets the stage for comparing the relative importance of evolved competitive ability to inherent competitive traits. In a competition experiment with a large number of C. maculosa populations, we found no difference in the competitive effects of C. maculosa plants from North America and Europe on other species. However, both North American and European C. maculosa were much better competitors against plants native to North America than congeners native to Romania, collected in areas where C. maculosa is also native. These results are consistent with the novel weapons hypothesis. But, in a second experiment using just one population from North America and Europe, and where North American and European species were collected from a broader range of sites, competitive interactions were weaker overall, and the competitive effects of C. maculosa were slightly stronger against European species than against North American species. Also consistent with the novel weapons hypothesis, (+/-)-catechin had stronger effects on native North American species than on native European species in two experiments. Our results suggest that the regional composition of the plant communities being invaded by C. maculosa may be more important for invasive success than the evolution of increased size and competitive ability.

  13. Influence of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone ofCentaurea maculosa (Asteraceae), on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, I; Müller-Schärer, H; Ward, P I

    1994-04-01

    The sesquiterpene lactone cnicin was extracted fromCentaurea maculosa andCentaurea vallesiaca. We examined its effects on the ovipositional response and larval development of generalist and specialist insect herbivores associated withC. maculosa. For the oviposition trials, three plant species (C. maculosa, Achillea millefolium, andCichorium intybus), half of which were sprayed with 3% of cnicin, were exposed to the specialist mothsStenodes straminea, Agapeta zoegana, andPterolonche inspersa in field cages. All three species significantly preferredC. maculosa to other plants andP. inspersa significantly preferred cnicin-sprayed plants to untreated plants for oviposition. Tested over all species, cnicin significantly increased the number of eggs laid on a given plant. A larval diet test examined the toxicity of cnicin for larvae of the generalist noctuid mothSpodoptera littoralis. Cnicin concentrations of 3% and 6% were lethal and 1% and 0.5% seriously inhibited growth and development. The larvae of theC. maculosa specialistStenodes straminea survived at 6% cnicin, but none of the pupae hatched.Agapeta zoegana was able to survive at 1% and 3% cnicin. Both specialists had difficulties with the artificial diet, but weight increase and survival was not further reduced when cnicin was present compared with on the control diet. In conclusion, cnicin influenced host recognition by the specialist species, and larvae of the generalist did not survive on natural levels of cnicin. Growth and survival of the specialist were not influenced by cnicin but were considerably hampered on artificial diet.

  14. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  15. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. Results As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. Conclusion The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  16. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; He, Ji; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-05-24

    The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  17. Comparing susceptibility of eastern and western U.S. grasslands to competition and allelopathy from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek)

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    Centaurea maculosa is native to Eurasia and is invasive in the western portion of the US. Negative impacts of C. maculosa present in the eastern US have not been recorded. In this study, we examine the effects of C. maculosa on species diversity on an eastern grassy bald, compare the competitive a...

  18. Structural analysis of the phytophagous insect guilds associated with the roots of Centaurea maculosa Lam. C. diffusa Lam., and C. vallesiaca Jordan in Europe: : I. Field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    During extensive field surveys in central and eastern Europe, 21 herbivorous root insect species were found on Centaurea maculosa ssp. rhenana Boreau, 12 species on C. diffusa Lam. and 11 species on C. vallesiaca Jordan, representing 12 families in 4 orders. The large geographic distribution (species-area function), the high number of Centaurea spp. present (host speciation rate), and the high apparency of the rosettes and the rich food resources offered by the roots during winter, together with their poor accessibility, correlate with the high number of specialist feeders associated with the roots of C. maculosa and C. diffusa. The members of the taxonomically diverse root entomofauna exploit specific structures of the tap root (food niches). Interspecific competition among members of food niches, as well as species-specific responses to different phenological stages (for oviposition) and tissues (for larval development) are thought to be responsible for the high predictability in guild structure. The relatively low levels of host plant attack (two thirds of the roots were unattacked) and the fact that food niches remained unoccupied in most of the regions suggest, however, that the majority of the studied guilds do not represent equilibrium assemblages. Ecological (different habitats), climatic (transitional zone) and historical (ancient pre-Pleistocene communities) factors could account for the highest values of species diversity, infestation levels, species packing and food niche utilization, which are found on C. maculosa in E. Austria/NW. Hungary, compared to other regions. A positive correlation between species packing (number of root-feeding species per population) and infestation rates (percent of roots attacked) was only found for the more stable, semi-natural habitats. A comparative analysis of the regional root insect guilds of C. maculosa with corresponding data for the phytophagous insects associated with the flower heads revealed distinct taxonomical

  19. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

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    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  20. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

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    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  1. Occurrence and habitat preferences of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisková, V.; Koutecký, T.; Kolář, Filip; Koutecký, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 67-80 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flow cytometry * Centaurea stoebe * Centaurea maculosa * cytogeography * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  2. Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Althought knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monocultures. No large declines in plant diversity were caused by the herbicides, and small depressions were probably transitory. By the third year, diversity had increased.

  3. A febre maculosa no Brasil Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil

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    Fernando de Sá Del Fiol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o número de casos confirmados de febre maculosa esteja em declínio desde 2005, a taxa de mortalidade (20 a 30% ainda é muito alta quando comparada a outros países. Esse alto índice de mortalidade tem estreita relação com a dificuldade em fazer o diagnóstico e estabelecer a terapia apropriada. Apenas dois grupos de antibióticos têm comprovada eficácia clínica, o cloranfenicol e as tetraciclinas. Até pouco tempo atrás, as tetraciclinas eram reservadas aos pacientes adultos em virtude das alterações dentárias e ósseas em crianças. Recentemente, entretanto, a Academia Americana de Pediatria e diversos autores têm recomendado a utilização da doxiciclina também em crianças. Em casos mais severos, a falta de experiência com uma tetraciclina injetável no Brasil faz com que se opte pelo cloranfenicol injetável. Como o pronto diagnóstico e a escolha adequada do fármaco são fatores determinantes de um prognóstico positivo, todos os profissionais da saúde devem estar melhor preparados para reconhecer e tratar a febre maculosa.Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30% is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good

  4. An indirect dispersal pathway for spotted knapweed seeds via deer mice and great-horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega

    2001-01-01

    Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) seeds were found in the pellets of Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus). That apparently resulted from owls preying upon Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) which had incidentally consumed knapweed seeds while foraging for the larvae of biological control agents within...

  5. Deer mouse predation on the biological control agent, Urophora spp., introduced to control spotted knapweed

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    Dean Pearson

    1999-01-01

    Field observations made in 1993 suggested that rodents were preying on spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) seedheads, possibly targeting the gall fly larvae (Urophora spp.) which overwinter within them. I conducted a brief study to determine the cause of seedhead predation and quantify gall fly predation. Stomachs were examined...

  6. Comparison of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in Rocky Mountain savannas invaded and un-invaded by an exotic forb, spotted knapweed

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    Allison K. Hansen; Yvette K. Ortega; Diana L. Six

    2009-01-01

    We compared ground beetle (Carabidae) assemblages between spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) -invaded (invaded) and un-invaded (native) habitats in Rocky Mountain savannas. Carabids play important roles in biotic communities and are known as a good indictor group of environmental change. Carabid species activity-abundance and diversity were estimated, and...

  7. Morphology of the copulatory apparatus of the spotted tinamou Nothura maculosa (Aves: Tinamiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C A; Mahecha, G A

    2000-03-01

    The components of the copulatory apparatus of Nothura maculosa were identified and studied by means of dissections, parenteral latex injections and standard histological and histochemical techniques. N. maculosa possesses an intromittent phallus with a tubular cavity, within which a fixed base and a tubular portion can be distinguished. An ejaculatory groove, which is supported by a fibrous body, runs dorsally at the base of the phallus. The tubular portion of the phallus inserts into the fibrous body, the former possessing two continuous but morphologically distinct parts, one of which is eversible and is extruded during erection while the other is a fixed non-eversible glandular portion. The walls of both parts are formed by the mucosa, an intermediate layer of connective tissue containing a wide lymphatic space which surrounds the whole perimeter of the tube, and an external layer of dense connective tissue. The mucosa of the eversible portion, which lodges the phallic groove, is lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. In the fixed tubular portion, the tubular lumen is reduced in size, the phallic groove disappears, the mucosa becomes folded and there occurs an abrupt change to a pseudostratified columnar secretory epithelium. The copulatory apparatus of N. maculosa includes the vascular bodies of the phallus, which show morphofunctional continuity with the phallic structures, thus forming a single system involved in erection. On erection, the eversible portion of the phallus evaginates and emerges from the cloacal opening as a spiral shaped structure directed towards the left.

  8. Brazilian spotted fever in dogs/ Febre maculosa brasileira em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is caused by bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, highly pathogenic for humans and dogs, and has the Amblyomma cajennense tick as its main vector. Dogs maybe have a significantly participation on the BSF epidemiology, particularly in urban areas, due to the close contact with human beings. Several serologic studies in dogs from different Brazilian regions have indicated a previous contact of these animals with the R. rickettsii, and they are even considered as sentinels for the bacteria distribution. Although dogs are susceptible to R. rickettsii infection, the clinical disease in dogs has been very recently described in Brazil. Common signs of infection may include fever, depression, anorexia, ocular lesions, hemorrhagic petechiaes, anemia and thrombocytopenia, which also may appear in other diseases, such as the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, considered the most common disease in dogs transmitted by ticks in Brazil. Thus, BSF clinical diagnosis in dogs may be confused by other diseases, causing its sub-notification. The aim of the present review article on BSF in dogs was to describe epidemiologic, clinical and diagnosis aspects, including also the main alternatives for its treatment and control.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, cuja patogenicidade é conhecida para seres humanos e cães, e o carrapato Amblyomma cajennense é tido como seu principal vetor. Os cães podem ter um papel significativo na epidemiologia da FMB devido ao próximo contato com seres humanos. Vários estudos sorológicos em cães em diferentes estados brasileiros indicaram um contato prévio destes animais com a R. rickettsii, sendo inclusive considerados sentinelas para a circulação da bactéria. Apesar de serem susceptíveis à infecção por R. rickettsii, a doença clínica em cães foi relatada apenas recentemente no Brasil, onde observaram-se sinais comuns da infecção, como febre, anorexia

  9. Maculosin, a host-specific phytotoxin for spotted knapweed from Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierle, Andrea C.; Cardellina, John H.; Strobel, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Several diketopiperazines have been isolated from liquid cultures of Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of black leaf blight of spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Lam. One of these compounds, maculosin [the diketopiperazine cyclo(-L-Pro-L-Tyr-)], was active in the nicked-leaf bioassay at 10-5 M; synthetic maculosin possessed chemical and biological activities identical to those of the natural product. Other diketopiperazines isolated from the fungus possessed either less activity or none at all. In tests against 19 plant species, maculosin was phytotoxic only to spotted knapweed. Thus maculosin is a host-specific phytotoxin from a weed pathogen. PMID:16593989

  10. [Melanosis maculosa in a calf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, D; Winzap, B; Hässig, M

    2003-07-01

    This work describes findings in a fattened calf, which were seen in a routine slaughter. The most important findings by the meat inspector were diffuse, black spots between 2 and 70 mm in diameter. This hyperpigmentation was observed on the entire carcass as well as on the outside and inside of all internal organs. Removal of the spinal cord produced black colored liquor. Subsequent microbiological examination of the meat resulted in sterile findings. The muscle pH was 5.8. On histological examination many macrophages containing melanin were found in the lung and liver. Based on these findings the diagnosis of Melanosis maculosa was made.

  11. Brazilian spotted fever: description of a fatal clinical case in the State of Rio de Janeiro Febre maculosa brasileira: descrição de um caso fatal no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Brazilian spotted fever in a previously healthy young woman who died with petechial rash associated to acute renal and respiratory insufficiency 12 days following fever, headache, myalgia, and diarrhea. Serologic test in a serum sample, using an immunofluorescence assay, revealed reactive IgM/IgG.Descreve-se um caso de febre maculosa brasileira numa paciente adulta, previamente saudável, que evoluiu para o óbito apresentando um quadro de exantema petequial associado à insuficiência respiratória e renal após 12 dias de doença caracterizada por febre, cefaléia, mialgia e diarréia. Teste de imunofluorescência indireta realizado em amostra de sangue foi reativo para IgM e IgG anti-Rickettsia rickettsii.

  12. Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Julianne H; Schwartz, Robert A; Becker, Kenneth A; Lambert, W Clark

    2005-10-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a rare disease characterized by spontaneously formed facial scars in young adults. Its etiology is unknown; there may be an underlying defect of dermal elastin. We discuss a patient with this unusual disorder and review its literature.

  13. Situação da febre maculosa na Região Administrativa de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Spotted fever in Campinas region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A febre maculosa brasileira foi detectada pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo em 1929. No entanto, não há registro sistemático de casos neste Estado. Em 1985 ocorreram três casos desta doença no Município de Pedreira, situado na região de Campinas, que fica no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, correspondendo à 5ª Região Administrativa, e compreendendo 88 municípios. Alguns estudos foram realizados no Município de Pedreira, mas a falta de registro de casos foi um obstáculo encontrado. Com a finalidade de recuperar o histórico da doença, resolveu-se pesquisar e registrar as ocorrências de febre maculosa na região no período de 1985 a 2000 e analisar o seu comportamento. Foram recuperados todos os registros da doença nos diversos serviços de saúde pública. Observou-se uma ampliação da área de transmissão e a ocorrência de um aumento dos casos suspeitos a partir de 1996, ano em que a doença foi determinada como de notificação compulsória na região. Esta doença foi causa de óbito na maioria dos anos do período de estudo. Conclui-se que a febre maculosa está em ascensão na região e estudos bioecológicos complementares estão sendo desenvolvidos para melhor compreensão da epidemiologia dessa doença, que é mundialmente reconhecida como um problema emergente de saúde pública.Brazilian spotted fever was detected for the first time in the State of São Paulo in 1929. However, there is no systematic reporting of the disease in the State. In 1985, three cases of the disease occurred in the municipality of Pedreira, located in the Campinas Region, belonging to the 5th Administrative Region, in the Northeast part of the State, including 88 municipalities. An investigation was conducted at the time, but the lack of case registry limited its scope. The present study was undertaken with the aim of recovering the history of the disease in the Region. Data recovered from several public health services for

  14. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil Febre maculosa brasileira em cavalo de carroceiro em área não-endêmica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira Freitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose, muitas vezes fatal, causada pela bactéria intracelular obrigatória Rickettsia rickettsii. A doença é transmitida para humanos pelo carrapato Amblyomma spp. Sorologia positiva por R. rickettsii foi relatada em cavalos, entretanto a patogenia de R. rickettsii em cavalos é desconhecida. Cavalos de carroceiros ainda são largamente utilizados em áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas no Brasil e estes animais podem representar sentinelas ideais para FMB nestas áreas, como exemplo, São José dos Pinhais, onde o primeiro caso humano de FMB foi descrita no Paraná. Amostras de soro foram obtidas aleatoriamente de 75 cavalos de carroceiros entre abril de 2005 e junho de 2006 e testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI com anticorpos contra riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa. Um total de 9,33% dos animais foi considerado positivo, com títulos entre 64 e 1.024. Estes resultados indicam

  15. Rickettsial spotted fever in capoeirão Village, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil Rickettsiose do grupo da febre maculosa na Vila de Capoeirão, Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoella Campostrini Barreto Vianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the infection by spotted fever rickettsia in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF; caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human, canine and equine sera samples, and Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks collected in a rural area of Itabira City, Minas Gerais State were tested for rickettsial infection. Through Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA we demonstrated the presence of antibodies anti-R. rickettsii in 8.2%, 81.3% and 100% of the human, canine and equine sera, respectively. None of the 356 tick specimens analyzed were positive for Rickettsia by the hemolymph test or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR for the htrA and the gltA genes. Our serological results on horses and dogs (sentinels for BSF appoint for the circulation of a SFG Rickettsia in the study area, however in a very low infection rate among the A. cajennense tick population.O presente estudo investigou a infecção por rickéttsias do grupo da febre maculosa (GFM em área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira (FMB; causada por Rickettsia rickettsii no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Amostras de soros de humanos, cães e eqüídeos, e carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense adultos colhidos em um povoado rural em Itabira, Minas Gerais foram testados para infecção por Rickettsia. Pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI foram detectados anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii em 8,2% dos soros humanos, 81,3% dos cães e em 100% dos eqüídeos. Nenhum dos 356 carrapatos se mostrou positivo para Rickettsia no teste de hemolinfa e na reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR objetivando amplificar fragmentos de DNA dos genes htrA and the gltA. Os resultados sorológicos em eqüinos e cães (sentinelas para FMB apontam para a circulação de uma rickéttsia do GFM na área do estudo, porém, numa freqüência de infecção muito baixa na população do carrapato A. cajennense.

  16. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos não puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos após a sucção de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar; Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exemplar, Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares, e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar. Foi demonstrado por inoculaçao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmissão mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal são, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculação de gottas de dejecções de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, não produziu a infecção em cobaya normal, não obstante ter sido demonstrada a presença do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculação do conteúdo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se conteúdo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da sucção de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infecção intercorrente 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa

  17. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil Rickettsia infectando carrapatos Amblyomma de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa Brasileira no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larvae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB. Only two free-living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4% to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.Este trabalho relata infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum, colhidos numa área do Estado de Minas Gerais, onde a febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é considerada endêmica. Para esse estudo, 400 adultos de A. cajennense, 200 adultos de A. dubitatum, 2.000 larvas e 2.000 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. foram colhidas de equinos e da vegetação. Os carrapatos foram testados para infecção por rickettsia através de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR direcionada a fragmentos de três genes de rickettsia (gltA, ompA, e ompB. Apenas 2 A. cajennense adultos de vida livre, e 4 grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. continham DNA de rickettsia. Os produtos

  18. A Case of Atrophia Maculosa Varioliformis Cutis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, En Hyung; Kang, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis (AMVC) is a type of idiopathic noninflammatory macular atrophy that occurs in young individuals. It is clinically characterized by shallow, sharply demaracated depressions of various shapes. Considering that atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis can be mistaken as scarring and artifact dermatitis, it is important for physicians to distinguish this condition and to diagnose it correctly.

  19. Resorcinol derivatives from Ardisia maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Feng-E

    2007-01-01

    Besides a series of known sterols and triterpenoids, a new resorcinol (1) and a known resorcinol (2) have been isolated from ethanol extract of Ardisia maculosa for the first time. The structures of these resorcinol derivatives were elucidated as 2-methyl-5-(Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol and 5-Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol by HRESI-MS, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC) experiments. In our in vitro assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed no antimicrobial activities, however, compound 2 exhibited cytotoxity activity against human cancer cell line with GI(50) value of 2.14 x 10(- 4) mmol/ml.

  20. Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil Estudo da infecção por Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em humanos e carrapatos de um parque urbano na Cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG. Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. METHODS: The study aimed to investigate SFG rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTS: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6% were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre maculosa é uma zoonose emergente causada por espécies de Rickettsia do grupo febre maculosa (GFM. Rickettsia rickettsii é o principal agente etiológico da febre maculosa brasileira (FMB e é transmitida por Amblyomma spp. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre GFM Rickettsiae no Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas em Londrina, PR, carrapatos de vida livre e de capivaras foram coletados, assim como amostras de sangue das pessoas que trabalham no parque. A. dubitatum e A. cajennense foram submetidos à PCR em pools para analises de Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene

  1. Serosurvey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs and humans from an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Sorologia para Rickettsia spp. em cães e humanos de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Adriano Pinter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a rickettsial serosurvey in 25 dogs and 35 humans in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, where the tick Amblyomma aureolatum is the main vector. Testing canine and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence against four Rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis and R. bellii showed that 16 (64% of canine sera and 1 (2.8% of human sera reacted to at least one of these rickettsial antigens with titers ³ 64. Seven canine sera and the single reactive human serum showed titers to R. rickettsii at least four times those of any of the other three antigens. The antibody titers in these 7 animals and 1 human were attributed to stimulation by R. rickettsii infection. No positive canine or human serum was attributed to stimulation by R. parkeri, R. felis, or R. bellii. Our serological results showed that dogs are important sentinels for the presence of R. rickettsii in areas where the tick A. aureolatum is the main vector of Brazilian spotted fever.Este estudo avaliou a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia em 25 cães e 35 humanos, em uma área endêmica para a febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, onde o principal vetor é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum. Soros dos cães e humanos foram testados pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta contra quatro antígenos de riquétsias (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, R. bellii, mostrando que soros de 16 (64% cães e 1 (2,8% humano reagiram com títulos ³ 64 para pelo menos um dos antígenos de riquétsias. Sete soros caninos e o único soro humano reativo demonstraram títulos para R. rickettsii no mínimo quatro vezes maior do que aqueles para os outros antígenos de riquétsias. Os títulos de anticorpos nesses cães e um humano foram considerados homólogos a R. rickettsii, enquanto que nenhum soro de cão ou humano foi considerado reativamente homólogo para R. parkeri, R. felis ou R. bellii. Os

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species, viz, Centaurea behen, C. saligna, C. depressa, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana and C. aggregata subsp. aggregata, from Elaz.., Turkey. Methods: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of the oil extracts of four Centaurea species were ...

  3. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  4. A Case of Atrophia Maculosa Varioliformis Cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Moon Soo

    2008-12-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a rare disease that was first described by Heidingsfeld in 1918. It is characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory macular atrophy that typically occurs on the face in young individuals. Despite its association with some diseases, the etiopathogenesis of this entity remains unknown. After consideration of the differential diagnosis criteria for idiopathic atrophic conditions, we report a case for a 40-year-old Korean male whose past medical history was suggestive of atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis.

  5. Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: a pediatric case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, M; Angelo, C; Conti, G; Palermi, G; Provini, A

    2001-01-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis was described in 1918 by Heidingsfeld as a type of idiopathic noninflammatory macular atrophy typically occurring in young individuals. Only 13 cases have been reported since the first description. Considering that atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis can be mistaken for a scarring and artifact dermatitis, it is important for physicians to distinguish this condition. We report a new case in a 5-year-old boy.

  6. Catechin-metal interactions as a mechanism for conditional allelopathy by the invasive plant, Centaurea maculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrod L. Pollock; Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; William E. Holben

    2009-01-01

    Considering variation, or conditionality, in the ways that plants compete for resources, facilitate or indirectly interact with each other has been crucial for understanding the relative importance of these interactions in the organization of plant communities (Tilman 1985; Wilson & Keddy 1986; Kitzberger, Steinaker & Veblen 2000; Levine 2000; Brooker...

  7. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayciyan, Aylin; Kotogyan, Agop; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzün, Yalçin

    2003-07-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis (AVMC) was first described by Heidingsfeld in 1918, as a rarely reported form of idiopathic macular atrophy on the cheek (1). It is characterized, clinically, by shallow, sharply demarcated depressions in various shapes. Extrahepatic biliary atresia (2) and pachydermodactyly (3) have been the only conditions associated with AMVC reported in the past 80 years. Although keratosis pilaris is a common skin disorder, it is related to other idiopathic atrophic conditions considered in the differential diagnosis of AMVC, namely keratosis pilaris atrophicans (4). However, the two associations may be coincidental. We observed a patient with keratosis pilaris, and her brother and an unrelated young man, whose findings led to a diagnosis of AMVC.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: serological survey of dogs and horses in an endemic area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos epidemiológicos da febre maculosa brasileira: inquérito sorológico em cães e equinos em uma área endêmica no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on Brazilian spotted fever, a study in domestic animals was performed in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, where 17 human cases had been notified. Serum samples obtained from animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for detectable antibodies to spotted fever-group rickettsiae. Seropositivity was revealed in 12 (36.4% of 33 dogs and seven (77.8% of nine horses from the endemic area. For comparison, blood samples from dogs and horses from non endemic area were tested and four (12.9% of 31 dogs and three (27.3% of 11 horses were positive. The highest titers of antibodies by IFA (IgG > 1:1024 were found only in three dogs and six horses from endemic area. The results suggest that dogs as horses may serve as environmental sentinels for estabilishing the prevalence of foci of spotted fever in Brazil.Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a febre maculosa brasileira, um estudo em animais domésticos foi conduzido no município de Pedreira, São Paulo, Brasil, onde 17 casos humanos foram notificados. Amostras de soro obtidas de animais foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos para rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa. Soro reatividade foi observada em 12 (36,4% dos 33 cães e sete (77,8% dos nove eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica. Para comparação, amostras de sangue de cães e de eqüinos procedentes de área não endêmica foram testadas e quatro (12,9% dos 31 cães e três dos 10 eqüinos foram positivos. Somente três cães e seis eqüinos procedentes da área endêmica tinham títulos de anticorpos imunofluorescentes elevados (> 1:1024. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que além dos cães, os eqüinos poderiam servir também como animal sentinela na febre maculosa brasileira

  9. Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil Characterization of Rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for Brazilian spotted fever in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Daniele Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e identificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73 e de eqüinos (18 foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17% mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica.The present study was intended to characterize Rickettsia spp. circulating in arthropod vectors in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, by PCR and to investigate the presence of antibodies against the spotted fever Rickettsiae group (SFRG in dogs and horses. 2,610 arthropods were collected and taxonomically identified. DNA samples obtained from these vectors were submitted to PCR and cycle-sequenced. Ctenocephalides and Amblyomma cajennense showed sequences presenting 100.0% homology with R. felis. A sequence obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus showed 99.0% homology with R. felis, and a sequence from A. cajennense showed 97.0% homology with R. honei and R. rickettsii. Canine (73 and equine (18 serum

  10. Serosurvey of antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. in horse farms in Northern Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. do grupo febre maculosa em equinos de haras no Norte do Paraná, Brasil

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    Katia Tamekuni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is an emerging disease most likely caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of BSF rickettsia infections in equines from six horse farms located in Londrina County, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Six owners of horse farms situated in Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci and Londrina municipalities participated in the study. All farms were located in areas where BSF has not been reported. A total of 273 horses were sampled and their sera were tested by indirect Immunofluorescence assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri antigens. Titers equal to and greater than 64 were considered positive. Of 273 sera tested, 15 (5.5% reacted to R. rickettsii and 5 (1.8% to R. parkeri. Five out of the six farms studied revealed seropositive animals and seropositivity rate ranged from 0 to 13%. The titers ranged from 64 to 512, and four samples had a titer of 512. Nine animals reacted to R. rickettsii with titers four-fold higher than those for R. parkeri. These results suggest that horses in Northern Paraná may have been exposed to rickettsiae identical or closely related to R. rickettsii.Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma doença emergente, sendo Rickettsia rickettsii o seu principal agente etiológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência de rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa em equinos de seis haras localizados nos municípios de Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci e Londrina. As propriedades eram localizadas na região Norte do Paraná onde casos de FMB ainda não foram diagnosticados. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 273 equinos, e os soros foram testados pela RIFI, usando R. rickettsii e R. parkeri como antígenos, considerando-se como positivos títulos >64. Entre 273 soros, 15 (5,5% reagiram contra R. rickettsii e 5 (1,8% para R. parkeri. Cinco de seis haras estudados tinham animais reativos, e a taxa de sororreatividade variou de 0 a 13%. Os t

  11. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

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    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  12. [Amyloidosis maculosa: diagnosis in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio da Pena, S R; Olmos, O; Borbujo, J; Bastos Amigo, J A; Jiménez-Sánchez, F; Alonso, A

    1990-01-01

    Amyloidosis maculosa is a clinical entity with low incidence factor in our medium, which basically affects middle-aged women. The lesion is characterised by the presence of poorly defined, hyperpigmented, brownish or greyish maculae that converge and focus basically on the upper back and shoulders, usually accompanied by pruritus. Three patients were erroneously catalogued for years as having pityriasis versicolor. Two of these patients presented a typical clinical amyloidosis maculosa, and the third presented a less common manifestation of the disease: a single, well-defined lesion in the subscapular region. We believe that the approach to the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor with hyperpigmented lesions that do not respond to specific treatment should be revised. Although amyloidosis maculosa has a low incidence in our medium, it is an entity which should not be discarded in these cases.

  13. Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Mizoram, northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalnuntluanga; Lalramliana

    2013-01-01

    Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach, is described from Tuingo and Pharsih Rivers, tributaries of Tuivai River (Barak drainage) in Mizoram, northeastern India. It is distinguished from other closely related Schistura species in having an axillary pelvic lobe; an incomplete lateral line; 20-30 narrow black bars on the body; 3-4 rows of black spots horizontally across the dorsal-fin; a slightly emarginate caudal-fin, with 5-7 rows of black spots more or less regularly arranged vertically on rays across the fin, and 8+8 branched caudal-fin rays.

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHE487 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CNMS7844.b1_H17.ab1 CNM(LMS) spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosacDNA clone CNMS7844, mRNA sequence. 38 0.016... 2 EH740364 |EH740364.1 CNMS13648.b1_O04.ab1 CNM(LMS) spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosa cDNA clone CNMS136

  15. Chromosome reduction in Eleocharis maculosa (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C R M; González-Elizondo, M S; Laforga Vanzela, A L

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome numbers in Cyperaceae lower than the typical basic number x = 5 have been described for only three species: Rhynchospora tenuis (n = 2), Fimbristylis umbellaris (n = 3) and Eleocharis subarticulata (n = 3). Eleocharis maculosa is recorded here as the fourth species of Cyperaceae that has a chromosome number lower than 2n = 10, with 2n = 8, 7 and 6. The karyotype differentiation in E. maculosa was studied using conventional staining (mitosis and meiosis), FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA and telomere probes. The results allow us to determine which chromosomes of the chromosome race with 2n = 10 fused to form the remaining reduced numbers, as well as to understand how the symploidy and translocation mechanisms were important in karyotype differentiation and the formation of chromosome races in Eleocharis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Pachydermodactyly and atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callot, V; Wechsler, J; Hovnanian, A; Revuz, J

    1995-01-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare form of superficial digital fibromatosis characterized by progressive asymptomatic thickening of the back and sides of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers. Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is an acquired dermal atrophy, localized on the cheeks. Only a few cases of each pathology have been published. We find it interesting to report the case of a patient with both conditions as these two connective-tissue diseases are very rare. The association is probably fortuitous.

  17. Cloacal morphology of Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815), Aves tinamiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C A; Mahecha, G A

    1996-10-01

    Cloacae of male Nothura maculosa (spotted tinamous) were dissected and studied with routine histological and histochemical techniques. In the cloaca of this species the following cranio-caudally oriented regions can be recognized: the coprodeum, the urodeum and the proctodeum, separated by the coprourodeal and the uroproctodeal folds respectively. The coprodeum is an abrupt dilatation of the rectum which receives the ureters, contrary to other birds in which they open into the urodeum. The urodeum is the smallest compartment of the cloaca. Its wall presents the paracloacal vascular bodies and the ductus deferens receptacles which open into the ejaculatory fossa through a pair of papillae. The ejaculatory fossa forms the ventral floor of the urodeum and is characterized by the presence of a secretory epithelium and a lamina propria showing rich vascularization. The proctodeum is connected to the exterior through the cloacal opening and ventrally it presents the phallic structures and the proctodeal lamella. Its dorsolateral wall forms the cloacal bursa, its mucosa shows morphological variations depending on the degree of regression. Enclosing the uroproctodeal wall are the cloacal sphincter muscle and the skin.

  18. Carrapatos do gênero amblyomma (acari: ixodidae e suas relações com os hospedeiros em área endêmica para febre maculosa no Estado de São Paulo Ticks of genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of São Paulo

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    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 7 espécies da mastofauna e 36 da avifauna quanto à prevalência e intensidade de infestação por carrapatos na ESALQ/USP, no Município de Piracicaba, SP. Analisaram-se 52 indivíduos da mastofauna e 158 da avifauna, parasitados por 12418 carrapatos. Os exemplares adultos (N= 7343 foram encontrados em parasitismo nas capivaras enquanto que os imaturos foram, na maioria, coletados de pequenos mamíferos e aves. Os principais hospedeiros para as formas imaturas, em ordem decrescente, foram gambás (69,1%, capivaras (24,4% e urubus (3,7%. Entre a avifauna, o urubu apresentou o maior número de carrapatos com 69,9%, seguido por indivíduos das famílias Thamnophilidae e Turdidae. Os carrapatos adultos encontrados em capivaras foram A. cajennense (80,8% e A. dubitatum (19,2%. Ambas as espécies foram também coletadas em gambás, correspondendo a 72,4% e 27,6%, respectivamente. Pela facilidade de captura e atratividade de Amblyomma spp. o gambá pode ser usado como bioindicador de infestação em locais endêmicos para febre maculosa. Considerando os índices de parasitismo e prevalência bem como de abundância de carrapatos, susceptibilidade dos hospedeiros, proliferação e susceptibilidade para infecção por R. rickettsi, capivaras e gambás são potenciais hospedeiros amplificadores desse microrganismo no Campus da ESALQ, enquanto eqüídeos, urubus e gatos atuam como hospedeiros secundários.Seven species of mammals and 36 of birds were investigated to determine the tick prevalence and intensity of infestation. The study was conducted at the Esalq/USP in Piracicaba municipality, State of São Paulo. It was collected 52 mammals and 158 birds parasitized by 12,418 ticks. Adult ticks (N= 7,343 were found on capybaras, while the immature were mainly collected on small mammals and birds. The main hosts for immatures in descending order were opossums (69.1%, capybara (24.4% and black vultures (3.7%. Among the avifauna, the black

  19. Two additions to the Jacea-Lepteranthus complex: parallel adaptation in the enigmatic species Centaurea subtilis and C. exarata

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    Hilpold, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea subtilis from south east Italy and C. exarata from south west Iberia were classified in the Acrolophus- Phalolepis group and therein in section Maculosae. A molecular survey based on ITS sequence data indicates that both species should rather be placed in the Jacea-Lepteranthus group instead. This placement is consistent with the chromosome number of the two species, which is x = 11 like the rest of species of the Jacea-Lepteranthus group, and differs from the x = 9 of the other taxa included in sect. Maculosae. These results confi rm previous suggestions on the unnaturality of sect. Maculosae. Centaurea exarata and C. subtilis are quite different from the other species of Jacea-Lepteranthus in some striking morphological characters, which we hypothesize to be the result of parallel adaptation to dryer climates. The lack of competitors for pollination might be a good explanation for the partial or even total loss of showy flowers in these two species.

    [es] Centaurea subtilis del sureste de Italia y C. exarata del suroeste de la Península Ibérica fueron clasificadas anteriormente en el grupo Acrolophus-Phalolepis y dentro de él en la sect. Maculosae. Una revisión molecular basada en secuencias de la región ITS indica que ambas deberían clasificarse en el grupo Jacea-Lepteranthus. Este cambio es coherente con el número cromosómico de las dos especies, que tienen x = 11 como el resto de las especies del grupo Jacea-Lepteranthus y no x = 9 como las especies del grupo Acrolophus-Phalolepis. Estos resultados confirman advertencias anteriores sobre el carácter artificial de la sect. Maculosae. Centaurea exarata y C. subtilis son bastante diferentes de las otras especies de Jacea-Lepteranthus en algunos caracteres morfológicos importantes, resultado, según nuestra hipótesis, de adaptaciones a

  20. Prevotella maculosa sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Julia; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Booth, Veronica; Wade, William G

    2007-12-01

    Three strains of anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli isolated from human oral sites were subjected to a comprehensive range of phenotypic and genotypic tests and were found to comprise a homogeneous group. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strains to constitute a novel group within the genus Prevotella, most closely related to Prevotella oris and Prevotella salivae. A novel species, Prevotella maculosa sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. Prevotella maculosa is saccharolytic and produces acetic and succinic acids as end products of fermentation. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 48 mol%. The type strain of Prevotella maculosa is W1609(T) (=DSM 19339(T) =CCUG 54766(T)).

  1. Important biological activities induced by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Farsky, Sandra H P; Takehara, Harumi Ando; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2005-02-01

    The accidents caused by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms are frequent and represent a public health problem in some regions of Venezuela. Most accidents occur in the fishing communities and tourists. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema, and necrosis. Due to the lack of efficient therapy it may take weeks, or even months for complete recovery of the victims. The investigations presented here were undertaken to assess the eletrophoretical profile and principal biological properties of the T. maculosa venom. Venom obtained from fresh captured specimens of this fish was tested in vitro or in animal models for a better characterization of its toxic activities. In contrast to other fish venoms, T. maculosa venom showed relative low LD50. The injection of venom in the footpad of mice reproduced a local inflammatory lesion similar to that described in humans. Significant increase of the nociceptive and edematogenic responses was observed followed within 48 h by necrosis. Pronounced alterations on microvascular hemodynamics were visualized after venom application. These alterations were represented by fibrin depots and thrombus formation followed by complete venular stasis and transient arteriolar contraction. T. maculosa venom is devoid of phospholipase A2 activity, but the venom showed proteolytic and myotoxic activities. SDS-Page analysis of the crude venom showed important bands: one band located above 97 M(w), one band between 68 and 97 M(w), one major band between 29 and 43 M(w) and the last one located below 18.4 M(w) Then, the results presented here support that T. maculosa venom present a mixture of bioactive toxins involved in a local inflammatory lesion.

  2. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: case report and pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, T; Wang, B; Fang, K

    2005-10-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis (AVMC) was first described in 1918, as a rarely reported form of idiopathic macular atrophy on the cheeks. Nineteen patients have been reported in the past 86 years. Recently we diagnosed a 25-year-old woman as AMVC and investigated her family history. We collected the clinical data of the pedigree and presumed that AVMV is in a autosomal dominant inheritance.

  3. External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denis S. da; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2006-01-01

    As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908]) são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908]) are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  5. Avaliação dos conhecimentos e atitudes de prevenção sobre a febre maculosa entre profissionais de saúde no BrasilKnowledge and attitudes of prevention evaluation of spotted fever among health care professionals in Brazildoi:10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v4i3.851.p152-159.2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A febre maculosa (FM é uma doença transmitida por carrapatos, o que, no Brasil, preocupa as autoridades do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS por apresentar elevados coeficientes de letalidade. Objetivo: Descrever os conhecimentos e as atitudes de prevenção sobre a FM entre profissionais do SUS. Métodos: Foi realizado entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2015, um inquérito sobre os conhecimentos e as atitudes de prevenção sobre a FM entre os profissionais da saúde. Um questionário na plataforma FormSUS foi submetido a 426 profissionais de todo o Brasil que previamente já haviam participado de capacitações e atividades que envolviam o tema em questão. Vinte unidades federadas foram respondedoras da pesquisa (112/426. Foi possível verificar que a maioria dos profissionais de saúde conhece as condutas de notificação e de investigação epidemiológica. As incorporações recentes no programa de vigilância epidemiológica são de conhecimento da maioria dos respondentes. A rotatividade dos profissionais foi mencionada como principal dificultador das ações de vigilância da doença. Ações de fortalecimento dos programas de vigilância são realizadas de forma esporádica, somente no momento da ocorrência de casos de FM e não ocorrem de forma integral no âmbito do SUS. Conclusão: Cabe a cada segmento do SUS buscar seguir as diretrizes do sistema de vigilância epidemiológica da FM para que, de forma integral, se consiga reverter o panorama de morbimortalidade desta importante doença no Brasil.

  6. [Intravaginal treatment of colpitis maculosa with an oestriol-containing vaginal cream (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, A; Kofler, K; Baumgarten, K; Endl, J; Schmidt, J; Tatschl, S

    1981-12-11

    43 patients with colpitis maculosa (average age 60.2 years) were selected for an open control therapeutic study with Ortho-Gynest vaginal cream (Ortho-Cilag). The cream contains 0.5 mg of oestriol per single applicator filling. The treatment lasted from 3 to 4 weeks, success being evaluated by clinical documentation and cytological evaluation of vaginal smears before and after treatment. 10 patients (23.3%) were treated successfully, 29 (67.4%) showed a distinct improvement both clinically and cytologically, whilst the remaining 4 (9.3%) showed only moderate improvement. Hence, 39 patients (90.7%) were classified as having been successfully or partly successfully treated. Severe symptoms disappeared completely or were greatly alleviated in 91.4% cases. Moderate symptoms vanished in 59.7%. 58.1% showed a complete normalisation of the former atrophic vaginal skin. Blood spotting and reddening of the vaginal wall vanished completely. A change from dry to moist vagina occurred in 77.3% patients. Discharge vanished completely in 80.6% cases. No untoward side effects were recorded.

  7. Diptera, Muscidae, Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder: Primeiro Registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Thayana Monteiro; Freddy Ruben Bravo

    2011-01-01

    Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder, é um Muscidae com registros para a Colômbia e Brasil (regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste). Em um levantamento de dípteros saprófagos na cidade de Feira de Santana no estado da Bahia com iscas de origem orgânico animal em putrefação, foram coletados 46 espécimes de C. maculosa. Esse é o primeiro registro da espécie para a Bahia e Nordeste do Brasil. Apesar de C. maculosa ter sido encontrada...

  8. Diptera, Muscidae, Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder: Primeiro Registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

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    Thayana Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder, is a muscid fly with records from Colombia and Brazil (Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions. In a survey of Diptera saprophagous in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, with animal organic bait were collected 46 specimens of C. maculosa. This is the first record of the species to Bahia and Northeastern of Brazil. The forensic importance and the anthropized status of C. maculosa have not been detached in the specialized literature and new studies should be improved to corroborate these conditions.

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  10. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  11. Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenik, S A; Perez, M I; Davidson, D M; Morganroth, G S; Kohn, S R; Bolognia, J L

    1994-05-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis was initially described in 1918 as an entity in which both linear and punctate scars appeared spontaneously on normal facial skin. To the best of our knowledge, only five additional cases have been described. We describe two patients, 14 and 20 years of age, whose histories and clinical lesions fit the description of atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis. The histologic findings are also described, and the literature to date is reviewed.

  12. Anticorpos anti-rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em equídeos e caninos no norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Anti rickettsia-antibody for spotted fever group in horses and dogs in the North of Paraná Stated, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Otomura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonosis that can be fatal if not trteated. As there are few studies of the BSF in the Paraná State, the occurrence of BSF was serologically investigated in dogs and horses by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, in the North of that State, in animals that are regarded as sentinels for BSF. A total of 241 samples of sera of equine, four of asinine, and 29 of dogs were collected in nine farms of three municipalities in the North of Paraná: Arapongas, Douradina, and Umuarama. From fifteen samples of equine serum with positive titres for RIFI, eight (53.3 % had titre of 64 against R. rickettsii, two (13.3 % 128 against R. rickettsii, and five (33.3 % were reactants for R. parkeri and R. rickettsii, with titres ranging from 64 to 2048, and 128 to 1024, respectively. The results showed that domestic animals, sentinels for BSF, are under low exposition to ticks infected with spotted fever group Rickettsia, indicating low risk of human infection by these agents in the studied area.

  13. Compilation of Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (1983). Volume 2. Tabs F-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    POSITAE C. rugosa *Arctiumn minus CON VOLULACEAE * .Centaurea maculosa , Convolviliis Cirsium arvense (several possible) C. discolor CRASSULACEAE C. hill...Heracleum lanatumn A. umbllatusHieraciumn aurantiacum - A. sp. I H. florentinumn A. sp. 2 H. pratense A. sp. 3 Hypericumn perforatumn Centaurea maculosa H...Hypericumn perforatumn Aster umbellatus Lychnis alba Aster sp. I Melilotus alba *Centaurea maculosa Oenethera biennis Chrysanthemum leucanthemnum Prunus

  14. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa...

  15. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, F; Nasca, M R; Taparelli, F; Bacchelli, B; Micali, G

    2001-01-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a rare and distinctive form of idiopathic facial macular noninflammatory atrophy that may rarely be observed in members of the same family. We describe two brothers, ages 14 and 16 years, with spontaneously appearing, asymptomatic, varioliform and linear atrophic lesions. Their past medical history was positive for varicella occurring in childhood without residual facial scarring. Routine laboratory investigations and screening for circulating autoantibodies were negative. Both patients were concordant for HLA A2 and DQ4.1. Routine and ultrastructural histologic examination of a punch biopsy specimen showed the presence of scarce, small, fragmented elastic fibers and compact collagen bundles associated with hypertrophic fibroblasts in the dermis. Our patients remained clinically stable, untreated, over a 2-year follow-up period. No long-term follow-up data have previously been reported.

  16. Morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de heliconíneos neotropicais: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis S. da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  18. A new species of Centaurea (Asteraceae) from the island of Samothraki (NE Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, Arne; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea samothracica (subgen. Acrolophus) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on (subgen. ) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on the North Aegean island of Samothraki, and appears most closely related to C. chalcidicaea from Mt Athos....

  19. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  20. Seed germination ecology of meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii) populations in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduced meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii), a hybrid of black (C. nigra) and brown (C. jacea) knapweeds, appears to be common and expanding in New York agricultural lands, including pastures, meadows and waste areas. The biology and ecology of the hybrid is mostly unstudied, such as its...

  1. Effects of fire and restoration seeding on establishment of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Scott L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa), herein referred to simply as knapweed, is a noxious weed that invades both disturbed and healthy sagebrush communities. Fire, grazing, mining, recreation, and farming have all played a large part in the establishment of knapweed in Tintic Valley, Utah. This study was designed to look at the...

  2. Phenolic profile of Centaurea aegyptiaca L. growing in Egypt and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Centaurea aegyptiaca L (Asteraceae), is one of the most attractive plants growing wildly in Sinai, and is not well investigated for its phytochemical constituents. This study represents the first in-depth characterization of the phenolic profile of the aerial parts of C. aegyptiaca methanolic extract utilizing liquid ...

  3. Polyploidy in phenotypic space and invastion context: A morphometric study of Centaurea stoebe s.l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mráz, Patrik; Bourchier, Robert S.; Treier, Urs

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Centaurea stoebe complex is controversial. Diploid and tetraploid plants occur in its native European range, but to date only tetraploids have been recorded from its introduced range in North America. We examined morphological differentiation of C. stoebe using multivariate an....... All plants from the introduced range except for one hexaploid were found to be tetraploid. Rare diploids from Canada were identified as Centaurea diffusa or Centaurea psamogenna.......The taxonomy of the Centaurea stoebe complex is controversial. Diploid and tetraploid plants occur in its native European range, but to date only tetraploids have been recorded from its introduced range in North America. We examined morphological differentiation of C. stoebe using multivariate...... and univariate approaches to clarify the taxonomic status of the known cytotypes. We measured more than 40 morphological traits on plants originating from 78 populations, grown from seed under uniform glasshouse conditions. The ploidy of almost 300 plants from 2 native and 20 introduced populations from Canada...

  4. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  5. Maculotoxin: a neurotoxin from the venom glands of the octopus Hapalochlaena maculosa identified as tetrodotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheumack, D D; Howden, M E; Spence, I; Quinn, R J

    1978-01-13

    Maculotoxin, a potent neurotoxin isolated from the posterior salivary glands of the blue-ringed octopus. Hapalochlaena maculosa, has now been identified as tetrodotoxin. This is the first reported case in which tetrodotoxin has been found to occur in a venom.

  6. Delayed polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration is an important component of Thalassophryne maculosa venom pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Santos, Alessandra; Oliveira Souza, Valdênia Maria; Bruni, Fernanda M; Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Lima, Carla

    2008-07-01

    Thalassophryne maculosa fish envenomation is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema and necrosis. Here, the dynamic of cellular influx, activation status of phagocytic cells, and inflammatory modulator production in the acute inflammatory response to T. maculosa venom was studied using an experimental model. Leukocyte counting was performed (2 h to 21 days) after venom injection in BALB/c mice footpads. Our results showed an uncommon leukocyte migration kinetic after venom injection, with early mononuclear cell recruitment followed by elevated and delayed neutrophil influx. The pattern of chemokine expression is consistent with the delay in neutrophil recruitment to the footpad: T. maculosa venom stimulated an early production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and MCP-1, but was unable to induce an effective early TNF-alpha and KC release. Complementary to these observations, we detected a marked increase in soluble KC and TNF-alpha in footpad at 7 days post-venom injection when a prominent influx of neutrophils was also detected. In addition, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells were strongly stimulated by the venom, showing up-regulated ability to capture FITC-dextran. Thus, the reduced levels of KC and TNF-alpha in footpad of mice concomitant with a defective accumulation of neutrophils at earlier times provide an important clue to uncovering the mechanism by which T. maculosa venom regulates neutrophil movement.

  7. Survival after severe envenomation by the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D G

    I report two cases of life-endangering respiratory failure after envenomation by a blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa). Early and efficient support of respiratory function is vital in such cases. Cardiac asystole occurred in one patient. Both patients recovered completely after the vigorous application of routine resuscitation techniques.

  8. Distribution of tetrodotoxin in the body of the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Mebs, Dietrich; Flachsenberger, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was quantitatively assayed in six specimens of semi-adult blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa, by a post-column fluorescent-HPLC system. TTX was found to be present in all body parts, e.g. in high concentrations in the arms followed by the abdomen and cephalothorax. The toxin is not associated exclusively with the posterior salivary gland.

  9. [Keratosis palmoplantaris maculosa seu papulosa (Davies-Colley) simulating multiple cornua cutanea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, D; Stücker, M; Hoffmann, K; Bacharach-Buhles, M; Altmeyer, P

    1997-08-01

    Patient with extensive keratosis palmoplantaris maculosa seu papulosa (Davies-Colley) presented with multiple cutaneous horns. The clinical picture, the histology, the electro microscopic examination, the negative tumor screening and the viral classification in the tissue allowed the differentiation from other palmoplantar keratoses. The patient was treated successfully using a combination of acitretin with physical and chemical measures.

  10. Analysis of the intersexual variation in Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Sosa-Rosales, Ines; Bruni, Fernanda M; Ramos, Anderson D; Vieira Portaro, Fernanda Calheta; Conceição, Katia; Lima, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Gender related variation in the molecular composition of venoms and secretions have been described for some animal species, and there are some evidences that the difference in the toxin (s) profile among males and females may be related to different physiopathological effects caused by the envenomation by either gender. In order to investigate whether this same phenomenon occurs to the toadfish Thalassophryne maculosa, we have compared some biological and biochemical properties of female and male venoms. Twenty females and males were collected in deep waters of the La Restinga lagoon (Venezuela) and, after protein concentration assessed, the induction of toxic activities in mice and the biochemical properties were analyzed. Protein content is higher in males than in females, which may be associated to a higher size and weight of the male body. In vivo studies showed that mice injected with male venoms presented higher nociception when compared to those injected with female venoms, and both venoms induced migration of macrophages into the paw of mice. On the other hand, mice injected with female venoms had more paw edema and extravasation of Evans blue in peritoneal cavity than mice injected with male venoms. We observed that the female venoms had more capacity for necrosis induction when compared with male venoms. The female samples present a higher proteolytic activity then the male venom when gelatin, casein and FRETs were used as substrates. Evaluation of the venoms of females and males by SDS-PAGE and chromatographic profile showed that, at least three components (present in two peaks) are only present in males. Although the severity of the lesion, characterized by necrosis development, is related with the poisoning by female specimens, the presence of exclusive toxins in the male venoms could be associated with the largest capacity of nociception induction by this sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecology and management of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

    2008-01-01

    A close relative of spotted knapweed in the Asteraceae taxonomic family, diffuse knapweed is typically biennial, reproducing exclusively by seed. It forms a rosette with a central crown and tap root in the juvenile stage and a single upright stem one to three feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) tall with numerous spreading branches at maturity. White (occasionally purple) flowers are...

  12. Components from the Essential oil of Centaurea aeolica Guss. and C. diluta Aiton from Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Jemia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from florets, leaves and stems and branches of Centaurea aeolica Guss. harvested in Lipari, Sicily, Italy, were analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were β-eudesmol, caryophyllene oxide, ( E -12-norcaryophyll-5-en-2-one and hexahydrofarnesylacetone in flowers, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, 2-methyloctadecane and tricosane in the leaves and hexadecanoic acid , caryophyllene oxide and β-eudesmol in the stems and branches . The analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea diluta Aiton gave mainly fatty acids and derivatives, the main ones being hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester.

  13. Centaurea inexpugnabilis, a new species from section Acrocentron for the Iberian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Ferrer-Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species for the genus Centaurea L. (sect. Acrocentron, Asteraceae is described: C. inexpugnabilis, sp. nov. This plant has been found in the Mallos de Riglos (Riglos, Huesca, Spain, and its distribution is currently limited to the northeastern of the Iberian Peninsula. A description and diagnosis, iconography and several tables showing the main diagnostic characters to differentiate it from its related species is reported.

  14. Pigmentatio maculosa eruptiva idiopathica: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinco, Giuseppe; Favot, Francesca; Scott, Cathryn Anne; Patrone, Pasquale

    2007-12-01

    Pigmentatio maculosa eruptiva idiopathica is a rare pediatric disease characterized by asymptomatic, brownish macules involving the neck and trunk with no preceding inflammatory process or history of drug exposure. A 9-year-old girl presented with brown-gray, nonconfluent, asymptomatic macules on the trunk, neck, and limbs, ranging from 5 to 30 mm in diameter. The macules appeared suddenly with no lesions preceding their occurrence. Histopathologic examination showed basal cell layer hyperpigmentation, and abundant melanophages with a mild perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the papillary dermis. The lesions disappeared spontaneously 1.5 years later with no therapy. No relapse occurred. Pigmentatio maculosa eruptiva idiopathica must be differentiated from other skin disorders with hyperpigmentation in pediatric practice in order to avoid unnecessary treatment, as spontaneous resolution is expected. Following a literature review, we underline the importance of spontaneous regression as an additional clinical feature for this disease.

  15. Effects of fertility, weed density and crop competition on biomass partitioning in Centaurea cyanus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Chachulski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on biomass partitioning of annual arable weed Centaurea cyanus was analysed. We investigated the effect of fertilisation, density and competition with the winter rye crop on the reproductive investment. Three fertiliser treatments and three density levels were applied. In Centaurea cyanus differences in the pattern of biomass allocation to reproduction are related to plant size. The relationship between reproductive and vegetative mass is close to linear. It is consistent with the model of linear size-dependent reproductive output. In Centaurea cyanus this model worked well for size differences that have been generated by interspecific competition, nutrients supply and density. Our data support the hypothesis that plastic changes in relationship between vegetative and generative biomass are environmentally-induced. Significantly different relationship between vegetative and reproductive biomass were detected among populations growing at different density and fertility levels. The fertilisation with mineral fertiliser and manure resulted in an increase of generative biomass allocated to flowerheads and a decrease of reproductive effort. Generative dry weight increased more rapidly with plant size in higher densities of population and at lower fertility levels. The experiment showed that the rate of weight allocated to reproductive structures was bigger under the pressure of competition with cereal crop. At low fertility level and high density, when the individuals were small, generative biomass increased faster with plant size. The production of seeds was not directly dependent on biomass allocated into total reproductive structures. At low level, of nutrient supply C. cyanus gave more offspring per gram of its biomass. We discuss the results in context of life-history theory. From the strategic point of view, size-dependent variation in reproductive effort and in efficiency of reproduction can be

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  17. Evaluating the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of three Centaurea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as oxidative stress and reduced acetylcholine level have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology and recently there has been a trend towards natural product research to find potential sources of antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the plants kingdom. Centaurea is a genus with about 500 species world wild, many of them have shown to possess biologic activity; Centaurea albonites, C. aucheri and C. pseudoscabiosa are three species which little investigation has been carried out about their biological properties. In the present study, the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the above mentioned species have been evaluated. The ability of the total extract and methanol fraction of the plants to scavenge free radicals has been assessed through DPPH radical scavenging assay, and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property has been evaluated by Ellman method. The total extract of all species exhibited moderate antioxidant activity whereas the extracts of C. pseudoscabiosa showed the strongest antioxidant property; its total extract also demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the evaluated samples (19.2% inhibition. The results suggest the species as potential sources of natural antioxidants which could be focused in future studies of Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: first case report from the Indian subcontinent with pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2012-01-01

    Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a very rare disorder with less than 28 cases being reported in the literature worldwide and remains a mystery both as far as genetics and the virtue of its pathogenesis is concerned. We present a case of mother and son, both having this disorder with presentations unique in terms of sites involved and try to draw a five generations pedigree chart for the same. We further support its inheritance pattern as autosomal dominant. Also, we propose oral isotretinoin as an effective treatment modality for the same.

  19. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: First case report from the Indian subcontinent with pedigree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarang Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a very rare disorder with less than 28 cases being reported in the literature worldwide and remains a mystery both as far as genetics and the virtue of its pathogenesis is concerned. We present a case of mother and son, both having this disorder with presentations unique in terms of sites involved and try to draw a five generations pedigree chart for the same. We further support its inheritance pattern as autosomal dominant. Also, we propose oral isotretinoin as an effective treatment modality for the same.

  20. Comparative study of the digestive system of three species of tinamou. I. Crypturellus tataupa, Nothoprocta cinerascens, and Nothura maculosa (Aves: tinamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikilian, M; De Speroni, N B

    1996-04-01

    The morphology and histology, as well as the cytochemistry of complex carbohydrates, of the digestive system of Crypturellus tataupa (tataupa tinamou), Nothoprocta cinerascens (brushland tinamou), and Nothura maculosa (spotted tinamou) are described. The general morphology of the digestive system of these birds follows the basic model of the avian alimentary canal, although statistical analysis shows that the lengths of the organs are significantly different among the species. From cephalic to caudal regions the alimentary tract consists of esophagus, ingluvies or crop, proventriculus or glandular stomach, ventriculus or muscular stomach, small intestine, well-developed ceca, and rectum. Histologically, each section of the tract consists of four primary tissue layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia. Variations are found in the thickness of the esophageal epithelium, which shows the highest value in C. tataupa. In the proventriculus, the depth of the compound glands is greatest in N. cinerascens. The villi of the epithelial cells in the small intestine are most extensively developed in C. tataupa. Heterogeneity of mucins is detected not only in the surface coat of the alimentary tract but in the cellular content of the glands as well. Comparisons with the morphology of the digestive system of closely related and more advanced birds are made, and the possible relationship between morphological and cytochemical variation and the diet is discussed.

  1. Occurrence of a tetrodotoxin-like compound in the eggs of the venomous blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheumack, D D; Howden, M E; Spence, I

    1984-01-01

    A lethal toxin was isolated and partly purified from the eggs of the blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa. Examination of the toxin by thin layer chromatography, isoelectric focusing and its effects upon the compound nerve action potentials of the toad sciatic nerve gave results that were indistinguishable from those displayed by authentic tetrodotoxin, the toxin present in the venom glands of the octopus.

  2. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  3. Influence of Rearing Substrates and Nontarget Hosts on the Bionomics of the Tachinid Parasitoid Nemorilla maculosa (Diptera: Tachinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessenou, Ayaovi; Tounou, Agbéko Kodjo; Dannon, Elie Ayitondji; Datinon, Benjamin; Agboton, Cyriaque; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Tamò, Manuele

    2018-04-05

    The tachinid Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) was introduced from Taiwan to Benin for evaluating its potential as a biocontrol candidate against the cowpea pest Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). To optimize its rearing, we assessed the influence of M. vitrata larval age and rearing substrate-cowpea germinating grains and peabush leaves-on its life table parameters, while its host specificity was investigated with regard to nontarget effects. Parasitism rates were higher when older larvae (10- and 14-d old) were offered to females of N. maculosa compared to the younger (2-, 4-, and 6-d old) host larvae. Regardless of the rearing substrate, development time was longer for females than males, and females lived longer than males irrespective of the age of the host. Sex ratio did not vary significantly with host ages or rearing substrate. The average number of eggs laid by a female reared from M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea germinating grains or peabush leaves was 94.2 ± 4.38 and 71.9 ± 1.70 eggs, respectively. The host suitability of N. maculosa was assessed by testing four nontarget Lepidoptera species: Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Larvae of S. littoralis and C. cephalonica were successfully parasitized while N. maculosa did not develop in the larvae of E. saccharina and S. calamistis although they were parasitized. Despite the potential of N. maculosa as a biological control agent against the pod borer M. vitrata, more detailed nontarget studies, extending to other native Crambidae species, are needed before making decisions on field releases.

  4. Alteration of polymorphic systems of Centaurea scabiosa L. under chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, E.A.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Lysenko, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Isoenzyme and morphological polymorphism alteration in populations of perennial grass Centaurea scabiosa L. (scaly cornflower) has been studied. These populations exist on the territory of East Urals Radioactive Trace more than 40 years and are chronically exposed to β-radiation. Directional shift of allele frequencies on the loci Per 1 , Pgi 2 , Sod 1 , Lap has been detected. Fact of accumulating genetic load by chronically irradiated populations has been demonstrated. Possible reasons of discovered alterations are discussed. Analysis of the obtained data shows that the irradiation populations have greater similarity with one another than with a control, but relation between genetic distances and accumulated doses has not been revealed. Hypothesis is that an extra factor - gene flow from a clean territory influences the genetic structure of irradiated populations [ru

  5. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  6. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

  7. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  8. Characterization and isolation of some genes of the shikimate pathway in sensitive and resistant Centaurea jacea plants after ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francini, A. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nali, C. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cristina.nali@agr.unipi.it; Pellegrini, E.; Lorenzini, G. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Centaurea jacea has been suggested as a potential bioindicator for ozone, but little is known about its intraspecific variation in sensitivity, especially at molecular level. The effects of ozone (200 ppb, 5 h) on sensitive and resistant lines of Centaurea have been investigated at the end of fumigation. Sensitive plants showed characteristic symptoms of injury in the form of diffuse discoloration stipples on leaves. A PCR-based approach was used to identify and isolate a partial-length cDNA coding for PAL and CHS genes. The northern analysis of PAL showed accumulation of transcript in both lines correlated with a typical increase of PAL activity (+41 and +91% in resistant and sensitive material, respectively, compared to controls). On the contrary, the transcripts of CHS, in resistant and sensitive plants, did not change after treatment. Total phenols were not affected by ozone, while anthocyanins were quickly utilised by resistant clone as antioxidant compounds. - Characterization and isolation of PAL and CHS genes in Centaurea jacea exposed to O{sub 3}.

  9. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  10. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  11. Aspectos histomorfométricos y cuantitativos del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Aves, Columbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las variaciones estructurales y cuantitativas del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Temminck, 1813 durante el ciclo anual 2005 - 2006. Treinta y cinco hembras adultas se capturaron en el Departamento Río Primero (Córdoba, Argentina. Las gónadas se extrajeron, pesaron y fijaron en formol tamponado a pH 7.0 y procesaron de acuerdo a la técnica de inclusión en parafina. En la mayoría de las aves el análisis morfohistológico del ovario reveló un notorio desarrollo de la gónada desde mayo a febrero, observándose 4 ó 5 folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ de 4 mm y folículos preovulatorios. El incremento del peso gonadal con un valor máximo en setiembre y octubre concordó con las características morfológicas de la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Luego de la ovipostura, los escasos folículos en desarrollo y abundantes folículos postovulatorios y atrésicos indicaron el comienzo de la regresión ovárica. En los meses de marzo y abril, el ovario exhibió el aspecto del reposo gonadal con abundantes ovocitos primarios, folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos blancos ≤ 2 mm, escasos folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ 2 mm y folículos atrésicos pequeños. El peso mínimo fue registrado en marzo. De los resultados se infiere que P. maculosa ovipone durante la mayor parte del año y que la prolongada actividad gonadal de esta ave estaría relacionada con la gran disponibilidad de alimento en el área de muestreo.

  12. Evaluating Antimicrobial Effects of Centaurea Plant’s Essential Oil on Pathogenic Bacteria: Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Epidermidis, and Escherichia Coli Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haedeh Mobaiyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives :Nowadays, development of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has attracted attention using medicinal plants in treatment of infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of two species of Centaurea plant’s essential oil on drug resistant clinical isolates of three pathogenic isolates. Materials & Methods :The studied plants were collected from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, Iran and were confirmed as Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. by botanists of Iran Agriculture Organization. The essential oil of these plants (Stems and leaf were extracted via steam distillation method by Clevenger, and their antimicrobial effects were studied by well diffusion method in the abovementioned bacteria. The components of essential oil were identified by injection to gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/M. Results :The results of this study prove that the essential oils from the abovementioned plants have bactericidal effects. The most antibacterial effect is observed in Escherichia coli strains. The results of GC/MS chromatography reveal that the essential oils of Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. have 28 and 32 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the grasses could be used in medicinal plants group with antibacterial properties. However, their effects in vivo must be evaluated and the most effective component of them must be identified carefully so that they can be applied commonly as an alternative synthetic drug in treating infections.

  13. Febre maculosa no município de Pedreira, SP, Brasil. Inquérito sorológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Guercio Vania Martins Fontes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Casos de febre maculosa brasileira vêm ocorrendo desde 1985 no município de Pedreira. Com o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência da febre maculosa brasileira nessa área endêmica, foram coletadas amostras únicas de soro de 473 pessoas sadias, moradores e funcionários de uma indústria de louças. As amostras obtidas foram testadas através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFA, para determinação do título de anticorpos para ricketttsia do grupo da febre maculosa brasileira. Vinte e cinco (5,3% foram considerados positivos (título superscript three1:64 e trinta e um (6,5% apresentaram título igual a 1:32 ("borderline". Os resultados evidenciam uma taxa de soropositividade semelhante a outras áreas reconhecidamente endêmicas do país.

  14. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  15. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  16. Compilation of 1992 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Tabs C - F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Picea glauca, and Pinus resinosus. Centaurea maculosa has increased since 1983 until it is now the most I abundant flowering plant on the hill. Also...population of Centaurea maculosa that bloomed in late July, in spite of the drought and hot temperatures. ThisI plant was not as abundant at the F2

  17. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    Full Text Available Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1 rates of bee visitation, 2 viable seed set, and 3 the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set. We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  19. Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, O J; Vekemans, X

    2001-05-01

    The extent and spatial patterns of genetic variation at allozyme markers were investigated within and between diploid and autotetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea L. sensu lato, Asteraceae) at contrasted geographic scales: (1) among populations sampled from a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in the northeastern part of the Belgian Ardennes, and (2) within mixed populations from that zone where diploids and tetraploids coexist. Our data were also compared with a published dataset by Sommer (1990) describing allozyme variation in separate diploid and tetraploid knapweeds populations collected throughout Europe. Genetic diversity was higher in tetraploids. In the Belgian Ardennes and within the mixed populations, both cytotypes had similar levels of spatial genetic structure, they were genetically differentiated, and their distributions of allele frequencies were not spatially correlated. In contrast, at the European scale, diploids and tetraploids did not show differentiated gene pools and presented a strong correlation between their patterns of spatial genetic variation. Numerical simulations showed that the striking difference in patterns observed at small and large geographic scales could be accounted for by a combination of (1) isolation by distance within cytotypes; and (2) partial reproductive barriers between cytotypes and/or recurrent formation of tetraploids. We suggest that this may explain the difficulty of the taxonomic treatment of knapweeds and of polyploid complexes in general.

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Isolation of Luteoline from Centaurea behen L. Grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Esmaeili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites providing Ultraviolet-visible (UV spectroscopy protection and color in almost all terrestrial plants and fruits. They have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. As their biological activities have an impact on human health, they serve as target molecules in the development of new drugs. The objective of this research was to study the antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of the luteoline from Centaurea behen L. (Compositae family. The aerial parts of powdered and dried C. behen were extracted with methanol (MeOH in a Soxhlet apparatus over a period of 2 days. The concentrated total extract was extracted with petroleum ether, diethylether, and methanol. From the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. behen, the flavonoid derivative (luteoline was identified. The aerial parts’ extract demonstrated effective antioxidant activity measured in terms of half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The product extract has been isolated by UV, column chromatography (CC, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The structures involved were elucidated by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC spectra. The compound identified had not been reported in previous studies of C. behen L.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  2. Sobre la circunscripción y posición taxonómica de Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae [On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç Sáez Goñalons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se aportan datos sobre algunos táxones del grupo de Centaurea linifolia presentes en las sierras de la Comunidad Valenciana y áreas limítrofes. Como resultado se propone reconocer en C. antennata tres subespecies, con síndromes de caracteres propios, que ocupan áreas geográficas bien delimitadas y presentan un comportamiento ecológico diferenciado. Según esto, se propone la nueva combinación C. antennata subsp. caballeroi para las poblaciones del sur de Tarragona y norte de Castellón, seleccionándose además un lectótipo. Para cada taxon aceptado se indican sus caracteres morfológicos diferenciales, distribución y ecología. Además, se aporta una clave de identificación. SUMMARY: On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae: Data are reported on several taxa of the aggregate of Centaurea linifolia that grow in the mountains of the Valencian Community and neighboring areas. As a result, in the complex of C. antennata three taxa are accepted at the subspecific rank, which have their own syndromes of morphological characters, occur in well-defined territories and show different ecological behavior. The new combination C. antennata subsp. caballeroi is stated to name populations from southern Tarragona and northern Castellón provinces. Moreover, a lectotype is selected for the latter name. For each accepted taxon, its diagnostic morphological traits, distribution and ecology are commented. An identification key is also presented.

  3. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  4. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  5. Compilation of 1990 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Tabs C thru F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    maculosa has increased since 1983 until it is now the most abundant flowering plant on the hill. Also abundant are Cirsium palustre Fragaria virginiana...two Megachile species under study, Sespecially for M. inermis. They were Hieracium aurantiacum Cirsium palustre and Centaurea maculosa . Further...site in 1988 because of a substantial population of Centaurea maculosa that bloomed in late July, in spite of the drought and hot temperatures. This

  6. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  7. Genome-wide comparisons reveal a clinal species pattern within a holobenthic octopod-the Australian Southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter; Kjeldsen, Shannon R; Meekan, Mark G; Mccormick, Mark I; Finn, Julian K; Huffard, Christine L; Zenger, Kyall R

    2018-02-01

    The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Hoyle, 1883) lacks a planktonic dispersal phase, yet ranges across Australia's southern coastline. This species' brief and holobenthic life history suggests gene flow might be limited, leaving distant populations prone to strong genetic divergence. This study used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of H. maculosa among eight sampling sites along its reported range. Within sites, interrelatedness was very high, consistent with the limited dispersal of this taxon. However, inbreeding coefficients were proportionally lower among sites where substructuring was not detected, suggesting H. maculosa might possess a mechanism for inbreeding avoidance. Genetic divergence was extremely high among all sites, with the greatest divergence observed between both ends of the distribution, Fremantle, WA, and Stanley, TAS. Genetic distances closely followed an isolation by geographic distance pattern. Outlier analyses revealed distinct selection signatures at all sites, with the strongest divergence reported between Fremantle and the other Western Australian sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions using the described sister taxon H. fasciata (Hoyle, 1886) further supported that the genetic divergence between distal H. maculosa sites in this study was equivalent to that of between established heterospecifics within this genus. However, it is advocated that taxonomic delineations within this species should be made with caution. These data indicate that H. maculosa forms a clinal species pattern across its geographic range, with gene flow present through allele sharing between adjacent populations. Morphological investigations are recommended for a robust resolution of the taxonomic identity and ecotype boundaries of this species.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  9. Registro da pomba-do-orvalho Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae no estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p195 Apresentamos o primeiro registro da pomba-do-orvalho Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae para Santa Catarina, região sul do Brasil. Um indivíduo foi observado em 10 de setembro de 2006 em uma área aberta (pastagens para gado e vegetação arbustiva no município de Anita Garibaldi (centro-sul do estado. Sugerimos que este encontro pontual é resultado de uma recente expansão da distribuição desta espécie devido a modificações na paisagem nesta região.

  10. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  12. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  13. Extensive analysis of native and non-native Centaurea solstitialis L. populations across the world shows no traces of polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena Irimia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae is a Eurasian native plant introduced as an exotic into North and South America, and Australia, where it is regarded as a noxious invasive. Changes in ploidy level have been found to be responsible for numerous plant biological invasions, as they are involved in trait shifts critical to invasive success, like increased growth rate and biomass, longer life-span, or polycarpy. C. solstitialis had been reported to be diploid (2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, however, actual data are scarce and sometimes contradictory. We determined for the first time the absolute nuclear DNA content by flow cytometry and estimated ploidy level in 52 natural populations of C. solstitialis across its native and non-native ranges, around the world. All the C. solstitialis populations screened were found to be homogeneously diploid (average 2C value of 1.72 pg, SD = ±0.06 pg, with no significant variation in DNA content between invasive and non-invasive genotypes. We did not find any meaningful difference among the extensive number of native and non-native C. solstitialis populations sampled around the globe, indicating that the species invasive success is not due to changes in genome size or ploidy level.

  14. Extensive analysis of native and non-native Centaurea solstitialis L. populations across the world shows no traces of polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Ramona-Elena; Montesinos, Daniel; Eren, Özkan; Lortie, Christopher J; French, Kristine; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Sotes, Gastón J; Hierro, José L; Jorge, Andreia; Loureiro, João

    2017-01-01

    Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae) is a Eurasian native plant introduced as an exotic into North and South America, and Australia, where it is regarded as a noxious invasive. Changes in ploidy level have been found to be responsible for numerous plant biological invasions, as they are involved in trait shifts critical to invasive success, like increased growth rate and biomass, longer life-span, or polycarpy. C . solstitialis had been reported to be diploid (2 n  = 2 x  = 16 chromosomes), however, actual data are scarce and sometimes contradictory. We determined for the first time the absolute nuclear DNA content by flow cytometry and estimated ploidy level in 52 natural populations of C . solstitialis across its native and non-native ranges, around the world. All the C. solstitialis populations screened were found to be homogeneously diploid (average 2C value of 1.72 pg, SD = ±0.06 pg), with no significant variation in DNA content between invasive and non-invasive genotypes. We did not find any meaningful difference among the extensive number of native and non-native C . solstitialis populations sampled around the globe, indicating that the species invasive success is not due to changes in genome size or ploidy level.

  15. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment.

  16. Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Graziela Bragueto; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Azevedo, Luciana; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Sant'Ana, Anderson Souza; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Granato, Daniel

    2018-05-19

    This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus extract exhibited high IC 50 and GI 50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10-100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Utilización de "Centaurea cyanus" L. para la conservación de insectos beneficiosos en el centro de España

    OpenAIRE

    Barbir, J.; Badenes Pérez, F. R.; Martín, J. M.; Campos, D.; Fernández Quintanilla, C.; Dorado, J.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la utilización de “Centaurea cyanus” L. para la conservación de los insectos beneficiosos (polinizadores y enemigos naturales de las plagas) en el centro de España. Además, se analizaron los efectos negativos provocados por esta planta en los agro-ecosistemas, fundamentalmente la posibilidad de atraer algunas plagas importantes dentro de los cultivos de la región. Los resultados de este estudio preliminar han puesto de manifiesto el gran potenc...

  18. Dos novedades de Marruecos: Linaria imzica Gómiz, sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae: y Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech: Gómiz, comb. & stat. nov. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz García, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Linaria imzica of the western end of the mountain range of Antiatlas (S of Morocco is described. The new species is characterized by its leaves proportionally quite wide (relation length/width Se describe Linaria imzica del extremo occidental de la cordillera del Antiatlas (sur de Marruecos. La nueva especie se caracteriza por sus hojas proporcionalmente bastante anchas (relación longitud/anchura <5 para lo que es habitual en la sect. Versicolores. Asimismo se propone la nueva combinación Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech Gómiz.

  19. Identification of Two Pathogenic Aeromonas Species Isolated during Production Related Epizootics from Juvenile Burbot Lota lota maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Marc M; Anderson, Cort L; Jacobs, Sarah J; Cain, Kenneth D

    2018-05-25

    In response to population declines of Burbot Lota lota maculosa, conservation aquaculture methods have been developed for this species. In general, Burbot are relatively resistant to many salmonid pathogens; however, cultured juvenile Burbot have experienced periodic epizootic disease outbreaks during production. A series of trials were conducted to determine the virulence of select bacteria isolated from juvenile Burbot following outbreaks that occurred in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Idaho's Aquaculture Research Institute. Initial clinical diagnostics and sampling resulted in the isolation of numerous putative bacterial pathogens. To determine which bacteria were the most likely causative agents contributing to these epizootics, juvenile Burbot were injectied intraperitoneally (IP) with select bacteria in log phase growth. Mortality associated with specific isolates was recorded, and more comprehensive challenges followed this initial screening. These challenges used side-by-side IP and immersion methods to expose Burbot to potential pathogens. The challenges resulted in significantly higher mortalities in fish following IP injection of two Aeromonas sp. isolates compared to controls (P ≤ 0.01), but no difference in mortality for immersion challenged groups was observed (P = 0.42). Results demonstrate that two isolates (Aeromonas sp.) cultured from the epizootics are virulent to Burbot. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Situação da febre maculosa na Região Administrativa de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A febre maculosa brasileira foi detectada pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo em 1929. No entanto, não há registro sistemático de casos neste Estado. Em 1985 ocorreram três casos desta doença no Município de Pedreira, situado na região de Campinas, que fica no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, correspondendo à 5ª Região Administrativa, e compreendendo 88 municípios. Alguns estudos foram realizados no Município de Pedreira, mas a falta de registro de casos foi um obstáculo encontrado. Com a finalidade de recuperar o histórico da doença, resolveu-se pesquisar e registrar as ocorrências de febre maculosa na região no período de 1985 a 2000 e analisar o seu comportamento. Foram recuperados todos os registros da doença nos diversos serviços de saúde pública. Observou-se uma ampliação da área de transmissão e a ocorrência de um aumento dos casos suspeitos a partir de 1996, ano em que a doença foi determinada como de notificação compulsória na região. Esta doença foi causa de óbito na maioria dos anos do período de estudo. Conclui-se que a febre maculosa está em ascensão na região e estudos bioecológicos complementares estão sendo desenvolvidos para melhor compreensão da epidemiologia dessa doença, que é mundialmente reconhecida como um problema emergente de saúde pública.

  1. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  2. COMPOSITION AND OCCURRENCE OF THE GRANDISPORA MACULOSA ZONAL ASSEMBLAGE (MISSISSIPPIAN IN THE SUBSURFACE OF THE CARNARVON BASIN AND THE COOLCALALAYA SUB-BASIN OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA, AND ITS GONDWANAN DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEOFFREY PLAYFORD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grandispora maculosa miospore assemblage – initially described in 1968 from Middle-Late Mississippian strata of New South Wales (eastern Australia – is well represented in samples examined herein from 10 Western Australian subsurface sections located in the northern Perth Basin (Coolcalalaya Sub-basin and, to its immediate north, in several sub-basins of the southern and northern sectors of the Carnarvon Basin. Of particular stratigraphic-correlative importance is the presence of the eponymous G. maculosa together with, inter alia, Reticulatisporites magnidictyus, Verrucosisporites quasigobbettii, V. gregatus, Apiculiretusispora tersa, Raistrickia accinta, R. radiosa, Foveosporites pellucidus, and Cordylosporites asperidictyus. Four species are newly described herein: Apiculatasporites spiculatus, Dibolisporites sejunctus, Raistrickia corymbiata, and Vallatisporites valentulus. Published accounts from elsewhere in Gondwana collectively signify the widespread dissemination of the G. maculosa palynoflora, particularly through northern and western regions of the supercontinent, thus affording an effective means of intra-Gondwanan stratal correlation. Limited absolute dating and stratigraphic-successional considerations across Gondwana indicate that the age of the G. maculosa Assemblage can be bracketed within the middle Visean-early Serpukhovian of the Middle-Late Mississippian. This age is supported by the complete absence of bilaterally symmetrical, non-striate, saccate pollen grains, produced by walchian conifers, which were introduced globally (including in Australia and near-synchronously late in the Serpukhovian. Cryptogamic land plants (ferns, articulates, lycophytes are the inferred source of the palynoflora.

  3. Establishment and partial characterization of a cell line from burbot Lota lota maculosa: susceptibility to IHNV, IPNV and VHSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Mark P; Drennan, John D; Batts, William N; Ireland, Susan C; Cain, Kenneth D

    2010-05-18

    This study describes the development and partial characterization of a continuous fibroblastic-like cell line (BEF-1) developed from late stage embryos of North American burbot Lota lota maculosa. This cell line has been maintained for over 5 yr and 100 passages in vitro. Cells were cultured using Eagle's minimum essential medium with Earle's salts (MEM) supplemented with GlutaMAX, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.4. The addition of penicillin-streptomycin-neomycin (PSN) antibiotic mixture (0.05, 0.05, 0.1 mg m(-1), respectively) did not negatively influence cell replication; however, the antimycotic FungizoneTM (2.5 microg m(-1), amphotericin B) caused cell rounding and resulted in a severe decrease in cell proliferation. Optimal incubation temperature has been observed between 15 and 23 degrees C, and at these temperatures cultures are routinely passed using standard trypsinization methods every 5 to 7 d at a split ratio of 1:3 or 1:4. The cell line was susceptible to isolates of the M and U North American genotypes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and to isolates of genotypes I, IVa, and IVb of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In contrast, the cell line was refractory to infection by 2 North American isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) from serotypes A1 and A9. This cell line provides a new laboratory tool, will allow further investigation into viral diseases of burbot and possibly other species, and is the first immortalized cell line reported from a species in the Gadidae (cod) family.

  4. Establishment and partial characterization of a cell line from burbot Lota lota maculosa: susceptibility to IHNV, IPNV and VHSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Polinski, Mark P.; Drennan, John D.; Ireland, Susan C.; Cain, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and partial characterization of a continuous fibroblastic-like cell line (BEF-1) developed from late stage embryos of North American burbot Lota lota maculosa. This cell line has been maintained for over 5 yr and 100 passages in vitro. Cells were cultured using Eagle’s minimum essential medium with Earle’s salts (MEM) supplemented with GlutaMAX™, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.4. The addition of penicillin-streptomycin-neomycin (PSN) antibiotic mixture (0.05, 0.05, 0.1 mg ml–1, respectively) did not negatively influence cell replication; however, the antimycotic Fungizone™ (2.5 µg ml–1, amphotericin B) caused cell rounding and resulted in a severe decrease in cell proliferation. Optimal incubation temperature has been observed between 15 and 23°C, and at these temperatures cultures are routinely passed using standard trypsinization methods every 5 to 7 d at a split ratio of 1:3 or 1:4. The cell line was susceptible to isolates of the M and U North American genotypes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and to isolates of genotypes I, IVa, and IVb of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In contrast, the cell line was refractory to infection by 2 North American isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) from serotypes A1 and A9. This cell line provides a new laboratory tool, will allow further investigation into viral diseases of burbot and possibly other species, and is the first immortalized cell line reported from a species in the Gadidae (cod) family.

  5. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  6. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  7. Quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactone cnicin in seven Centaurea species wild-growing in Serbia and Montenegro using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIS DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 1H-NMR spectroscopy was applied for the quantitative analysis of cnicin, a bioactive germacranolide type sesquiterpene lactone, in the aerial parts of seven wild-growing Centaurea species collected in Serbia and Montenegro. The analysis was performed by comparison of the integral of the one-proton signal of cnicin (H-13, δ 5.75 with that of the two-proton singlet (δ 6.98 of 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, used as the internal standard. Cnicin, within concentration the range 1.06–6.12 mg/g, calculated per weight of the fresh plant material was detected in six species, the exception being C. salonitana. This method allows the rapid and simple quantification of cnicin without any pre-purification step.

  8. Weed-biocontrol insects reduce native-plant recruitment through second-order apparent competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2008-09-01

    Small-mammal seed predation is an important force structuring native-plant communities that may also influence exotic-plant invasions. In the intermountain West, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are prominent predators of native-plant seeds, but they avoid consuming seeds of certain widespread invasives like spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). These mice also consume the biological-control insects Urophora spp. introduced to control C. maculosa, and this food resource substantially increases deer mouse populations. Thus, mice may play an important role in the invasion and management of C. maculosa through food-web interactions. We examined deer mouse seed predation and its effects on seedling emergence and establishment of a dominant native grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata, and forb, Balsamorhiza sagittata, in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands that were treated with herbicide to suppress C. maculosa or left untreated as controls. Deer mice readily took seeds of both native plants but removed 2-20 times more of the larger B. sagittata seeds than the smaller P. spicata seeds. Seed predation reduced emergence and establishment of both species but had greater impacts on B. sagittata. The intensity of seed predation corresponded with annual and seasonal changes in deer mouse abundance, suggesting that abundance largely determined mouse impacts on native-plant seeds. Accordingly, herbicide treatments that reduced mouse abundance by suppressing C. maculosa and its associated biocontrol food subsidies to mice also reduced seed predation and decreased the impact of deer mice on B. sagittata establishment. These results provide evidence that Urophora biocontrol agents may exacerbate the negative effects of C. maculosa on native plants through a form of second-order apparent competition-a biocontrol indirect effect that has not been previously documented. Herbicide suppressed C. maculosa and Urophora, reducing mouse populations and moderating seed predation on native plants

  9. A new look at the holotype and type locality of Setopagis maculosa (Todd, 1920) Aves: Caprimulgidae), with remarks on its systematic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago V V; Ingels, Johan; Cavarzere, Vagner; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-08-12

    Setopagis maculosa (Todd, 1920) (Aves: Caprimulgidae) was described based on a single male specimen collected by Samuel Milton Klages in French Guiana, northeastern South America. Since then, no new specimens have been collected nor have any reliable records been made, and the validity of the species has been questioned. A detailed analysis of the holotype reveals that it has unique and distinctive morphological traits that support the validity and taxonomic status of the species, which is provisionally placed in Setopagis. We present new information on the type locality at the time of its collection, which may shed some light on the habitat preferences of the species, and we provide details on its plumage that have been largely overlooked and that will be important for future field identification.

  10. Factors associated to cases of Brazilian Spotted Fever, Minas Gerais, 1995- 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Berger Calic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Calic S.B., Rocha C.M.B.M, Bruhn F.R.P., Barros R.A. & Leite R.C. [Factors associated to cases of Brazilian Spotted Fever, Minas Gerais, 1995- 2002.] Fatores associados aos casos de Febre Maculosa Brasileira frente aos suspeitos não confirmados, Minas Gerais, 1995 a 2002. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:239-244, 2015. Instituto Otávio Magalhães, Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Rua Conde Pereira Carneiro, 80, Gameleira, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510- 010, Brasil. E-mail: sbcalic@gmail.com The aim of this study was to evaluate factors and symptoms associated with confirmed cases of FMB in Minas Gerais. For this, was conducted a retrospective study using epidemiological records received by the Central Laboratory (LACEN of MG in the period 1995-2002. Cases were suspected patients after clinical and epidemiological assessment for BSF and seropositive for Rickettsia ricketsii (IFAT 1:64 in at least one serum sample. As negative suspects were those that have no seroconversion in two consecutive samples to BSF. After adjustment of multiple logistic regression analysis, only the occurrence of rash and seizures were associated with symptoms FMB. Using analysis of main components symptoms that characterized the cases were: rash, convulsions and coma. Moreover cases have a high relation with hospitalization and lack of similar cases. The FMB in Minas Gerais is a serious disease and need early diagnosis.

  11. Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Daniele Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e identificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73 e de eqüinos (18 foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17% mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica.

  12. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  13. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  14. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  15. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  16. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  17. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  18. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  19. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Centaurea tomentella Hand.-Mazz. and C. haussknechtii Boiss. (Asteraceae) collected wild in Turkey and their activity on microorganisms affecting historical art craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Modica, Aurora; Catinella, Giorgia; Canlı, Cem; Arasoglu, Tülin; Çelik, Sezgin

    2018-04-18

    In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Centaurea tomentella Hand.-Mazz. and C. haussknechtii Boiss. collected in Turkey was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of C. tomentella L. were hexadecanoic acid (19.7%), caryophyllene oxide (6.6%) and spathulenol (4.8%) whereas C. haussknechtii was rich in hexadecanoic acid (26.2%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (19.3%), heptacosane (5.3%) and nonacosane (5.1%). Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined.

  1. Razão de sexo e considerações sobre o sistema de acasalamento em Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815 (Aves, Tinamidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aldair Menegheti

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presente study on the mating of Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815 the tertiary and quaternary sex ratios were joined together The sex ratio was 1:1 or when deviated, favouring females When such deviations occur, they are probably due to quaternary sex ratio The inversion of sexual rôles could be responsible for the larger number of females, since males are more exposed to mortality risks The mating system in the Tinamidae is simultaneous poliginy for the male and sequential poliandry for the female, Emlen & Oring, 1977 Such complexity in the mating system results in a greater share among all individuals in the reproduction effort in relation to poliginy The sexual inativity of males for at least around 24 days after the begining of incubation, allows new males to participate in the reproductive effort The assumption that some of the females wuld be excluded from the reproductive effort when sex ratio is deviated in their favour, probably can not be held as true Bump & Bump, 1969, reported that 95% of the eggs examined (114 eggs, were fertile There are reasons to believe that neariy all females will successfully copulate under these circunstances

  2. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  3. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  5. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  6. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  7. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  8. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  9. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  10. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  11. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  12. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  13. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  14. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  15. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  16. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  17. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  19. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  20. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  1. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  4. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  5. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  7. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  8. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  9. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  10. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  12. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  13. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  14. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  15. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  16. Insect herbivory stimulates allelopathic exudation by an invasive plant and the suppression of natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles C. Thelen; Jorge M. Vivanco; Beth Newingham; William Good; Harsh P. Bais; Peter Landres; Anthony Caesar; Ragan M. Callaway

    2005-01-01

    Exotic invasive plants are often subjected to attack from imported insects as a method of biological control. A fundamental, but rarely explicitly tested, assumption of biological control is that damaged plants are less fit and compete poorly. In contrast, we find that one of the most destructive invasive plants in North America, Centaurea maculosa,...

  17. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  18. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped

  19. Collaboration Spotting for oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in

  20. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F.; Overmars, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  1. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  2. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  3. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  4. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  5. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  6. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  7. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  8. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  9. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  10. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, TK

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect

  11. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  12. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  14. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  16. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  19. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  20. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B

    2010-01-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  1. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  2. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  4. Plant neighbor identity influences plant biochemistry and physiology related to defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Lewis, Matthew R; Greene, Erick; Callaway, Ragan M; Sumner, Lloyd W; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2010-06-17

    Chemical and biological processes dictate an individual organism's ability to recognize and respond to other organisms. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that plants may be capable of recognizing and responding to neighboring plants in a species specific fashion. Here we tested whether or not individuals of the invasive exotic weed, Centaurea maculosa, would modulate their defensive strategy in response to different plant neighbors. In the greenhouse, C. maculosa individuals were paired with either conspecific (C. maculosa) or heterospecific (Festuca idahoensis) plant neighbors and elicited with the plant defense signaling molecule methyl jasmonate to mimic insect herbivory. We found that elicited C. maculosa plants grown with conspecific neighbors exhibited increased levels of total phenolics, whereas those grown with heterospecific neighbors allocated more resources towards growth. To further investigate these results in the field, we conducted a metabolomics analysis to explore chemical differences between individuals of C. maculosa growing in naturally occurring conspecific and heterospecific field stands. Similar to the greenhouse results, C. maculosa individuals accumulated higher levels of defense-related secondary metabolites and lower levels of primary metabolites when growing in conspecific versus heterospecific field stands. Leaf herbivory was similar in both stand types; however, a separate field study positively correlated specialist herbivore load with higher densities of C. maculosa conspecifics. Our results suggest that an individual C. maculosa plant can change its defensive strategy based on the identity of its plant neighbors. This is likely to have important consequences for individual and community success.

  5. Plant neighbor identity influences plant biochemistry and physiology related to defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callaway Ragan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and biological processes dictate an individual organism's ability to recognize and respond to other organisms. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that plants may be capable of recognizing and responding to neighboring plants in a species specific fashion. Here we tested whether or not individuals of the invasive exotic weed, Centaurea maculosa, would modulate their defensive strategy in response to different plant neighbors. Results In the greenhouse, C. maculosa individuals were paired with either conspecific (C. maculosa or heterospecific (Festuca idahoensis plant neighbors and elicited with the plant defense signaling molecule methyl jasmonate to mimic insect herbivory. We found that elicited C. maculosa plants grown with conspecific neighbors exhibited increased levels of total phenolics, whereas those grown with heterospecific neighbors allocated more resources towards growth. To further investigate these results in the field, we conducted a metabolomics analysis to explore chemical differences between individuals of C. maculosa growing in naturally occurring conspecific and heterospecific field stands. Similar to the greenhouse results, C. maculosa individuals accumulated higher levels of defense-related secondary metabolites and lower levels of primary metabolites when growing in conspecific versus heterospecific field stands. Leaf herbivory was similar in both stand types; however, a separate field study positively correlated specialist herbivore load with higher densities of C. maculosa conspecifics. Conclusions Our results suggest that an individual C. maculosa plant can change its defensive strategy based on the identity of its plant neighbors. This is likely to have important consequences for individual and community success.

  6. Dinâmica sazonal de carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae na mata ciliar de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa na região de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Savina Silvana Aparecida Lacerra de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A febre maculosa é mundialmente reconhecida como um problema reemergente de saúde pública. Na região de Campinas-SP, observam-se uma ampliação da área de transmissão do agente da doença e a ocorrência de um maior número de casos confirmados nos últimos anos. Nesta região, a maioria dos casos desta doença está quase sempre relacionada com o aumento populacional de capivaras, que são um dos principais hospedeiros primários do estádio adulto do carrapato Amblyomma cajennense. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o comportamento populacional de larvas, ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma spp no habitat de mata ciliar de uma área endêmica. De novembro de 2000 a outubro de 2002, carrapatos de vida livre foram coletados com armadilhas de CO2. Picos populacionais de larvas do gênero Amblyomma se estenderam por praticamente todos os meses do ano. Ninfas do gênero Amblyomma ocorreram o ano todo na mata ciliar, sendo mais abundantes de julho a dezembro. Adultos de A. cajennense foram mais abundantes na estação de primavera e verão. Adultos de A. dubitatum (=Amblyomma cooperi apresentaram um padrão sazonal diferenciado, com os maiores picos populacionais ocorrendo de agosto a fevereiro.

  7. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged

  8. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  9. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  10. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  11. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  12. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  13. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  14. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  15. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  16. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  17. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  18. Spot weld arrangement effects on the fatigue behavior of multi-spot welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanifard, Soran; Zehsaz, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Firooz

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of spot weld arrangements in multi-spot welded joints on the fatigue behavior of the joints are studied. Three different four-spot welded joints are considered: one-row four-spot parallel to the loading direction, one-row four-spot perpendicular to the loading direction and two-row four-spot weld specimens. The experimental fatigue test results reveal that the differences between the fatigue lives of three spot welded types in the low cycle regime are more considerable than those in the high cycle regime. However, all kinds of spot weld specimens have similar fatigue strength when approaching a million cycles. A non-linear finite element analysis is performed to obtain the relative stress gradients, effective distances and notch strength reduction factors based on the volumetric approach. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job in predicting the fatigue life of the multi-spot welded joints

  19. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  20. Relationship between hot spot residues and ligand binding hot spots in protein-protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Brandon S; Hall, David R; Vajda, Sandor; Whitty, Adrian; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-08-27

    In the context of protein-protein interactions, the term "hot spot" refers to a residue or cluster of residues that makes a major contribution to the binding free energy, as determined by alanine scanning mutagenesis. In contrast, in pharmaceutical research, a hot spot is a site on a target protein that has high propensity for ligand binding and hence is potentially important for drug discovery. Here we examine the relationship between these two hot spot concepts by comparing alanine scanning data for a set of 15 proteins with results from mapping the protein surfaces for sites that can bind fragment-sized small molecules. We find the two types of hot spots are largely complementary; the residues protruding into hot spot regions identified by computational mapping or experimental fragment screening are almost always themselves hot spot residues as defined by alanine scanning experiments. Conversely, a residue that is found by alanine scanning to contribute little to binding rarely interacts with hot spot regions on the partner protein identified by fragment mapping. In spite of the strong correlation between the two hot spot concepts, they fundamentally differ, however. In particular, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial interaction energy with a binding partner, there are additional topological requirements to be a hot spot for small molecule binding. Hence, only a minority of hot spots identified by alanine scanning represent sites that are potentially useful for small inhibitor binding, and it is this subset that is identified by experimental or computational fragment screening.

  1. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  2. Molecular and histological characterization of age spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseon; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Batzer, Jan; Hearing, Vincent J.; Kolbe, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Age spots, also called solar lentigines and lentigo senilis, are light brown to black pigmented lesions of various sizes that typically develop in chronically sun-exposed skin. It is well known that age spots are strongly related to chronic sun exposure and are associated with photodamage and an increased risk for skin cancer, however, the mechanism(s) underlying their development remain poorly understood. We used immunohistochemical analysis and microarray analysis to investigate the processes involved in their formation, focusing on specific markers associated with the functions and proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes. A total of 193 genes were differentially expressed in age spots but melanocyte pigment genes were not among them. The increased expression of keratins 5 and 10, markers of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, respectively, in age spots suggests that the increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes combined with the decreased turnover of suprabasal keratinocytes leads to the exaggerated formation of rete ridges in lesional epidermis which in turn disrupts the normal processing of melanin upwards from the basal layer. Based on our results, we propose a model for the development of age spots that explains the accumulation of melanin and the development of extensive rete ridges in those hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:27621222

  3. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  4. Spots on AG Virginis - paradigm or panacea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.A.; Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of contact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. (author)

  5. How much extra spot gas is there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Th.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of European gas demand and the sharp decrease of local supply, security of supply is becoming an ever greater issue. However, liberalization tilts the traditional equilibrium based on long term 'take or pay' contracts between big suppliers and national distribution companies. Today, buying gas on the spot market is becoming more and more important to balance supply portfolio with a fast moving market share. But the way gas spot markets are operating is not well documented. It is very difficult to assess its impact on the European security of supply. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the amount of 'spot' liquefied natural gas (LNG) that could be found in case of a major supply disruption in pipe gas delivered to Europe

  6. Laser Spot Center Detection and Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Fu, Deli; Hu, Cong

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency and precision of the pot center detection are the foundations of avionics instrument navigation and optics measurement basis for many applications. It has noticeable impact on overall system performance. Among them, laser spot detection is very important in the optical measurement technology. In order to improve the low accuracy of the spot center position, the algorithm is improved on the basis of the circle fitting. The pretreatment is used by circle fitting, and the improved adaptive denoising filter for TV repair technology can effectively improves the accuracy of the spot center position. At the same time, the pretreatment and de-noising can effectively reduce the influence of Gaussian white noise, which enhances the anti-jamming capability.

  7. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  8. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  9. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  10. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, R; James, B

    1998-10-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.

  11. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  12. Observations spotted solar type stars in Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnitskij, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    The september - october 1986 observations discovered periodic light variations in three solar type stars in the Pleiades cluster: Hz 296 (0.8 M Sun ), Hz152(0.91 M Sun ) and Hz739(1.15 M Sun ). Periods and amplitudes are accordingly 2 d and 0 m .11, 4 d .12 and 0 m .07, 2 d .70 and 0 m .05. Considerable light variations of these stars in Pleiades are due to the rotation of spotted stars. Contrast spots of solar type stars likely exist when stars are young and rapidly rotate

  13. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  15. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  16. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  17. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  18. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...

  19. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  20. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  1. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  2. Electricity spot price dynamics: Beyond financial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Graeme; Videbeck, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We reveal properties of electricity spot prices that cannot be captured by the statistical models, commonly used to model financial asset prices, that are increasingly used to model electricity prices. Using more than eight years of half-hourly spot price data from the New Zealand Electricity Market, we find that the half-hourly trading periods fall naturally into five groups corresponding to the overnight off-peak, the morning peak, daytime off-peak, evening peak, and evening off-peak. The prices in different trading periods within each group are highly correlated with each other, yet the correlations between prices in different groups are lower. Models, adopted from the modeling of security prices, that are currently applied to electricity spot prices are incapable of capturing this behavior. We use a periodic autoregression to model prices instead, showing that shocks in the peak periods are larger and less persistent than those in off-peak periods, and that they often reappear in the following peak period. In contrast, shocks in the off-peak periods are smaller, more persistent, and die out (perhaps temporarily) during the peak periods. Current approaches to modeling spot prices cannot capture this behavior either. (author)

  3. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  5. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  6. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojinda, N.; Pattanachak, C.; Chongchirasiri, S.; Pattanachak, S.; Putrasreni, N.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1990-01-01

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0 C) or 4 0 C or -20 0 C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  7. Evaluation of actual vs expected photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Brucker, Alexander J; Liu, Chengcheng; Cukras, Catherine A; Hopkins, Tim B; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2009-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser spot size on the retina as generated by 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers. Prospective observational case series. Fundus photographs were taken of 1 eye of each of 10 subjects with the WinStation 4000 fundus photography system (OIS; Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, California, USA); disc size was calculated using OIS software. Slit-lamp photographs were taken of the PDT laser spot focused on the retina adjacent to the optic disc, using various spot sizes in combination with 3 different contact lenses and 2 different lasers. Spot size at the retina was determined by measuring the ratio of disc diameter to spot diameter in Adobe Photoshop (San Jose, California, USA) and applying this ratio to the OIS disc measurements. Spot size at the retina averaged 87% of expected spot size for the Coherent Opal laser (Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA) and 104% of expected spot size for the Zeiss Visulas laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA)(P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percentage of expected spot size decreased with larger spot diameter (P = .01 for Coherent laser; P = .02 for Zeiss laser). PDT spot size at the retina appears to be consistently smaller than expected for the Coherent laser while the spot size was consistently within 10% of expected size for the Zeiss laser. The deviation from expected size increased with larger spot size using the Coherent laser.

  8. SpotCaliper: fast wavelet-based spot detection with accurate size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Sage, Daniel; Ward, John Paul; Unser, Michael

    2016-04-15

    SpotCaliper is a novel wavelet-based image-analysis software providing a fast automatic detection scheme for circular patterns (spots), combined with the precise estimation of their size. It is implemented as an ImageJ plugin with a friendly user interface. The user is allowed to edit the results by modifying the measurements (in a semi-automated way), extract data for further analysis. The fine tuning of the detections includes the possibility of adjusting or removing the original detections, as well as adding further spots. The main advantage of the software is its ability to capture the size of spots in a fast and accurate way. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/spotcaliper/ zsuzsanna.puspoki@epfl.ch Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  10. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume I. Biological,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    maculosa Le Sueur; calico bass, or Lake Erie bass, Pomoxis sparoides Lacepede. (SM) 52. Reardslee, Clark S. 1944. Bonapart’s gull on the Niagara...of the burbot, Lota lota maculosa (LeSueur), in Lake Erie. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 80:163-173. Growth studies were made on 2,329 Lake Erie burbot...almo -- hystus; whitefish, oe onus albus; common shad salmon, Coregonus a upelformis; aobony pike, Lepisosteus bison; spotted burbot, Lota maculosa ; and

  11. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  12. Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

  13. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  14. Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...d_spot.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_spot.zip F... cDNA. (multiple entries) About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  16. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  17. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells

    1964-01-01

    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  19. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  20. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  1. Spot på interaktive teknologier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Spot på interaktive teknologier Af Anthony Lewis Brooks, PhD Associate Professor, Aalborg University & Director SensoramaLab Den verdensomspændende paraplyorganisation for it-foreninger IFIP har netop afholdt sin årlige ”International Conference on Entertainment Computing”. Se her, hvad tre af top...... fra hele verden for at sætte fokus på, hvordan de nyeste teknologier inden for digital underholdning, kan bruges i forskellige sammenhænge. Bag begivenheden står IFIP, som DANSK IT er repræsenteret i. I år var der blandt andet spot på wearables og andre interaktive teknologier. Leila Alem fra den...

  2. SPOT: the door to digital innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    AREVA NP has opened in Lyon a small department, named SPOT, whose aim is to develop innovative digital technologies such as CAVE and MODOP'3D. CAVE, that is the acronym of Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, is a large screen that splits the room in half and shows the virtual copy of the Astrid reactor. Viewers can wander inside the reactor and its building through the screen and sees all the details of the design. CAVE represents a complete virtual 3-dimension prototype of the Astrid reactor whose aim is to help assessing any change in the design. MODOP'3D is a virtual maintenance tool that allows the operator to simulate reactor maintenance operations in a 3-dimensional way in order to assess their feasibility and optimize them. Exoskeletons whose purpose is to help operators to handle heavy loads are also tested at SPOT. (A.C.)

  3. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  4. spots de campaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Juárez Gámiz

    2007-01-01

    publicidad política en televisión. Ilustrado por los spots televisivos, el debate se ha centrado en el alto costo que representa para los contribuyentes, a través de los partidos políticos, la producción y transmisión de estos mensajes. El presente trabajo consiste en un análisis de contenido de una muestra de spots transmitidos por las tres principales fuerzas electorales en México durante la campaña presidencial de 2006. El objetivo es identificar, de manera sistemática, características particulares en el formato y contenido de estos mensajes a la luz de su función persuasiva e informativa.

  5. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  6. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  7. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  9. Spot på fysisk aktivitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Børge; Bertelsen, Katrine; Sørensen, Karsten

    Bogen henvender sig primært til det pædagogiske personale i skolen, som ønsker inspiration og viden til, hvordan man aktivt kan inddrage eleverne i en bevægelsesorden, som lægger op til, at eleverne lærer at forholde sig til deres forskellige bevægelsesareaner der fylder deres hverdag. "PlaySpot...

  10. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C.

    2006-01-01

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3ω high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3ω (a 3ω laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 μm and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 ± 45) μm

  11. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień

    2015-01-01

    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  12. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  13. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  14. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cunha N.C., Lemos E.R.S., Rozental T., Teixeira R.C., Cordeiro M.D., Lisbôa R.S., Favacho A.R., Barreira J.D., Rezende J. & Fonseca A.H. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães, equinos e carrapatos: um estudo epidemiológico em região endêmica do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:294-300, 2014. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: adivaldo@ufrrj.br Spotted fever is a disease of which Rickettsia rickettsii is the most pathogenic agent. Its transmission is by tick bites and the infected ticks can act as vectors, reservoirs or amplifiers. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential of dogs and horses as sentinels for brazilian spotted fever (BSF emergence and become acquainted with the tick species in a municipal region of Resende, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where five BSF cases in man were registered. Dog and horse blood samples were collected from rural and periurban properties to assess IgG anti-Rickettsia rickettsii, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. First, an analysis was conducted to detect association between IFA results and answers obtained from a questionnaire. Afterwards, a multivariate investigation was undertaken that presented significant statistical differences. Ticks were collected directly from dogs and horses for taxonomic identification. Out of the 107 canine serum samples, 30 (28.0% were reactive, with titers varying from 1:64 to 1:4096, and 77 (72.0% were not reactive. Of 96 animals in the serum analysis of horses, 9 (9.4% were reactive, all with titers of 1:64, and 87 (90.6% were non-reactive. The tick species collected from dogs were

  15. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  16. A novel word spotting method based on recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinken, Volkmar; Fischer, Andreas; Manmatha, R; Bunke, Horst

    2012-02-01

    Keyword spotting refers to the process of retrieving all instances of a given keyword from a document. In the present paper, a novel keyword spotting method for handwritten documents is described. It is derived from a neural network-based system for unconstrained handwriting recognition. As such it performs template-free spotting, i.e., it is not necessary for a keyword to appear in the training set. The keyword spotting is done using a modification of the CTC Token Passing algorithm in conjunction with a recurrent neural network. We demonstrate that the proposed systems outperform not only a classical dynamic time warping-based approach but also a modern keyword spotting system, based on hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of the underlying neural networks when using them in a recognition task followed by keyword spotting on the produced transcription. We point out the advantages of keyword spotting when compared to classic text line recognition.

  17. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  18. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  19. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  20. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  1. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ air ) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. (note)

  2. Laser spot detection based on reaction diffusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, R.; Duro, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-11, č. článku 315. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spot detection * laser beam detection * reaction diffusion models * Fitzhugh-Nagumo model * reaction diffusion computation * Turing patterns Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  3. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Fowler, Jack F.

    2002-01-01

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ 50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of

  4. Spot Welding Characterizations With Time Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; History; Paidjo, Andryansyah; Sagino, Sudarmin; Tamzil, M.

    2001-01-01

    For obtain spot welding used effective data, this research is made, so that time operational of machine increasing. Welding parameters are material classification, electrical current, and weld time. All of the factors are determined welding quality. If the plate more thick, the time must be longer when the current constant. Another factor as determined welding quality are surface condition of electrode, surface condition of weld material, and material classifications. In this research, the weld machine type IP32A2 VI (110 V), Rivoira trademark is characterized

  5. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  6. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  7. PENGARUH KURS SPOT DAN KURS FORWARD DALAM MEMPREDIKSI FUTURE SPOT PADA PASAR VALAS KAWASAN ASIA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Kade Diana Yanthi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the activity in foreign exchange occur as the result of the development of international trading and increased international money and capital movement. The vast development of international economic  caused  economic relationship  among  countries  will  be  linked  to  each other  and  subsequently improve trading activities in their goods, money and capital flows. The variables used in this study are spot, forward  and future  spot. Based  on  the result  of Regression  Estimation  applied in  hypothesis on foreign currencies exchange which done simultaneously are proven able to predict future spot. The investor and international economic  actor could use spot  exchange rate and forward  exchange rate as a  short terms predictor for the next trimester in 2011.

  8. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  9. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  10. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  11. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator.

  12. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  13. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  14. Insights from ecological niche modeling on the taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckoes (Gekko gecko)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yueyun; Chen, Chongtao; Li, Li; Zhao, Chengjian; Chen, Weicai; Huang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The black-spotted tokay and the red-spotted tokay are morphologically distinct and have largely allopatric distributions. The black-spotted tokay is characterized by a small body size and dark skin with sundry spots, while the red-spotted tokay has a relatively large body size and red spots. Based on morphological, karyotypic, genetic, and distribution differences, recent studies suggested their species status; however, their classifications remain controversial, and additional data such as e...

  15. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  16. Spot Ignition of Natural Fuels by Hot Metal Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, James Linwood

    2017-01-01

    The spot ignition of combustible material by hot metal particles is an important pathway by which wildland and urban spot fires and smolders are started. Upon impact with a fuel, such as dry grass, duff, or saw dust, these particles can initiate spot fires by direct flaming or smoldering which can transition to a flame. These particles can be produced by processes such as welding, powerline interactions, fragments from bullet impacts, abrasive cutting, and pyrotechnics. There is little publi...

  17. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  18. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  19. Cellular localization of the Escherichia coli SpoT protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, D R; Cashel, M

    1995-01-01

    The SpoT protein of Escherichia coli serves as a source of degradation as well as an apparent source of synthesis of (p)ppGpp. Since the subcellular localization of SpoT might be a clue to its function, we have used SpoT-specific antisera to analyze cell extracts fractionated on sucrose gradients. We find that the SpoT protein is not bound to ribosomes or to either inner or outer membrane fractions. Although the SpoT protein is found in large aggregates, its localization is probably cytosolic.

  20. Impact of spot charge inaccuracies in IMPT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke C; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2017-08-01

    Spot charge is one parameter of pencil-beam scanning dose delivery system whose accuracy is typically high but whose required value has not been investigated. In this work we quantify the dose impact of spot charge inaccuracies on the dose distribution in patients. Knowing the effect of charge errors is relevant for conventional proton machines, as well as for new generation proton machines, where ensuring accurate charge may be challenging. Through perturbation of spot charge in treatment plans for seven patients and a phantom, we evaluated the dose impact of absolute (up to 5× 10 6 protons) and relative (up to 30%) charge errors. We investigated the dependence on beam width by studying scenarios with small, medium and large beam sizes. Treatment plan statistics included the Γ passing rate, dose-volume-histograms and dose differences. The allowable absolute charge error for small spot plans was about 2× 10 6 protons. Larger limits would be allowed if larger spots were used. For relative errors, the maximum allowable error size for small, medium and large spots was about 13%, 8% and 6% for small, medium and large spots, respectively. Dose distributions turned out to be surprisingly robust against random spot charge perturbation. Our study suggests that ensuring spot charge errors as small as 1-2% as is commonly aimed at in conventional proton therapy machines, is clinically not strictly needed. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kundavaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpura fulminans (PF is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India.

  2. Effect of ambient humidity on the rate at which blood spots dry and the size of the spot produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniff, Philip; Woodford, Lynsey; Spooner, Neil

    2013-08-01

    For shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) samples must be sufficiently dry to protect the integrity of the sample. When the blood is spotted the humidity has the potential to affect the size of the spot created and the speed at which it dries. The area of DBS produced on three types of substrates were not affected by the humidity under which they were generated. DBS samples reached a steady moisture content 150 min after spotting and 90 min for humidities less than 60% relative humidity. All packaging materials examined provided some degree of protection from external extreme conditions. However, none of the packaging examined provided a total moisture barrier to extreme environmental conditions. Humidity was shown not to affect the spot area and DBS samples were ready for shipping and storage 2 h after spotting. The packing solutions examined all provided good protection from external high humidity conditions.

  3. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  4. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  5. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  6. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  7. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  8. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  9. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach.

  10. Tuning temperature and size of hot spots and hot-spot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Elika; Babinet, Nicolas; Lalouat, Loïc; Lesueur, Jérôme; Aigouy, Lionel; Volz, Sébastian; Labéguerie-Egéa, Jessica; Mortier, Michel

    2011-01-17

    By using scanning thermal microscopy, it is shown that nanoscale constrictions in metallic microwires deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate can be tuned in terms of temperature and confinement size. High-resolution temperature maps indeed show that submicrometer hot spots and hot-spot arrays are obtained when the SiO(2) layer thickness decreases below 100 nm. When the SiO(2) thickness becomes larger, heat is less confined in the vicinity of the constrictions and laterally spreads all along the microwire. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which provide dependences between silica-layer thickness and nanodot shape and temperature. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. MASCEM: EPEX SPOT Day-Ahead market integration and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Fernandes, Ricardo; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    . It is crucial to MASCEM to have the ability to simulate as many market models and player types as possible, thus enhancing the ability to recreate the electricity markets reality in its maximum possible extent. This paper presents the EPEX Spot Day-Ahead market integration in MASCEM. EPEX Spot SE's mission...

  12. Blind spot detection & passive lane change assist systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surovtcev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The project goal was design and implementation of proof-of-concept for two systems that aim to tackle the blind spot problem of for the commercial vehicles: Blind Spot Detection and Passive Lane Change Assist functions. The system implementation was done using Rapid Control Prototype (RCP) hardware.

  13. Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene - genstandstekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave......genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave...

  14. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  15. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  16. Characterizing and identifying black spot resistance genes in polyploid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses (Rosa hybrida) is under constant threat from foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Fungicides are primarily used to manage black spot; however, there is a high consumer demand for disease resistant roses which eliminate the nee...

  17. Dissecting black spot resistance in polyploid hybrid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devastating foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae, pose constant threats to the ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses. Black spot is primarily managed though the use of fungicides, however, there is a high demand for resistant roses which require low chemical inputs. To...

  18. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  19. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  20. Risks versus savings in the international spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalus, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the international spot market, some of its risks and difficulties, and examples of the ways potential savings can be realized. Fuel cycle goods and services available in the international spot market include uranium as U 3 O 8 , natural UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , conversion services, and enriching services

  1. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  2. Food habits of Mexican Spotted Owls in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    1992-01-01

    The Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) is most common in mature and old-growth coniferous forests throughout much of its range (Forsman et al. 1984, Laymon 1988, Ganey and Balda 1989a, Thomas et al. 1990). Proximate factors underlying habitat selection in Spotted Owls are understood poorly. Abundance and availability of food, however, may be a key...

  3. Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja), Ecuador: A Strategic Black Spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army...REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A...Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army Colonel Juan C

  4. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  5. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... in the spot price dynamics. Estimation of the spatial Durbin model show that the spatial lag variable is as important as the temporal lag variable in describing the spot price dynamics. We use the partial derivatives impact approach to decompose the price impacts into direct and indirect effects and we show...... that price effects transmit to neighboring markets and decline with distance. In order to examine the evolution of the spatial correlation over time, a time varying parameters spot price spatial Durbin model is estimated using recursive estimation. It is found that the spatial correlation within the Nord...

  6. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org.

  7. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  8. Detecting hot spots at hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluating the need for remedial cleanup at a waste site involves both finding the average contaminant concentration and identifying highly contaminated areas, or hot spots. A nomographic procedure to determine the sample configuration needed to locate a hot spot is presented. The technique can be used to develop a waste-site sampling plant - to determine either the grid spacing required to detect a hot spot at a given level of confidence, or the probability of finding a hot spot of a certain size, given a particular grid spacing. The method and computer program (ELIPGRID) were developed for locating geologic deposits, but the basic procedure can also be used to detect hot spots at chemical- or nuclear-waste disposal sites. Nomographs based on the original program are presented for three sampling-grid configurations - square, rectangular and triangular

  9. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  10. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  11. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  12. Effects of spot parameters in pencil beam scanning treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2018-01-01

    Spot size σ (in air at isocenter), interspot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility. Our study could help as a guideline to make the trade-off between treatment quality and time in existing PBS centers and in future systems. We created plans for seven patients and a phantom, with different tumor sites and volumes, and compared the effect of small-, medium-, and large-spot widths (σ = 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and interspot distances (1σ, 1.5σ, and 1.75σ) on dose, spot charge, and treatment time. Moreover, we quantified how postplanning charge threshold cuts affect plan quality and the total number of spots to deliver, for different spot widths and interspot distances. We show the effect of a minimum charge (or MU) cutoff value for a given proton delivery system. Spot size had a strong influence on dose: larger spots resulted in more protons delivered outside the target region. We observed dose differences of 2-13 Gy (RBE) between 2.5 mm and 10 mm spots, where the amount of extra dose was due to dose penumbra around the target region. Interspot distance had little influence on dose quality for our patient group. Both parameters strongly influence spot charge in the plans and thus the possible impact of postplanning charge threshold cuts. If such charge thresholds are not included in the treatment planning system (TPS), it is important that the practitioner validates that a given combination of lower charge threshold, interspot spacing, and spot size does not result in a plan degradation. Low average spot charge occurs for small spots, small interspot

  13. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  14. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Bunkin, Alexey F.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed ...

  15. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  16. Circulação de Rickettsias do Grupo da Febre Maculosa em cães no entorno de Unidades de Conservação Federais do estado do Rio de Janeiro: evidência sorológica e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Doenças causadas por rickettsias tem ampla distribuição geográfica e estão associadas a artrópodes hematófagos. Rickettsia rickettsii é espécie mais patogênica do Grupo da Febre Maculosa (GFM e responsável pela Febre Maculosa Brasileira. No sudeste do país a doença é endêmica e inquéritos sorológicos tem demonstrado presença de anticorpos para antígenos do GFM em cães, reforçando a participação do cão como sentinela. Os principais vetores são carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, cujos hospedeiros são, muitas vezes, animais de vida silvestre. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a circulação de rickettsias do GFM no entorno de Unidades de Conservação (UC no Rio de Janeiro por meio da Imunofluorescência Indireta em cães, além de determinar os fatores associados. Amostras de soro de 155 cães foram testadas, sendo 16,1% dos animais sororreagentes pelo menos a um dos antígenos testados. Houve associação entre a sororreatividade dos cães e o acesso à mata; falta de assistência médico-veterinária; falta de medidas contra carrapatos; e renda familiar do responsável de até dois salários mínimos. Cães com este perfil apresentaram maior chance de serem expostos aos agentes do GFM. De acordo com o modelo de regressão logística, não frequentar áreas de mata foi considerado um fator de proteção para o cão, juntamente com possuir acompanhamento médico-veterinário e receber medidas contra carrapatos. Concluiu-se que patógenos do GFM circulam no entorno das UC estudadas, sendo possível que R. rickettsii e R. parkeri infectem cães, uma vez que os animais demonstraram exposição aos dois agentes. Ressalta-se a participação do veterinário e a adoção de medidas de combate a carrapatos como ferramentas na prevenção da infecção rickettsial.

  17. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  18. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  19. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  20. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  1. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  2. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  3. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-An Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single-spot group. Clinical examination, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:The mean follow-up time was 28.5±8.0 months in the overlapping-spot group and 27.0±5.0 months in the single-spot group. Nine patients (64.2% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and five patients showed stable visual acuity in the overlapping-spot group. The mean thickness of tumor decreased from 2.7±0.8mm to 1.2±0.9mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.4±1.5mm to 4.5±3.5mm after treatment. In the single-spot group, two patients (25% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and six patients had unchanged stable vision. The mean tumor thickness in this group decreased from 2.5±0.7mm to 1.4±1.0mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.2±1.3mm to 4.7±3.6mm. No significant differences in visual improvement and tumor regression were found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Overlapping-spot PDT under appropriate treatment parameters and strategies is as effective and safe as single-spot PDT for treating symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Improved or stabilized visual acuity was achieved as a result of tumor regression.

  4. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  5. The design of LMJ focal spots for indirect drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Garrec, B J; Sajer, J M

    2008-01-01

    LMJ is a 240 high power laser beam facility for achieving laser matter interaction experiments, high energy density science, including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. The Laser Integration Line (LIL) facility is currently a 4-beam prototype for LMJ. The intensity I 0 at the focal spot centre drives hydrodynamic and plasma instabilities and the intensity in the wings must be low to go through the laser entrance Hohlraum. A simple model has been developed to compute the LMJ focal spot. The model gives the intensity at the centre as a function of the focal spot area at 3% of the maximum

  6. Design of a cost-effective laser spot tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Göktuǧ Gencehan; Sari, Hüseyin

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important aspects of guided systems is detection. The most convenient detection in the sense of precision can be achieved with a laser spot tracker. This study deals with a military grade, high performance and cost-effective laser spot tracker for a guided system. The aim is to develop a high field of view system that will detect a laser spot from a distance of 3 kilometers in which the target is designated from 3 kilometers with a laser. The study basically consists of the system design, modeling, producing and the conducting performance tests of the whole system.

  7. Spot: a new Monte Carlo solver for fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The predictive transport code CRONOS has been augmented by an orbit following Monte Carlo code, SPOT (Simulation of Particle Orbits in a Tokamak). The SPOT code simulates the dynamics of nonthermal particles, and takes into account effects of finite orbit width and collisional transport of fast ions. Recent developments indicate that it might be difficult to avoid, at least transiently, current holes in a reactor. They occur already on existing tokamaks during advanced tokamak scenarios. The SPOT code has been used to study the alpha particle behaviour in the presence of current holes for both JET and ITER relevant parameters. (authors)

  8. Reflections on the reporting of the uranium spot price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Reporting of the Spot Uranium Price does not represent the uranium market, but actually represents the extremities of a market. The Spot Prices tend to cause instabilities in the market if relied upon too heavily and an excessive use will actually support a questionable transition from a fuel supply industry to a commodities industry. Utility fuel buyers and uranium sellers must be careful how they use the Spot Price, or they will continue to create an unstable supply/demand relationship. But, since we all rely upon statistics for the illusion of independence, we may get the commodities market, assisted along by the information people, whether we want it or not

  9. Ignition of a reactive solid by an inert hot spot

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán Martínez, Amable; Kindelan Gómez, Manuel

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the description of the ignition of a reactive media by inert hot bodies of finite size, when the activation energy of the reaction is large. The analysis leads to closed-form relations for the minimum "critical" size of the hot spot resulting in ignition and for the ignition time by hot spots of supercritical size. The analysis is carried out, first, for inert spots with heat conductivities and diff usivities of the order of those of the reactive media,...

  10. Spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Márcio Antônio Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cases occurred in May and June of 2000. During this period there were two deaths among children from an area named Pedreira in a periurban area of this municipality. In a boy who died with clinical manifestations of Brazilian spotted fever, a necropsy revealed the presence of a spotted fever group Rickettsia. The serological results confirm the difficulty in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of rickettsial diseases.

  11. Spots educativos : un modelo de evaluación creativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montalvo-Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se precisan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los spots comerciales, sociales y educativos. Se analizan el problema de la eficacia de los spots y el papel de la creatividad. Además, se plantea la necesidad de contar con un modelo apropiado de evaluación de spots educativos que tome en cuenta ciertos principios de la teoría del aprendizaje significativo de David Ausubel. Finalmente, se diseña y propone un modelo de evaluación creativa —tipo lista de cotejo— que es sometido a una prueba experimental y cuyos resultados apoyan el planteamiento.

  12. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  13. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  14. Scattering of traveling spots in dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Teramoto, Takashi; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2005-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions for self-organization in pattern formation is how spatial periodic structure is spontaneously formed starting from a localized fluctuation. It is known in dissipative systems that splitting dynamics is one of the driving forces to create many particle-like patterns from a single seed. On the way to final state there occur many collisions among them and its scattering manner is crucial to predict whether periodic structure is realized or not. We focus on the colliding dynamics of traveling spots arising in a three-component system and study how the transition of scattering dynamics is brought about. It has been clarified that hidden unstable patterns called "scattors" and their stable and unstable manifolds direct the traffic flow of orbits before and after collisions. The collision process in general can be decomposed into several steps and each step is controlled by such a scattor, in other words, a network among scattors forms the backbone for scattering dynamics. A variety of input-output relations comes from the complexity of the network as well as high Morse indices of the scattor. The change of transition manners is caused by the switching of the network from one structure to another, and such a change is caused by the singularities of scattors. We illustrate a typical example of the change of transition caused by the destabilization of the scattor. A new instability of the scattor brings a new destination for the orbit resulting in a new input-output relation, for instance, Hopf instability for the scattor of peanut type brings an annihilation.

  15. TEVA-SPOT-GUI - Containing Preliminary Flow Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ZIP file contains the developmental, test version of TEVA-SPOT-GUI's Flow Model. The Flow Model is a new, event based water quality algorithm for EPANET. The...

  16. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  17. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  18. The four spot time-of-flight laser anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1985-01-01

    The newly constructed, four-spot anemometer was shown to perform as predicted. The new anemometer's measurement region has the required characteristics: wide acceptance angle and high spatial selectivity to permit measurements in turbulent, hostile environments.

  19. Blind spot monitoring in light vehicles -- system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes findings of a small population study of blind spot monitoring systems (BSM) installed by : original vehicle manufacturers on standard production vehicles. The primary goals of these tests were to simulate real-world driving sce...

  20. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  1. Genetic characterization of angular leaf spot resistance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Tryphone

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Angular leaf spot disease (ALS) caused by Pseudocercospora griseola is one ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms ... that results in shrivelled seeds of reduced size and quality.

  2. prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-02-17

    Feb 17, 2017 ... Angular leaf spot (Pseudocercospora griseola Crous U, Brown) is one of the ..... Incidence of six foliar bean diseases in two agro ecological zones of eastern Democratic Republic of .... use of poor quality farmer-saved seed.

  3. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  5. Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebbal Habib

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) and ... pedestrians avoiding the use of pedestrian bridges/aid even when they are available. ..... not minding an unforeseen obstruction, miscalculations and wrong break.

  7. Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Resende, de R.

    1993-01-01

    In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie,

  8. Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.

  9. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Automotive steels; resistance spot welding; mechanical properties; nucleus geometry. 1. .... High va- lues of hardness can be explained with martensitic forma- ... interface of DP450–DP600 steels may have stainless steel properties.

  10. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  11. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  12. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  15. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  17. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Spot Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M

    2004-01-01

    ... image that better distinguishes masses from overlapping tissues. Preliminary studies with a prototype device and breast simulating test objects showed promise, but spot compression didn't always separate the tissues as much as desired...

  19. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  20. Stress hot spots in viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A D; Li, J; Rohrer, G S; Lebensohn, R A; Groeber, M; Choi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals under uniaxial loading is investigated to determine the relationship between hot spots in stress and their location in relation to the microstructure. A 3D full-field formulation based on fast Fourier transforms for the prediction of the viscoplastic deformation of poly-crystals is used with rate-sensitive crystal plasticity. Two measured polycrystalline structures are used to instantiate the simulations, as well as a fully periodic synthetic polycrystal adapted from a simulation of grain growth. Application of (Euclidean) distance maps shows that hot spots in stress tend to occur close to grain boundaries. It is also found that low stress regions lie close to boundaries. The radial distribution function of the hot spots indicates clustering. Despite the lack of texture in the polycrystals, the hot spots are strongly concentrated in (1 1 0) orientations, which can account for the observed clustering. All three microstructures yield similar results despite significant differences in topology

  1. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  2. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  3. Use of roadway attributes in hot spot identification and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research focuses on the addition of roadway attributes in the selection and analysis of hot spots. This : is in conjunction with the framework for highway safety mitigation in Utah with its six primary steps: network : screening, diagnosis...

  4. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  5. Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease ... OPERON primer pairs were used to screen genomic DNA from two resistant cultivars: Calcutta 4 ( ..... Blomme G, Eden-Green S, Mustaffa M, Nwauzoma B, Thangavelu R.

  6. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed ... Introduction. White spot ... denatured conditions and renatured by successive 12 h incu- bations with 6, 4, ...

  7. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis; Moyers, Michael F.; Gao, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter

  8. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng, E-mail: chen.ccc@gmail.com; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 (United States); Moyers, Michael F. [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 and Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai 201321 (China); Gao, Mingcheng [CDH Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  9. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  10. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  11. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies......-orthodontic white spot lesions. Further well-performed controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to establish best clinical practice....

  12. SPOT-A SENSOR PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION TOOL FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    journal article This paper presents SPOT, a Sensor Placement Optimization Tool. SPOT provides a toolkit that facilitates research in sensor placement optimization and enables the practical application of sensor placement solvers to real-world CWS design applications. This paper provides an overview of SPOT’s key features, and then illustrates how this tool can be flexibly applied to solve a variety of different types of sensor placement problems.

  13. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  14. Investigation of Thermal Stress Distribution in Laser Spot Welding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Osamah F. Abdulateef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the laser spot welding process of low carbon steel sheet. The investigations were based on analytical and finite element analyses. The analytical analysis was focused on a consistent set of equations representing interaction of the laser beam with materials. The numerical analysis based on 3-D finite element analysis of heat flow during laser spot welding taken into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent heat of transf...

  15. Delayed hot spots in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.

    1991-01-01

    In a low energy Mather-type plasma focus device, hot spots having temperature in the range of few keV have been observed even 1 μs after the pinch disintegration and in regions away from the pinch area. These hot spots are perhaps created by the thermal runaway due to temperature fluctuations in the background gas. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  16. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Arango , Carlos ,; Alata , Olivier; Emonet , Rémi; Legrand , Anne-Claire; Konik , Hubert

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  17. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  18. Cover of tall trees best predicts California spotted owl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Jonathan T. Kane; Van R. Kane; Gregory P. Asner; William Berigan; Derek J. Churchill; Scott Conway; R.J. Gutiérrez; Sean Jeronimo; John Keane; Alexander Koltunov; Tina Mark; Monika Moskal; Thomas Munton; Zachary Peery; Carlos Ramirez; Rahel Sollmann; Angela White; Sheila Whitmore

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of western dry forests in the USA often focuses on reducing fuel loads. In the range of the spotted owl, these treatments may reduce canopy cover and tree density, which could reduce preferred habitat conditions for the owl and other sensitive species. In particular, high canopy cover (≥70%) has been widely reported to be an important feature of spotted owl...

  19. Seasonality in cocoa spot and forward markets: empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfo, S.; Geman, Hélyette

    2012-01-01

    This paper first describes the main features of supply and demand in cocoa spot markets. A state- variable model is proposed to describe the random evolution of cocoa forward curves over time, which essentially adapts to agricultural commodities, introduced by Borovkova and Geman (2006) for energy. In contrast to most of the literature on the subject, the first state variable is not the spot price, as it combines seasonal and stochastic features and may not be observable, instead, the average...

  20. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  1. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  2. Damage tolerance reliability analysis of automotive spot-welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Ni Kan

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a damage tolerance reliability analysis methodology for automotive spot-welded joints under multi-axial and variable amplitude loading history. The total fatigue life of a spot weld is divided into two parts, crack initiation and crack propagation. The multi-axial loading history is obtained from transient response finite element analysis of a vehicle model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a simplified joint with four spot welds is developed for static stress/strain analysis. A probabilistic Miner's rule is combined with a randomized strain-life curve family and the stress/strain analysis result to develop a strain-based probabilistic fatigue crack initiation life prediction for spot welds. Afterwards, the fatigue crack inside the base material sheet is modeled as a surface crack. Then a probabilistic crack growth model is combined with the stress analysis result to develop a probabilistic fatigue crack growth life prediction for spot welds. Both methods are implemented with MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/FATIGUE software, and are useful for reliability assessment of automotive spot-welded joints against fatigue and fracture

  3. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.

    1998-01-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  4. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G; Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E; Haekli, J [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  5. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  6. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  7. Model for calculation of spot prices and uncertainties integration; Modelo de calculo de precos spot e integracao de incertezas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva, J. Tome [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: jsaraiva@inescn.pt

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model for systematic and structured impact evaluation of the uncertainties existent in the load powers, on the spot prices on the various bars of a electric power system. The application developed allows the specification of load power as inaccurate trapezoidal numbers and adopts the DC model for the representation of system exploration conditions. Considering the influence of the loss power on the formulation of a spot prices spatial distribution, the model allows the inclusion of transmission network loss estimation. The results correspond to appurtenance functions of spot prices in each barm, consisting of a discrete set of ordered pais which integrates the spot price values and the appurtenance or compatibility level, in accordance with Fuzzy Sets.

  8. Judging a salmon by its spots: environmental variation is the primary determinant of spot patterns in Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Solberg, Monica F; Besnier, Francois; Thorsen, Anders; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Skaala, Øystein; Malde, Ketil; Glover, Kevin A

    2018-04-12

    In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage). Fish were measured, photographed and spot patterns evaluated. In the Hatchery experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.4-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.7-fold spottier than domesticated). A heritability of 6% was calculated for spot density, and a significant QTL on linkage group SSA014 was detected. In the River experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were also observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.2-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.8-fold spottier than domesticated). Domesticated salmon were sevenfold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. While different wild populations were used for the two experiments, on average, these were 6.2-fold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. Fish in the Hatchery experiment displayed scattered to random spot patterns while fish in the River experiment displayed clustered spot patterns. These data demonstrate that while genetics plays an underlying role, environmental variation represents the primary determinant of spot pattern development in Atlantic salmon.

  9. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials 4D Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ≈3mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor ~2.8 compared to a larger spot size (σ≈13mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V20 are interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments employing smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the dose distribution and lower 2y-LC. PMID:23462423

  10. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu, E-mail: dongxu-wang@uiowa.edu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  11. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems

  12. Small laser spot versus standard laser spot photodynamic therapy for idiopathic choroidal neovascularization: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-xin; Tao, Yong

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV) affects young patients and thus may have a significant impact on vision and life quality over a patient's lifespan. This study was designed to compare the visual outcome and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage after photodynamic therapy (PDT) with small laser spot and PDT with standard laser spot for idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV). This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty-two patients with ICNV were enrolled and randomly divided into a study group (small laser spot PDT, n = 27) and a control group (standard laser spot PDT, n = 25). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optic coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) findings were the main measurements. The patients were followed up 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 9 months and 1 year after PDT. BCVA improvement was statistically significantly higher in the study group than the control group at 6-month ((25.53 ± 15.01) letters vs. (14.71 ± 11.66) letters, P = 0.025) and 9-month follow-ups ((27.53 ± 17.78) letters vs. (15.59 ± 12.21) letters, P = 0.039). At 3- and 6-month follow-ups, the quadrants of RPE damage between the two groups varied significantly (P laser spot PDT group than in the standard laser spot PDT group for ICNV.

  13. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  14. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published spot quotes to consider...

  15. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets for...

  16. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quotations in bona fide spot markets. 27.96 Section 27... Differences § 27.96 Quotations in bona fide spot markets. The price or value and differences between the price... determined by the sale of spot cotton in such spot market. Quotations shall be determined and maintained in...

  17. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor.

  18. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor

  19. Welding of Low Alloy Steel DIN 15Mo3 by MIG/MAG Spot

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib

    2006-01-01

    ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (MIG/MAG spot) ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? (DIN15Mo3) ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???????" ??? ?????? ??? ????. ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? CO2 ????" ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? (13%) ???? (4mm) ???? (2sec). ?...

  20. Spatiotemporal chaos of self-replicating spots in reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Ouyang, Qi

    2007-11-23

    The statistical properties of self-replicating spots in the reaction-diffusion Gray-Scott model are analyzed. In the chaotic regime of the system, the spots that dominate the spatiotemporal chaos grow and divide in two or decay into the background randomly and continuously. The rates at which the spots are created and decay are observed to be linearly dependent on the number of spots in the system. We derive a probabilistic description of the spot dynamics based on the statistical independence of spots and thus propose a characterization of the spatiotemporal chaos dominated by replicating spots.

  1. Vocal complexity and sociality in spotted paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Stella G C; Sousa-Lima, Renata S; Tokumaru, Rosana S; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Nogueira, Selene S C

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sociality is related to many ecological factors that act on animals as selective forces, thus driving the formation of groups. Group size will depend on the payoffs of group living. The Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communication (SCHC) predicts that increases in group size will be related to increases in the complexity of the communication among individuals. This hypothesis, which was confirmed in some mammal societies, may be useful to trace sociality in the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical caviomorph rodent reported as solitary. There are, however, sightings of groups in the wild, and farmers easily form groups of spotted paca in captivity. Thus, we aimed to describe the acoustic repertoire of captive spotted paca to test the SCHC and to obtain insights about the sociability of this species. Moreover, we aimed to verify the relationship between group size and acoustic repertoire size of caviomorph rodents, to better understand the evolution of sociality in this taxon. We predicted that spotted paca should display a complex acoustic repertoire, given their social behavior in captivity and group sightings in the wild. We also predicted that in caviomorph species the group size would increase with acoustic repertoire, supporting the SCHC. We performed a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on acoustic parameters of the vocalizations recorded. In addition, we applied an independent contrasts approach to investigate sociality in spotted paca following the social complexity hypothesis, independent of phylogeny. Our analysis showed that the spotted paca's acoustic repertoire contains seven vocal types and one mechanical signal. The broad acoustic repertoire of the spotted paca might have evolved given the species' ability to live in groups. The relationship between group size and the size of the acoustic repertoires of caviomorph species was confirmed, providing additional support for the SCHC in yet another group of diverse mammals

  2. Locating the Great Red Spot: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Stapleton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Red Spot, a persistent storm in Jupiter's atmosphere, is the most prominent feature of that planet's disk as viewed from Earth. Combined with the fact that Jupiter is a gas giant planet and has no visible surface with discernible landmarks, this means that following the passage of the Great Red Spot is the primary method of observing the planet's rotation. Therefore, it is paramount for any program which generates synthetic images of the planet to accurately place the feature. The U.S. Naval Observatory's "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" online web service (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/diskmap.php) is such a program. The Great Red Spot's planetary latitude is locked between two of Jupiter's striated atmospheric layers at 22 °S. However, its planetary longitude is not constant; over time it migrates east and west along the atmospheric layer boundary it is trapped within. Observing and recording its longitude is made difficult because Jupiter's atmosphere is subject to differential rotation and the Great Red Spot slowly migrates with respect to the surrounding atmospheric layers. Furthermore, the Great Red Spot does not move at a uniform rate. Currently its relative motion is approximately 0°.051 per day. Since its first recorded observation in 1831, the Great Red Spot has made almost three complete laps around the planet at the 22nd parallel. "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" operates over any requested date between 1700 and 2100 A.D. Therefore, our treatment of the Great Red Spot needs to take into account both historical positions and future predicted motion. Based on researching past observations of the spot's position on the disk, we find that its behavior prior to 2009 is best represented by a 10-part piecewise function. Each component of the piecewise function is a 2nd order polynomial. Observations from 2009-present are better fit with a linear function; this function is used for future years by extrapolation. Using these fits

  3. Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test.

  4. The effect of laser unit on photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne; Stur, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of the laser unit on photodynamic therapy (PDT) spot size. A calibrated Gullstrand-type model eye was used for this study. The axial length of the model eye was set to different values ranging from 22.2 to 27.0 mm, and the actual spot size from the laser console was recorded for treating a spot of 4 mm in the center of the artificial fundus using two different laser units (Coherent Opal laser; Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA and Zeiss Visulas laser; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA) and two indirect contact laser lenses (Volk PDT laser lens and Volk Area Centralis lens; Volk Optical Inc, Mentor, Ohio, USA). From myopia to hyperopia, the total deviation from the intended spot size was -22.5% to -7.5% (Opal laser and PDT laser lens), and -17.5% to +2.5% (Visulas laser and PDT laser lens), -12.5% to +7.5% (Opal laser and Area Centralis lens), and -7.5% to +10% (Visulas laser and Area Centralis lens). The used laser unit has a significant effect on PDT spot size in this model. These findings may be important for optimizing PDT of choroidal neovascular lesions.

  5. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  6. Particle-wave discrimination in Poisson spot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, T; Bracco, G; Holst, B

    2011-01-01

    Matter-wave interferometry has been used extensively over the last few years to demonstrate the quantum-mechanical wave nature of increasingly larger and more massive particles. We have recently suggested the use of the historical Poisson spot setup to test the diffraction properties of larger objects. In this paper, we present the results of a classical particle van der Waals (vdW) force model for a Poisson spot experimental setup and compare these to Fresnel diffraction calculations with a vdW phase term. We include the effect of disc-edge roughness in both models. Calculations are performed with D 2 and with C 70 using realistic parameters. We find that the sensitivity of the on-axis interference/focus spot to disc-edge roughness is very different in the two cases. We conclude that by measuring the intensity on the optical axis as a function of disc-edge roughness, it can be determined whether the objects behave as de Broglie waves or classical particles. The scaling of the Poisson spot experiment to larger molecular masses is, however, not as favorable as in the case of near-field light-grating-based interferometers. Instead, we discuss the possibility of studying the Casimir-Polder potential using the Poisson spot setup.

  7. Requisite accuracy for hot spot factors in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Kotaro

    1976-01-01

    In the thermal design of a fast reactor, it should be most effective to reduce hot spot factors to the lowest possible level compatible with safety considerations, in order to minimize the design margin for the temperature prevailing in the core. Hot spot factors account for probabilistic and statistic deviations from nominal value of fuel element temperatures, due to uncertainties in the data adopted for estimating various factors including the physical properties. Such temperature deviations necessitate the provision of correspondingly large design margins for temperatures in order to keep within permissible limits the probability of exceeding the allowable temperatures. Evaluation of the desired accuracy for hot spot factors is performed by a method of optimization, which permits determination of the degree of accuracy that should minimize the design margins, to give realistic results with consideration given not only to sensitivity coefficients but also to the present-day uncertainty levels in the data adopted in the calculations. A concept of ''degree of difficulty'' is introduced for the purpose of determining the hot spot factors to be given higher priority for reduction. Application of this method to the core of a prototype fast reactor leads to the conclusion that the hot spot factors to be given the highest priority are those relevant to the power distribution, the flow distribution, the fuel enrichment, the fuel-cladding gap conductance and the fuel thermal conductivity. (auth.)

  8. Thermally-Driven Mantle Plumes Reconcile Hot-spot Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Davies, J.

    2008-12-01

    Hot-spots are anomalous regions of magmatism that cannot be directly associated with plate tectonic processes (e.g. Morgan, 1972). They are widely regarded as the surface expression of upwelling mantle plumes. Hot-spots exhibit variable life-spans, magmatic productivity and fixity (e.g. Ito and van Keken, 2007). This suggests that a wide-range of upwelling structures coexist within Earth's mantle, a view supported by geochemical and seismic evidence, but, thus far, not reproduced by numerical models. Here, results from a new, global, 3-D spherical, mantle convection model are presented, which better reconcile hot-spot observations, the key modification from previous models being increased convective vigor. Model upwellings show broad-ranging dynamics; some drift slowly, while others are more mobile, displaying variable life-spans, intensities and migration velocities. Such behavior is consistent with hot-spot observations, indicating that the mantle must be simulated at the correct vigor and in the appropriate geometry to reproduce Earth-like dynamics. Thermally-driven mantle plumes can explain the principal features of hot-spot volcanism on Earth.

  9. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...... might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks....

  10. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that millions DKK each year are spent on improving roadsafety in Denmark, funds for traffic safety are limited. It is therefore vital to spend the resources as effectively as possible. This thesis is concerned with the area of traffic safety denoted "hot spot safety work", which...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...

  11. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  12. Entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot in CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhou Menglian; Zhang Jianmin; Lin Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    In the video of linear CCD camera being irradiated by 532 nm CW laser, the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot was found. The smear area does not represent the distribution of laser. Since this smear lies merely in one side of laser spot, it can not be induced by light leaking or carriers blooming, and it may be induced by charge transfer loss. However, the feature that the smear area is entirely saturated can not be explained by the current constant model of charge transfer inefficiency. Based on the inner structure and operating principle of buried channel CCD, a new model of charge transfer inefficiency that varies with charge quantity is proposed, which can explain the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot. (authors)

  13. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchev, Dobre; Dorn, Lutc; Jaferi, Seifolah; Purbst, Detler

    1997-01-01

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  14. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  15. Spreading of Trisiloxanes on Thin Water Film: Dry Spot Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ovunda NJOBUENWU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of the spreading of trisiloxanes EO6, EO7, EO8, EO9 and sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS on thin films which are 320 microns in thickness; the concentrations covered are above the CMC. The spreading of SDS is accompanied by the formation of a “dry spot” which advances in time roughly as t1/4. The trisiloxanes spreading gave rise to dry spot formation that was accompanied by “irregularities”, which corresponded to an abrupt jump in the plot of dry spot radius versus time. The behaviour is attributed to a variety of factors: disjoining pressure effects or the fact that the Petri dish was too small so that backward propagating waves were set up due to reflections from the walls which interacted with the outspreading dry spot.

  16. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of roth spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Jerome; Mrejen, Sarah; Freund, K Bailey

    2013-01-01

    To describe the retinal findings of subacute bacterial endocarditis, their evolution after treatment, and analysis with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retrospective chart review. A 21-year-old man presented with the sudden onset of a central scotoma in his left eye because of a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage overlying the left fovea. When examined 2 weeks later, Roth spots were noted in his right eye. The patient was immediately referred to his internist and diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis with cultures positive for Streptococcus viridans. He subsequently underwent aortic valve replacement surgery after 4 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy. When examined 4 weeks after valve replacement surgery, there was regression of the Roth spots. The present case demonstrates the importance of a funduscopic examination in the early diagnosis and management of subacute bacterial endocarditis. The analysis of Roth spots with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography suggested that they were septic emboli.

  17. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  18. Simulation of the Focal Spot of the Accelerator Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V.; Bespalov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Testing of thick-walled objects by bremsstrahlung radiation (BR) is primarily performed via high-energy quanta. The testing parameters are specified by the focal spot size of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. In determining the focal spot size, the high- energy BR portion cannot be experimentally separated from the low-energy BR to use high- energy quanta only. The patterns of BR focal spot formation have been investigated via statistical modeling of the radiation transfer in the target material. The distributions of BR quanta emitted by the target for different energies and emission angles under normal distribution of the accelerated electrons bombarding the target have been obtained, and the ratio of the distribution parameters has been determined.

  19. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF SPOT PRICE OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to construct an explanatory model of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. For this, the method of multiple linear regressions was used. As a dependent variable, the spot price of iron ore (62% Fe China Tianjin port was taken, between 2010 and 2013. As independents variables were taken seven variables of international iron ore market. The resulting model includes variables: Iron ore inventory in Chinese ports, Baltic Dry Index (BDI, Iron ore exports from Brazil & Australia and Chinese Rebar Steel Price, as explanatory variables of the behavior of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. The model has an adjusted coefficient of determination R2 of 0.90, and was validated by comparing its predictions vs. known values of 2014.

  20. In situ stabilization wall for containment and hot spot retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a full scale field demonstration of a in situ stabilization technology applicable to buried transuranic waste. The technology involves creating a jet grouted wall around selected regions or hot spots within a buried waste site. The resulting wall provides a barrier against further horizontal migration of the contaminants and allows vertical digging of material inside the wall, thus minimizing waste during a hot spot removal action. The demonstration involved creating a open-quotes Uclose quotes shaped wall in the interior of a full sized, simulated waste pit. The wall simulated the main features of a four sided wall. The demonstration also involved a destructive examination and a stability test for a hot spot retrieval scenario

  1. Hot spots on the neutralizer plates of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hot spots on the neutralizing surfaces of tokamaks may be one of the reasons for the entry of large impurity fluxes into the plasmas of TFTR and JET (the so-called carbon catastrophe or carbon bloom) with high auxiliary heating powers. At this time it is unclear whether these hot spots are caused just by nonuniformities on the neutralizer surface or whether their appearance is the result of some more general behavior, with the surface nonuniformities only showing up as seed perturbations. In this paper it is shown that hot spots can also develop on smooth surfaces of carbon neutralizer plates as a result of the contraction of a heat flux incident on the plates

  2. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  3. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aswine K; Kairys, Steven W

    2009-07-06

    Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin. This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  4. PyTranSpot: A tool for multiband light curve modeling of planetary transits and stellar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvan, Ines G.; Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Fossati, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Lammer, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have shown that stellar activity features, such as occulted and non-occulted starspots, can affect the measurement of transit parameters biasing studies of transit timing variations and transmission spectra. We present PyTranSpot, which we designed to model multiband transit light curves showing starspot anomalies, inferring both transit and spot parameters. The code follows a pixellation approach to model the star with its corresponding limb darkening, spots, and transiting planet on a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate grid. We combine PyTranSpot with a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework to study and derive exoplanet transmission spectra, which provides statistically robust values for the physical properties and uncertainties of a transiting star-planet system. We validate PyTranSpot's performance by analyzing eleven synthetic light curves of four different star-planet systems and 20 transit light curves of the well-studied WASP-41b system. We also investigate the impact of starspots on transit parameters and derive wavelength dependent transit depth values for WASP-41b covering a range of 6200-9200 Å, indicating a flat transmission spectrum.

  5. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  6. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  7. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm"2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm"2. Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  8. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  9. Spot temperatures and area coverages on active dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Steven H.; Neff, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Two active K dwarfs are examined to determine the temperatures of the stars and to estimate the locations and sizes of cool spots on the stellar surfaces. Two wavelength regions with TiO absorption bands at different temperature sensitivities are modeled simultaneously using the method developed by Huenemoerder and Ramsey (1987). The spectrum of BD +26deg730 shows excess absorption in the TiO band, and the absence of the 8860 A band in HD 82558 indicates that its spots are warmer than those of BD +26deg730.

  10. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  11. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K...

  12. Holes generation in glass using large spot femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Yuval; Kotler, Zvi; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput, symmetrical, holes generation in fused silica glass using a large spot size, femtosecond IR-laser irradiation which modifies the glass properties and yields an enhanced chemical etching rate. The process relies on a balanced interplay between the nonlinear Kerr effect and multiphoton absorption in the glass which translates into symmetrical glass modification and increased etching rate. The use of a large laser spot size makes it possible to process thick glasses at high speeds over a large area. We have demonstrated such fabricated holes with an aspect ratio of 1:10 in a 1 mm thick glass samples.

  13. Sugarbeet leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc.)dagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, John; Koch, Georg

    2004-05-01

    SUMMARY Leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most destructive foliar pathogen of sugarbeet worldwide. In addition to reducing yield and quality of sugarbeet, the control of leaf spot disease by extensive fungicide application incurs added costs to producers and repeatedly has selected for fungicide-tolerant C. beticola strains. The genetics and biochemistry of virulence have been examined less for C. beticola as compared with the related fungi C. nicotianae, C. kikuchii and C. zeae-maydis, fungi to which the physiology of C. beticola is often compared. C. beticola populations generally are not characterized as having race structure, although a case of race-specific resistance in sugarbeet to C. beticola has been reported. Resistance currently implemented in the field is quantitatively inherited and exhibits low to medium heritability. Cercospora beticola Sacc.; Kingdom Fungi, Subdivision Deuteromycetes, Class Hyphomycetes, Order Hyphales, Genus Cercospora. Circular, brown to red delimited spots with ashen-grey centre, 0.5-6 mm diameter; dark brown to black stromata against grey background; pale brown unbranched sparingly septate conidiophores, hyaline acicular conidia, multiseptate, from 2.5 to 4 microm wide and 50-200 microm long. Propagative on Beta vulgaris and most species of Beta. Reported on members of the Chenopodiaceae and on Amaranthus. Disease symptoms: Infected leaves and petioles of B. vulgaris exhibit numerous circular leaf spots that coalesce in severe cases causing complete leaf collapse. Dark specks within a grey spot centre are characteristic for the disease. Older leaves exhibit a greater number of lesions with larger spot diameter. During the latter stage of severe epiphytotics, new leaf growth can be seen emerging from the plant surrounded by prostrate, collapsed leaves. Fungicides in the benzimidazole and triazole class as well as organotin derivatives and strobilurins have successfully been used to control Cercospora

  14. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed el...

  15. Leopard spot retinal pigmentation in infancy indicating a peroxisomal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Castano, G; McCormick, A Q; Applegarth, D

    2004-02-01

    Neonatal adrenoleucodystrophy (NALD) is a rare disorder resulting from abnormal peroxisomal biogenesis. Affected patients present in infancy with developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures. Blindness and nystagmus are prominent features. The authors suggest a characteristic leopard spot pigmentary pattern in the peripheral retina to be diagnostic. Three patients are reported with this presentation; the characteristic retinal appearance resulted in early diagnosis for one of these. Leopard spot retinopathy in an infant with hypotonia, seizures, developmental delay, with or without dysmorphic features and hearing impairment, is a clue to the diagnosis of NALD.

  16. A case of acute quadriplegia complicating Mediterranean spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroleo, Santo; Longo, Chiara; Pirritano, Domenico; Nisticò, Rita; Valentino, Paola; Iocco, Maurizio; Santangelo, Ermenegildo; Amantea, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia conorii. Mediterranean spotted fever is considered to be a benign disease, however, approximately 10% of patients present with a severe systemic manifestation in which neurologic involvement occurs. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with a R. conorii infection who developed an acute quadriplegia secondary to an axonal polyneuropathy. The characteristic tache noire was observed on the lateral region of the thigh and elevated IgM antibody titres against R. conorii were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test.

  17. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  18. Hot-spots of radio sources in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of extragalactic double radio sources is examined to test for a correlation between the prominence of compact hot-spots located at their outer edges and membership of clusters of galaxies. To minimize the effects of incompleteness in published catalogues of clusters, cluster classification is based on the number of galaxies in the neighbourhood of each source. After eliminating possible selection effects, it is found that sources in regions of high galactic density tend to have less prominent hot-spots. It is argued that the result is consistent with the 'continuous-flow' models of radio sources, but poses problems for the gravitational slingshot model. (author)

  19. Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.

  20. Biodiversity hot spot on a hot spot: novel extremophile diversity in Hawaiian fumaroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kate; Cornell, Jennifer; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

    2015-01-06

    Fumaroles (steam vents) are the most common, yet least understood, microbial habitat in terrestrial geothermal settings. Long believed too extreme for life, recent advances in sample collection and DNA extraction methods have found that fumarole deposits and subsurface waters harbor a considerable diversity of viable microbes. In this study, we applied culture-independent molecular methods to explore fumarole deposit microbial assemblages in 15 different fumaroles in four geographic locations on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Just over half of the vents yielded sufficient high-quality DNA for the construction of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence clone libraries. The bacterial clone libraries contained sequences belonging to 11 recognized bacterial divisions and seven other division-level phylogenetic groups. Archaeal sequences were less numerous, but similarly diverse. The taxonomic composition among fumarole deposits was highly heterogeneous. Phylogenetic analysis found cloned fumarole sequences were related to microbes identified from a broad array of globally distributed ecotypes, including hot springs, terrestrial soils, and industrial waste sites. Our results suggest that fumarole deposits function as an "extremophile collector" and may be a hot spot of novel extremophile biodiversity. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3 cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30 mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity, and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results: Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ ≈ 3 mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor 2.8 compared with a larger spot size (σ ≈ 13 mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30-mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V 20 are <0.6 Gy(RBE) and <1.7%, respectively. Conclusions: For the patients in this study, 2y-LC could be preserved in the presence of interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments using smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the

  2. ST Spot Detector: a web-based application for automatic spot and tissue detection for Spatial Transcriptomics image data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kim; Fernández Navarro, José; Bergenstråhle, Ludvig; Ståhl, Patrik L; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2018-01-17

    Spatial transcriptomics (ST) is a method which combines high resolution tissue imaging with high throughput transcriptome sequencing data. This data must be aligned with the images for correct visualisation, a process that involves several manual steps. Here we present ST Spot Detector, a web tool that automates and facilitates this alignment through a user friendly interface. Open source under the MIT license, available from https://github.com/SpatialTranscriptomicsResearch/st_spot_detector. jose.fernandez.navarro@scilifelab.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid

  4. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  5. Finite Element and Experimental Study of Shunting in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedian Choobi, M.; Nielsen, C. V.; Bay, N.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on one of the problems frequently encountered in spot welding in industry. In many applications several spot welds are made close to each other. The spots made after the first spot may become smaller in size due to shunt effect. A numerical and experimental study has been...... conducted to investigate the effect of shunting on nugget size in spot welding of HSLA steel sheets. Different cases with different spacing between weld spots have been examined. The nugget sizes have been measured by metallographic examination and have been compared with 3D finite element simulations...

  6. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...

  7. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  8. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  9. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  10. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the ma...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds.......In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...

  11. Blind spots for neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, Marcin; Olechowski, Marek; Szczerbiak, Paweł [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-25

    Spin-independent cross-section for neutralino dark matter scattering off nuclei is investigated in the NMSSM. Several classes of blind spots for direct detection of singlino-Higgsino dark matter are analytically identified, including such that have no analog in the MSSM. It is shown that mixing of the Higgs doublets with the scalar singlet has a big impact on the position of blind spots in the parameter space. In particular, this mixing allows for more freedom in the sign assignment for the parameters entering the neutralino mass matrix, required for a blind spot to occur, as compared to the MSSM or the NMSSM with decoupled singlet. Moreover, blind spots may occur for any composition of a singlino-Higgsino LSP. Particular attention is paid to cases with the singlet-dominated scalar lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs for which a vanishing tree-level spin-independent scattering cross-section may result from destructive interference between the Higgs and the singlet-dominated scalar exchange. Correlations of the spin-independent scattering cross-section with the Higgs observables are also discussed.

  12. Modelling of a proton spot scanning system using MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenfors, O; Gudowska, I; Dasu, A; Kopeć, M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to model the characteristics of a clinical proton spot scanning beam using Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP6. The proton beam was defined using parameters obtained from beam commissioning at the Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden. Simulations were evaluated against measurements for proton energies between 60 and 226 MeV with regard to range in water, lateral spot sizes in air and absorbed dose depth profiles in water. The model was also used to evaluate the experimental impact of lateral signal losses in an ionization chamber through simulations using different detector radii. Simulated and measured distal ranges agreed within 0.1 mm for R 90 and R 80 , and within 0.2 mm for R 50 . The average absolute difference of all spot sizes was 0.1 mm. The average agreement of absorbed dose integrals and Bragg-peak heights was 0.9%. Lateral signal losses increased with incident proton energy with a maximum signal loss of 7% for 226 MeV protons. The good agreement between simulations and measurements supports the assumptions and parameters employed in the presented Monte Carlo model. The characteristics of the proton spot scanning beam were accurately reproduced and the model will prove useful in future studies on secondary neutrons. (paper)

  13. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets...

  14. Spikes and memory in (Nord Pool) electricity price spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tomasso; Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar

    Electricity spot prices are subject to transitory sharp movements commonly referred to as spikes. The paper aims at assessing their effects on model based inferences and predictions, with reference to the Nord Pool power exchange. We identify a spike as a price value which deviates substantially...

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...

  16. Forecasting Electricity Spot Prices Accounting for Wind Power Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    A two-step methodology for forecasting of electricity spot prices is introduced, with focus on the impact of predicted system load and wind power generation. The nonlinear and nonstationary influence of these explanatory variables is accommodated in a first step based on a nonparametric and time...

  17. Alternaria leaf spot in Michigan and fungicide sensitivity issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2010 there has been an increase in identification of Alternaria leaf spot on sugar beet in Michigan and other growing regions in the US and Canada. In 2016, the disease was severe enough to cause economic losses in the Michigan growing region. Michigan isolates from sugar beet were examined ...

  18. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background

  19. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  20. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the