WorldWideScience

Sample records for spots snakes cast

  1. Spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus) envenomation in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy J; Montali, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Envenomation by a spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus), following multiple bites on the buccal mucosa of a captive maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), caused the animal's collapse, hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, local tissue necrosis, hepatic and renal failure, and subsequent death. The wolf died despite intensive supportive care including antivenom administration, fluid support, and a blood transfusion. Gross necropsy findings included myocardial and intestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary congestion, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. Microscopic examination of formalin-fixed tissues demonstrated pulmonary and abdominal visceral hemorrhage, acute nephrosis with casts, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and splenic congestion.

  2. Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Naturally, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

  3. Quantification of Feeding Effects of Spot Feeding Ductile Iron Castings made in Vertically Parted Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Sällström, J.

    In vertically parted molds it is traditionally difficult to feed heavy sections that cannot be reached by traditional side/top feeders or other conventional methods. This project aims at quantifying the effects of using molded-in ram-up spot feeders as a means of feeding isolated sections in cast...

  4. Snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepikian, S.

    1988-01-01

    Siberian Snakes provide a practical means of obtaining polarized proton beams in large accelerators. The effect of snakes can be understood by studying the dynamics of spin precession in an accelerator with snakes and a single spin resonance. This leads to a new class of energy independent spin depolarizing resonances, called snake resonances. In designing a large accelerator with snakes to preserve the spin polarization, there is an added constraint on the choice of the vertical betatron tune due to the snake resonances. 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. Snake bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number if someone has been bitten by a snake. If possible, call ahead to the emergency room so that antivenom can be ready when the person arrives. Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the ...

  6. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  7. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  8. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve......, which moves according to the probabilistic information obtained from the dictionary. Initially, the image patches are assigned to the nearest dictionary element, where the image is sampled at each pixel such that patches overlap. The curve divides the image into an inside and an outside region allowing...... us to estimate the pixel-wise probability of the dictionary elements. In each iteration we evolve the curve and update the probabilities, which merges similar texture patterns and pulls dissimilar patterns apart. We experimentally evaluate our approach, and show how textured objects are precisely...

  9. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The complexity of snake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biasi, M.; Ophelders, T.

    2016-01-01

    Snake and Nibbler are two well-known video games in which a snake slithers through a maze and grows as it collects food. During this process, the snake must avoid any collision with its tail. Various goals can be associated with these video games, such as avoiding the tail as long as possible, or

  11. Even order snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune shift of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two

  12. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  13. Snakes and spin rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs

  14. Snake evolution and prospecting of snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Freek Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    in this thesis I have shown that snakes have undergone multiple changes in their genome and embryonic development that has provided them with the variation to which natural selection could act. This thesis provides evidence for the variable mechanisms of venom gene evolution, which presumably is much more flexible than previously thought. But it also underscores the potential use of the many different types of snake venom toxins that could be screened for use against human disorders. And most...

  15. The Complexity of Snake

    OpenAIRE

    De Biasi, Marzio; Ophelders, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Snake and Nibbler are two well-known video games in which a snake slithers through a maze and grows as it collects food. During this process, the snake must avoid any collision with its tail. Various goals can be associated with these video games, such as avoiding the tail as long as possible, or collecting a certain amount of food, or reaching some target location. Unfortunately, like many other motion-planning problems, even very restricted variants are computationally intractable. In parti...

  16. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  17. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  18. [Snake as a symbol in medicine and pharmacy - a historical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, J; Kiyokawa, R

    2000-01-01

    The snake and snake venoms have stimulated the mind and imagination of humankind since the beginning of records about society. No animal has been more worshipped yet more cast out, more loved yet more despised than the snake. The essence of the fascination with fear of the snake lies within the creature's venom. Snakes have been used for worship, magic potions and, medicine, and they have been the symbol of love, health, disease, medicine, pharmacy, immortality, death and even wisdom. In the Sumer civilization (B.C. 2350-2150), designs with 2 snakes appeared. In Greek mythology (B.C. 2000-400), statues of Asclepius (God of Medicine), with "Caduceus" (made of two snakes and a staff), and his daughter Hygeia (God of Health), holding a snake and bowl, were created as symbols for medicine and health, respectively. A kind of Caduceus (1 snake and 1 staff) has been used as a symbol by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a snake and bowl as a symbol of pharmacies in Europe. Snakes have also been worshipped by old Indian peoples involved in Hinduism since 6-4th century B.C. In ancient Egypt, snake designs were used in hieroglyphs. In China, dried bodies of about 30 species of snakes are still using as Chinese medicines. In Japan, a painting of the symbol of "Genbu" (snake with tortoise) was found recently on the north wall of the Takamatsuzuka ancient tomb (7-8th century A.D.), however it is a symbol of a compass direction, and has probably less relation to medicine and pharmacy.

  19. The Lurking Snake in the Grass: Interference of Snake Stimuli in Visually Taxing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on evolutionary considerations, it was hypothesized that humans have been shaped to easily spot snakes in visually cluttered scenes that might otherwise hide camouflaged snakes. This hypothesis was tested in a visual search experiment in which I assessed automatic attention capture to evolutionarily-relevant distractor stimuli (snakes, in comparison with another animal which is also feared but where this fear has a disputed evolutionary origin (spiders, and neutral stimuli (mushrooms. Sixty participants were engaged in a task that involved the detection of a target (a bird among pictures of fruits. Unexpectedly, on some trials, a snake, a spider, or a mushroom replaced one of the fruits. The question of interest was whether the distracting stimuli slowed the reaction times for finding the target (the bird to different degrees. Perceptual load of the task was manipulated by increments in the set size (6 or 12 items on different trials. The findings showed that snake stimuli were processed preferentially, particularly under conditions where attentional resources were depleted, which reinforced the role of this evolutionarily-relevant stimulus in accessing the visual system (Isbell, 2009.

  20. Snake evolution and prospecting of snake venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Freek Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    in this thesis I have shown that snakes have undergone multiple changes in their genome and embryonic development that has provided them with the variation to which natural selection could act. This thesis provides evidence for the variable mechanisms of venom gene evolution, which presumably is

  1. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Suchaya Sanhajariya; Stephen B. Duffull; Geoffrey K. Isbister

    2018-01-01

    Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974–present) and Medline (1946–present). For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, ...

  3. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  4. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  5. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  6. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  7. Addiction to Snake Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Maiti, Tanay; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-07-03

    The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted. Finally, we have stressed upon the treatment and de-addiction measures.

  8. Pulmonoscopy of Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonoscopy is a practical diagnostic tool for investigating respiratory diseases in snakes. Two different approaches exist for pulmonoscopy, tracheal and transcutaneous. The access to the proximal or distal lung is limited by the length and diameter of the endoscope when using the tracheal approach. The transcutaneous approach allows direct evaluation of the lung and distal trachea through the air sac. Both of the methods are safe, and specific contraindications for pulmonoscopy in snakes are not known except for any anesthesia contraindication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  10. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  11. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  12. Snow snake performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention (FHWA-WY-06/04F) (Tabler 2006), demonstrated : positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of...

  13. Snake antivenom for snake venom induced consumption coagulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Maduwage, Kalana; Buckley, Nick A.; Janaka de Silva, H.; Lalloo, David; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Snake venom induced consumption coagulopathy is a major systemic effect of envenoming. Observational studies suggest that antivenom improves outcomes for venom induced consumption coagulopathy in some snakebites and not others. However, the effectiveness of snake antivenom in all cases of venom induced consumption coagulopathy is controversial.\\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of snake antivenom as a treatment for venom induced consumption coagulopathy in people...

  14. CASTING FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  15. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  16. Responses by king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Schell, F M

    1984-10-01

    Four litters of king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus), a snake-eating species, were tested for responses to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes. King snakes presented with swabs rubbed against the dorsal skin of living snakes and with swabs treated with methylene chloride extracts of shed snake skins tongue-flicked more to swabs from a northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), a crotaline, than to swabs from some colubrid snakes or to blank swabs. Six out of 10 king snakes in one litter attacked and attempted to ingest swabs treated with snake skin chemicals, implicating these chemicals as feeding stimuli for these ophiophagous snakes. Ingestively naive king snakes presented with plain air and snake odors in an olfactometer tongue-flicked more to snake odors. This study and others suggest that crotaline and colubrid snakes can be distinguished by chemical cues.

  17. Snake studies on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in Tore Supra during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. On Tore Supra, high speed H 2 pellets were injected into D 2 plasmas under the specified experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The properties of the snake, induced current modification and the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation are described. (K.A.) 5 refs.; 7 figs

  18. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  19. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  20. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gâz Florea Şerban Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III classes were separated in subclasses based on distinctive post-translational modifications. SVMPs are synthesized in a latent form, being activated through a Cys-switch mechanism similar to matrix metalloproteinases. Most of the metalloproteinases of the snake venom are responsible for the hemorrhagic events but also have fibrinogenolytic activity, poses apoptotic activity, activate blood coagulation factor II and X, inhibit platelet aggregation, demonstrating that SVMPs have multiple functions in addition to well-known hemorrhagic function.

  1. Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchaya Sanhajariya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974–present and Medline (1946–present. For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0.8 to 28 h, respectively, following rapid intravenous injection of the venoms or toxins. When the venoms or toxins were administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, an initial absorption phase and slow elimination phase were observed. The bioavailability of venoms or toxins ranged from 4 to 81.5% following intramuscular administration and 60% following subcutaneous administration. The volume of distribution and the clearance varied between snake species. For humans, 24 out of 666 initially identified publications contained sufficient information and timed venom concentrations in the absence of antivenom therapy for data extraction. The data were extracted and modelled in NONMEM. A one-compartment model provided the best fit, with an elimination half-life of 9.71 ± 1.29 h. It is intended that the quantitative information provided in this review will provide a useful basis for future studies that address the pharmacokinetics of snakebite in humans.

  3. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Gâz Florea Şerban Andrei; Gâz Florea Adriana; Kelemen Hajnal; Muntean Daniela-Lucia

    2016-01-01

    As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes) based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III clas...

  4. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  5. Casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  6. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  7. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  9. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  10. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, I.; R. Jaspers,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal View allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to

  11. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  12. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-01-01

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  13. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  14. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  15. Nanofibrous Snake Venom Hemostat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C.; Shi, Siyu; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling perioperative bleeding is of critical importance to minimize hemorrhaging and fatality. Patients on anticoagulant therapy such as heparin have diminished clotting potential and are at risk for hemorrhaging. Here we describe a self-assembling nanofibrous peptide hydrogel (termed SLac) that on its own can act as a physical barrier to blood loss. SLac was loaded with snake-venom derived Batroxobin (50 μg/mL) yielding a drug-loaded hydrogel (SB50). SB50 was potentiated to enhance clot...

  16. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  17. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  18. Natural History of Pseudoboine Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília P. Gaiarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.

  19. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    L?vgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  20. Cutaneous Chromatophoromas in Captive Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, J F; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrop, I.; Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal view allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to estimate runaway energy, pitch angle and the radius, shift and safety factor of the drift surface q D at which the runaway beam has developed. The runaway snake parameters are investigated under different current and magnetic field strength conditions. Examples are found of a runaway snake at the q D =1 and the q D =2 drift surface. The radial diffusion coefficient of runaways inside a snake is D r approx. 0.01m 2 s -1 . The rapid runaway losses in regions of (macroscopic) magnetic perturbations outside a snake and the good confinement inside an island assumed to consist of perfect nested surfaces are consistent with magnetic turbulence as the main cause for runaway transport. (author)

  2. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W; Nydam, Randall L; Palci, Alessandro; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2015-01-27

    The previous oldest known fossil snakes date from ~100 million year old sediments (Upper Cretaceous) and are both morphologically and phylogenetically diverse, indicating that snakes underwent a much earlier origin and adaptive radiation. We report here on snake fossils that extend the record backwards in time by an additional ~70 million years (Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). These ancient snakes share features with fossil and modern snakes (for example, recurved teeth with labial and lingual carinae, long toothed suborbital ramus of maxillae) and with lizards (for example, pronounced subdental shelf/gutter). The paleobiogeography of these early snakes is diverse and complex, suggesting that snakes had undergone habitat differentiation and geographic radiation by the mid-Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis of squamates recovers these early snakes in a basal polytomy with other fossil and modern snakes, where Najash rionegrina is sister to this clade. Ingroup analysis finds them in a basal position to all other snakes including Najash.

  3. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  4. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo; Liu, Ligang; Zheng, Hanlin; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    , and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw

  5. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Paola G. Ojeda; David Ramírez; Jans Alzate-Morales; Julio Caballero; Quentin Kaas; Wendy González

    2017-01-01

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics t...

  6. Visual Detection of Speckles in the Fish Xenotoca variata by the Predatory Snake Thamnophis melanogaster in Water of Different Turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez, Javier; Rivas-González, Eric; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Semi-aquatic snakes integrate visual and chemical stimuli, and prey detection and capture success are therefore linked to the display of visual predatory behavior. The snake Thamnophis melanogaster responds preferentially to individuals of the fish Xenotoca variata with a greater number of bright, colorful spots (lateral speckles) compared with those with a smaller number; however, water turbidity can reduce underwater visibility and effect the vulnerability of fish. In this study, we tested whether the presence of iridescent speckles on the flanks of male X. variata interacted with water turbidity to modify the predatory behavior displayed by the snake T. melanogaster. We predicted that in an experimental laboratory test, the snakes would increase the frequency of their predatory behavior to the extent that the water turbidity decreases. The snakes were tested at six different levels of water turbidity, in combination with three categories of male fish (with few, a median number of, or many speckles). The results showed that in a pool with high or zero turbidity, the number of speckles is not a determining factor in the deployment of the predatory behavior of the snake T. melanogaster toward X. variata. Our findings suggest that snakes can view the fish at intermediate percentages of turbidity, but the number of speckles in male X. variata is irrelevant as an interspecific visual signal in environments with insufficient luminosity. The successful capture of aquatic prey is influenced by integration between chemical and visual signals, according to environmental factors that may influence the recognition of individual traits.

  7. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank is...

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  9. Coyotes Are Afraid of Little Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Wichita tale of a contest between Coyote and Small Snake to see whose teeth are strongest. They bite each other, and soon big, strong Coyote is dead from the poisoned bite of the tiny snake. Explains why, from that time onward, coyotes have been afraid of little snakes. (DS)

  10. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  11. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropel...

  12. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S R; Shatunov, Yu M; Yokoya, K

    2005-01-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  13. First test of the Siberian Snake concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Test results of the Siberian Snake concept at the Indiana University Cooler Ring are presented. The Siberian Snake is a clever and interesting concept for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. Thus it would be especially useful at TeV energies where there are thousands of depolarizing resonances. The Snake is the device which job is to rotate the proton's spin by 180 deg. every time the proton goes around the ring. The Snake's main element is the superconducting solenoid magnet. Examples of the Siberian Snake overcoming depolarizing resonances are presented. 6 refs.; 24 figs

  14. Toxin synergism in snake venoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components, and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway or physiological process. Few...... simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to investigate synergism in snake venoms may help unravel strategies for developing novel...

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  16. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  17. Snake Robots Modelling, Mechatronics, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Liljebäck, Pål; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Snake Robots is a novel treatment of theoretical and practical topics related to snake robots: robotic mechanisms designed to move like biological snakes and able to operate in challenging environments in which human presence is either undesirable or impossible. Future applications of such robots include search and rescue, inspection and maintenance, and subsea operations. Locomotion in unstructured environments is a focus for this book. The text targets the disparate muddle of approaches to modelling, development and control of snake robots in current literature, giving a unified presentation of recent research results on snake robot locomotion to increase the reader’s basic understanding of these mechanisms and their motion dynamics and clarify the state of the art in the field. The book is a complete treatment of snake robotics, with topics ranging from mathematical modelling techniques, through mechatronic design and implementation, to control design strategies. The development of two snake robots is de...

  18. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  1. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also ... For example, a high degree of positive segregation in the central region .... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode.

  2. Protein profile analysis of Malaysian snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vejayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of proteins, which requires for their characterization the use of versatile two-dimensional electrophoresis techniques. In the present study, venoms obtained from eight snakes (Ophiophagus hannah, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Bungarus fasciatus, Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri, Enhydrina schistosa and Calloselasma rhodostoma commonly found in Malaysia were separated based on two independent properties, isoelectric point (pI and molecular weight (MW. Many differences in snake venoms at the inter-family, inter-subfamily, inter-genus and inter-species levels were revealed. Notably, proteins from individuals of the Viperidae family - Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma - were found to be numerous and scattered by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE specifically in regions between 37 and 100 kDa compared to the Elapidae venom proteins. The latter were clustered at the basic and lower molecular mass region (less than 20 kDa. Trains of spots were commonly observed, indicating that these proteins may be derived from post-translational modifications. Ophiophagus hannah (Elapidae revealed a great amount of protein spots in the higher molecular mass range when compared to Enhydrina schistosa, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana and Bungarus fasciatus. Overall 2DE showed large differences in the venom profile of each species, which might be employed as an ancillary tool to the identification of venomous snake species.

  3. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital | Kihiko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Snake bites are a neglected public health issue in poor rural communities, and the true burden of snake bites is not known. Kitui County has a high incidence of snake bites and no functional snake bite control programs exists. Diagnostic tests for snake species identification are not available and management ...

  4. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  5. Regina rigida (glossy crayfish snake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Steen; James A. Stiles; Sierra H. Stiles; Craig Guyer; Josh B. Pierce; D. Craig Rudolph; Lora L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The overland movements and upland habitat use of wetland-associated reptiles has important conservation implications (Semlitsch and Bodie 2003. Conserv. BioI. 17:1219-1228). However, for many species, particularly snakes, we lack a basic understanding of spatial ecology and habitat use. Regina rigida is a poorly known species for which "observations of any kind...

  6. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  7. Travelling Through Caste

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    With its peculiar caste system, India is considered the most stratified of all known societies in human history. This system is ‘peculiar’ as it divides human beings into higher and lower castes and this division is backed by certain religious sanctions based on the sociological concepts of ‘purity’ and ‘pollution’. While the higher caste is associated with ‘purity’, the lower caste is associated with ‘pollution’. The people of the lower castes are not allowed to undertake religious journeys ...

  8. Observations of Snake Resonance in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lin, Fanglei; MacKay, William; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes $\\frac{1}{2}$ which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the betatron tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

  9. The Study on the Snake by TOXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-wook Kim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the researches of Snake which was published papers in the TOXICON(1990-2.000, one of the most famous Journal of toxicology. And the results were as follows: 1. The number related with Snake is 195papers. 2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in the composition of snake venom. 4. There were great papers related wih neurotoxin in the research of poisonous character. 5. There were great papers related wih Viper according to the anticoagulation. 6. Eight papers were published to study the immune response of snake venom. 7. The papers of molecular study of snake venom were seven. 8. The papers of anti-snake venom study were three.

  10. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  11. Helical Siberian snakes using dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    1990-09-01

    A family of multi-twist transverse-field spin rotators using discrete bending magnets is described that can be used as Siberian snakes. By varying the number of twists, snakes with quite small excursions can be constructed at only a small penalty in the overall field integral. Examples for a 1/4-twist snake and a 3-twist snake are presented, the first suitable for a very high energy machine and the second for use in the proposed TRIUMF Kaon Factory. (Author) (3 refs.)

  12. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste...... relations and caste identities have overarching dimensions in the day-to-day politics of the study villages. Though caste almost ceases to operate in relation to strict religious strictures, under economic compulsion the division of labour largely coincides with caste division. In the cultural......–ideological field, the concept of caste-hierarchy seems to continue as an influencing factor, even in the operation of leftist politics....

  13. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV.

  14. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV

  15. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  16. Experimental research of specificity of fear of snake: coral snake pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Průšová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Due to shared coevolutionary history of snakes and primates with snakes acting as their main predators, snakes elicit fear in most of the primates, humans included. Humans are able to notice a stimulus that elicits fear, e.g., a snake, much faster. Such ability might have surely positively affected their survival in the past. In the nature, aposematic coloration acts as a warning of a dangerous prey to its predators not to devour it. The highly poisonous American coral snakes have this colora...

  17. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  18. Antipredatory reaction of the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius to snake predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Musilová, Veronika; Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Ability to recognize a risk of predation and react with adaptive antipredatory behavior can enhance fitness, but has some costs as well. Animals can either specifically react on the most dangerous predators (threat-sensitive avoidance) or they have safe but costly general wariness avoiding all potential predators. The level of threat may depend on the predator's foraging ecology and distribution with the prey with sympatric and specialist species being the most dangerous. We used 2 choice trials to investigate antipredatory behavior of captive born and wild-caught leopard geckos confronted with different snake predators from 2 families (Colubridae, Boidae) varying in foraging ecology and sympatric/allopatric distribution with the geckos. Predator-naïve subadult individuals have general wariness, explore both chemically and visually, and perform antipredatory postures toward a majority of snake predators regardless of their sympatry/allopatry or food specialization. The most exaggerated antipredatory postures in both subadult and adult geckos were toward 2 sympatric snake species, the spotted whip snake Hemorrhois ravergieri , an active forager, and the red sand boa Eryx johnii , a subterranean snake with a sit-and-wait strategy. In contrast, also subterranean but allopatric the Kenyan sand boa Eryx colubrinus did not elicit any antipredatory reaction. We conclude that the leopard gecko possesses an innate general antipredatory reaction to different species of snake predators, while a specific reaction to 2 particular sympatric species can be observed. Moreover, adult wild caught geckos show lower reactivity compared with the captive born ones, presumably due to an experience of a real predation event that can hardly be simulated under laboratory conditions.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for infectious stomatitis in snakes: Clinical views and microbiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira de; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Knöbl, Terezinha; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Sellera, Fábio Parra

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been broadly investigated as an alternative to treat localized infections, without leading to the selection of resistant microorganisms. Infectious stomatitis is a multifactorial disease frequently reported in captive snakes characterized by infection of the oral mucosa and surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated methylene blue (MB)-mediated APDT to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes and verified the resistance phenotype and genotype before and after APDT. Three Boid snakes presented petechiae, edema and caseous material in their oral cavities. MB (0.01%) was applied on the lesions and after 5min they were irradiated using a red laser (λ=660nm), fluence of 280J/cm 2 , 8J and 80s per point, 100mW, spot size 0.028cm 2 and fluence rate of 3.5W/cm 2 . APDT was repeated once a week during 3 months. Samples of the lesions were collected to identify bacteria and antibiotic resistance profiles. To analyze the clonality of bacterial isolates before and after APDT, isolates were subjected to ERIC PCR analysis. Snakes presented clinical improvement such as reduction of inflammatory signs and caseous material. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were present in all snakes; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii were also identified in some animals. We also observed that the oral microbiota was completely replaced following APDT. However, K. pneumoniae isolates before and after APDT were a single clone with 100% of genetic similarity that lost resistance phenotype for seven antibiotics of four classes. These results show that APDT can be used to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  1. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  2. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise. We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  4. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  5. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  6. On a collection of Snakes from Dehli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1890-01-01

    During his stay in Laboean (Delili, East-Sumatra) Dr. B. Hagen, to whom the Leyden Museum is indebted for large series of mammals, birds and insects, also collected a large number of snakes, the greater part of which were sent to our Museum. Dr. Hagen took a lively interest in snakes, and being

  7. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Snake venom instability | Willemse | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian cobra Naja haje haje) and puffadder (Bills arietans). Considerable differences in electrophoretic characteristics were found between fresh venom and commercial venom samples from the same species of snake. These differences could be attributed partly to the instability of snake venom under conditions of drying ...

  9. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  10. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Kini, R Manjunatha; Pospelov, Alexey S; Vonk, Freek J; Henkel, Christiaan V; Richardson, Michael K

    2016-12-01

    Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy-very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  11. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald M. I. Kerkkamp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy—very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  12. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  13. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  14. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  15. Epidemiology of Snake Bites among Selected Communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snake is one of the major group of games feared by people in many localities because of their venoms, yet snakes are equally afraid of human beings. This balance of terror apart from affecting both man and snakes has also led to their deaths. Epidemiology of snake bites among selected communities in the enclave of ...

  16. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further...... address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation....

  17. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  18. Exponential asymptotics of homoclinic snaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A D; Matthews, P C; Cox, S M; King, J R

    2011-01-01

    We study homoclinic snaking in the cubic-quintic Swift–Hohenberg equation (SHE) close to the onset of a subcritical pattern-forming instability. Application of the usual multiple-scales method produces a leading-order stationary front solution, connecting the trivial solution to the patterned state. A localized pattern may therefore be constructed by matching between two distant fronts placed back-to-back. However, the asymptotic expansion of the front is divergent, and hence should be truncated. By truncating optimally, such that the resultant remainder is exponentially small, an exponentially small parameter range is derived within which stationary fronts exist. This is shown to be a direct result of the 'locking' between the phase of the underlying pattern and its slowly varying envelope. The locking mechanism remains unobservable at any algebraic order, and can only be derived by explicitly considering beyond-all-orders effects in the tail of the asymptotic expansion, following the method of Kozyreff and Chapman as applied to the quadratic-cubic SHE (Chapman and Kozyreff 2009 Physica D 238 319–54, Kozyreff and Chapman 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 44502). Exponentially small, but exponentially growing, contributions appear in the tail of the expansion, which must be included when constructing localized patterns in order to reproduce the full snaking diagram. Implicit within the bifurcation equations is an analytical formula for the width of the snaking region. Due to the linear nature of the beyond-all-orders calculation, the bifurcation equations contain an analytically indeterminable constant, estimated in the previous work by Chapman and Kozyreff using a best fit approximation. A more accurate estimate of the equivalent constant in the cubic-quintic case is calculated from the iteration of a recurrence relation, and the subsequent analytical bifurcation diagram compared with numerical simulations, with good agreement

  19. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  20. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  1. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  2. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  3. Casting thermal simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin bin Sulaiman

    1994-01-01

    The whole of this study is concerned with process simulation in casting processes. This study describes the application of the finite element method as an aid to simulating the thermal design of a high pressure die casting die by analysing the cooling transients in the casting cycle. Two types of investigation were carried out to model the linear and non-linear cooling behavior with consideration of a thermal interface effect. The simulated cooling for different stages were presented in temperature contour form. These illustrate the successful application of the Finite Element Method to model the process and they illustrate the significance of the thermal interface at low pressure

  4. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  5. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Paola G; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Caballero, Julio; Kaas, Quentin; González, Wendy

    2017-12-22

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  6. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola G. Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  7. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-05-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV - near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time.

  8. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  9. North American snake and scorpion envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbeck, Jennifer; Gresham, Chip

    2013-06-01

    Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment. Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25,000 calls a year to poison centers. Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  11. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Soares

    Full Text Available Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009, the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205 we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  12. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Ohman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  13. On some labelings of triangular snake and central graph of triangular snake graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasthi, P.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    A Triangular snake Tn is obtained from a path u 1 u 2 … u n by joining ui and u i+1 to a new vertex wi for 1≤i≤n‑1. A Central graph of Triangular snake C(T n ) is obtained by subdividing each edge of Tn exactly once and joining all the non adjacent vertices of Tn . In this paper the ways to construct square sum, square difference, Root Mean square, strongly Multiplicative, Even Mean and Odd Mean labeling for Triangular Snake and Central graph of Triangular Snake graphs are reported.

  14. First documented case of snake fungal disease in a free-ranging wild snake in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Green, David E.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a recently documented mycotic disease characterized by scabs or crusty scales, subcutaneous nodules, abnormal molting, cloudiness of the eyes (not associated with molting), and localized thickening or crusting of the skin. SFD has been documented in many species in the Eastern and Midwestern United States within the last decade. SFD has proven lethal in many snakes, and the disease is recognized as an emerging threat to wild snake populations. Here, we describe the first documented case of SFD in Louisiana in a free-ranging wild snake.

  15. Casting AISI 316 steel by gel cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Thern, G; Rozenberg, S; Barreiro, M; Marajofsky, A

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of producing AISI 316 steel components from their powders and avoiding their compaction is analyzed. A casting technique is tested that is similar to gel casting, used for ceramic materials. In the initial stage, the process consists of the formulation of a concentrated barbotine of powdered metal in a solution of water soluble organic monomers, which is cast in a mold and polymerized in situ to form a raw piece in the shape of the cavity. The process can be performed under controlled conditions using barbotines with a high monomer content from the acrylimide family. Then, the molded piece is slowly heated until the polymer is eliminated, and it is sintered at temperatures of 1160 o C to 1300 o C under a dry hydrogen atmosphere, until the desired densities are attained. The density and micro structure of the materials obtained are compared with those for the materials compacted and synthesized by the conventional processes. The preliminary results show the feasibility of the process for the production of certain kinds of structural components (CW)

  16. Safe Handling of Snakes in an ED Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Melanie; Swanson, Kristofer; Sanders, April; Prater, Samuel; von Wenckstern, Toni; Mick, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED. A local snake consultation vendor and zoo Herpetologist assisted with development of a process for snake identification and disposal. All snakes have been identified and securely disposed of using the newly implemented process and no safety incidents have been reported. Other emergency department settings may consider developing a standardized process for snake disposal using listed specialized consultants combined with local resources and suppliers to promote employee and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gating system optimization of low pressure casting A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold based on numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wenming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate the shrinkage porosity in low pressure casting of an A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold casting, numerical simulation on filling and solidification processes of the casting was carried out using the ProCAST software. The gating system of the casting is optimized according to the simulation results. Results show that when the gating system consists of only one sprue, the filling of the molten metal is not stable; and the casting does not follow the sequence solidification, and many shrinkage porosities are observed through the casting. After the gating system is improved by adding one runner and two in-gates, the filling time is prolonged from 4.0 s to 4.5 s, the filling of molten metal becomes stable, but this casting does not follow the sequence solidification either. Some shrinkage porosity is also observed in the hot spots of the casting. When the gating system was further improved by adding risers and chill to the hot spots of the casting, the shrinkage porosity defects were eliminated completely. Finally, by using the optimized gating system the A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold casting with integrated shape and smooth surface as well as dense microstructure was successfully produced.

  18. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  19. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  20. First Observation of a Snake Depolarizing Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.; Anferov, V.; Blinov, B.; Crandell, D.; Koutin, S.; Krisch, A.; Liu, T.; Ratner, L.; Wong, V.; Chu, C.; Lee, S.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.; von Przewoski, B.; Sato, H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a 104MeV stored polarized proton beam and a full Siberian snake, we recently found evidence for a so-called open-quotes snakeclose quotes depolarizing resonance. A full Siberian snake forces the spin tune ν s to be a half integer. Thus, if the vertical betatron tune ν y is set near a quarter integer, then the ν s =n±2ν y second-order snake resonance can depolarize the beam. Indeed, with a full Siberian snake, we found a deep depolarization dip when ν y was equal to 4.756; moreover, when ν y was changed to 4.781, the deep dip disappeared and the polarization was preserved. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  2. A test of reproductive power in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M; Guyer, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive power is a contentious concept among ecologists, and the model has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Despite these criticisms, the model has successfully predicted the modal (optimal) size in three large taxonomic groups and the shape of the body size distribution in two of these groups. We tested the reproductive power model on snakes, a group that differs markedly in physiology, foraging ecology, and body shape from the endothermic groups upon which the model was derived. Using detailed field data from the published literature, snake-specific constants associated with reproductive power were determined using allometric relationships of energy invested annually in egg production and population productivity. The resultant model accurately predicted the mode and left side of the size distribution for snakes but failed to predict the right side of that distribution. If the model correctly describes what is possible in snakes, observed size diversity is limited, especially in the largest size classes.

  3. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  4. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes

    2002-01-01

    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  5. Evaluation of Snake Bites with Bedside Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef E Jolissaint

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: While watering his lawn, a 36-year-old man felt two sharp bites to his bilateral ankles. He reports that he then saw a light brown, 2-foot snake slither away from him. He came to the emergency department because of pain and swelling in his ankles and inability to bear weight. Physical examination revealed bilateral ankle swelling and puncture marks on his left lateral heel and medial right ankle. Palpation, passive flexion and extension elicited severe pain bilaterally. Blood work including prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PTT, international normalized ratio (INR, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. Consultation with Poison Control indicated the snake was likely a copperhead, which is a venomous snake whose bites rarely require antivenin. Significant findings: In this case, ultrasonography of the lateral surface of the left foot revealed soft tissue edema (red arrow and fluid collection (white asterisk adjacent to the extensor tendon (white arrow. The edematous area resembles cobblestones, with hypoechoic areas of fluid spanning relatively hyperechoic fat lobules. The tendon is surrounded by anechoic fluid, expanding the potential space in the sheath. No hyperechoic foreign objects were noted. Discussion: The patient was diagnosed with soft tissue injury and extensor tenosynovitis after a snake envenomation. Snake venom contains metalloproteinases and other enzymatic proteins that cause local tissue edema and necrosis.1 After a snake bite, ultrasound can be used to assess for retained fangs, soft tissue edema, tendon sheath fluid, muscle fasciculation, and injury to deeper musculature that may not be readily apparent on physical exam.2,3 Most patients with tenosynovitis will recover with immobilization of the joint and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.4 Rarely, the tendon may become infected requiring antibiotics and surgical intervention.4 Topics: Ultrasound, snake envenomation

  6. A partial snake for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Based on snake experiments at the Indian University Cyclotron Facility and computer simulations at Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as the conclusions of a BNL mini-workshop, we feel that a partial Siberian snake is a practical device for the AGS. It is anticipated that such a device could reduce the polarized beam tune-up time from 2--3 weeks to 2--3 days

  7. Cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Rosenberg, H. I.

    1997-01-01

    Snakes have provided useful vertebrate models for understanding circulatory adaptation to gravity, attributable to their elongate body shape and evolutionary diversificaton in terms of ecology and behavior. Recently we have studied cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravic acceleration forces produced acutely in the head-to-tail direction (+Gz) on a short-arm centrifuge. Snakes were held in a nearly straight position within a horizontal plastic tube and subjected to a linear force gradient during acceleration. Carotid blood flow provided an integrated measure of cardiovascular performance. Thus, cardiovascular tolerance of snakes to stepwise increments of Gz was measured as the caudal Gz force at which carotid blood flow ceased. Tolerance to increasing Gz varies according to adaptive evolutionary history inferred from the ecology and behavior of species. With respect to data for six species we investigated, multiple regression analysis demonstrates that Gz tolerance correlates with gravitational habitat, independently of body length. Relative to aquatic and non-climbing species, carotid blood flow is better maintained in arboreal or scansorial species, which tolerate hypergravic forces of +2 to +3.5 Gz. Additionally, semi-arboreal rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) exhibit plasticity of responses to long-term, intermittent +1.5 Gz stress. Compared to non-acclimated controls, acclimated snakes show greater increases of heart rate during head-up tilt or acceleration, greater sensitivity of arterial pressure to circulating catecholamines, higher blood levels of prostaglandin ratios favorable to maintenance of arterial blood pressure, and medial hypertrophy in major arteries and veins. As in other vertebrates, Gz tolerance of snakes is enhanced by acclimation, high arterial pressure, comparatively large blood volume, and body movements. Vascular studies of snakes suggest the importance to acclimation of local responses involving vascular tissue, in addition to

  8. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, C. J.; Luiselli, L. M.; Akani, G. C.; Bonnet, X.; Amori, G.; Ballouard, J. M.; Filippi, E.; Naulleau, G.; Pearson, D.; Rugiero, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined ...

  9. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  11. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

  12. Snake studies on TORE-SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in TORE-SUPRA during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. They are usually localized on a region around the q=1 surface, and correspond mainly to a perturbation of the density profile. The formation of the snake depends on the penetration depth L p of the pellet: the maximum of ablation must be well inside the q=1 surface, this condition is necessary but not sufficient to produce snakes. For example on TORE-SUPRA high speed H 2 pellets (1500 m/s and approximately 10 21 atoms) were injected into D 2 plasmas with following parameters: I p =1.4 MA, B Φ =3 T, T e =1.7 KeV, e >=2-3 10 19 m -3 , a=0.78 m, R=2.4 m, and q a =3.3. In such experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The first two paragraphs describe the properties of the snake and the induced current modification. The latter paragraph discusses the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation. (author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  13. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  14. snake and staff symbolism and healing 1. introduction 2. the snake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural ... ticular reference to their significance in the field of health care. 2. THE SNAKE IN ... as an aid in walking and as a weapon, it was also used by rulers in .... always included an abaton (open porch with roof) where patients un-.

  15. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  16. Dimensional control of die castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Aniruddha Ajit

    The demand for net shape die castings, which require little or no machining, is steadily increasing. Stringent customer requirements are forcing die casters to deliver high quality castings in increasingly short lead times. Dimensional conformance to customer specifications is an inherent part of die casting quality. The dimensional attributes of a die casting are essentially dependent upon many factors--the quality of the die and the degree of control over the process variables being the two major sources of dimensional error in die castings. This study focused on investigating the nature and the causes of dimensional error in die castings. The two major components of dimensional error i.e., dimensional variability and die allowance were studied. The major effort of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the effects of casting geometry and process variables on die casting dimensional variability and die allowance. This was accomplished by detailed dimensional data collection at production die casting sites. Robust feature characterization schemes were developed to describe complex casting geometry in quantitative terms. Empirical modeling was utilized to quantify the effects of the casting variables on dimensional variability and die allowance for die casting features. A number of casting geometry and process variables were found to affect dimensional variability in die castings. The dimensional variability was evaluated by comparisons with current published dimensional tolerance standards. The casting geometry was found to play a significant role in influencing the die allowance of the features measured. The predictive models developed for dimensional variability and die allowance were evaluated to test their effectiveness. Finally, the relative impact of all the components of dimensional error in die castings was put into perspective, and general guidelines for effective dimensional control in the die casting plant were laid out. The results of

  17. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  18. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  19. Development of a Novel Locomotion Algorithm for Snake Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Raisuddin; Billah, Md Masum; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Shafie, A A

    2013-01-01

    A novel algorithm for snake robot locomotion is developed and analyzed in this paper. Serpentine is one of the renowned locomotion for snake robot in disaster recovery mission to overcome narrow space navigation. Several locomotion for snake navigation, such as concertina or rectilinear may be suitable for narrow spaces, but is highly inefficient if the same type of locomotion is used even in open spaces resulting friction reduction which make difficulties for snake movement. A novel locomotion algorithm has been proposed based on the modification of the multi-link snake robot, the modifications include alterations to the snake segments as well elements that mimic scales on the underside of the snake body. Snake robot can be able to navigate in the narrow space using this developed locomotion algorithm. The developed algorithm surmount the others locomotion limitation in narrow space navigation

  20. Cardiovascular Responses of Snakes to Gravitational Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong T.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Snakes are useful vertebrates for studies of gravitational adaptation, owing to their elongate body and behavioral diversification. Scansorial species have evolved specializations for regulating hemodynamics during exposure to gravitational stress, whereas, such adaptations are less well developed in aquatic and non-climbing species. We examined responses of the amphibious snake,\\italicize (Nerodia rhombifera), to increments of Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration force on both a short- and long-arm centrifuge (1.5 vs. 3.7 m radius, from the hub to tail end of snake). We recorded heart rate, dorsal aortic pressure, and carotid arterial blood flow during stepwise 0.25 G increments of Gz force (referenced at the tail) in conscious animals. The Benz tolerance of a snake was determined as the Gz level at which carotid blood flow ceased and was found to be significantly greater at the short- than long-arm centrifuge radius (1.57 Gz vs. 2.0 Gz, respectively; P=0.016). A similar pattern of response was demonstrated in semi-arboreal rat snakes,\\italicize{Elaphe obsoleta}, which are generally more tolerant of Gz force (2.6 Gz at 1.5m radius) than are water snakes. The tolerance differences of the two species reflected cardiovascular responses, which differed quantitatively but not qualitatively: heart rates increased while arterial pressure and blood flow decreased in response to increasing levels of Gz. Thus, in both species of snakes, a reduced gradient of Gz force (associated with greater centrifuge radius) significantly decreases the Gz level that can be tolerated.

  1. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  2. "Too good to be true": the controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake poison and the circulation of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an international controversy over the most visible scientific event of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century. In 1881, Brazilian scientist João Baptista Lacerda stated that he had found an efficient antidote to the poison of Brazilian snakes: permanganate of potash (nowadays, potassium permanganate). His findings were given great publicity in Brazil and traveled rapidly around the world. Scientists, especially in France, contradicted Lacerda's claims. They argued that permanganate of potash could not be a genuine antidote to snake bites since it could not neutralize snake venom when diffused in the body. Lacerda turned down such criticism, claiming that clinical observation provided solid evidence for the drug's local action, on the spot surrounding the bite. The controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake bite illustrates different regimes of proof that could be mobilized in favor of a physiological discovery.

  3. The snakes and ladders of National Health Service management in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article explores managerial careers in the National Health Service (NHS) through the lens of talent management, particularly focusing on how managers view barriers (snakes) and facilitators (ladders) to career progression. There is a significant literature on enablers and barriers to career progression, but much of this focuses on specific groups such as black and minority ethnic and female workers, and there is relatively little material on the general workforce of the NHS. The research design is a mixed method quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview and focus group) approach consisting of a quasi-probability element that focuses on a maximum variety sample and a purposive element that seeks policy views at central and strategic health authority level, and examines talent management in high-performing NHS organisations. Ladders are identified as follows: volunteering, secondment, networking, mentoring, academic qualifications, development, good role models/managers and appraisal/personal development plan. Snakes are identified as managing expectations; identity and cognitive diversity; location; sector; NHS toxic and favouritism culture; poor talent spotting; credentialism; exclusive approach to talent; and sustainability. It concludes that while previous conceptual and empirical work is fairly clear on any ladders, it is less clear on snakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni and Pituophis mellanoleucus lodingi) hibernacula

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Rudolph; R.R. Schaefer; S.J. Burgdorf; M. Duran; R.N. Conner

    2007-01-01

    Snakes are often highly selective in the choice of sites for hibernation, and suitable sites can potentially be a limiting resource. Hibernating Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituopllis ruthveni; N = 7) in eastern Texas and Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi; N = 5) in Mississippi were excavated to characterize their...

  5. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  6. Snake and staff symbolism in healing | Retief | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake attribute of Asclepius, or as the doublesnake attribute of Hermes. In this article the mythological basis for this ...

  7. Management of Poisonous Snake Bites in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ping Chang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomation is not uncommon in Taiwan. This study focuses on the pattern of poisonous snake bites and their management in southern Taiwan over a 5-year period. The case histories of 37 patients with poisonous snake bites admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between June 2001 and July 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Three patients, bitten by unknown species of venomous snakes, were excluded from this study. The frequency of snake bites from each species of snake, the local and systemic manifestations of snake bite, treatment of complications and final outcomes were analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 11 (32.4% were bitten by bamboo vipers, 10 (29.4% by Russell's pit vipers, 8 (23.5% by Taiwan cobras and 5 (14.7% by Taiwan Habu. The majority of snake bites (28 occurred between May and November. Those affected were mainly outdoor hikers (14 and workers (9. The antivenin requirements for treatment in the emergency room were in accordance with standard procedures. No mortality was noted among those envenomed by poisonous snakes. Although poisonous snake bite is not a common life-threatening emergency in the study area, we observed both an environmental risk and a seasonal incidence of snake bite. Keeping the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite in mind is important for effective management. Ready availability and appropriate use of antivenin, close monitoring of patients, institution of ventilatory support and early referral to a larger hospital when required, all help reduce mortality.

  8. ToxCast Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  9. Zirconium and cast zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, K

    1977-04-01

    A survey is given on the occurence of zirconium, production of Zr sponge and semi-finished products, on physical and mechanical properties, production of Zr cast, composition of the commercial grades and reactor grades qualities, metal cutting, welding, corrosion behavior and use.

  10. "Souvenir" casting silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, R S; Salman, H; Bar-Ziv, J

    1994-10-01

    A case of silicosis in a 47-year-old worker who was employed for many years in a small souvenir casting shop is described. This work site demonstrates many unfavorable characteristics of small industries, such as lack of awareness of the need for safety measures, exposure control, protection of workers, and lack of compliance with environmental and medical-legal standards.

  11. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  13. Function of snake mobbing in spectral tarsiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Sharon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous species are known for their tendency to approach and confront their predators as a group. This behavior is known as mobbing. Snakes seem to be one of the more consistent recipients of this type of predator-directed behavior. This paper explores individual differences (sex and age) in the mobbing behavior of the spectral tarsier toward live and model snakes. This study was conducted at Tangkoko Nature Reserve (Sulawesi, Indonesia) during 2003-2004. During this research, 11 natural mobbing events and 31 artificially induced mobbing events were observed. The mean number of individuals at a mobbing was 5.7. The duration of mobbing events was strongly correlated with the number of assembled mobbers. Adults were more likely than other age classes to participate in mobbings. Males were more likely than females to participate in mobbings. Mobbing groups often contained more than one adult male, despite the fact that no spectral tarsier group contains more than one adult male. No difference in body size between extragroup males and resident males was observed, refuting the "attract the mightier" hypothesis. The number of mobbers did not affect whether the tarsier or the snake retreated first, countering the "move-on" hypothesis. The "perception advertisement" hypothesis was tentatively supported, in that live snakes were rarely seen in the area following mobbing calls, in comparison to when tarsiers either ignored the snake or alarm call. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  15. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  16. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  17. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  18. Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

  19. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  20. Helical spin rotators and snakes for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsin, V.I.; Shatunov, Yu.M.; Peggs, S.

    1995-01-01

    The RHIC collider, now under construction at BNL, will have the possibility of polarized proton-proton collisions up to a beam energy of 250 Gev. Polarized proton beams of such high energy can be only obtained with the use of siberian snakes, a special kind of spin rotator that rotates the particle spin by 180 degree around an axis lying in the horizontal plane. Siberian snakes help to preserve the beam polarization while numerous spin depolarizing resonances are crossed, during acceleration. In order to collide longitudinally polarized beams, it is also planned to install spin rotators around two interaction regions. This paper discusses snake and spin rotator designs based on sequences of four helical magnets. The schemes that were chosen to be applied at RHIC are presented

  1. SUPERCONDUCTING HELICAL SNAKE MAGNETS: CONSTRUCTION AND MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, W.W.; Anerella, M.; Courant, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to collide polarized protons, the RHIC project will have two snakes in each ring and four rotators around each of two interaction regions. Two snakes on opposite sides of each ring can minimize depolarization during acceleration by keeping the spin tune at a half. Since the spin direction is normally along the vertical direction in a flat ring, spin rotators must be used around an interaction point to have longitudinal polarization in a collider experiment. Each snake or rotator will be composed of four helical dipoles to provide the required rotation of spin with minimal transverse orbit excursions in a compact length of 10m. The basic helical dipole is a superconducting magnet producing a transverse dipole field which is twisted about the magnet axis through 360 o in a length of 2.4 m. The design and construction of the magnets is described in this paper

  2. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  3. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  4. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE – a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE - a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-02-18

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins.

  6. Study of spin resonances in the accelerators with snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Spin resonances in the circular accelerators with snakes are studied to understand the nature of snake resonances. We analyze the effect of snake configuration, and the snake superperiod on the resonance. Defining the critical resonance strength ε c as the maximum tolerable resonance strength without losing the beam polarization after passing through the resonance, we found that ε c is a sensitive function of the snake configuration, the snake superperiod at the first order snake resonance, the higher order snake resonance conditions and the spin matching condition. Under properly designed snake configuration, the critical resonance strength ε c is found to vary linearly with N S as left-angle ε c right-angle=(1/π)sin -1 (cos πν z | 1/2 )N S , where ν| z and N S are the betatron tune and the number of snakes respectively. We also study the effect of overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The imperfection resonance should be corrected to a magnitude of insignificance (e.g., ε≤0.1 for two snakes case) to maintain proper polarization

  7. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, AustraliaSea...... snakes form two aquatic groups of snakes with a flat vertically paddle-form tail (sea kraits and viviparous sea snakes). Sea snakes belong to the same family Elapidae, which also includes the terrestrial mambas, cobra, kraits, taipan and brown snake. All elapids are characterized by the anterior position...... of the poison-fangs on the maxillary bone (proteroglyphous). Globally there are some 70 species of sea snake found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Most species are found in the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, the China Sea, Indonesia, and the Australian region...

  8. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  9. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    system components to be built. Figure la shows the machine design . PSC-2012 Page 94 Glue Application Sheet Transfer Feed Elevator Figure la...Department of Defense such as cleats, ejection chutes , control arms, muzzle brakes, mortar components, clevises, tow bar clamps, ammo conveyor elements...Foundry and the members of Steel Founders’ Society of America. Abstract Weapon system designers and builders need advanced steel casting technology

  10. Casting and Splinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    mcludmg suggost1ons klr reducing lite burden, to the Department ar Defense. Executive Service Director> lte (07,IJ4-0188). Respondents should be...Orthoglass) Casting Material );;:- Fiberglass , .... • \\ \\ General Principles )- Measure out dry material at extremity being treated ~Plaster...shrinks slightly when wet; If too long can fold ends back ~Can be measured on contralateral extremity > Apply 2-3 layers of webril, avoid wrinkles

  11. Born Knowing: Tentacled Snakes Innately Predict Future Prey Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aquatic tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatus) can take advantage of their prey's escape response by startling fish with their body before striking. The feint usually startles fish toward the snake's approaching jaws. But when fish are oriented at a right angle to the jaws, the C-start escape response translates fish parallel to the snake's head. To exploit this latter response, snakes must predict the future location of the fish. Adult snakes can make this prediction. Is it learned, or are tentacled snakes born able to predict future fish behavior? Methods and Findings Laboratory-born, naïve snakes were investigated as they struck at fish. Trials were recorded at 250 or 500 frames per second. To prevent learning, snakes were placed in a water container with a clear transparency sheet or glass bottom. The chamber was placed over a channel in a separate aquarium with fish below. Thus snakes could see and strike at fish, without contact. The snake's body feint elicited C-starts in the fish below the transparency sheet, allowing strike accuracy to be quantified in relationship to the C-starts. When fish were oriented at a right angle to the jaws, naïve snakes biased their strikes to the future location of the escaping fish's head, such that the snake's jaws and the fish's translating head usually converged. Several different types of predictive strikes were observed. Conclusions The results show that some predators have adapted their nervous systems to directly compensate for the future behavior of prey in a sensory realm that usually requires learning. Instead of behavior selected during their lifetime, newborn tentacled snakes exhibit behavior that has been selected on a different scale—over many generations. Counter adaptations in fish are not expected, as tentacled snakes are rare predators exploiting fish responses that are usually adaptive. PMID:20585384

  12. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Bumpus in the snake den: effects of sex, size, and body condition on mortality of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R; LeMaster, M P; Moore, I T; Olsson, M M; Mason, R T

    2001-03-01

    Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live animals sampled at the same time reveal significant biases. Three primary sources of mortality were identified. Predation by crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos (590 snakes killed), was focussed mostly on small snakes of both sexes. Crows generally removed the snake's liver and left the carcass, but very small snakes were sometimes brought back to the nest. Suffocation beneath massive piles of other snakes within the den (301 dead animals) involved mostly small males and (to a lesser extent) large females; snakes in poor body condition were particularly vulnerable. Many emaciated snakes (n = 142, mostly females) also died without overt injuries, probably due to depleted energy reserves. These biases in vulnerability are readily interpretable from information on behavioral ecology of the snakes. For example, sex biases in mortality reflect differences in postemergence behavior and locomotor capacity, the greater attractiveness of larger females to males, and the high energy costs of reproduction for females.

  14. The upper cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the phylogenetic relationships of snakes and lizards are plagued by problematic characterizations of anatomy that are then used to define characters and states in taxon-character matrices. State assignments and character descriptions must be clear characterizations of observable anatomy and topological relationships if homologies are to be hypothesized. A supposed homology among snakes, not observed in lizards, is the presence of a crista circumfenestralis (CCF), a system of bony crests surrounding the fenestra ovalis and lateral aperture of the recessus scalae tympani. We note that there are some fossil and extant snakes that lack a CCF, and some extant lizards that possess a morphological equivalent. The phylogenetically important upper Cretaceous fossil snake Dinilysia patagonica has been interpreted by different authors as either having or lacking a CCF. These conflicting results for Dinilysia were tested by re-examining the morphology of the otic region in a large sample of snakes and lizards. An unambiguous criterion arising from the test of topology is used to define the presence of a CCF: the enclosure of the ventral margin of the juxtastapedial recess by flanges of the otoccipital (crista tuberalis and crista interfenestralis) that extend forward to contact the posterior margin of the prootic. According to this criterion D. patagonica does not possess a CCF, therefore, this anatomical feature must have arisen later during the evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spin with two snakes and overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Zhao, X.F.

    1987-01-01

    We study the effect of multiple spin depolarization resonances on the spin of the particles with two snakes. When two resonances are well separated, the polarization can be restored in passing through these resonances provided that the snake resonances are avoided. When two resonances are overlapping, the beam particles may be depolarized depending on the spacing between these two resonances. If the spacing between these two resonances is an odd number for two snakes, the beam particles may be depolarized depending on the strength of the resonance. When the spacing becomes an even number, the spin can tolerate a much larger resonance strength without depolarization. Numerical simulations can be shown to agree well with the analytic formula. However, the spin is susceptible to the combination of an intrinsic and an imperfection resonances even in the presence of the snakes. Numerical simulation indicates that the spin can be restored after the resonances provided that imperfection strength is less than 0.1 if intrinsic strength is fixed at 0.745

  16. A Schoolwide Endeavor: Our Exquisite Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The author was originally inspired by "The Exquisite Snake" exhibit she saw at a local museum. Two hundred contemporary artists contributed to this exhibit, which was an adaptation of the old parlor game called "The Exquisite Corpse" that Surrealist artists used to play in the late 1920s and '30s. The author just loved this idea and decided to…

  17. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  18. Toxins not neutralized by brown snake antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Roopwant K.; Henry, Peter J.; Mirtschin, Peter; Jelinek, George; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian snakes of the genus Pseudonaja (dugite, gwardar and common brown) account for the majority of snake bite related deaths in Australia. Without antivenom treatment, the risk of mortality is significant. There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the antivenom is limited. The current study investigates the protein constituents recognized by the antivenom using 2-DE, immuno-blot techniques and rat tracheal organ bath assays. The 2-DE profiles for all three snake venoms were similar, with major species visualized at 78-132 kDa, 32-45 kDa and 6-15 kDa. Proteins characterized by LC-MS/MS revealed a coagulant toxin (∼42 kDa) and coagulant peptide (∼6 kDa), as well as two PLA 2 (∼14 kDa). Peptides isolated from ∼78 kDa and 15-32 kDa protein components showed no similarity to known protein sequences. Protein recognition by the antivenom occurred predominantly for the higher molecular weight components with little recognition of 6-32 kDa MW species. The ability of antivenom to neutralize venom activity was also investigated using rat tracheal organ bath assays. The venoms of Pseudonaja affinis affinis and Pseudonaja nuchalis incited a sustained, significant contraction of the trachea. These contractions were attributed to PLA 2 enzymatic activity as pre-treatment with the PLA 2 inhibitor 4-BPB attenuated the venom-induced contractions. The venom of Pseudonaja textilis incited tracheal contractility through a non-PLA 2 enzymatic activity. Neither activity was attenuated by the antivenom treatment. These results represent the first proteomic investigation of the venoms from the snakes of the genus Pseudonaja, revealing a possible limitation of the brown snake antivenom in binding to the low MW protein components

  19. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  1. Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalees, Trudi J; Abraham, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Clinical challenges: The diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation is not always easy. Identification of Australian snakes is not straightforward and there are no pathognomonic clinical signs. In cats, diagnosis of envenomation is confounded by the fact that, in most cases, there is a delay in seeking veterinary attention, probably because snake encounters are not usually witnessed by owners, and also because of the tendency of cats to hide and seek seclusion when unwell. Although the administration of antivenom is associated with improved outcomes, the snake venom detection kit and antivenom are expensive and so their use may be precluded if there are financial constraints. Evidence base: In providing comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats, the authors of this review draw on the published veterinary, medical and toxicology literature, as well as their professional experience as specialists in medicine, and emergency medicine and critical care.

  2. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  3. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  4. Advanced Casting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Anodic Films for the Protection of Magnesium Alloys". G.R. Kotler, D.L. Hawke and E.N. Agua . Proc. International Magnesium Association, Montreal, May...HCF testing, impellers were bench tested to assess the in situ fatigue capabilities of 250-C28 impeller airfoils. In this testing, the airfoils...64 at 204oC (400oF), 13- T to a> o >-, o r- i—l CD -*—• Cast Wrought TE-2222 Ficure 11. In situ HCF results for Ti-64 Model 250

  5. Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ameen

    the use of village surrounding medicinal plants for the treatment of the snake bite. Recent efforts on ... treatment of snake bites. Information .... Snake venoms are complex mixture of enzymatic and .... treated, mode of diagnosis and medicinal.

  6. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  7. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Smart Material-Actuated Flexible Tendon-Based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  9. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  10. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  11. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  12. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Hori, Etsuro; Tran, Anh Hai; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  13. The snakes and ladders of FM service excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn; Mccarroll, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    A report to accompany a workshop and gamification event at EFMC 2015 in Glasgow.\\ud \\ud Snakes and Ladders is an ancient Indian board game regarded today as a worldwide classic. The historic version had its root in morality lessons, where a player's progression up the board represented a life journey complicated by virtues (ladders) and vices (snakes). Our version brings back the morality element by associating each ladder and snake with enablers or barriers to service excellence in FM all id...

  14. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  15. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  16. Education and Caste in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  17. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.

  18. Snake-like phenomena in Tore Supra following pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecquet, A.L.; Cristofani, P.; Mattioli, M.; Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Joffrin, E.; Sabot, R.

    1996-01-01

    Snakes are observed in Tore-Supra, after injection of high velocity solid hydrogen or deuterium pellets ablated inside the q=1 surface. They are detected, immediately after the ablation, as oscillations on the line integrated densities of the central interferometer channels. The corresponding oscillations on the soft X-ray signals detach from the noise about 70 ms later. Snakes survive sawtooth crashes, but are nevertheless affected by them. Variations, during the about 500 ms long lifetime, of the snake radius τ s , of the rotation frequency and of the rotation direction are discussed, stressing the effects of the sawtooth crashes. In many snakes τ s /τ q =1 is of the order of 0.5. Since the snake has a m=1, n=1 helicity, this points out the existence of a flat or inverted safety factor profile, confirmed by calculation of the current profile using Spitzer's resistivity. Combined simulations of the snake oscillations on both interferometer and soft X-ray signals have indicated that, starting about 80 ms after the snake formation, the impurity (carbon) density inside the snake is much larger than outside it. Since a change of regime seems to appear about 80 ms after the snake formation on the soft X-ray, it seems plausible that impurity (carbon) accumulation takes place at this time. A stability criterion taking into account both impurity and bootstrap effects is presented, the result agrees with the model proposed by Wesson. (authors)

  19. [New drug developments of snake venom polypeptides and progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sihai; Feng, Mei; Xiong, Yan

    2017-11-28

    The value of snake venom polypeptides in clinical application has drawn extensive attention, and the development of snake polypeptides into new drugs with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, analgesic or antihypertensive properties has become the recent research hotspot. With the rapid development of molecular biology and biotechnology, the mechanisms of snake venom polypeptides are also gradually clarified. Numerous studies have demonstrated that snake venom polypeptides exert their pharmacological effects by regulating ion channels, cell proliferation, apoptosis, intracellular signaling pathway, and expression of cytokine as well as binding to relevant active sites or receptors.

  20. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  1. Primary homologies of the circumorbital bones of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Some snakes have two circumorbital ossifications that in the current literature are usually referred to as the postorbital and supraorbital. We review the arguments that have been proposed to justify this interpretation and provide counter-arguments that reject those conjectures of primary homology based on the observation of 32 species of lizards and 81 species of snakes (both extant and fossil). We present similarity arguments, both topological and structural, for reinterpretation of the primary homologies of the dorsal and posterior orbital ossifications of snakes. Applying the test of similarity, we conclude that the posterior orbital ossification of snakes is topologically consistent as the homolog of the lacertilian jugal, and that the dorsal orbital ossification present in some snakes (e.g., pythons, Loxocemus, and Calabaria) is the homolog of the lacertilian postfrontal. We therefore propose that the terms postorbital and supraorbital should be abandoned as reference language for the circumorbital bones of snakes, and be replaced with the terms jugal and postfrontal, respectively. The primary homology claim for the snake "postorbital" fails the test of similarity, while the term "supraorbital" is an unnecessary and inaccurate application of the concept of a neomorphic ossification, for an element that passes the test of similarity as a postfrontal. This reinterpretation of the circumorbital bones of snakes is bound to have important repercussions for future phylogenetic analyses and consequently for our understanding of the origin and evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Studies of polarized beam acceleration and Siberian Snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    We studied depolarization mechanisms of polarized proton acceleration in high energy accelerators with snakes and found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two. Thus the available betatron tune space becomes smaller. Some constraints on polarized beam colliders were also examined

  3. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  4. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  5. Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L; Borys, Douglas J; Stanford, Rhandi; Kjar, Dean; Tobleman, William

    2007-02-01

    The clinical features of bites from Texas coral snakes (Micrurus tener) have not been well studied. Our goal was to review the largest number of victims of Texas coral snakebites to determine their characteristics, effects, treatment, and outcome. Retrospective case series of Micrurus tener exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network from 2000 to 2004. Eighty-two patients were included in the analysis. Most (57.3%) were 18 to 49-year-old men. Almost 90% had local swelling, pain, erythema, or paresthesias. Only 7.3% had systemic effects, and none of these were severe. Over half received coral snake antivenin, and 15.9% were given opioids for pain. No patient died and no patient required mechanical ventilation due to hypoventilation from the snakebite. There were more local findings and less severe systemic effects than previously reported. Antivenin is not needed for most of these patients, and opioids may be administered safely.

  6. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  7. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J; Luiselli, L M; Akani, G C; Bonnet, X; Amori, G; Ballouard, J M; Filippi, E; Naulleau, G; Pearson, D; Rugiero, L

    2010-12-23

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined sharply over the same relatively short period of time with five remaining stable and one showing signs of a marginal increase. Although the causes of these declines are currently unknown, we suspect that they are multi-faceted (such as habitat quality deterioration, prey availability), and with a common cause, e.g. global climate change, at their root.

  8. Snake-bite-induced Acute Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Result: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90 percentage) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21 percentage) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17 percentage) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30 percentage), while 15 (13.04 percentage) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47 percentage) developed CKD, 11 (9.56 percentage) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60 percentage) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres Result in undesirable outcome. (author)

  9. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  10. Diagnostic Imaging in Snakes and Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Banzato , Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of snakes and lizards as pets has led to an increasing demand of specialised veterinary duties in these animals. Diagnostic imaging is often a fundamental step of the clinical investigation. The interpretation of diagnostic images is complex and requires a broad knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species object of the clinical investigation. Moreover, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis, the comparison between normal and abnormal diagnostic im...

  11. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  12. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  13. An inspection of pipe by snake robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Trebuňa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with development and application of snake robot for inspection pipes. The first step involves the introduction of a design of mechanical and electrical parts of the snake robot. Next, the analysis of the robot locomotion is introduced. For the curved pipe, potential field method is used. By this method, the system is able to generate path for the head and rear robot, linking the environment with obstacles, which are represented by the walls of the pipe. Subsequently, the solution of potential field method is used in inverse kinematic model, which respects tasks as obstacle avoidance, joint limit avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Mentioned approach is then tested on snake robot in provisional pipe with rectangular cross section. For this research, software Matlab (2013b is used as the control system in cooperation with the control system of robot, which is based on microcontrollers. By experiments, it is shown that designed robot is able to pass through straight and also curved pipe.

  14. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  16. Mapping of mechanical properties of cast iron melts using non-destructive structuroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dočekal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on mapping of mechanical properties using methods of non-destructive structuroscopy of cast irons, which are a result of research at TU of Liberec and Institute of Physics of ASCR. Investigated samples become from melts of FOCAM s.r.o Olomouc Foundry shop. It compares data of mechanical properties obtained using ultrasound method with data from magnetic spot method and MAT. These are interpreted by mathematic models applicable in practice. In the following it concerns to derivation of loading tensile curve method, which can be used to obtain yield and fatigue strength limits even for cast irons with flake graphite. In spite of promising results reported by literature the experiments are bothered with error. This method can be applied to structure checking both before casting and at vendor inspection of castings.

  17. Influence of ecologically friendly cores on surface quality of castings based on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichý

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructional materials as Al - alloys can be replaced by other materials with high strength to low mass density ratio, e.g. Mg-alloys. In order to pre-casting of holes and cavities cores based on pure inorganic salt can be applied due to easy cleaning of even geometrically complex pre-cast holes. This technology is applied mainly for gravity and low-pressure casting technology. This contribution is aimed at studying of mutual interaction of the Mg-alloy and the salt core. Experiments were focused on surface quality; macro- and microstructure of testing casting samples determination. Metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM with X-ray energy-dispersion superficial and spot microanalysis (EDAX were employed.

  18. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  19. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  20. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  1. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HARDENING OF UNINTERRUPTEDLY-CASTED BRONZE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional numerical model for calculation of thermal fields during solidification of continuously casted bronze casting is developed. Coefficients of heat transfer on borders of calculation areas on the basis of the solution of inverse heat transfer conduction problem are determined. The analysis of thermal fields, depending on loop variables of drawing and the sizes of not cooled zone of crystallizer is curried out.

  2. The partial Siberian snake experiment at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.; Jones, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Schwandt, P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.J.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.D.; Foelsche, H.W.; Gardner, C.J.; Geller, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Mane, S.R.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Skelly, J.F.; Soukas, A.; Tepikian, S.; Thern, R.E.; van Asselt, W.; Spinka, H.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Wienands, U.; Bharadwaj, V.; Hsueh, S.; Hiramatsu, S.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.; Yokoya, K.

    1992-01-01

    We are building a 4.7 Tesla-meter room temperature solenoid to be installed in a 10-foot long AGS straight section. This experiment will test the idea of using a partial snake to correct all depolarizing imperfection resonances and also test the feasibility of betatron tune jump in correction intrinsic resonances in the presence of a partial snake

  3. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  4. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  5. Resonant depolarization in electron storage rings equipped with ''siberia snakes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1984-11-01

    Resonant depolarization induced by field errors and quantum emissions in an electron ring equipped with two ''siberian snakes'' is investigated with a first order perturbation calculation. It is shown that this depolarization is not reduced by the snakes when the operating energy is set out of the depolarization resonances [fr

  6. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata

  8. Emerging fungal pathogen Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in wild European snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H. V.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Wright, Owen; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Petrovan, Silviu; Durrant, Chris; Linton, Chris; Baláž, Vojtech; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2017-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010–2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O. ophiodiicola. The fungus was detected using real-time PCR in 26 (8.6%) specimens across the period of collection. Follow up culture and histopathologic analyses confirmed that both O. ophiodiicola and SFD occur in wild European snakes. Although skin lesions were mild in most cases, in some snakes they were severe and were considered likely to have contributed to mortality. Culture characterisations demonstrated that European isolates grew more slowly than those from the United States, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that isolates from European wild snakes reside in a clade distinct from the North American isolates examined. These genetic and phenotypic differences indicate that the European isolates represent novel strains of O. ophiodiicola. Further work is required to understand the individual and population level impact of this pathogen in Europe.

  9. Particle spin tune in a partially excited snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.; Courant, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we address the question on the effect of the particle spin when a snake is turned on adiabatically near a depolarization resonance while not accelerating. The spinor equation and its solution are reviewed briefly and the spin transfer matrix method in the presence of a snake are used to evaluate the spin tune and the precession axis

  10. An Unusual Case of Acute Asthma after Snake Bite | Ikuabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Although the cytolytic, neurotoxic and haemolytic actions of snake venoms are well known, the ability of snake venom to induce asthma (as a distinct entity from just difficulty in breathing) is not previously reported in the literature. Methods The case records of the patient in the index case and a review of existing ...

  11. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  12. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  13. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  14. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  15. Snake fungal disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in a free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lisa A; Fenton, Heather; Gonyor-McGuire, Jessica; Moore, Matthew; Yabsley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O. ophiodiicola A skin sample incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded a white-to-tan powdery fungal culture that was confirmed to be O. ophiodiicola by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Heavy infestation with adult tapeworms (Ophiotaenia faranciae) was present within the intestine. Various bacterial and fungal species, interpreted to either be secondary invaders or postmortem contaminants, were associated with oral lesions. Although the role of these other organisms in the overall health of this individual is not known, factors such as concurrent infections or immunosuppression should be considered in order to better understand the overall manifestation of snake fungal disease, which remains poorly characterized in its host range and geographic distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to

  17. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2009-01-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  18. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  19. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  20. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality.

  1. The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Filipe O; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Savriama, Yoland; Ollonen, Joni; Mahlow, Kristin; Herrel, Anthony; Müller, Johannes; Di-Poï, Nicolas

    2018-01-25

    The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.

  2. The new conceptual design of snakes and spin rotators in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Courant, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the generalized snake configurations, which offers either the advantages of shorter total snake length and smaller horizontal orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the dual functions of a snake and a 90 degree spin rotation for the helicity state. The generalized snake is then applied to the polarized proton collision in RHIC. The possible schemes of obtaining high luminosity are discussed

  3. The Narrow Fellow in the Grass: Human Infants Associate Snakes and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no differential spontaneous reaction to films of snakes versus…

  4. Tape casting fluorinated YBC123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.A.T.; Luke, D.M.; Whiteley, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Tape casting the superconducting Ba-Y-Cu oxide was accomplished by several laboratories and show promise for being a versatile forming technique. The major problem is low current density, probably due to lack of grain alignment and grain boundary related weak links. The latter problem may be due to formation of carbonates and hydroxides during binder burnout. Preliminary work done at Alfred shows that a bimodal powder size distribution displays significant alignment after tape casting and that F treated powder is resistant to attack by steam at 100C. Such corrosion resistant powder cast as form tape should survive the binder burnout without the detrimental grain boundary phases that develop from reaction of the superconducting phase, steam and carbon dioxide. This paper presents the results of an investigation of tape casting fluorinated powder with a bimodal size distribution

  5. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  6. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castello Branco, C.H.; Beckert, E.A.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author) [pt

  7. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10437 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  8. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 23.621 Section 23.621... Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) through (d... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and...

  9. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  10. Optimizing the Gating System for Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezierski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the attempt to optimize a gating system to produce cast steel castings. It is based on John Campbell’s theory and presents the original results of computer modelling of typical and optimized gating systems for cast steel castings. The current state-of-the-art in cast steel casting foundry was compared with several proposals of optimization. The aim was to find a compromise between the best, theoretically proven gating system version, and a version that would be affordable in industrial conditions. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform and slow pouring process even for heavy castings to preserve their internal quality.

  11. Comparison of Different Dosing Protocols of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) in Snake Bite Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, B R; Chandanwale, A S; Kadam, D B; Ghongane, B B; Ghorpade, V S; Manu, H C

    2017-09-01

    Considering the cost of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) and irregularity in its supply, there is often a need to curtail doses of ASV, despite guidelines for management of snake bite. During June 2013 to September 2013, when ASV was in short supply, our institutional committee reviewed the overall hospital statistics of snake bite cases as well as scientific literature and formulated a working modified protocol that used low dose of ASV in snake bite cases. To retrospectively analyse and compare the modified ASV protocol versus conventional ASV protocol with respect to outcome, number of ASV vials required, duration of stay in the hospital/ ICU, and additional supportive interventions needed. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Maharashtra, India. Hospital records of inpatients admitted for snake bite during June 2013 to September 2013 (since introduction of the modified protocol) as well as during June 2012 to September 2012, (when patients received conventional protocol-historical controls) were retrospectively analysed to assess the number of ASV vials received by the patients during the stay, need for supportive therapy, duration of stay and outcome of the patients. There was a significant reduction in average number of ASV vials per patient, required vide the modified protocol compared to their historical controls (10.74±0.95 vs 28.17±2.75 pcost of management of each patient reduced by approximately 11974.41 INR per treated patient, based on the requirement of ASV. The modified ASV protocol used in this study is more cost effective as compared to the conventional protocol, deserves prospective evaluation and may be followed at least during prime time of scarcity of ASV.

  12. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  13. Examination of Sarcocystis spp. of giant snakes from Australia and Southeast Asia confirms presence of a known pathogen - Sarcocystis nesbitti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wassermann

    Full Text Available We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68% of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons, which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts, coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.

  14. Examination of Sarcocystis spp. of giant snakes from Australia and Southeast Asia confirms presence of a known pathogen - Sarcocystis nesbitti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Raisch, Lisa; Lyons, Jessica Ann; Natusch, Daniel James Deans; Richter, Sarah; Wirth, Mareike; Preeprem, Piyarat; Khoprasert, Yuvaluk; Ginting, Sulaiman; Mackenstedt, Ute; Jäkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst) and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68%) of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia) the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons), which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts), coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.

  15. Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of 3FTx and PLA(2) toxins from Micrurus corallinus snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K L; Duarte, C G; Ramos, H R; Machado de Avila, R A; Schneider, F S; Oliveira, D; Freitas, C F; Kalapothakis, E; Ho, P L; Chávez-Olortegui, C

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a strategy to identify B-cell epitopes on four different three finger toxins (3FTX) and one phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Micrurus corallinus snake venom. 3FTx and PLA2 are highly abundant components in Elapidic venoms and are the major responsibles for the toxicity observed in envenomation by coral snakes. Overlapping peptides from the sequence of each toxin were prepared by SPOT method and three different anti-elapidic sera were used to map the epitopes. After immunogenicity analysis of the spot-reactive peptides by EPITOPIA, a computational method, nine sequences from the five toxins were chemically synthesized and antigenically and immunogenically characterized. All the peptides were used together as immunogens in rabbits, delivered with Freund's adjuvant for a first cycle of immunization and Montanide in the second. A good antibody response against individual synthetic peptides and M. corallinus venom was achieved. Anti-peptide IgGs were also cross-reactive against Micrurus frontalis and Micrurus lemniscatus crude venoms. In addition, anti-peptide IgGs inhibits the lethal and phospholipasic activities of M. corallinus crude venom. Our results provide a rational basis to the identification of neutralizing epitopes on coral snake toxins and show that their corresponding synthetic peptides could improve the generation of immuno-therapeutics. The use of synthetic peptide for immunization is a reasonable approach, since it enables poly-specificity, low risk of toxic effects and large scale production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Case report: Snake bite - an odd case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Bettina; Muth, Claus-Martin; Georgieff, Michael; Dinse-Lambracht, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Emergency medical service is called by a 54-year-old man bitten by his rattlesnake. Upon initial survey we find the patient in a cardiopulmonary stable condition. He has bite marks and pain on his rapidly swelling middle finger of his right hand. Our initial treatment is immobilization of the patient. The snake raiser has already called the poison control center in Munich. By the help of this institution we bring him to a hospital having the right antivenom on hand. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Molecular Convergence of Infrared Vision in Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; DeNardo, Dale F.

    2011-01-01

    It has been discovered that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) proteins of Boidae (boas), Pythonidae (pythons), and Crotalinae (pit vipers) are used to detect infrared radiation, but the molecular mechanism for detecting the infrared radiation is unknown. Here, relating the amino acid substitutions in their TRPA1 proteins and the functional differentiations, we propose that three parallel amino acid changes (L330M, Q391H, and S434T) are responsible for the development of infrared vision in the three groups of snakes. Protein modeling shows that the three amino acid changes alter the structures of the central region of their ankyrin repeats. PMID:20937734

  18. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  19. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  20. A snail-eating snake recognizes prey handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaisawadi, Patchara; Asami, Takahiro; Ota, Hidetoshi; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2016-04-05

    Specialized predator-prey interactions can be a driving force for their coevolution. Southeast Asian snail-eating snakes (Pareas) have more teeth on the right mandible and specialize in predation on the clockwise-coiled (dextral) majority in shelled snails by soft-body extraction. Snails have countered the snakes' dextral-predation by recurrent coil reversal, which generates diverse counterclockwise-coiled (sinistral) prey where Pareas snakes live. However, whether the snake predator in turn evolves any response to prey reversal is unknown. We show that Pareas carinatus living with abundant sinistrals avoids approaching or striking at a sinistral that is more difficult and costly to handle than a dextral. Whenever it strikes, however, the snake succeeds in predation by handling dextral and sinistral prey in reverse. In contrast, P. iwasakii with little access to sinistrals on small peripheral islands attempts and frequently misses capturing a given sinistral. Prey-handedness recognition should be advantageous for right-handed snail-eating snakes where frequently encountering sinistrals. Under dextral-predation by Pareas snakes, adaptive fixation of a prey population for a reversal gene instantaneously generates a sinistral species because interchiral mating is rarely possible. The novel warning, instead of sheltering, effect of sinistrality benefitting both predators and prey could further accelerate single-gene ecological speciation by left-right reversal.

  1. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Gabirot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates, although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species.

  2. Radioactive elements definition in composition of snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhrabova, M.A.; Topchieva, Sh.F.; Abiev, G.A.; Nagiev, Dj.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The given article presents questions concerned to usage of snake venom in medicine and pharmacy for medicinal drugs production, zootoxin base antidotes, thorough treatment of many deseases, especially onkological, also have a widespread in biology as a specific test-material for biological sistem analises. It is experimentally proved that certain amount of snake venom can replace morphine drugs, taking into acount that snake venom solutions make longer prolonged influence than other drugs, vithout causing an accustoming. It is also marked about possibility of usage of snake venom for cancer treatment. Many expeditions had been conducted with the purpose to research snake venom crytals on the territory of Azerbaijan. During these expeditions snakes capturing had been made with the purpose of taking the venom and also soil samples had been taken in order to research the quantity of radioactive elements. Measurements made with the help of electronic microscope C anberra . Revealed uranium activity in spectrum of venom as a result of radiation background, which appears under influence of ionizing radiation on the environment. On the base of analises data it can be ascertained that snake venom can be used for production of medicinal and also other necessary drugs. [ru

  3. Trump, Snakes and the Power of Fables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stevens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At a recent rally, Donald Trump resumed a habit he had developed during his election-rallies and read out the lyrics to a song. It tells the Aesopian fable of The Farmer and the Snake: A half frozen snake is taken in by a kind-hearted person but bites them the moment it is revived. Trump tells the fable to make a point about Islamic immigrants and undocumented immigrants from Southern and Central America: He claims the immigrants will cause problems and much stricter immigration-policies are needed.  I assume that Trump treats the fable as an argumentative device for supporting his stance on immigration. He uses it as a source-analogue both for the conclusion that immigrants will cause problems and for changing the frame in which immigrants and those willing to let them enter are seen. This gives me opportunity to examine the effect fables have as argumentative devices. Fables are a popular and effective choice for political argumentation. They are slimmed down, semi-abstract narratives, well suited for directing the audience's attention to a few properties of an otherwise complex situation. However, this also makes it easy to use them for manipulating an audience into oversimplifying complex contexts and stereotyping human beings.

  4. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  5. Mandibular osteosynthesis in a Boa constrictor snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Costa Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays are observed an increase in the finding of certain wild animals in urban areas, due to environmental changes caused by deforestation and economic use of natural areas. It causes disappearance of usual prey and forces these animals, including snakes, to migrate to urban areas, becoming vulnerable to injuries caused by aggressions, car accidents and capture. Mandibular and maxillar fractures are common in many animal species, representing about 3-6% of all bone fractures in dogs and cats. Mandibular trauma usually occurs as a result of fights, car accidents and improper handling and/or restraint, and fractures can be closed or open, clean or contaminated. The jaw is a flat bone with differences from the long bones that should be taken into consideration for successful treatment, being minimal muscle coverage and need to maintain occlusion factors that influence the definition of the best ostheosynthesis method. The methods of stabilization include using intramedullary pins, wires, external skeletal fixation, bone plate, and acrylic resin. Conventional bone plates are efficient but related to some complications, such as the necessity of muscular elevation and high risk of injuries to mandibular structures. This article describes the successful results of the application of plate and screws in the ostheosynthesis of a mandibular fracture in a female Boa constrictor snake with weight of 8.0 kg and length of 1.80 m, at the RIOZOO Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

  6. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  7. Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, B F; Sampaio, F L; Jared, C; Antoniazzi, M M; Loew, E R; Bowmaker, J K; Rodriguez, A; Hart, N S; Hunt, D M; Partridge, J C; Gower, D J

    2015-07-01

    The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  9. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  11. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  12. DETECTION OF OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA IN TWO CAPTIVE BOCOURT WATER SNAKES ( SUBSESSOR BOCOURTI) AND ONE CAPTIVE PUEBLAN MILK SNAKE ( LAMPROPELTIS TRIANGULUM CAMPBELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picquet, Pierre; Heckers, Kim O; Kolesnik, Ekaterina; Heusinger, Anton; Marschang, Rachel E

    2018-03-01

    Two captive Bocourt water snakes ( Subsessor bocourti) presented with chronic white skin lesions on their heads; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin scrapings from both snakes. Histopathology performed in one Bocourt water snake revealed fungal hyphae in epidermal structures of lesions. One Pueblan milk snake ( Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli) from the same zoologic institution presented with yellow crusts and white blisters on its body, from which O. ophiodiicola was identified by culture and PCR. Two of the three snakes apparently recovered from lesions after multiple natural sheds, whereas the third snake died. This is the first report of O. ophiodiicola infection in Bocourt water snakes and in a Pueblan milk snake, as well as the first report of O. ophiodiicola in France.

  13. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  14. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    OpenAIRE

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study, 1 we tested whe...

  15. CAST Physics Proposal to SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    CAST, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The CAST experiment has the potential to search for solar axions (dark matter particle candidates) or other particles with similar coupling. E.g., paraphtons (Hidden Sector), chameleons (dark energy), while considering the possibility whether CAST could be transformed to an antenna for relic axions with rest mass up to 0.1 to 1meV. While axion searches suggest detectors with lower background, paraphoton and chameleon searches require detectors with sub-keV threshold energy and the use of transparent windows in front of the Micromegas detectors, which cover 3 out of the 4 CAST magnet exits. Ongoing theoretical estimates and experimental investigations will define the priorities of the suggested 4 physics items of this proposal for the period 2012-2014.

  16. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  17. Testing the Snake-Detection hypothesis : Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird

  18. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Evolution of the Infrared Sensory Gene TRPA1 in Snakes and Implications for Functional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium ion channel protein recently identified as the infrared receptor in pit organ-containing snakes. Therefore, understanding the molecular evolution of TRPA1 may help to illuminate the origin of “heat vision” in snakes and reveal the molecular mechanism of infrared sensitivity for TRPA1. To this end, we sequenced the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in 24 snake species, representing nine snake families and multiple non-snake outgroups. We found that TRPA1 is under strong positive selection in the pit-bearing snakes studied, but not in other non-pit snakes and non-snake vertebrates. As a comparison, TRPV1, a gene closely related to TRPA1, was found to be under strong purifying selection in all the species studied, with no difference in the strength of selection between pit-bearing snakes and non-pit snakes. This finding demonstrates that the adaptive evolution of TRPA1 specifically occurred within the pit-bearing snakes and may be related to the functional modification for detecting infrared radiation. In addition, by comparing the TRPA1 protein sequences, we identified 11 amino acid sites that were diverged in pit-bearing snakes but conserved in non-pit snakes and other vertebrates, 21 sites that were diverged only within pit-vipers but conserved in the remaining snakes. These specific amino acid substitutions may be potentially functional important for infrared sensing. PMID:22163322

  20. The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Allison Y; Field, Daniel J; Webster, Timothy H; Behlke, Adam D B; Davis, Matthew B; Racicot, Rachel A; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-20

    The highly derived morphology and astounding diversity of snakes has long inspired debate regarding the ecological and evolutionary origin of both the snake total-group (Pan-Serpentes) and crown snakes (Serpentes). Although speculation abounds on the ecology, behavior, and provenance of the earliest snakes, a rigorous, clade-wide analysis of snake origins has yet to be attempted, in part due to a dearth of adequate paleontological data on early stem snakes. Here, we present the first comprehensive analytical reconstruction of the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of the snake total-group, as inferred using multiple methods of ancestral state reconstruction. We use a combined-data approach that includes new information from the fossil record on extinct crown snakes, new data on the anatomy of the stem snakes Najash rionegrina, Dinilysia patagonica, and Coniophis precedens, and a deeper understanding of the distribution of phenotypic apomorphies among the major clades of fossil and Recent snakes. Additionally, we infer time-calibrated phylogenies using both new 'tip-dating' and traditional node-based approaches, providing new insights on temporal patterns in the early evolutionary history of snakes. Comprehensive ancestral state reconstructions reveal that both the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of total-group snakes were nocturnal, widely foraging, non-constricting stealth hunters. They likely consumed soft-bodied vertebrate and invertebrate prey that was subequal to head size, and occupied terrestrial settings in warm, well-watered, and well-vegetated environments. The snake total-group - approximated by the Coniophis node - is inferred to have originated on land during the middle Early Cretaceous (~128.5 Ma), with the crown-group following about 20 million years later, during the Albian stage. Our inferred divergence dates provide strong evidence for a major radiation of henophidian snake diversity in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K

  1. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  2. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar DEM: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  3. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were school going children who lived in houses mostly made of .... Children and students accounted for 60% of all victims. Farmers 40%. ... family member. Table 1. .... due to its dry and hot climate. .... snake bite and treatment-seeking behavior.

  4. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia......, the Aipysurus group was separated from the other viviparous sea snakes at around 5.8 million years before present and in the Hydrophis lineage the Hydrophis group was separated from the three semi-marine lineages at around 4.4 million years before present. The venoms of sea snakes are rather simple, typically...... containing a-neurotoxins and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), and in terms of lethality are known to be more potent than the venoms from terrestrial snakes....

  5. Snake representation of a superprocess in random environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mytnik, Leonid; Xiong, Jie; Zeitouni, Ofer

    2011-01-01

    We consider (discrete time) branching particles in a random environment which is i.i.d. in time and possibly spatially correlated. We prove a representation of the limit process by means of a Brownian snake in random environment.

  6. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  7. SNAKE VENOM INSTABILITY • Department of Physiology, Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferable to desiccated samples for use in snake venom research (Bjork ... experimental results suggest that dried venom samples may be influenced by different ..... true for the commercial samples, as these are collectively pooled before ...

  8. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  10. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  11. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  12. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  13. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  14. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    OpenAIRE

    Martina J. Baum; Lars Heepe; Elena Fadeeva; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2014-01-01

    Summary The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients ...

  15. Ecological and phylogenetic influences on maxillary dentition in snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Jackson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary dentition of snakes was used as a system with which to investigate the relative importance of the interacting forces of ecological selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints indetermining morphology. The maxillary morphology of three groups of snakes having different diets, with each group comprising two distinct lineages — boids and colubroids — was examined. Our results suggest that dietary selective pressures may be more significantthan phylogenetic history in shaping maxillary morphology.

  16. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  18. FITTING HELICAL SNAKE AND ROTATOR FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANJBAR, V.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent multi-pole measurements for the helical snakes and rotators in RHIC to generate a full field map. Since multi-pole measurements yield real field values for B, field components we developed a unique technique to evaluate the full fields using a traditional finite element analysis software [1]. From these measurements we employed SNIG [2] to generate orbit and Spin plots. From orbit values we generated a transfer matrix for the first snake

  19. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  20. Behavioral shifts associated with reproduction in garter snakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shine; B. Phillips; H. Waye; R. T. Mason

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction may involve profound modifications to behaviors such as feeding, antipredator tactics, and thermoregulation. Such shifts have generally been interpreted as direct consequences of reproduction but may instead be secondary effects of reproduction-associated changes in other traits such as habitat use. We quantified behaviors of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) courting and mating at a communal den, and also of postreproductive snakes dispersing from the same...

  1. A 3D motion planning framework for snake robots

    OpenAIRE

    Liljebäck, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2014-01-01

    - Author's postprint This paper presents a motion planning framework for three-dimensional body shape control of snake robots. Whereas conventional motion planning approaches define the body shape of snake robots in terms of their individual joint angles, the proposed framework allows the body shape to be specified in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the environment of the robot. This approach simplifies motion planning since Cartesian coordinates are more intuitively mapped to the overal...

  2. Cast Care: Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Cast care. In: Instructions for Sports Medicine Patients. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 25, 2018. Pfenninger JL, et al. Casts immobilization and upper extremity splinting. In: Pfenninger and Fowler's ...

  3. Radiating sterilization of the venom of snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiyev, H.A.; Topchiyeva, Sh.A.; Rustamov, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Water solutions of venoms are unstable and they lose toxicity in some day. Snake venoms inactivate under action of some physical factors: the UV-irradiation, x-rays beams. The purpose of the present work was sterilization of venom Vipera lebetina obtusa under influence of small dozes γ-radiations. Object of research was integral venom of adult individuals. Transcaucasian viper, and also the water solutions of venom irradiated with small dozes scale of radiation. An irradiation of venom carried out to radioisotope installation 60NI. For experiment tests of dry venom, and also their water solutions have been taken. Water solutions of venom have been subjected -radiation up to dozes 1.35, 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr simultaneously dry venom of vipers was exposed -radiation before absorption of a doze 5.4 kGr. In comparative aspect action scale of radiation on ultra-violet spectra of absorption of venom was studied. Ultra-violet spectra venom have been taken off on device Specord UV-VIS. In 12 months after an irradiation spectra of absorption of venom have been repeatedly taken off. In spectra irradiated dry and solutions of venom new maxima of absorption have been revealed in the field of 285 nm and 800 nm describing change of toxicity. It is shown, that the increase in absorption of a doze of radiation occurs decrease of intensity of strips of absorption reduction of intensity of absorption.It is revealed at 260 and 300 nm testifying to course of biochemical reactions of separate enzymes zootoxins. It is necessary to note, that at comparison of intensity of absorption of control samples of poison with irradiated up to dozes 1.35 kGr it has not been revealed essential changes. The subsequent increase in a doze scale of radiation up to 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr promotes proportional reduction of intensity of the absorption, describing toxicity of snake venom. At repeated (later 12 months) measurement of the irradiated water solutions of venom are not revealed changes in

  4. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  5. Crystal structure of a snake venom cardiotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, B.; Samama, J.P.; Thierry, J.C.; Gilibert, M.; Fischer, J.; Schweitz, H.; Lazdunski, M.; Moras, D.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiotoxin V/sup II/4 from Naja mossambica crystallizes in space group P6 1 (a = b = 73.9 A; c = 59.0 A) with two molecules of toxin (molecular mass = 6715 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and density modification methods. Model building and least-squares refinement led to an agreement factor of 27% for a data set to 3-A resolution prior to any inclusion of solvent molecules. The topology of the molecule is similar to that found in short and long snake neurotoxins, which block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Major differences occur in the conformation of the central loop, resulting in a change in the concavity of the molecule. Hydrophobic residues are clustered in two distinct areas. The existence of stable dimeric entities in the crystalline state, with the formation of a six-stranded antiparallel β sheet, may be functionally relevant

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P.J.; Andrade, H.F.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Rogero, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, subsequently submitted to irradiation. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocurred in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain)

  7. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  8. Trophic specialization drives morphological evolution in sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma; Rasmussen, Arne R; Sanders, Kate L

    2018-03-01

    Viviparous sea snakes are the most rapidly speciating reptiles known, yet the ecological factors underlying this radiation are poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed dated trees for 75% of sea snake species and quantified body shape (forebody relative to hindbody girth), maximum body length and trophic diversity to examine how dietary specialization has influenced morphological diversification in this rapid radiation. We show that sea snake body shape and size are strongly correlated with the proportion of burrowing prey in the diet. Specialist predators of burrowing eels have convergently evolved a 'microcephalic' morphotype with dramatically reduced forebody relative to hindbody girth and intermediate body length. By comparison, snakes that predominantly feed on burrowing gobies are generally short-bodied and small-headed, but there is no evidence of convergent evolution. The eel specialists also exhibit faster rates of size and shape evolution compared to all other sea snakes, including those that feed on gobies. Our results suggest that trophic specialization to particular burrowing prey (eels) has invoked strong selective pressures that manifest as predictable and rapid morphological changes. Further studies are needed to examine the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying these dramatic morphological changes and assess their role in sea snake speciation.

  9. Snake Venom As An Effective Tool Against Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Bushra; Atlas, Nagina; Malik, Sidra Batool; Jamil, Nazia; Salaam, Temitope Ojuolape; Rehman, Mujaddad Ur; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-06-13

    Cancer is considered one of the most predominant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world and colorectal cancer is the most common fatal cancers, triggering the second cancer related death. Despite progress in understanding carcinogenesis and development in chemotherapeutics, there is an essential need to search for improved treatment. More than the half a century, cytotoxic and cytostatic agents have been examined as a potential treatment of cancer, among these agents; remarkable progresses have been reported by the use of the snake venom. Snake venoms are secreting materials of lethal snakes are store in venomous glands. Venoms are composite combinations of various protein, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non proteinaceous secretions. Snake venom possesses immense valuable mixtures of proteins and enzymes. Venoms have potential to combat with the cancerous cells and produce positive effect. Besides the toxicological effects of venoms, several proteins of snake venom e.g. disintegrins, phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and L-amino acid oxidases and peptides e.g. bradykinin potentiators, natriuretic, and analgesic peptides have shown potential as pharmaceutical agents, including areas of diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this review we have discussed recent remarkable research that has involved the dynamic snake venoms compounds, having anticancer bustle especially in case of colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. A Review and Database of Snake Venom Proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoulis, Theo; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-09-18

    Advances in the last decade combining transcriptomics with established proteomics methods have made possible rapid identification and quantification of protein families in snake venoms. Although over 100 studies have been published, the value of this information is increased when it is collated, allowing rapid assimilation and evaluation of evolutionary trends, geographical variation, and possible medical implications. This review brings together all compositional studies of snake venom proteomes published in the last decade. Compositional studies were identified for 132 snake species: 42 from 360 (12%) Elapidae (elapids), 20 from 101 (20%) Viperinae (true vipers), 65 from 239 (27%) Crotalinae (pit vipers), and five species of non-front-fanged snakes. Approximately 90% of their total venom composition consisted of eight protein families for elapids, 11 protein families for viperines and ten protein families for crotalines. There were four dominant protein families: phospholipase A₂s (the most common across all front-fanged snakes), metalloproteases, serine proteases and three-finger toxins. There were six secondary protein families: cysteine-rich secretory proteins, l-amino acid oxidases, kunitz peptides, C-type lectins/snaclecs, disintegrins and natriuretic peptides. Elapid venoms contained mostly three-finger toxins and phospholipase A₂s and viper venoms metalloproteases, phospholipase A₂s and serine proteases. Although 63 protein families were identified, more than half were present in <5% of snake species studied and always in low abundance. The importance of these minor component proteins remains unknown.

  11. Snake Venom: From Deadly Toxins to Life-saving Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Humera; Moin, Syed F; Choudhary, M I

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are fascinating creatures and have been residents of this planet well before ancient humans dwelled the earth. Venomous snakes have been a figure of fear, and cause notable mortality throughout the world. The venom constitutes families of proteins and peptides with various isoforms that make it a cocktail of diverse molecules. These biomolecules are responsible for the disturbance in fundamental physiological systems of the envenomed victim, leading to morbidity which can lead to death if left untreated. Researchers have turned these life-threatening toxins into life-saving therapeutics via technological advancements. Since the development of captopril, the first drug that was derived from bradykininpotentiating peptide of Bothrops jararaca, to the disintegrins that have potent activity against certain types of cancers, snake venom components have shown great potential for the development of lead compounds for new drugs. There is a continuous development of new drugs from snake venom for coagulopathy and hemostasis to anti-cancer agents. In this review, we have focused on different snake venom proteins / peptides derived drugs that are in clinical use or in developmental stages till to date. Also, some commonly used snake venom derived diagnostic tools along with the recent updates in this exciting field are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  13. The CAST time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; Chesi, E; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Irastorza, I G; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Lakic, B; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodrigurez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the three x-ray detectors of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searching for solar axions is a time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity x-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is set to a safe level during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62%. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10 -5 counts cm -2 s -1 keV -1 between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass

  14. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  15. Shadows Cast on the Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    cast on the screen. This understanding is questioned with reference to a semiotic understanding of avatars if seen as triadic relationships of sign processes—that is, as something that stands for something for someone. This understanding is exemplified by the case of Thomas and his businessman avatar...

  16. Inoculation Effects of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.

  17. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  18. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  19. Reducing the Incidence of Cast-related Skin Complications in Children Treated With Cast Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difazio, Rachel L; Harris, Marie; Feldman, Lanna; Mahan, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Cast immobilization remains the mainstay of pediatric orthopaedic care, yet little is known about the incidence of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization. The purposes of this quality improvement project were to: (1) establish a baseline rate of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization, (2) identify trends in children who experienced cast-related skin complications, (3) design an intervention aimed at decreasing the rate of cast-related skin complications, and (4) determine the effectiveness of the intervention. A prospective interrupted time-series design was used to determine the incidence of cast-related skin complications overtime and compare the rates of skin complications before and after an intervention designed to decrease the incidence of cast-related heel complications. All consecutive patients who were treated with cast immobilization from September 2012 to September 2014 were included. A cast-related skin complications data collection tool was used to capture all cast-related skin complications. A high rate of heel events was noted in our preliminary analysis and an intervention was designed to decrease the rate of cast-related skin complications, including the addition of padding during casting and respective provider education. The estimated cast-related skin events rate for all patients was 8.9 per 1000 casts applied. The rate for the total preintervention sample was 13.6 per 1000 casts which decreased to 6.6 in the postintervention sample. When examining the heel-only group, the rate was 17.1 per 1000 lower extremity casts applied in the preintervention group and 6.8 in the postintervention group. Incorporating padding to the heel of lower extremity cast was an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of cast-related skin complications in patients treated with cast immobilization. Level II.

  20. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except...

  1. High quality steel casting for energy technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, F.; Koefler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The casting of several chromium-molybdenum steels for steam and hydraulic turbines is discussed. Non-destructive testing of the castings is performed demonstrating the safety for use in nuclear technology. The effect of metallurgical parameters on steel casting quality, the heat treatment, and the effect of construction design on costs for fettling and repair weldings are considered. (Auth.)

  2. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 25.621 Section 25.621... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a... meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to any structural castings...

  3. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 27.621 Section 27.621... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.621 Casting factors. (a) General... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except...

  4. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing.

  5. Volume of eggs in the clutches of Grass snake Natrix natrix and Dice snake N. tessellata: error correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klenina Anastasiya Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a mistake in calculating the volume of eggs in the clutches of snake family Natrix. In this article we correct the error. As a result, it was revealed, that the volume of eggs positively correlates with a female length and its mass, as well as with the quantity of eggs in the clutches. There is a positive correlation between the characteristics of newborn snakes (length and mass and the volume of eggs, from which they hatched.

  6. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  7. Molecular analysis of the diets of snakes: changes in prey exploitation during development of the rare smooth snake Coronella austriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Ebenezer, Katie L; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Reptiles are declining in many parts of the world, mainly due to habitat loss and environmental change. A major factor in this is availability of suitable food. For many animals, dietary requirements shift during developmental stages and a habitat will only be suitable for conserving a species if it supports all stages. Conventional methods for establishing diet often rely on visual recognition of morphologically identifiable features of prey in faeces, regurgitation or stomach contents, which suffer from biases and poor resolution of taxa. DNA-based techniques facilitate noninvasive analysis of diet from faeces without these constraints. We tested the hypothesis that diet changes during growth stages of smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca), which have a highly restricted distribution in the UK but are widespread in continental Europe. Small numbers of the sympatric grass snake (Natrix natrix) were analysed for comparison. Faecal samples were collected from snakes and prey DNA analysed using PCR, targeting amphibians, reptiles, mammals and invertebrates. Over 85% of smooth snakes were found to have eaten reptiles and 28% had eaten mammals. Predation on mammals increased with age and was entirely absent among juveniles and subadults. Predation on reptiles did not change ontogenetically. Smooth snakes may, therefore, be restricted to areas of sufficiently high reptile densities to support young snakes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Determining casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts by computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Oberdorfer, Bernd; Habe, Daniel; Schumacher, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Three types of near-net shape casting aluminum parts were investigated by computed tomography to determine casting defects and evaluate quality. The first, second, and third parts were produced by low-pressure die casting (Al-12Si-0.8Cu-0.5Fe-0.9Mg-0.7Ni-0.2Zn alloy), die casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), and semi-solid casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), respectively. Unlike die casting (second part), low-pressure die casting (first part) significantly reduced the formation of casting defects (i.e., porosity) due to its smooth filling and solidification under pressure. No significant casting defect was observed in the third part, and this absence of defects indicates that semi-solid casting could produce high-quality near-net shape casting aluminum parts. Moreover, casting defects were mostly distributed along the eutectic grain boundaries. This finding reveals that refinement of eutectic grains is necessary to optimize the distribution of casting defects and reduce their size. This investigation demonstrated that computed tomography is an efficient method to determine casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts.

  9. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  10. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  11. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  12. The effects of casting speed on steel continuous casting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, Mohammad; Honarvar Gheysari, Ali; Sadat, Saeid [Islamic Azad University, Department of Mechanics, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A three dimensional simulation of molten steel flow, heat transfer and solidification in mold and ''secondary cooling zone'' of Continuous Casting machine was performed with consideration of standard k-{epsilon} model. For this purpose, computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT was utilized. From the simulation standpoint, the main distinction between this work and preceding ones is that, the phase change process (solidification) and flow (turbulent in mold section and laminar in secondary cooling zone) have been coupled and solved jointly instead of dividing it into ''transient heat conduction'' and ''steady fluid flow'' that can lead to more realistic simulation. Determining the appropriate boundary conditions in secondary cooling zone is very complicated because of various forms of heat transfer involved, including natural and forced convection and simultaneous radiation heat transfer. The main objective of this work is to have better understanding of heat transfer and solidification in the continuous casting process. Also, effects of casting speed on heat flux and shell thickness and role of radiation in total heat transfer is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenwirth, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Drexler, S.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); Girst, S.; Reindl, J. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Walsh, D.W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition. In this work the targeting accuracy was determined by irradiation of a cross pattern with 55 MeV carbon ions on nucleoli in U2OS and HeLa cells stably expressing a GFP-tagged repair protein MDC1. For target recognition, nuclei were stained with Draq5 and nucleoli were stained with Syto80 or Syto83. The damage response was determined by live-cell imaging of MDC1-GFP accumulation directly after irradiation. No systematic displacement and a random distribution of about 0.7 μm (SD) in x-direction and 0.8 μm (SD) in y-direction were observed. An independent analysis after immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker yH2AX yielded similar results. With this performance a target with a size similar to that of nucleoli (i.e. a diameter of about 3 μm) is hit with a probability of more than 80%, which enables the investigation of the radiation response of cellular subcompartments after targeted ion irradiation in the future.

  14. Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenwirth, C.; Greubel, C.; Drexler, S.E.; Girst, S.; Reindl, J.; Walsh, D.W.M.; Dollinger, G.; Friedl, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition. In this work the targeting accuracy was determined by irradiation of a cross pattern with 55 MeV carbon ions on nucleoli in U2OS and HeLa cells stably expressing a GFP-tagged repair protein MDC1. For target recognition, nuclei were stained with Draq5 and nucleoli were stained with Syto80 or Syto83. The damage response was determined by live-cell imaging of MDC1-GFP accumulation directly after irradiation. No systematic displacement and a random distribution of about 0.7 μm (SD) in x-direction and 0.8 μm (SD) in y-direction were observed. An independent analysis after immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker yH2AX yielded similar results. With this performance a target with a size similar to that of nucleoli (i.e. a diameter of about 3 μm) is hit with a probability of more than 80%, which enables the investigation of the radiation response of cellular subcompartments after targeted ion irradiation in the future

  15. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix I: Economics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  16. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix C: Water Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower-Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  17. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix K: Real Estate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects-on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection- under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  18. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four -lower Snake- Rive salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  19. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix J: Plan Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  20. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180 degrees apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90 degrees to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis

  1. Ecological and phylogenetic variability in the spinalis muscle of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, J L; Gartner, G E A; Jayne, B C; Garland, T

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion and constriction behaviour with the number of body vertebrae spanned by a single segment of the spinalis muscle, with total numbers of body vertebrae used as a covariate in statistical analyses. We compared models with combinations of these predictors to determine which best fit the data among all species and for the advanced snakes only (N = 114). We used both ordinary least-squares models and phylogenetic models in which the residuals were modelled as evolving by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Snakes with greater numbers of vertebrae tended to have spinalis muscles that spanned more vertebrae. Habitat effects dominated models for analyses of all species and advanced snakes only, with the spinalis length spanning more vertebrae in arboreal species and fewer vertebrae in aquatic and burrowing species. Sidewinding specialists had shorter muscle lengths than nonspecialists. The relationship between prey constriction and spinalis length was less clear. Differences among clades were also strong when considering all species, but not for advanced snakes alone. Overall, these results suggest that muscle morphology may have played a key role in the adaptive radiation of snakes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  3. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon b...

  4. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anastassopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a search for (solar chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST. This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm and to photons (βγ via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βγ≲1011 for 1<βm<106.

  5. Search for chameleons with CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm) and to photons (βΥ) via the Primako eect. By reducing the X-ray detection...... energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βΥ≤1011...

  6. Search for chameleons with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  7. Fabrication of sacrificial anode cathodic protection through casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sharif Sattar; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Azali Muhamad; Zaiton Selamat; Rusni Rejab

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum is one of the few metals that can be cast by all of the processes used in casting metals. These processes consist of die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting (green sand and dry sand), plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. Other processes such as lost foam, squeeze casting, and hot isostatic pressing are also used. Permanent mold casting method was selected in which used for fabricating of sacrificial anode cathodic protection. This product was ground for surface finished and fabricated in the cylindrical form and reinforced with carbon steel at a center of the anode. (Author)

  8. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  9. Body temperature variations of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Himes; Laurence M. Hardy; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2006-01-01

    The thermal ecology of the Louisiana pine snake, Pituophis ruthveni, was studied from 1993-97 in Louisiana and Texas. All snakes were implanted with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters. Temperatures were recorded from snakes located above ground and underground and were compared between size and sex classes (juveniles, adult males, adult females). Associated air...

  10. 78 FR 76175 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...] Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day-Snake RAC will hold a public meeting Thursday and Friday, January 9 and...

  11. 78 FR 64236 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...] Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day--Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day--Snake RAC will hold a public meeting Thursday and Friday, November 14...

  12. 75 FR 5803 - John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...] John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Land..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council (JDSRAC) will meet as indicated...

  13. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  14. Prevalence of Amblyomma gervaisi ticks on captive snakes in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi ). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python ( Python reticulatus , 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python ( Python molurus , 88.89%), Spectacled cobra ( Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake ( Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant ( P  ≤ 0.01).

  15. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  16. Sets of disjoint snakes based on a Reed-Muller code and covering the hypercube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zanten, A.J.; Haryanto, L.

    2008-01-01

    A snake-in-the-box code (or snake) of word length n is a simple circuit in an n-dimensional cube Q n , with the additional property that any two non-neighboring words in the circuit differ in at least two positions. To construct such snakes a straightforward, non-recursive method is developed based

  17. A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Snake bite remains major public health problem worldwide. We present our experience with cases of snake bites managed in our tertiary care teaching center of South India. Materials and Methods: The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from 2010 to 2012 were ...

  18. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  19. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  20. Mechanical diffraction in a sand-specialist snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Perrin E.; Rieser, Jennifer M.; Hubbard, Alex M.; Chen, Lillian; Goldman, Daniel I.

    Limbless locomotors such as snakes move by pressing the trunk against terrain heterogeneities. Our laboratory studies of the desert-dwelling Mojave Shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis, 40cm long, N=9) reveal that these animals use a stereotyped sinusoidal traveling wave of curvature. However, this snake also encounters rigid obstacles in its natural environment, and the tradeoff between using a cyclic, shape controlled gait versus one which changes shape in response to the terrain is not well understood. We challenged individuals to move across a model deformable substrate (carpet) through a row of 6.4 mm diameter force-sensitive pegs, a model of obstacles such as grass, oriented perpendicular to the direction of motion. Instead of forward-directed reaction forces, reaction forces generated by the pegs were more often perpendicular to the direction of motion. Distributions of post-peg travel angles displayed preferred directions revealing a diffraction-like pattern with a central peak at zero and symmetric peaks at 193 ° and 415 °. We observed similar dynamics in a robotic snake using shape-based control. This suggests that this sand-specialist snake adheres to its preferred waveform as opposed to changing in response to heterogeneity.

  1. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes. PMID:22079804

  4. Parasitic fauna of captive snakes in Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakulan Valsala Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.

  5. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-01-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  6. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  7. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rakesh; Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles moving in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. They can also occur in a constant perpendicular magnetic field when the particle density is made nonuniform as realized at a pn junction in a semiconductor, or in graphene. We examine the correspondence of such trajectories in monolayer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric perpendicular magnetic field and (b) antisymmetric carrier density distribution in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Although, these families support different internal symmetries, the pattern of the boundary and interface currents is the same in both cases. We demonstrate that these two physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these two problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p-wave paired state.

  8. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Snakes, rotators, serpents and the octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.

    1986-04-01

    Specific configurations of horizontal and vertical bending magnets are given that, when acting on the spin polarization vector of a particle beam, generate a group of 24 operators isomorphic to the group of rotational symmetries of a cube, known as the octahedral group. Some of these configurations have the feature of converting transversely polarized beams to longitudinally polarized beams (or vice versa) at the midpoint of the configuration for, in principle, all beam energies. Since the first order optical transfer matrix for each half of these configurations is nearly that of a drift region, the external geometry remains unchanged and midpoint dispersion is not introduced. Changing field strengths and/or polarities allows a configuration to serve as either a Snake(1/sup st/ or 2/sup nd/ kind) or a Rotator, where in both cases the spin polarization is longitudinal at the midpoint. In this conceptualization, emphasis has been placed on electron beams and, indeed, for these beams some practical applications can be envisioned. However, due to the relatively high integrated field strengths required, application of these concepts to proton beams may be more promising

  10. Effect of cast steel production metallurgy on the emergence of casting defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čamek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents metallurgical possibilities of high alloy cast steel production in open induction medium frequency furnaces and an electric arc furnace in a gravity die casting foundry. The observation was focused on the emergence of gas defects in steel castings. The content of gases achieved during the metallurgical processes was evaluated for every unit of the production equipment and the casting ladle before casting into disposable sand moulds. The sand mould area was considered to be constant. The aim was to evaluate the current metallurgical possibilities of affecting the content of gases in high alloy cast steel in the current technical conditions of the foundry.

  11. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  12. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  13. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  14. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  15. Marginal Accuracy of Castings Fabricated with Ringless Casting Investment System and Metal Ring Casting Investment System: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavathi, M; Sachin, Bhuvana; Prasanna, B G; Shreeharsha, T V; Praveen, B; Ragher, Mallikarjuna

    2016-02-01

    The thermal expansion of the investment can be restricted by the metal casting ring because the thermal expansion of the ring is less than that of the investment. The ringless casting procedure is in use in clinical dentistry, though there is little scientific data to support its use in fixed partial dentures. In this study, marginal discrepancy of castings produced with the ringless casting technique and the conventional technique using the metal rings were compared. A total of 30 wax patterns were fabricated directly on a metal die. Optical stereomicroscope was used to measure the marginal discrepancy between the metal die and wax patterns. A total of 15 castings were invested using Bellavest T phosphate-bonded investment with the ringless technique and 15 were invested with the same investment with a metal ring; 30 castings were produced using a nickel-chromium ceramo-metal alloy. The internal surface of the castings was not modified and seated with finger pressure. The vertical marginal discrepancy was measured using an optical stereomicroscope at a magnification of 100x. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using students t-test (paired t-test and unpaired t-test). The castings of the ringless technique provided less vertical marginal discrepancy (240.56 ± 45.81 μ) than the castings produced with the conventional metal ring technique (281.98± 53.05 μ). The difference was statistically significant. The ringless casting technique had produced better marginal accuracy compared with conventional casting technique. Ringless casting system can be used routinely for clinical purpose.

  16. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  17. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nezaminia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait

  18. The evaluation of working casts prepared from digital impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y C; Park, Y S; Kim, H K; Hong, Y S; Ahn, J S; Ryu, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of working casts of a digital impression system by comparing them with the original, virtual, and rapid prototyping casts. A total of 54 cast sets in clinically stable occlusion were used. They were scanned by an iTero intraoral scanner and converted into STL format virtual casts. Rapid prototyping casts and polyurethane casts were fabricated from the iTero milling system based on the virtual casts. Several horizontal and vertical measurements were performed from the four types of casts, that is, original stone casts, virtual casts, rapid prototyping casts, and polyurethane casts of iTero. Measurement error, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and differences among the casts were calculated and compared. Casts from iTero milling machines exhibited greater dimensional differences and lower ICC values than did other casts. In addition, many of the measurements of the iTero working casts showed statistically significant differences in comparison to the three other types of casts. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the virtual and original casts. Virtual casts made by the iTero intraoral scanner exhibited excellent reproducibility. However, the casts from the iTero milling machine showed greater dimensional differences and lower reproducibility compared to other types of casts.

  19. Delamination wear mechanism in gray cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the friction and sliding wear of gray cast iron against chromium plated cast irons was carried out on a newly constructed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The tests were the first to be done on the test rig under dry conditions and at the speed of 170 cm/min, and variable loads of 20-260 N for a duration of 15 min. to 3 hours. The gray cast iron surfaces worn by a process of plastic deformation at the subsurface, crack nucleation, and crack growth leading to formation of plate like debris and therefore the delamination theory applies. No evidence of adhesion was observed. This could be due to formation of oxides on the wear surface which prevent adhesion. channel type chromium plating ''picked'' up cast iron from the counter-body surfaces by mechanically trapping cast iron debris on and within the cracks. The removal of the plated chromium left a pitted surface on the cast iron

  20. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, A.M.; Sprecace, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    An article of manufacture is described comprising a cast iron container having an opening at one end and a cast iron plug; a first nickel-carbon alloy fusion weldable insert surrounding the opening and metallurgically bonded to the cast iron container at the one end of the container; a second nickel-carbon alloy insert metallurgically bonded to the cast iron plug located within the opening and surrounded by the first insert the inserts being jointed by a fusion bond in the opening without heating the cast iron container to an austenite formation temperature thereby sealing the interior of the container from the exterior ambient outside the opening; the nickel-carbon alloy containing about 2 to 5 w% carbon; and both the nickel-carbon alloy insert and the cast iron container have a microstructure containing a graphite phase

  1. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  2. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  3. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...

  4. New progresses of Chinese art casting

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese art casting with 5 000 years history has been rapidly developed in recent ten years. This benefits from the great development of Chinese economy, the large-scale urban construction and transformation, the increasing demands for the cultural work of art, the loose religious environment and the expanding international market. The Art Casting Technical Committee of China Foundry Association has been established for 10 years. Almost 90 art casting enterprises joined in the organizatio...

  5. A new species of Mud Snake (Serpentes, Homalopsidae, Gyiophis Murphy & Voris, 2014) from Myanmar with a first molecular phylogenetic assessment of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Evan S H; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L Jr; Thura, Myint Kyaw; Zin, Thaw; Kyaw, Htet; Lwin, Ngwe; Grismer, Marta S; Murdoch, Matthew L

    2017-03-06

    A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1-4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142-152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41-58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.

  6. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  7. Snake bite in dogs and its successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ananda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dog viz. Labrador and Alsatian cross were presented to the peripheral hospital with a history of frothy salivation, dull, depressed, abnormal gait and with recumbent position. They were diagnosed for snake bite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. The successful treatment was done with anti-snake venom, fluid, corticosteroid, muscuranic receptor antagonist and antibiotic with careful monitoring. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 66-67

  8. Fascinating and forgotten: the conservation status of marine elapid snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Australia. Three of the seven threatened species occur at Ashmore and Hibernia Reefs in the Timor Sea, while the remaining threatened taxa occur in the Philippines, Niue, and Solomon Islands. The majority of Data Deficient species are found in Southeast Asia. Threats to marine snakes include loss of coral...... reefs and coastal habitat, incidental bycatch in fisheries, as well as fisheries that target snakes for leather. The presence of two Critically Endangered and one Endangered species in the Timor Sea suggests the area is of particular conservation concern. More rigorous, long-term monitoring...

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  10. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  11. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  12. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. New progresses of Chinese art casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese art casting with 5 000 years history has been rapidly developed in recent ten years. This benefits from the great development of Chinese economy, the large-scale urban construction and transformation, the increasing demands for the cultural work of art, the loose religious environment and the expanding international market. The Art Casting Technical Committee of China Foundry Association has been established for 10 years. Almost 90 art casting enterprises joined in the organization, not including nearly thousand enterprises of foreign capital and massive domestic workshop type. It is estimated that the scale and the output of art castings in mainland China have situated the world front row.

  14. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Andrew H; King, William P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  15. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  16. Hepatozoon infection prevalence in four snake genera: influence of diet, prey parasitemia levels, or parasite type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

    2012-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) are the most commonly reported hemoparasites from snakes. Of over 300 Hepatozoon species identified, more than 120 were described from snakes. However, recent genetic assessments have found Hepatozoon lineages recovered from both prey and predators, indicating that diet may play an important role in the infection of final vertebrate hosts. Here 4 different snake genera with different diets were assessed. Hepatozoon spp. prevalence varied greatly between the genera, but only lineages already identified from potential prey, i.e., gecko and lacertid lizards, were recovered from the snakes. Interestingly, the Hepatozoon spp. lineage known from geckos was the most common in the snakes, but this does not reflect their diet. Higher parasitemia levels, reported for some geckos relative to lacertid lizards, may play a role. Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes.

  17. Identification of snake venom allergens by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Yang, Liming; Yang, Haiwei; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2017-01-01

    This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom. By multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (MDLC-ESI-LTQ-MS/MS) analysis, six allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom serine proteinases. Other allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom metalloproteinase. These allergic reactions to snake venom allergens might contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of AGS Polarized Proton Operation with the Warm Helical Snake

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Bai, Mei; Brown, Kevin A; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Huang, Haixin; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Tsoupas, Nicholaos

    2005-01-01

    A normal conducting helical dipole partial Siberian snake (Warm Snake) has been installed in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for overcoming all of imperfection depolarizing resonances and reducing the transverse coupling resonances caused by the solenoidal Siberian snake which had been operated in AGS before the last polarized run. The polarized proton beam has been accelerated successfully with the warm snake and the polarization at extraction of the AGS was increased to 50% as opposed to 40% with the solenoidal snake. The magnetic field and beam trajectory in the warm snake was calculated by using the OPERA-3D/TOSCA software. We present optimization of the warm snake with beam during RUN5.

  19. An antemortem guide for the assessment of stranded Australian sea snakes (Hydrophiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Marine snakes of the subfamily Hydrophiinae are obligate ocean dwellers, unlike their amphibious counterparts, the sea kraits (Laticaudinae), and as such they are often referred to as 'true' sea snakes. This specialization means that the presence of a true sea snake on a beach is atypical and likely indicates disease or injury. Traumatic injuries such as eye, jaw, and spinal lesions have been observed in stranded sea snakes and may present as acute injury or progress to chronic debilitation. Diseases, such as neoplasia, leukemia, and parasite overburden, have also been seen in wild sea snakes, and these animals may present similarly. Sick, moribund, or deceased sea snakes are intermittently found washed ashore along Australian beaches, and these specimens may prove valuable as bioindicators of marine health. This review is intended as a guide to the diagnostic investigation of sick or injured sea snakes by suitably qualified people.

  20. Technological Aspects of Low-Alloyed Cast Steel Massive Casting Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnara J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors have undertaken the attempt of explaining the causes of cracks net occurrence on a massive 3-ton cast steel casting with complex geometry. Material used for casting manufacturing was the low-alloyed cast steel with increased wear resistance modified with vanadium and titanium. The studies included the primary and secondary crystallization analysis with use of TDA and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of non-metallic inclusions.

  1. Accuracy of stereolithography additive casts used in a digital workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Imam, Hiba; Gram, Mia; Benetti, Ana R

    2018-01-01

    additive (SLA) casts from 2 manufacturers: 9 Dreve SLA casts and 9 Scanbiz SLA casts. All casts were then scanned 9 times with an extraoral scanner to produce the reference data set. Trueness was evaluated by superimposing the data sets obtained by scanning the casts with the reference data set. Precision...

  2. Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-03-01

    The anterior testicular ducts of squamates transport sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens. These ducts consist of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. Many histological and a few ultrastructural studies of the squamate reproductive tract exist, but none concern the Hydrophiidae, the sea snakes and sea kraits. In this study, we describe the anterior testicular ducts of six species of hydrophiid snakes as well as representatives from the Elapidae, Homolapsidae, Leptotyphlopidae, and Uropeltidae. In addition, we examine the ultrastructure of these ducts in the yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in histology in all species examined. The rete testis is simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium and transports sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductuli efferentes in the extratesticular epididymal sheath. The ductuli efferentes are branched, convoluted tubules composed of simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and many species possess periodic acid-Schiff+ granules in the cytoplasm. The ductus epididymis at the light microscopy level appears composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. At the ultrastructural level, the rete testis and ductuli efferentes of P. platurus possess numerous small coated vesicles and lack secretory vacuoles. Apocrine blebs in the ductuli efferentes, however, indicate secretory activity, possibly by a constitutive pathway. Ultrastructure reveals three types of cells in the ductus epididymis of P. platurus: columnar principal cells, squamous basal cells, and mitochondria-rich apical cells. This is the first report of apical cells in a snake. In addition, occasional principal cells possess a single cilium, which has not been reported in reptiles previously but is known in some birds. Finally, the ductus epididymis of P. platurus differs from other snakes that have been studied in possession of apical, biphasic

  3. An instructive case of presumed brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Judy; Haiart, Sebastien; Galluccio, Steven; White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Several species of medically important Australian elapid snakes are frequently involved in human envenoming. The brown snake group (Pseudonaja spp., 9 species) is most commonly responsible for envenoming including life-threatening or fatal cases. Several Pseudonaja spp. can inflict human envenoming that features minor local effects, but may cause serious systemic venom disease including defibrination coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and, rarely, paralysis. Pseudonaja envenoming is typically diagnosed by history, clinical assessment including occasional active clinical bleeding noted on physical examination (e.g. from venipuncture sites, recent cuts, etc.), and laboratory detection of coagulopathy (prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT]/INR, elevated D-dimer, afibrinogenemia and thrombocytopenia). Lack of verified identity of the envenoming snake species is a common problem in Australia and elsewhere. Identification and confirmation of the envenoming Australian snake taxon is often attempted with enzyme sandwich immunoassay venom detection kits (SVDKs). However, the SVDK has limited utility due to unreliable specificity and sensitivity when used to detect venoms of some Australian elapids. Antivenom (AV) remains the cornerstone of treatment, although there is debate concerning the recommended dose (1 vs. 2 or more vials) necessary to treat serious Pseudonaja envenoming. Envenomed patients receiving timely treatment uncommonly succumb, but a proportion of seriously envenomed patients may exhibit clinical or laboratory evidence of myocardial insult. An 88-year-old woman presented her dog to a veterinarian after it had sustained a bite by a witnessed snake, reportedly an eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis, Elapidae). The woman became suddenly confused, and lost consciousness at the veterinary office. After transport to hospital, she denied any contact with the snake, but developed large haematomas at

  4. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SLUGS CASTING OF GREY CAST IRON BY FROSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of geometrical parametres of casting with technological ones is shown. The monogram for definition of basic technological parametres of obtaining of castings by the method of continuously-cyclic iterative casting by freezing-up is presented.

  6. Low dose versus high dose anti-snake venom therapy in the treatment of haematotoxic snake bite in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Imanto M; Kuriakose, Cijoy K; Dev, Anand Vimal; Philip, George A

    2017-10-01

    Most of the studies on the appropriate dose of anti-snake venom (ASV) are from tertiary hospitals and the guidelines are unclear. Our observational study compared the outcomes of two prevalent treatment regimes for haematotoxic snake bite in a secondary care hospital in South India. The time to normalisation of whole blood clotting time, mortality and complications were not different between the groups. The average dose of ASV required in the low and high dose groups were 106 mL and 246 mL, respectively. Consequently, patients who received low dose ASV incurred approximately 50% less expense. Urticarial rashes were also significantly fewer in the low dose group.

  7. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-yong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and controlling the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metallographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound frequency measurement, have been used and have played important roles in Chinese casting production in the past. These methods can be generally classified as liquid testing and solid testing according to the sample state. Based on the analysis of the present situation of these methods applied in the Chinese metal casting industry, the authors consider that there are two difficult technical problems to be currently solved in monitoring ductile iron quality. One is to seek an effective method for quickly evaluating the nodularizing result through on-the-spot sample analysis before the liquid iron is poured into the mould. The other is to find a nondestructive method for accurately identifying casting quality before castings are delivered.

  8. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  9. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  10. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  11. Low Loss Advanced Metallic Fuel Casting Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Ko, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghwan; Song, Hoon; Lee Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of fuel slug casting, loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and the fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycles streams in the fabrication process. Recycle streams include fuel slug reworks, returned scraps, and fuel casting heels, which are a special concern in the counter gravity injection casting process because of the large masses involved. Large recycle and waste streams result in lowering the productivity and the economic efficiency of fuel production. To increase efficiency the fuel losses in the furnace chamber, crucible, and the mold, after casting a considerable amount of fuel alloy in the casting furnace, will be quantitatively evaluated. After evaluation the losses will be identified and minimized. It is expected that this study will contribute to the minimization of fuel losses and the wastes streams in the fabrication process of the fuel slugs. Also through this study the technical readiness level of the metallic fuel fabrication process will be further enhanced. In this study, U-Zr alloy system fuel slugs were fabricated by a gravity casting method. Metallic fuel slugs were successfully fabricated with 19 slugs/batch with diameter of 5mm and length of 300mm. Fuel losses was quantitatively evaluated in casting process for the fuel slugs. Fuel losses of the fuel slugs were so low, 0.1∼1.0%. Injection casting experiments have been performed to reduce the fuel loss and improve the casting method. U-Zr fuel slug having φ5.4-L250mm was soundly fabricated with 0.1% in fuel loss. The fuel losses could be minimized to 0.1%, which showed that casting technology of fuel slugs can be a feasible approach to reach the goal of the fuel losses of 0.1% or less in commercial scale

  12. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  14. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  15. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  16. Attention bias modification in specific fears: Spiders versus snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xijia; Ikani, Nessa; Barth, Anja; Rengers, Lea; Becker, Eni; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is used to manipulate attention biases in anxiety disorders. It has been successful in reducing attention biases and anxious symptoms in social anxiety and generalized anxiety, but not yet in specific fears and phobias. We designed a new version of the dot-probe training task, aiming to train fearful participants' attention away from or towards pictures of threatening stimuli. Moreover, we studied whether the training also affected participants' avoidance behavior and their physical arousal upon being confronted with a real threat object. In Experiment 1, students with fear of spiders were trained. We found that the attention manipulation was successful, but the training failed to affect behavior or arousal. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used on snake-fearful students. Again, attention was trained in the expected directions. Moreover, participants whose attention had been trained away from snakes showed lower physiological arousal upon being confronted with a real snake. The study involved healthy students with normal distribution of the fear of spider/snake. Future research with clinical sample could help with determining the generalizability of the current findings. The effect of ABM on specific phobia is still in question. The finding in the present study suggested the possibility to alter attentional bias with a dot-probe task with general positive stimuli and this training could even affect the behavior while encountering a real threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SNAKE VENOM INSTABILITY • Department of Physiology, Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that the biological activities of snake venom dried in vacuum at room temperature remain unaltered (Christensen 1955). The possibility of an alteration in biochemical properties due to the method of drying has been demonstrated by Bjork &. Boman (1959), but this would not necessarily influence the ...

  18. The Egg-Eating Snake, Introductory Problem, Explorations in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is designed as an introduction to a series of topics which use the same format, and which are published separately. A series of photographs of a snake eating an egg are used to ask students to identify a puzzling event that they would want to investigate if they were biologists. A scrambled programed text format is used to direct…

  19. Australia´s Dangerous Snakes Identification, Biology and Envenoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtschin, Peter; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Weinstein, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    , the environmental roles of these snakes and the threats that are causing the decline of many of these reptiles are discussed. Drawing on the authors’ experience in the fields of herpetology, toxinology and clinical medicine, this book stimulates respect and admiration and dispels fear of Australia’s fascinating...

  20. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  1. An additional trigeminal system in certain snakes possessing infrared receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Gerard J.

    1974-01-01

    This communication describes a nucleus and tract of the trigeminal system whose existence is not mentioned in any account of brain stem architecture known to the present author. The structures were first recognised in the brain stem of a giant snake (Python reticulatus) and later were also found

  2. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Greubel, C.; Peeper, K. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hartung, P. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m{sup -2} rad{sup -2} eV{sup -1} directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1}. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H{sup -}-current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 {mu}A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1} in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  3. High-throughput epitope profiling of snake venom toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    Insight into the molecular details of polyclonal antivenom antibody specificity is a prerequisite for accurate prediction of cross-reactivity and can provide a basis for design of novel antivenoms. In this work, a highthroughput approach was applied to characterize linear elements in epitopes in ...... toxins from four African mamba and three neurotoxic cobra snakes obtained from public databases....

  4. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies...

  5. New Sarcocystis species with a snake-gecko life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, J.; Modrý, D.; Koudela, Břetislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 7 ISSN 1066-5234. [New Sarcocystis species with a snake -gecko life cycle. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  6. The problem of radiative depolarization in the 'Siberian Snake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.

    1979-01-01

    As pointed out by Derbenev and Kondratenko and by the LEP Study Group, a 'Siberian Snake' may be a convenient method for providing longitudinally polarized beams at LEP. The author shows that at the highest LEP energies (approximately>60 GeV) synchrotron radiation with spin-flip may depolarize the beams. (Auth.)

  7. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  8. Neuroradiologic findings in brown snake envenomation: Computed tomography demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midyett, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    A case of fatal brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation is presented. The CT examinations show rapid development and progression of atypical bilateral intracerebral haematomas (ICH) which produce a fatal outcome despite correction of the underlying coagulopathy. The striking CT appearance suggests coagulopathy and is predictive of increased mortality. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Wang, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    With approximately 7000 species, snakes and lizards, collectively known as squamates, are by far the most species-rich group of reptiles. It was from reptile-like ancestors that mammals and birds evolved and squamates can be viewed as phylogenetically positioned between them and fishes. Hence, their

  10. Of Mice and Snakes: A Tail of Oct4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylo, Natalia A; Weatherbee, Scott D

    2016-08-08

    The vertebrate axial skeleton comprises regions of specialized vertebrae, which vary in length between lineages. Aires et al. (2016) uncover a key role for Oct4 in determining trunk length in mice. Additionally, a heterochronic shift in Oct4 expression may underlie the extreme elongation of the trunk in snakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas, Marco; Colli, Guarino; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar; Trinchão, Luiz; Araújo, Daniel; Lima, Tiago; de França, Daniella; Gaiga, Renato; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We present a list of snake species found in 10 municipalities in the Cerrado of western Bahia state, Brazil. One hundred and twenty individuals of 46 species from seven families were examined. We also present a new state record for the genus Phalotris Cope, 1862 and a candidate new species for the genus Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830.

  12. Diet of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Josh Pierce; Richard R. Schaefer; Beau Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) is a large-bodied constrictor endemic to western Louisiana and eastern Texas (Sweet and Parker 1991). Surveys suggest that the species has declined in recent decades and is now restricted to isolated habitat patches (Reichling 1995; Rudolph et al. 2006). Pituophis ruthveni is listed as...

  13. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben P; Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend...

  14. Spectral transmittance of the spectacle scale of snakes and geckos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van K.; Sivak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral transmittance of the optical media of the eye plays a substantial role in tuning the spectrum of light available for capture by the retina. Certain squamate reptiles, including snakes and most geckos, shield their eyes beneath a layer of transparent, cornified skin called the

  15. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  16. (IgY- antibodies) prepared against Walterinnesia aegyptia snake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four groups of eight chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Walterinnesia aegyptia snake venoms mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant during the period from 1st October 2009 to 1st October 2011 at the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Three weeks later, the ...

  17. Rediscovery of the Rare Sea Snake Hydrophis parviceps Smith 1935

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Arne R.; Elmberg, Johan; Sanders, Kate L.

    2012-01-01

    Smith's small-headed sea snake, Hydrophis parviceps, was originally described in 1935 from a single type specimen collected in southern Vietnam. Since this time there has been only one further record for the species-a specimen collected near the type locality in 1960 that has since been lost...

  18. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a snake bite victim: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in patients with severe emotional or physiologic stress. The prognosis is usually favorable, and the left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis normalizes within days to weeks. In this paper we report a case of snake bite complicated by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We advise physicians to ...

  19. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  20. Sex, snakes and violence / Sherwin Das, Tim Ochser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Das, Sherwin

    2006-01-01

    Patrick Süskindi krimiromaani "Parfüüm" ekraniseering "Perfume: The Story of a Murderer" : režissöör Tom Tykver : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Õuduspõnevik "Maod lennukis" ("Snakes on a Plane") : režissöör David R. Ellis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  1. Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case. D Vir, D Gupta, M Modi, N Panda. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pamj.v4i1.53597 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. design, construction and performance evaluation of multiple casting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    time taken for solidification, plays an important role in the casting. There should not ... Keywords: Design, Construction, Multiple casting machine, Compo Casting operation. 1. Introduction .... metal and pathway channel pipe with heater is used.

  3. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, Robert E. [Eppich Technologies, Syracuse, IN (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  4. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic casting...

  5. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Saha; K. T. Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  6. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  7. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  8. Combined testing of castings having rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Yu.O.; Zav'yalkin, F.M.; Moskvin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Mathematical models of a flaw detector for complex testing of castings, containing radiometric and pneumatic converters, are developed and investigated. The efficiency of compensation of casting thickness fluctuation effect on the results of testing in combined information processing obtained by various methods is estimated

  9. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  10. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  11. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  12. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  14. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  15. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  16. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  17. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, In Sik; Yu, Yeong Chul; Kim, Steve S.; Reed, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the castings due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inch thick cast iron.

  18. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  19. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen.The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  20. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrowski S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  1. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  2. The role of water in slip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  3. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Novel twin-roll-cast Ti/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woong; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Jung-Su; Sohn, Seok Su; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-08-14

    Pure Ti or Ti alloys are recently spot-lighted in construction industries because they have excellent resistance to corrosions, chemicals, and climates as well as various coloring characteristics, but their wide applications are postponed by their expensiveness and poor formability. We present a new fabrication process of Ti/Al clad sheets by bonding a thin Ti sheet on to a 5052 Al alloy melt during vertical-twin-roll casting. This process has merits of reduced production costs as well as improved tensile properties. In the as-twin-roll-cast clad sheet, the homogeneously cast microstructure existed in the Al alloy substrate side, while the Ti/Al interface did not contain any reaction products, pores, cracks, or lateral delamination, which indicated the successful twin-roll casting. When this sheet was annealed at 350 °C~600 °C, the metallurgical bonding was expanded by interfacial diffusion, thereby leading to improvement in tensile properties over those calculated by a rule of mixtures. The ductility was also improved over that of 5052-O Al alloy (25%) or pure Ti (25%) by synergic effect of homogeneous deformation due to excellent Ti/Al bonding. This work provides new applications of Ti/Al clad sheets to lightweight-alloy clad sheets requiring excellent formability and corrosion resistance as well as alloy cost saving.

  5. Predictive Factors for Death After Snake Envenomation in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Kyi-Phyu; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Soe, Chit; Desakorn, Varunee; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Supaporn, Thanom; Sitprija, Visith

    2018-06-01

    Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors predictive for death at the time of presentation to the hospital. Of the 246 patients with snake envenomation recruited into the study, 225 (92%) survived and 21 (8%) died during hospitalization. The snake species responsible for a bite was identified in 74 (30%) of the patients; the majority of bites were from Russell's vipers (63 patients, 85%). The independent factors predictive for death included 1) duration from bite to arrival at the hospital >1 h (odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-75.2; P=0.04); 2) white blood cell counts >20 ×10 3 cells·μL -1 (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 2.3-33.7; P=0.001); and 3) the presence of capillary leakage (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.2; P=0.02). A delay in antivenom administration >4 h increases risk of death (11/21 deaths). Patients who present with these independent predictive factors should be recognized and provided with early appropriate intervention to reduce the mortality rate among adults with snake envenomation in Myanmar. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontogenetic shifts and spatial associations in organ positions for snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gretchen E; Secor, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Snakes possess an elongated body form and serial placement of organs which provides the opportunity to explore historic and adaptive mechanisms of organ position. We examined the influence of body size and sex on the position of, and spatial associations between, the heart, liver, small intestine, and right kidney for ten phylogenetically diverse species of snakes that vary in body shape and habitat. Snake snout-vent length explained much of the variation in the position of these four organs. For all ten species, the position of the heart and liver relative to snout-vent length decreased as a function of size. As body size increased from neonate to adult, these two organs shifted anteriorly an average of 4.7% and 5.7% of snout-vent length, respectively. Similarly, the small intestine and right kidney shifted anteriorly with an increase in snout-vent length for seven and five of the species, respectively. The absolute and relative positioning of these organs did not differ between male and female Burmese pythons (Python molurus). However, for diamondback water snakes (Nerodia rhombifer), the liver and small intestine were more anteriorly positioned in females as compared to males, whereas the right kidney was positioned more anteriorly for males. Correlations of residuals of organ position (deviation from predicted position) demonstrated significant spatial associations between organs for nine of the ten species. For seven species, individuals with hearts more anterior (or posterior) than predicted also tended to possess livers that were similarly anteriorly (or posteriorly) placed. Positive associations between liver and small intestine positions and between small intestine and right kidney positions were observed for six species, while spatial associations between the heart and small intestine, heart and right kidney, and liver and right kidney were observed in three or four species. This study demonstrates that size, sex, and spatial associations may have

  7. Kinematics, muscular activity and propulsion in gopher snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon; Gans

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies have addressed the physical principles and muscular activity patterns underlying terrestrial lateral undulation in snakes, but not the mechanism by which muscular activity produces curvature and propulsion. In this study, we used synchronized electromyography and videography to examine the muscular basis and propulsive mechanism of terrestrial lateral undulation in gopher snakes Pituophis melanoleucus affinis. Specifically, we used patch electrodes to record from the semispinalis, longissimus dorsi and iliocostalis muscles in snakes pushing against one or more pegs. Axial bends propagate posteriorly along the body and contact the pegs at or immediately posterior to an inflection of curvature, which then reverses anterior to the peg. The vertebral column bends broadly around a peg, whereas the body wall bends sharply and asymmetrically around the anterior surface of the peg. The epaxial muscles are always active contralateral to the point of contact with a peg; they are activated slightly before or at the point of maximal convexity and deactivated variably between the inflection point and the point of maximal concavity. This pattern is consistent with muscular shortening and the production of axial bends, although variability in the pattern indicates that other muscles may affect the mechanics of the epaxial muscles. The kinematic and motor patterns in snakes crawling against experimentally increased drag indicated that forces are produced largely by muscles that are active in the axial bend around each peg, rather than by distant muscles from which the forces might be transmitted by connective tissues. At each point of force exertion, the propulsive mechanism of terrestrial lateral undulation may be modeled as a type of cam-follower, in which continuous bending of the trunk around the peg produces translation of the snake.

  8. Development of hemipenes in the ball python snake Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Francisca; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Within amniotes, external copulatory organs have undergone extensive morphological diversification. One of the most extreme examples is squamate (lizards and snakes) hemipenes, which are paired copulatory organs that extend from the lateral margins of the cloaca. Here, we describe the development of hemipenes in a basal snake, the ball python (Python regius). Snake hemipenes arise as a pair of lateral swellings on either side of the caudal part of the cloaca, and these paired outgrowths persist to form the left and right hemipenes. In non-squamate amniotes, external genitalia form from paired swellings that arise on the anterior side of the cloaca, which then fuse medially to form a single genital tubercle, the anlagen of the penis or clitoris. Whereas in non-squamate amniotes, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-expressing cells of the cloacal endoderm form the urethral or sulcus epithelium and are required for phallus outgrowth, the hemipenes of squamates lack an endodermal contribution, and the sulcus does not express Shh. Thus, snake hemipenes differ from the genital tubercles of non-squamate amniotes both in their embryonic origins and in at least part of patterning mechanisms, which raises the possibility that hemipenes may not be direct homologs of the unpaired amniote penis. Nonetheless, we find that some developmental genes show similar expression patterns in snake hemipenes buds and non-squamate genital tubercles, suggesting that homologous developmental mechanisms are involved in aspects of external genital development across amniotes, even when these structures may have different developmental origins and may have arisen independently during evolution.

  9. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  10. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  11. Keeping venomous snakes in the Netherlands: a harmless hobby or a public health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, P J J; Slobbe, L; Koene, H; Mastenbroek, R D L; Overbosch, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence of venomous snakebites and the hospital treatment thereof (if any) amongst private individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. Descriptive study. Private keepers of venomous snakes were invited via the social media Facebook, Hyves, Twitter, Google Plus, Linked In and two large discussion forums to fill in an online questionnaire on a purely voluntary and anonymous basis. In the period from 1 September 2012 to 31 December 2012, 86 questionnaires were completed by individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. One-third of the venomous snake keepers stated that they had at some point been bitten by a venomous snake. Out of those, two-thirds needed hospital treatment and one-third of those bitten required at least one, sometimes more, doses of antiserum. The chances of being bitten increased the more venomous snakes a person kept. An inventory of the collections of venomous snakes being kept further revealed that no antiserum exists for 16 of the species, including for the most commonly held venomous snake, the coral cobra. Keeping venomous snakes as a hobby is not without danger. Although in the majority of snakebite cases no antiserum had to be administered, there is nevertheless a significant risk of morbidity and sequelae. Preventing snakebites in the first place remains the most important safety measure since there are no antiserums available for a substantial number of venomous snakes.

  12. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2012-08-09

    Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms. Several major issues remain outstanding, such as whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment and how their unique feeding mechanism evolved. The Cretaceous Coniophis precedens was among the first Mesozoic snakes discovered, but until now only an isolated vertebra has been described and it has therefore been overlooked in discussions of snake evolution. Here we report on previously undescribed material from this ancient snake, including the maxilla, dentary and additional vertebrae. Coniophis is not an anilioid as previously thought a revised phylogenetic analysis of Ophidia shows that it instead represents the most primitive known snake. Accordingly, its morphology and ecology are critical to understanding snake evolution. Coniophis occurs in a continental floodplain environment, consistent with a terrestrial rather than a marine origin; furthermore, its small size and reduced neural spines indicate fossorial habits, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skull is intermediate between that of lizards and snakes. Hooked teeth and an intramandibular joint indicate that Coniophis fed on relatively large, soft-bodied prey. However, the maxilla is firmly united with the skull, indicating an akinetic rostrum. Coniophis therefore represents a transitional snake, combining a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Subsequent to the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull, which was followed by a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous period. This pattern suggests that the kinetic skull was a key innovation that permitted the diversification of snakes.

  13. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  14. Clinical profile & complications of neurotoxic snake bite & comparison of two regimens of polyvalent anti-snake venom in its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sarin

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, it was found that the national ASV protocol was as effective as the conventional regimen for neurotoxic snake bites. However, the findings need to be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial for definitive conclusions.

  15. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  16. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn (Bjornn), Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  17. Fall chinook salmon survival and supplementation studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River reservoirs: Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn, Theodore C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2)

  18. Postovipositional development of the sand snake Psammophis sibilans (Serpentes:Lamprophiidae) in comparison with other snake species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khannoon, E. R.; Zahradníček, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2017), s. 144-153 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : embryonic development * Psammophis * snake Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016

  19. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brischoux

    Full Text Available The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1 without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging. More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  20. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.