Sample records for spots radio lobes

  1. CYGNUS A: Hot Spots, Bow Shocks, Core Emission, and Exclusion of Cluster Gas by Radio Lobes (United States)

    Harris, Daniel E.


    This report covers work preformed on three ROSAT projects: (1) Monitoring the X-ray Intensity of the Core and Jet of M87; (2) The radio-optical jet in 3C-120 and (3) A search for cluster emission at high redshift.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi


    We argue that the origin of 'FRI/FRII dichotomy' - the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class II (FRII) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram) - can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between 'the hot spot radius' and 'the linear size of radio sources' obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power L j to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy n-bar a . It is also found that the maximal ratio of (L j ,n-bar a ) exists and its value resides in (L j ,n-bar a ) max ∼10 44-47 er s -1 cm 3 , taking into account considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value (L j ,n-bar a ) max separates between FRIs and FRIIs.

  3. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls. (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint


    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  4. Suzaku Diagnostics of the Energetics in the Lobes of the Giant Radio Galaxy 3C 35 (United States)

    Isobe, Naoki; Seta, Hiromi; Gandhi, Poshak; Tashiro, Makoto S.


    The Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy 3C 35 revealed faint extended X-ray emission, associated with its radio lobes and/or host galaxy. After careful subtraction of the X-ray and non-X-ray background and contaminating X-ray sources, the X-ray spectrum of the faint emission was reproduced by a sum of the power-law (PL) and soft thermal components. The soft component was attributed to the thermal plasma emission from the host galaxy. The photon index of the PL component, Γ = 1.35+0.56 -0.86 +0.11 -0.10, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones, was found to agree with the synchrotron radio index from the lobes, ΓR = 1.7. Thus, the PL component was attributed to the inverse Compton (IC) X-rays from the synchrotron electrons in the lobes. The X-ray flux density at 1 keV was derived as 13.6 ± 5.4+4.0 -3.6 nJy with the photon index fixed at the radio value. The X-ray surface brightness from these lobes (~0.2 nJy arcmin-2) is lowest among the lobes studied through the IC X-ray emission. In combination with the synchrotron radio flux density, 7.5 ± 0.2 Jy at 327.4 MHz, the electron energy density spatially averaged over the lobes was evaluated to be the lowest among those radio galaxies, as u e = (5.8 ± 2.3+1.9 -1.7) × 10-14 erg cm-3 over the electron Lorentz factor of 103-105. The magnetic energy density was calculated as u m = (3.1+2.5 -1.0 +1.4 -0.9) × 10-14 erg cm-3, corresponding to the magnetic field strength of 0.88+0.31 -0.16 +0.19 -0.14 μG. These results suggest that the energetics in the 3C 35 lobes are nearly consistent with equipartition between the electrons and magnetic fields.

  5. Diffusive shock acceleration in the lobes of the Serpens triple radio source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crusius-Watzel, A.R. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))


    Recent observations of the triple radio source in the Serpens star formation region have shown large proper motions of the lobes. Their radio spectral index is characteristic of nonthermal emission. The possibility that this is synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons is investigated. Particle acceleration can occur at the bow shock (bullet and jet model) or at the jet termination shock. The rates for ion-neutral damping and for the self-excitation of magnetic field fluctuations are compared. High levels of MHD turbulence and/or high Alfvenic Mach numbers are required to produce a power-law energy spectrum of electrons up to Lorentz factors of 1000. Diffusive shock acceleration of particles is then very efficient. 26 refs.

  6. J1649+2635: A Grand-Design Spiral with a Large Double-Lobed Radio Source (United States)

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Owen, Frazer; Duffin, Ryan; Keel, Bill; Lacy, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; Morrison, Glenn; Mroczkowski, Tony; Neff, Susan; Norris, Ray P.; hide


    We report the discovery of a grand-design spiral galaxy associated with a double-lobed radio source. J1649+2635 (z = 0.0545) is a red spiral galaxy with a prominent bulge that it is associated with a L(1.4GHz) is approximately 10(exp24) W Hz(exp-1) double-lobed radio source that spans almost 100 kpc. J1649+2635 has a black hole mass of M(BH) is approximately 3-7 × 10(exp8) Solar mass and SFR is approximately 0.26 - 2.6 solar mass year(exp-1). The galaxy hosts a approximately 96 kpc diffuse optical halo, which is unprecedented for spiral galaxies. We find that J1649+2635 resides in an overdense environment with a mass of M(dyn) = 7.7(+7.9/-4.3) × 10(exp13) Solar mass, likely a galaxy group below the detection threshold of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We suggest one possible scenario for the association of double-lobed radio emission from J1649+2635 is that the source may be similar to a Seyfert galaxy, located in a denser-than-normal environment. The study of spiral galaxies that host large-scale radio emission is important because although rare in the local Universe, these sources may be more common at high-redshifts.

  7. A complete sample of double-lobed radio quasars for VLBI tests of source models - Definition and statistics (United States)

    Hough, D. H.; Readhead, A. C. S.


    A complete, flux-density-limited sample of double-lobed radio quasars is defined, with nuclei bright enough to be mapped with the Mark III VLBI system. It is shown that the statistics of linear size, nuclear strength, and curvature are consistent with the assumption of random source orientations and simple relativistic beaming in the nuclei. However, these statistics are also consistent with the effects of interaction between the beams and the surrounding medium. The distribution of jet velocities in the nuclei, as measured with VLBI, will provide a powerful test of physical theories of extragalactic radio sources.

  8. Misleading advertising: a study of radio spots in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Muela-Molina


    Full Text Available Para detectar los diferentes tipos de publicidad engañosa, este estudio se basa en el marco jurídico vigente en España. Un total de 430 spots radiofónicos —que suman 1.664 incorporando la frecuencia de emisión— fueron codificados por tipo de emisora, franja horaria de emisión y categoría de producto. Los resultados del análisis de contenido muestran que el 33% de los anuncios emitidos en 2009 presentan contenidos engañosos, predominando los relacionados con las características del producto y con la categoría de salud. La investigación sugiere la necesidad de dar un nuevo enfoque a los organismos de control, monitorización y seguimiento de la publicidad.

  9. The Caudate Lobe: The Blind Spot in Radioembolization or an Overlooked Opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, Manon N. G. J. A., E-mail:; Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail:; Doormaal, Pieter J. van, E-mail:; Bruijnen, Rutger C., E-mail:; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail:; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)


    PurposeThe caudate lobe (CL) is impartial to the functional left and right hemi-liver and has outspoken inter-individual differences in arterial vascularization. Unfortunately, this complexity is not specifically taken into account during radioembolization treatment (RE), potentially resulting in under- or overtreatment of the CL. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CL coverage in RE and determine the detection rate of the CL arteries on CT angiography during work-up.MethodsIn all consecutive patients who underwent RE treatment between May 2012–January 2015, {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and posttreatment scans ({sup 90}Y-bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, {sup 90}Y-PET/CT, or {sup 166}Ho-SPECT/CT) were reviewed for activity in the CL. Pretreatment CT angiographies were reviewed for the visibility of the CL arteries.ResultsEighty-two patients were treated. In 32/82 (39 %) the CL was involved. In 6/32 (19 %) patients, no activity was seen on the posttreatment scan in the CL, whereas in 40/50 (80 %) patients without CL tumor involvement, the CL was treated. {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and final posttreatment scans were discordant in 16/78 (21 %). {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT had a positive and negative predictive value of 94 % and 46 %, respectively, for activity in the CL after RE. In untreated CLs, significant hypertrophy was observed with a median volume increase of 33 % (p = 0.02). CL arteries were seldom visible on the pretreatment CT; the identification rate was 12–17 %.ConclusionCurrently in RE treatments, targeting or sparing of the CL is highly erratic and independent of tumor involvement. Intentional treatment or bypassing of the CL seems worthwhile to either improve tumor coverage or enhance the functional liver remnant.

  10. Parsec-Scale Radio Structure and Broad Optical Emission Lines in a Complete Sample of 3CR Lobe-dominated Quasars (United States)

    Hough, D. H.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Cross, L. L.; Barth, E. L.; Yu, L. H.; Beyer, P. J.; Phifer, E. M.


    We present results from VLBI observations of 24 of the 25 lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) in the 3CR complete sample and from optical spectrophotometry of 14 of these objects. The VLBI observations were made with a variety of arrays-most recently the Very Long Baseline Array-at frequencies ranging from 5 to 22 GHz during the period 1981-1997. The optical spectra were obtained with the Hale 200 inch (5 m) telescope at Palomar Observatory, using the blue and red CCDs of the Double Spectrograph, between 1984 and 1992. The radio nuclei range in strength over nearly 3 orders of magnitude, from ~0.9 Jy down to ~3 mJy, and were imaged at typical resolutions of ~0.5-1.0 mas and sensitivities of ~0.1-0.2 mJy beam-1. All 24 LDQs show detectable radio structure in their nuclei. All 19 objects for which VLBI images could be made show one-sided nuclear jets, often several milliarcseconds in length and significantly curved, on the same side of the compact core as the one-sided large-scale jets seen on Very Large Array images. No counterjets were observed; jet-to-counterjet ratios that virtually all exceed ~10 suggest that these objects are all oriented within ~70° to the line of sight. For the 10 sources in which parsec-scale jet speeds could be estimated, the well-defined motions range from orientations, it is more easily accomodated by a restricted range of orientations. Evidence for slower jet speeds and larger apparent bends close to the core support the concept of a ``transition'' zone in the inner few parsecs of these jets. There are significant correlations among the prominences of the cores and jets, relative jet length, maximum jet deflection angles, and variability amplitude, as well as possible trends involving jet speed and strength of compact jet knots; furthermore, these objects tend to exhibit flat-spectrum cores and steep-spectrum jets. These results are all consistent with orientation-dependent relativistic beaming effects and unification of core- and lobe

  11. A new sample of giant radio galaxies from the WENSS survey II. A multi-frequency radio study of a complete sample : Properties of the radio lobes and their environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, AP; Mack, KH; de Bruyn, AG; Rottgering, HJA; Klein, U; van der Laan, H


    We have formed a complete sample of 26 low redshift (z less than or similar to 0.3) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) from the WENSS survey, selected at flux densities above 1 Jy at 325 MHz. We present 10.5-GHz observations with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope of 18 sources in this sample. These

  12. Habitat use of radio-tracked Spotted Crakes Porzana porzana at a restored wetland in northeast Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Desholm, Mark; Rasmussen, Palle A.F.


    Singing Spotted Crakes Porzana porzana were surveyed across c.16 km2 of restored peat cuttings in Lille Vildmose, northern Jutland, Denmark during summer 2013. Mapping of singing birds on 16 nights between 16 April and 9 July confirmed nine occupied “territories” based on the presence of between ...

  13. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.


    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  14. Temporal Lobe Seizure (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Chandra Studies of Nearby Radio and Seyfert Galaxies (United States)

    Wilson, A. S.


    I shall describe some of the results of a Chandra ACIS program on the extended, universally bi-polar, X-ray emission of nearby radio galaxies and Seyfert galaxies, with emphasis on the diversity of the radiation mechanisms involved and the implications for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. a) Radio galaxies. The X-ray emission from the hot spots of Cygnus A are synchrotron self-Compton emission from the synchrotron radio emitting electrons in a magnetic field which is close to equipartition (the papers by Young et al. and Smith et al. describe our Chandra results on the nucleus and cluster gas of Cygnus A, respectively). The X-ray knots of the M87 jet are almost certainly synchrotron radiation, as judged by their steep spectra. Preliminary results of a long integration on the Virgo cluster ICM will be presented. The X-ray radiation mechanism of the jet and western hot spot of Pictor A remains uncertain, with evidence favoring synchrotron radiation and bulk relativistic outflow of the jet and, remarkably, the western hot spot. b) Seyfert galaxies. For the Circinus galaxy, NGC 1068 and NGC 4151, the bulk of the X-ray emitting gas is photoionized by the nucleus. There is some evidence for thermal plasma emission powered by the starburst in Circinus and by the jet-driven outflows in NGC 1068. In M51, the bi-polar nuclear lobes previously found in radio continuum and optical line emission show up in X-rays as thermal plasma emission from shocked gas with kT ~ 0.5 keV. The nucleus is obscured by a column density in excess of 1024 cm-2 (see paper by Terashima et al.). In NGC 4258, the X-rays (which are thermal plasma emission from gas with kT ~ 0.3 - 0.6 keV) are dominated by the ``anomalous arms''. These arms represent dense gas in the galaxy disk shocked by mass motions driven into the low density halo gas (which then collides with the disk) by the out-of-disk radio jet. The extended X-ray emission powered by active galaxies thus depends on the relative

  16. X-ray study of the environmental impact on the initial stages of a radio source evolution (United States)

    Sobolewska, M.; Siemiginowska, A.; Migliori, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Hardcastle, M.; Ostorero, L.; Stawarz, L.


    Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are thought to be among the progenitors of large-scale radio galaxies. They show radio features typically observed in large-scale radio galaxies (jets, lobes, hot spots), but contained within the central 1 kpc region of the host galaxy. Because the CSOs are symmetric and not affected by beaming, their linear radio size can be translated into the source age if one measures the expansion velocity of the radio source. However, if the jet expansion is disturbed, e.g. by a dense interstellar medium (ISM), the ages derived this way may be biased. Until now we did not have means to discriminate between confined and non-confined radio sources. We present our X-ray studies of CSOs performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra. For the first time, the data reveal the evidence in favor of the hypothesis that in a sub-population of CSOs the medium is Compton Thick and the radio jets may be confined. Thus their kinematic ages may be underestimated. We discuss the implications of our results on the high energy emission models of CSOs, the earliest stages of the radio source evolution, jet interactions with the ISM, diversity of the environments in which the jets expand, and jet-galaxy co-evolution.

  17. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  18. Radiative efficiency and content of extragalactic radio sources: Toward a universal scaling relation between jet power and radio power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîrzan, L.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Carilli, C.L.; Wise, M.W.


    We present an analysis of the energetics and particle content of the lobes of 24 radio galaxies at the cores of cooling clusters. The radio lobes in these systems have created visible cavities in the surrounding hot, X-ray-emitting gas, which allow direct measurement of the mechanical jet power of

  19. Radio galaxies with a 'double-double morphology' : I. Analysis of the radio properties and evidence for interrupted activity in active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, AP; de Bruyn, AG; Rottgering, HJA; van der Laan, H; Kaiser, CR


    We present four Mpc-sized radio galaxies which consist of a pair of double-lobed radio sources, aligned along the same axis, and with a coinciding radio core. We call these peculiar radio sources 'double-double' radio galaxies (DDRGs) and propose a general definition of such sources: a

  20. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.


    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  1. Age Spots (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  2. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies. (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M


    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  3. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy


    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  4. SPOT Program (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide


    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  5. The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double–Double Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    continuum: galaxies—galaxies: individual: 3C457, J0041+3224. 1. Introduction. Radio galaxies are created by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) which eject jets in two opposite directions and inflate what are called lobes. This jet-forming activity of an. AGN may be episodic in nature. A striking example of episodic jet forming ...

  6. Dark Spots (United States)


    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  7. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A


    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  8. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology. (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G


    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  9. A radio and optical study of Molonglo radio sources (United States)

    Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Saikia, D. J.; McCarthy, P. J.; van Breugel, W. J. M.


    We present multi-wavelength radio observations with the Very Large Array, and narrow- and broad-band optical observations with the 2.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, of a well-defined sample of high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley class II radio galaxies and quasars, selected from the Molonglo Reference Catalogue 1-Jy sample. These observations were carried out as part of a programme to investigate the effects of orientation and environment on some of the observed properties of these sources. We examine the dependence of the Liu-Pooley relationship, which shows that radio lobes with flatter radio spectra are less depolarized, on size, identification and redshift, and show that it is significantly stronger for smaller sources, with the strength of the relationship being similar for both radio galaxies and quasars. In addition to Doppler effects, there appear to be intrinsic differences between the lobes on opposite sides. We discuss the asymmetry in brightness and location of the hotspots, and present estimates of the ages and velocities from matched-resolution observations in the L and C bands. Narrow- and broad-band optical images of some of these sources were made to study their environments and correlate with the symmetry parameters. An extended emission-line region is seen in a quasar, and in four of the objects possible companion galaxies are seen close to the radio axis.

  10. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta


    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  11. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi


    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  12. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  13. RAiSE III: 3C radio AGN energetics and composition (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.


    Kinetic jet power estimates based exclusively on observed monochromatic radio luminosities are highly uncertain due to confounding variables and a lack of knowledge about some aspects of the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We propose a new methodology to calculate the jet powers of the largest, most powerful radio sources based on combinations of their size, lobe luminosity, and shape of their radio spectrum; this approach avoids the uncertainties encountered by previous relationships. The outputs of our model are calibrated using hydrodynamical simulations and tested against independent X-ray inverse-Compton measurements. The jet powers and lobe magnetic field strengths of radio sources are found to be recovered using solely the lobe luminosity and spectral curvature, enabling the intrinsic properties of unresolved high-redshift sources to be inferred. By contrast, the radio source ages cannot be estimated without knowledge of the lobe volumes. The monochromatic lobe luminosity alone is incapable of accurately estimating the jet power or source age without knowledge of the lobe magnetic field strength and size, respectively. We find that, on average, the lobes of the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C) have magnetic field strengths approximately a factor three lower than the equipartition value, inconsistent with equal energy in the particles and the fields at the 5σ level. The particle content of 3C radio lobes is discussed in the context of complementary observations; we do not find evidence favouring an energetically dominant proton population.

  14. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez


    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  15. Radio Mariackie


    Tytko, Marek Mariusz


    Tekst dotyczy początków katolickiego Radia Mariackiego w Krakowie w 1993 r. The text concerns the begining of the Mariackie Radio [The Mariackie Broadcasting, the Maria's Radio Station, the Maria's Broadcasting, the Maria's Radio) in Cracow 1993.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi


    We examine relationships between the morphology in double radio sources and the radio-optical position angle offset-the relative orientation of the radio axis with respect to the major axis of the host galaxy. The study was done for a representative sample of radio sources, the nearby (redshift z < 0.5) 3CRR sources, and separately for samples of giant radio sources and X-shaped radio sources. We find that radio morphological features have a dependence on the radio-optical position angle offset and on whether the source is a major- or minor-axis source. The evidence indicates an anisotropic gas environment, related to the ellipticity of the host galaxy, that causes the source linear size evolution, strength of backflow in the radio lobes, off-axis lobe distortions and the formation of wings, and X-shaped radio sources to depend on the radio-optical position angle offset. We identify a class of X-shaped radio sources, which are either edge-darkened or lacking hotspots, and appear to have inner doubles suggesting a restarting of activity. We suggest a common formation mechanism, requiring backflows, for these apparently FR-I X-shaped radio sources as well as the edge-brightened X-shaped sources.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations of the host galaxies of powerful radio sources : Does size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, WH; O'Dea, CP; Barthel, PD; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Lehnert, MD


    We present near-infrared J- and K-band imaging of a sample of powerful radio source host galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS2 camera. These sources have been selected on their double-lobed radio structure and include a wide range of projected radio source sizes. The largest projected

  18. Side lobe suppression in phase mask-based nonlinear superresolution microscopy (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Stranick, Stephan J.


    We compare side lobe suppression methods for nonlinear superresolution optical microscopy using phase masked excitation beams. The excitation point spread function (PSF) can be engineered by introducing a phase mask for superresolution microscopy. By applying a single π phase step to the excitation the central spot can be narrowed and provide improved lateral resolution. However, the energy redistribution leads to side lobes with increased intensity that complicates imaging applications. Several methods have been implemented to suppress the strength of the side lobes including confocal detection and utilizing beams with different phase masks in multiphoton microscopy. Side lobe suppression methods using confocal detection and different phase masks for the excitation beams are compared theoretically and experimentally. These results demonstrate the additional flexibility for PSF engineering for nonlinear optical processes.

  19. X-ray Properties and the Environment of Compact Radio Sources. (United States)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sobolewska, Malgorzata; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hardcastle, Martin; Migliori, Giulia; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Lukasz


    Compact extragalactic radio sources provide important insights into the initial stages of radio source evolution and probe states of a black hole activity at the time of the formation of the relativistic outflow. Such outflows propagate out to hundreds kpc distances from the origin and impact environment on many scales, and thus influence evolution of structures in the universe. These compact sources show radio features typically observed in large-scale radio galaxies (jets, lobes, hot spots), but contained within the central 1 kpc region of the host galaxy. Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs, a subclass of GigaHertz Peaked spectrum radio sources) are symmetric and not affected by beaming. Their linear radio size can be translated into a source age if one measures the expansion velocity of the radio structures. Such ages has been measured for a small sample of CSOs. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton we observed a pilot samples of 16 CSOs in X-rays (6 for the first time). Our results show heterogeneous nature of the CSOs X-ray emission indicating a range of AGN luminosities and a complex environment. In particular, we identified four Compton Thick sources with a dense medium (equivalent column > 1e24 cm^-2) capable of disturbing/slowing down the jet and confining the jet to a small region. Thus for the first time we gain the observational evidence in X-ray domain in favor of the hypothesis that in a sub-population of CSOs the radio jets may be confined by the dense X-ray obscuring medium. As a consequence, the kinematic ages of these CSOs may be underestimated.. We discuss the implications of our results on the emission models of CSOs, the earliest stages of the radio source evolution, jet interactions with the ISM, diversity of the environments in which the jets expand, and jet-galaxy co-evolution.Partial support for this work was provided by the NASA grants GO1-12145X, GO4-15099X, NNX10AO60G, NNX17AC23G and XMM AO15 project 78461. This work supported

  20. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  1. Radio galaxies and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Breugel, W.


    The relationships between radio galaxies and their environment are varied, complex, and evolve with cosmic epoch. Basic questions are what role the environment plays in triggering and fuelling (radio) galaxy activity what the effects of this activity are on its environment, and how radio galaxies and environment evolve. Clearly, this could be the topic of a workshop all in itself and the scope of this review will necessarily be limited. A review of the connections between environment and galaxy activity in general has been given by Heckman. First, I will briefly summarize the relationships between parent galaxy and cluster environments, and radio galaxies. A more detailed discussion of various aspects of this will be given elsewhere by F. Owen, J.0. Burns and R. Perley. I will then discuss the current status of investigations of extended emission-line regions in radio galaxies, again referring elsewhere in this volume for more detailed discussions of some particular aspects (kinematics and ionization mechanisms by K. Meisenheimer; polarization and spectral index lobe asymmetries by G. Pooley). I will conclude with a brief discussion of the current status of observations of high redshift radio galaxies





    First article: Radio Cinema has become more and more popular in Copenhagen - escalating since the first Radio Cinema event was held in 2013. Now, it is monthly taking place in Gloria Biograf. The audience meets in the darkened cinema auditory and listens to a curated program of podcasts. In this article we investigate how the experience of participating in a Radio Cinema event feels through the theory of Sarah Pink’s Doing Sensory Ethnography (2009). In the first par...

  3. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.


    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Distally lobed integuments in some Angiosperm ovules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.


    In this treatise ‘De l’Ovule’ Warming (1878) remarked that although the borders of the integuments grow uniformly, very rarely a division into lobes can be observed. He mentioned Symplocarpus foetida (inner integument four-lobed), Lagarosiphon schweinfurthii (outer integument four- or five-lobed)

  5. Historical Evolution of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.


    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of

  6. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a revival of the radio era. The satellite radio is a natural choice to bridge the digital gap. It has several novel features like selective addressing and error control. The value-added services from such systems are of particular interest.

  7. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.


    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  8. Particle content, radio-galaxy morphology and jet power: all radio-loud AGN are not equal (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, MJ


    Ongoing and future radio surveys aim to trace the evolution of black hole growth and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) throughout cosmic time; however, there remain major uncertainties in translating radio luminosity functions into a reliable assessment of the energy input as a function of galaxy and/or dark matter halo mass. A crucial and long-standing problem is the composition of the radio-lobe plasma that traces AGN jet activity. In this paper, we carry out a systematic comparison of the plasma conditions in Fanaroff & Riley class I and II radio galaxies to demonstrate conclusively that their internal composition is systematically different. This difference is best explained by the presence of an energetically dominant proton population in the FRI, but not the FRII radio galaxies. We show that, as expected from this systematic difference in particle content, radio morphology also affects the jet-power/radio-luminosity relationship, with FRII radio galaxies having a significantly lower ratio of jet power to radio luminosity than the FRI cluster radio sources used to derive jet-power scaling relations via X-ray cavity measurements. Finally we also demonstrate conclusively that lobe composition is unconnected to accretion mode (optical excitation class): the internal conditions of low- and high-excitation FRII radio lobes are indistinguishable. We conclude that inferences of population-wide AGN impact require careful assessment of the contribution of different jet sub-classes, particularly given the increased diversity of jet evolutionary states expected to be present in deep, low-frequency radio surveys such as the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey.

  9. Solar Radio (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  10. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.


    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  11. Histopathologic variation between liver lobes in dogs. (United States)

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S


    Biopsy of the liver evaluates a small portion of tissue, with inferences made to the entire organ. The method and number of biopsies obtained are tempered by consideration of the risks and benefits. Recommendations often include biopsy of more than one liver lobe, although the consistency of histopathology among lobes in dogs is unknown. To describe the distribution of histopathologic abnormalities between liver lobes. We hypothesized that discordant results would be evenly distributed among all liver lobes. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver samples were obtained from all lobes. A primary diagnosis was assigned to each liver sample based on the predominant histopathologic abnormality. In this population of dogs, biopsy of at least 2 liver lobes identified the predominant histologic abnormality in 98.6% of the cases. Ten (14%) of the dogs had ≤ 3 lobes in agreement and could not be assigned a predominant diagnosis. The same diagnosis was present in 6/6 lobes in 39 (56.5%) dogs, 5/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 4/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 3/6 lobes in 7 (10.1%) dogs, and 2/6 in 3 (4.3%) dogs. The number of discordant results did not differ between the liver lobes. The likelihood of obtaining a sample that is reflective of the predominant histologic abnormality in the liver is increased when multiple liver lobes are biopsied. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.


    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  13. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni


    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  14. The Northern Middle Lobe of Centaurus A: Circumgalactic Gas in a Starburst Wind (United States)

    Neff, S. G.; Eilek, J. A.; Owen, F. N.; Schiminovich, D.; Seibert, M.; Thilker, D.


    We present deep ultraviolet (GALEX), radio continuum (VLA) and H-alpha (Magellan) images of the circumgalactic medium around Centaurus A (NGC5128). We focus on the Northern Middle Lobe (NML), a region extending more than 50kpc beyond the galaxy and known to host a collection of striking phenomena: emission line filaments, recent star formation, disrupted HI/molecular gas streams, and short-lived X-ray clouds. Far UV emission is tightly correlated with H-alpha emission for more than 50kpc, and loosely associated with a filament of X-ray clouds and with the radio continuum emission. The radio emission in the NML region does not appear to be an extension of the inner radio jet (10kpc) or a typical radio lobe. We speculate that the "weather" seen in the NML region is a short-lived phenomenon, caused by an outflow encountering cool gas deposited by one of the recent merger/encounter events which have characterized the history of NGC5128.

  15. Agenesis of the right lobe of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeung Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Soo Hyun; Sohn, Myung Hee; Chung, Gyung Ho; Han, Young Min; Choi, Ki Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan


    Agenesis of the right lobe of the liver is a rear anomaly which may be associated with biliary stone disease, portal hypertension, and other congenital anomalies. The radiological differential diagnosis includes lobar atrophy due to cirrhosis or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. We present a case of agenesis of the right lobe the liver with characteristic clinical and radiological findings

  16. Accessory Lobes, Accessory Fissures and Prominent Papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often unreported hepatic variations include accessory fissures, lobes and processes. Variant hepatic fissures further show variations in location and depth. Accessory lobes of the liver have different size, shape, situation, connection with maternal organ. These abnormalities in the anatomy of human liver have the ...

  17. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    communications as well as for point-to-multipoint broadcasting. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Radio is perceived to be an individual's possession because of its portability. It can be ... (See Box 1.) Gsa satellites are used for point-to-point communications as ... digital modulations one uses perceptual coding using auditory masking.

  18. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review. (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan


    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  19. Observations of significant flux closure by dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber


    Full Text Available We present an interval of dual lobe reconnection during which interplanetary magnetic field lines are captured by the magnetosphere by reconnecting at high latitudes in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. This event was identified using measurements of the ionospheric convection flow and observations of the aurora using the SuperDARN radars and the IMAGE spacecraft. A cusp spot, characteristic of northward IMF, is clearly visible for a 30 min period enabling the ionospheric footprint of the Northern Hemisphere merging gap to be accurately determined. During the interval a strong burst of sunward flow across the dayside open/closed field line boundary (OCB is observed, which we interpret as the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere following a burst of reconnection. Noon-midnight and dawn-dusk keograms of the aurora show that the polar cap shrinks during the interval indicating that a large amount of flux was closed by the reconnection. Using the SuperDARN potential maps it is possible to calculate that the amount of flux closed during the interval is 0.13 GWb which represents approximately 10% of the pre-existing polar cap. The number of ions captured by the burst of dual lobe reconnection was calculated to be ~2.2×1031, more than sufficient to populate a cold, dense plasma sheet. That a dense plasma sheet was not subsequently observed is discussed in terms of subsequent changes in the IMF.

  20. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot' (United States)


    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  1. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energetic, it is extremely short-lived. This justify focussing on transitio- nal galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT,. LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of ...

  2. Mononucleosis spot test (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  3. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe. (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce


    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scannographic appearance of increased colloid uptake in the left liver lobe (Case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadzher, Isak S.; Josifovska, Tatjana; Popgjorcheva, Daniela


    Incidentally increased uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid was found in scannographic images in the whole left liver lobe in all positions (PA, AP, DL, LL). The patient, a 60-year-old woman, was three years earlier cholocystecomized and had since occasional pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant due to biliary dyskinesia. Accessory spleen tissue was seen as well in the inferior lineal pole, probably presenting Shurer's phenomenon of 'lienis in liene' thus augmenting the serendipity of the scanographic findings. Imaging of the accessory spleen with heat denaturated spherocytes - Tc-99m confirmed the lienal structure of the tissue with preserved red pulp trabecular trapping mechanism in addition to phagocytic function of lineal Kupffer cells (in white pulp). Mebrofenin-Tc-99m (IDA-agent) showed in our patient normal distribution in both liver lobes contrary to focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma of the liver where IDA-radio- pharmaceuticals have delayed clearance due to abnormal biliary canaliculi. In our patient uptake, distribution, excretion and liver washout of mebrofenin-Tc-99m was found to be normal. This is in favor of an exclusive, solitary increase of the number of Kupffer cells confined to the whole left lobe of the liver. Increased colloid uptake in the left liver lobe is dependent on a greater number of Kupffer cells pro volume than in the right lobe. (Author)

  5. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  6. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Strange, Charlie; Tashkin, Donald P.


    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  7. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.


    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  8. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection. (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert H W; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Samson, Rebecca S; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functions in temporal lobe epilepsy and to determine whether preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging may predict memory changes following anterior temporal lobe resection. We studied 72 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (41 left) and 20 healthy controls. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for pictures, words and faces was used testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Fifty-four patients subsequently underwent left (29) or right (25) anterior temporal lobe resection. Verbal and design learning were assessed before and 4 months after surgery. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that in left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left hippocampal activation for word encoding correlated with better verbal memory. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right hippocampal activation for face encoding correlated with better visual memory. In left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left than right anterior hippocampal activation on word encoding correlated with greater verbal memory decline after left anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater left than right posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better postoperative verbal memory outcome. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right than left anterior hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation on face encoding predicted greater visual memory decline

  9. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems (United States)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  10. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  11. Lung lobe torsion in seven juvenile dogs. (United States)

    Latimer, Christian R; Lux, Cassie N; Sutton, Jessie S; Culp, William T N


    CASE DESCRIPTION 7 juvenile (< 12 months old) dogs with lung lobe torsion were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All patients were male; breeds included Pug (n = 5), Chinese Shar-Pei (1), and Bullmastiff (1). Dyspnea and lethargy were the most common initial complaints, with a duration of clinical signs ranging from 1 to 10 days. A CBC showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia in all dogs. Anemia was present in 6 dogs, 2 of which received packed RBC transfusions. The diagnosis was made on the basis of results of thoracic radiography, CT, ultrasonography, or a combination of modalities. The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial lung lobe (1). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A lateral intercostal thoracotomy with lobectomy of the affected lobe was performed in all patients. All dogs survived to be discharged between 1 and 2 days postoperatively. Six of 7 owners contacted for follow-up information 7 to 170 months after discharge reported satisfaction with the treatment and no apparent signs of recurrence of disease. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The juvenile patients of this report were successfully treated surgically with no apparent complications. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of lung lobe torsion when evaluating young dogs with clinical signs related to the respiratory system, including those with vague signs, to avoid undue delays in treatment.

  12. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H


    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Cotton-wool spots. (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E


    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe. (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L


    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  15. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens (United States)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.


    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website ( includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  16. The medial temporal lobe: memory and beyond. (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris


    The structures of the medial temporal lobe, e.g., the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex, are known to be essential for long-term memory processing and hence are labeled the medial temporal lobe memory system. Nevertheless, the exact contributions of each structure and the involvement in different cognitive processes remain controversial. This article discusses recent findings dealing with recognition memory and a long lasting involvement of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in episodic memory, based on functional imaging and lesion studies. Furthermore, a new paradigm employing objective manipulations of recollection and familiarity is presented, showing no anatomical distinction for these two processes, as opposed to studies using subjective ratings. Additionally, results regarding an involvement of the medial temporal lobe in visual processing are presented, in general supporting the visual-mnemonic theory. The discussed findings show that many questions regarding the functional organization remain unsolved, and that we are in need of further research to create a comprehensive model of the medial temporal lobe. For this, we might need to give up the distinctions into different cognitive processes and start to investigate the different types of representations that are processed by the medial temporal lobe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infectious Causes of Right Middle Lobe Syndrome. (United States)

    Rashid, Aatif; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Greene, John N


    Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML. The diagnosis can be made by plain radiography, computed tomography, and bronchoscopy. Medical treatment consists of bronchodilators, mucolytics, and antimicrobials. Patients whose disease is unresponsive to treatment and those with obstructive RML syndrome can be offered surgical treatment.

  18. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe. (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H


    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evidence for particle re-acceleration in the radio relic in the galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Intema, H. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica-Sezione di Astronomia, Universitá di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Kantharia, N. [National center for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Van Weeren, R. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Röttgering, H. J. A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    Radio relics are diffuse radio sources observed in galaxy clusters, probably produced by shock acceleration during cluster-cluster mergers. Their large size, of the order of 1 Mpc, indicates that the emitting electrons need to be (re)accelerated locally. The usually invoked diffusive shock acceleration models have been challenged by recent observations and theory. We report the discovery of complex radio emission in the Galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9, which hosts two relics, a radio halo, and several radio filamentary emission. Optical observations suggest that the cluster is elongated, likely along an intergalactic filament, and displays a significant amount of substructure. The peculiar features of this radio relic are that (1) it appears to be connected to the lobes of a radio galaxy and (2) the radio spectrum steepens on either side of the radio relic. We discuss the origins of these features in the context of particle re-acceleration.

  20. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus


    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.


    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  1. Temporal lobe sclerosis associated with hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological features. (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Eriksson, Sofia; Martinian, Lillian; Caboclo, Luis O; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Sisodiya, Sanjay M


    Widespread changes involving neocortical and mesial temporal lobe structures can be present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. The incidence, pathology, and clinical significance of neocortical temporal lobe sclerosis (TLS) are not well characterized. We identified TLS in 30 of 272 surgically treated cases of hippocampal sclerosis. Temporal lobe sclerosis was defined by variable reduction of neurons from cortical layers II/III and laminar gliosis; it was typically accompanied by additional architectural abnormalities of layer II, that is, abnormal neuronal orientation and aggregation. Quantitative analysis including tessellation methods for the distribution of layer II neurons supported these observations. In 40% of cases, there was a gradient of TLS with more severe involvement toward the temporal pole, possibly signifying involvement of hippocampal projection pathways. There was a history of a febrile seizure as an initial precipitating injury in 73% of patients with TLS compared with 36% without TLS; no other clinical differences between TLS and non-TLS cases were identified. Temporal lobe sclerosis was not evident preoperatively by neuroimaging. No obvious effect of TLS on seizure outcome was noted after temporal lobe resection; 73% became seizure-free at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, approximately 11% of surgically treated hippocampal sclerosis is accompanied by TLS. Temporal lobe sclerosis is likely an acquired process with accompanying reorganizational dysplasia and an extension of mesial temporal sclerosis rather than a separate pathological entity.

  2. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez


    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  3. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team


    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  4. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets (United States)

    Soker, Noam


    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  5. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson


    Full Text Available Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s−2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s−1.

  6. Radiologic evaluation of right middle lobe collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwun, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Deok; Kim, Jong Chul


    There are many pathogenetic factors for collapse of right middle lobe; profuse peribronchial clustering of lymph nodes about the right middle lobe bronchus, poor drainage of the bronchus because of its acute angle of take-off from the intermediate bronchus, and the isolation of this small lobe from the right upper and lower lobes, and thus from the aerating effects of collateral ventilation. Retrospectively we reviewed 36 cases of right of right middle lobe collapse of which causes were confirmed by histopathologic or bronchographic findings during the recent 6 years from March 1983 to February 1988 at Inje College Pusan Paik Hospital, and obtained the following results: 1. Male to female ratio was 1:1:4,and peak incidence (64%) was in the fifth and sixth decades with the mean age of 51.1 years. 2. Bronchiectasis was the most common cause (30.6%), and the others were chronic bronchitis (25.0%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19.4%), lung cancer (16.7%), and non-specific inflammatory disease (8.3%). This suggests benign disease is 5 times more common cause of right middle lobe collapse than lung cancer. 3. Among the plain chest radiolograph findings, obliteration of right cardiac border and triangular radiopaque density were the most frequent findings(77.8% in each) and the next was downward and anterior displacement of minor and major fissures (55.6%) 4. Bronchography was done in 11 cases; bronchiectasis was found in 8 cases and chronic bronchitis in 3 cases. Right middle lobe bronchus was obstructed in 2 cases of chronic bronchitis. 5. Chest CT scan was performed in 4 cases of lung cancer, 2 of non-specific inflammatory disease, and 1 of pulmonary tuberculosis: all of lung cancer revealed hilar mass, budged or lobulated fissures, in homogenous density, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and all benign disease showed homogenous density and flat to concave fissures. Right middle lobar bronchus narrowing was seen in 5 cases and its obstruction in 2 cases

  7. RAiSE II: resolved spectral evolution in radio AGN (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Rogers, Jonathan G.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.


    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) lobe radio luminosities modelled in hydrodynamical simulations and most analytical models do not address the redistribution of the electron energies due to adiabatic expansion, synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. We present a synchrotron emissivity model for resolved sources that includes a full treatment of the loss mechanisms spatially across the lobe, and apply it to a dynamical radio source model with known pressure and volume expansion rates. The bulk flow and dispersion of discrete electron packets is represented by tracer fields in hydrodynamical simulations; we show that the mixing of different aged electrons strongly affects the spectrum at each point of the radio map in high-powered Fanaroff & Riley type II (FR-II) sources. The inclusion of this mixing leads to a factor of a few discrepancy between the spectral age measured using impulsive injection models (e.g. JP model) and the dynamical age. The observable properties of radio sources are predicted to be strongly frequency dependent: FR-II lobes are expected to appear more elongated at higher frequencies, while jetted FR-I sources appear less extended. The emerging FR0 class of radio sources, comprising gigahertz peaked and compact steep spectrum sources, can potentially be explained by a population of low-powered FR-Is. The extended emission from such sources is shown to be undetectable for objects within a few orders of magnitude of the survey detection limit and to not contribute to the curvature of the radio spectral energy distribution.

  8. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren


    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (United States)

    ... Health Conditions ADNFLE Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy ( ADNFLE ) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that ...

  10. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin


    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  11. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting. (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding


    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  12. Agenesis of the right lobe of liver: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kun Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan


    Congenital agenesis of the right lobe of liver is a rare anomaly and only 33 cases have been reported. CT showed absence of the right lobe of liver and compensatory hypertrophy of the other lobe. We report the CT findings a new case of this anomaly with a review of the literatures

  13. Right azygos lobe occurring with fissural and lobation anomalies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The azygos lobe is a rare anomaly of the lung that is separated from the rest of the upper lobe by an azygos fissure. The lobe is encountered mostly in the right lung but a few cases have also been described in the left lung. It occurs at a frequency of 0.25-1% and has surgical and radiological importance.

  14. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari


    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  15. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection. (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C


    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)


    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis. (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino


    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MR imaging of temporal lobe meningoencephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampieri, D.; Leblanc, R.; Melangon, D.; del-Carpio-O'Donovan, R.; Ethier, R.


    Basal meningoencephaloceles represent a rare entity, and they may be associated with a variety of midline cerebral abnormalities. The classification of basal meningoencephaloceles is related to their anatomic location. This paper reports experience in 3 patients, 2 who have temporal lobe epilepsy and a bone defect in the region of the foramen rotondum. In these 2 patients the encephalocele and its covering were protruding into the pterygopalatine fossa without any orbital involvement. The third patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea caused by a transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. MR imaging is the examination of choice for detecting these lesions since it allows for the visualization of the encephalocele and its meningeal covering as well as the bone defect and associated lesions in the temporal lobes

  19. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda. (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E


    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  20. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.


    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Radio Science (RS) data archive contains both raw radio tracking data collected during the surface lifetime of the MPF Lander and results...

  2. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.


    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  3. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ionosphere is used for radio communication and navigation as it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Since solar radiation is the main cause of the existence of iono- sphere, any variation in the radiations can affect the entire radio communication system. This article attempts to briefly introduce the readers to ...

  4. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field (United States)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.


    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  5. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.


    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  6. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward


    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  7. Dispersal movements of juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in New Mexico (United States)

    David P. Arsenault; Angela Hodgson; Peter B. Stacey


    Tail-mounted radio transmitters were attached to 12 juvenile and 3 sub-adult (yearling) Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in southwestern New Mexico from 1993 to 1996. Most juveniles dispersed from their natal territories during September. Intervals between dispersal of siblings ranged from 3 to more than 15 days. Juveniles exhibited...

  8. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón


    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  9. Survey Layanan Publik Pemantauan Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Amatir Dan Radio Antar Penduduk Indonesia


    Azwar Aziz


    Berlatar belakang fenomena penggunaan amatir radio dan komunikasi radio antar penduduk yang berkaitan dengan faktor layanan publik dari monitor frekuensi radio, dimana peneliti memfokuskan pada permasalahan kondisi pelayanan publik yang diberikan oleh pemerintah tentang penggunaan radio non komersial yang digunakan oleh perorangan. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan penggiat amatir radio dan komunikasi radio antar penduduk bervariasi, mulai dari yang tidak mempunyai izin sampai pada yang memiliki ...

  10. First `Winged' and `X'-shaped Radio Source Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C.C.


    A small number of double-lobed radio galaxies (17 from our own census of the literature) show an additional pair of low surface brightness ''wings'', thus forming an overall ''X''-shaped appearance. The origin of the wings in these radio sources is unclear. They may be the result of back-flowing plasma from the currently active radio lobes into an asymmetric medium surrounding the active nucleus, which would make these ideal systems in which to study thermal/non-thermal plasma interactions in extragalactic radio sources. Another possibility is that the wings are the aging radio lobes left over after a (rapid) realignment of the central supermassive black-hole/accretion disk system due perhaps to a merger. Generally, these models are not well tested; with the small number of known examples, previous works focused on detailed case studies of selected sources with little attempt at a systematic study of a large sample. Using the VLA-FIRST survey database, we are compiling a large sample of winged and X-shaped radio sources for such studies. As a first step toward this goal, an initial sample of 100 new candidate objects of this type are presented in this paper. The search process is described, optical identifications from available literature data, and basic radio data are presented. From the limited resolution FIRST images ({approx} 5''), we can already confidently classify a sufficient number of these objects as having the characteristic wing lengths >80% of the active lobes to more than double the number of known X-shaped radio sources. We have also included as candidates, radio sources with shorter wings (<80% wing to lobe length ratios), or simply ''winged'' sources, as it is probable that projection effects are important. Finally, among the candidates are four quasars (z=0.37 to 0.84), and several have morphologies suggestive of Fanaroff-Riley type-I (low-power) radio galaxies. While followup

  11. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures (United States)

    Cohal, V.


    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  12. Altered structural connectome in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Douw, Linda; Tanaka, Naoaki; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M


    To study differences in the whole-brain structural connectomes of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy control subjects. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all individuals gave signed informed consent. Sixty-direction diffusion-tensor imaging and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) magnetic resonance imaging volumes were analyzed in 24 patients with left TLE and in 24 healthy control subjects. MP-RAGE volumes were segmented into 1015 regions of interest (ROIs) spanning the entire brain. Deterministic white matter tractography was performed after voxelwise tensor calculation. Weighted structural connectivity matrices were generated by using the pairwise density of connecting fibers between ROIs. Graph theoretical measures of connectivity networks were compared between groups by using linear models with permutation testing. Patients with TLE had 22%-45% reduced (P < .01) distant connectivity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, compared with that in healthy subjects. However, local connectivity, as measured by means of network efficiency, was increased by 85%-270% (P < .01) in the medial and lateral frontal cortices, insular cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and occipital cortex in patients with TLE as compared with healthy subjects. This study suggests that TLE involves altered structural connectivity in a network that reaches beyond the temporal lobe, especially in the default mode network.

  13. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin


    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  14. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function. (United States)

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K


    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  15. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions]. (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe


    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  16. Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji-rad


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT in localizing epileptic foci in children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. This prospective study was conducted on 12 patients including five males and seven females aged between 2 and 16 years old with a clinical diagnosis of TLE. All the patients underwent high-resolution MRI and if no abnormality was identified, SPECT was used for further assessment. In all the patients, visual inspection identified unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis, and the patients underwent craniotomy and lesionectomy.According to the results, eight patients were categorized in class I and two cases were classifies as class II, and all the patients survived. About 25% of the patients showed adequate memory function on the non-operated temporal lobe, and general intelligence quotient increased by 10% in 50% of the patients.According to the results, in patients with clinically suspected TLE, MRI alone is not able to localize the epileptic foci correctly, and SPECT can be helpful to localize these lesions.

  17. Accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region - an incidental finding. (United States)

    Shrestha, M K; Ghartimagar, D; Ghosh, A


    An accessory lobe of liver is a rare congenital anomaly which can be detected incidentally or can even present as acute surgical emergency due to torsion. We report a case of accessory hepatic lobe in right lumbar region in a 21years old female who came for a ultrasound abdomen for lower abdominal pain. We report the importance of ultrasonography and Computed Tomogram (CT) scan for the diagnosis of accessory hepatic lobe.

  18. The radio structure of radio-quiet quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipski, C.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bennert, N.; Hüttemeister, S.


    Aims.We investigate the radio emitting structures of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei with an emphasis on radio-quiet quasars to study their connection to Seyfert galaxies.
    Methods: .We present and analyse high-sensitivity VLA radio continuum images of 14 radio-quiet quasars and six Seyfert

  19. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  20. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.


    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N


    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  1. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Boling


    Full Text Available Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis.

  2. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.


    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  3. Occurrence of the lobe plasma at lunar distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.A.; Hills, H.K.; Freeman, J.W.


    Recent analysis has confirmed and expanded the characterization of the lobe plasma, the extension of the 'boundary layer' and 'plasma mantle' to lunar distances. Careful statistical analysis has verified that Magnetic Field (1MF). When the moon is in the dawnside of the northern lobe or duskside of the southern lobe, the probability for observation of the lobe plasma is greatly increased when, in the hour preceding, the IMF has had a positive y component. Conversely, when the moon is in the duskside of the northern lobe or dawnside of the southern lobe, the probability for observation is much increased when the IMF has a negative y component. Analysis of lobe plasma data in conjunction with high time resolution IMF data has shown the probability of observation also is greater with a southward pointing IMF. The observed correlations with the y and z components the IMF reflect the fact that the asymmetry and changes in magnitude of the polar cap electric field induced by the IMF extends to lunar distances and determines the depth into the tail to which the ions can drift. Generally, the lobe plasma is observed sporadically for a full day after the moon has entered the tail and a full day before the last magnetopause crossing as it exits the tail. An average extent of approx.8--10R/sub e/ inward from the magnetopause is inferred; however, the lobe plasma has been seen all across the tail

  4. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  5. Fetal intermediate lobe is stimulated by parturition. (United States)

    Facchinetti, F; Lanzani, A; Genazzani, A R


    The fetal pituitary gland secretes beta-endorphin in blood in response to delivery. However, other forms of endorphin have recently been observed in the fetal pituitary, such as N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, which is devoid of opiate activity, and a desacetylated form of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Both endorphins originate in the pituitary intermediate lobe. The sensitivity of this lobe to labor stress was assessed by the evaluation of beta-endorphin, N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in maternal plasma and cord blood in 11 cases of vaginal delivery and 10 cases of elective cesarean section without labor. Plasma peptide levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassays after extraction on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Cord blood samples of infants delivered vaginally showed higher beta-endorphin (8.5 +/- 1.6 pmol/L, mean +/- SE) and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) levels than those delivered by elective cesarean section (3.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.2 +/- 1.1 pmol/L, for beta-endorphin and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, respectively). N-acetyl-beta-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone levels do not differ in relation to the mode of delivery. In maternal circulation beta-endorphin levels were higher in those delivered vaginally (5.2 pm 1) than in women who had cesarean sections (2.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/L), whereas no changes were found for the other peptides. In vaginal deliveries, the level of desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was higher in cord blood (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) than in maternal plasma (6.5 +/- 3 pmol/L); there were no significant differences with regard to the other peptides. Fetal and maternal levels of all the peptides were similar in cases of cesarean section. We conclude that parturition activates proopiomelanocortin peptide release from

  6. Video electroencephalogram telemetry in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Mani


    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The role of telemetry is continuously evolving with the advent of digital EEG technology, of high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and other functional imaging techniques. Most of surgical selection in patients with TLE can be done with a scalp video EEG monitoring. However, the limitations of the scalp EEG technique demand invasive recordings in a selected group of TLE patients. This subset of the patients can be a challenge to the epileptologist.

  7. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe. (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano


    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati


    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  9. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H


    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More...... efficacious treatments for medication refractory epilepsy are therefore needed. A better understanding of the mechanisms that cause this disorder is likely to facilitate the discovery of such treatments. Impairment in cerebral energy metabolism has been proposed as a possible causative factor...... in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is one of the most common types of medication-refractory epilepsies in adults. In this review, we will discuss some of the current hypotheses regarding the possible causal relationship between brain energy metabolism and TLE. Emphasis will be placed...

  10. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome. (United States)

    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S


    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  11. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  12. Radio Surveys: an Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    Radio astronomy has provided important surveys that have made possible key (and sometimes serendipitous) discoveries. I will briefly mention some of the past continuum and line (HI) radio surveys as well as new, on-going surveys and surveys planned for the near future. This new generation of large

  13. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  14. Writing for Radio. (United States)

    Tupper, Marianna S.


    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  15. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.


    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  16. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In diffuse thyroid diseases, the lobes were always pathologically involved and significantly longer. Conclusion. Since the pyramidal lobe is a normal component of the thyroid gland, of varying position and size, with pathological changes in benign and malignant diseases, it should always be examined during thyroid surgery ...

  17. MRI rare finding: Absence of the left liver lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Ceravolo

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of left liver lobe absence in an 80-year-old male patient discovered during an MRI scan. The main imaging features of this condition are briefly reviewed, together with its pathogenesis and the most common associations and differential diagnoses. Keywords: Left liver lobe, Liver abnormalities, Liver magnetic resonance imaging

  18. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.


    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Croston, Judith H.


    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a 'sloshing' cold front due to a merger within the last ∼<1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge. We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  20. Supplementary CT temporal lobe cuts confer no worthwhile benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straiton, J.A.; Macpherson, P.; Teasdale, E.M.


    The value of angled temporal lobe cuts as a supplement to conventional head computed tomography (CT) has been assessed by comparing the diagnostic yield of standard axial and specific temporal lobe images (TLCT) in 62 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 87 with Alzheimer-type senile dementia. Fewer than one patient in six had structural abnormality in the temporal lobe most readily demonstrated by axial CT. Five patients with epilepsy and ten with dementia had changes demonstrated only by TLCT, reported on by one or other of a pair of observers. However such changes were of dubious clinical relevance, or arose as a result of artefact. In one patient with epilepsy and underlying neoplasm, axial CT was positive and TLCT false-negative. The routine addition of temporal lobe cuts to a conventional axial examination confers no added benefit to justify the prolonged examination time and increased radiation dose to the lens of the eye. (orig.)

  1. An Efficient Approach for Identifying Stable Lobes with Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Wu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for quick identification of chatter stability lobes with discretization method. Firstly, three different kinds of stability regions are defined: absolute stable region, valid region, and invalid region. Secondly, while identifying the chatter stability lobes, three different regions within the chatter stability lobes are identified with relatively large time intervals. Thirdly, stability boundary within the valid regions is finely calculated to get exact chatter stability lobes. The proposed method only needs to test a small portion of spindle speed and cutting depth set; about 89% computation time is savedcompared with full discretization method. It spends only about10 minutes to get exact chatter stability lobes. Since, based on discretization method, the proposed method can be used for different immersion cutting including low immersion cutting process, the proposed method can be directly implemented in the workshop to promote machining parameters selection efficiency.

  2. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.


    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  3. Laser based spot weld characterization (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias


    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  4. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.; Evans, D. A.; Dicken, D.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C. N.


    We report Chandra evidence for a 200 kpc scale shock in the cluster surrounding the powerful radio galaxy 3C 444. Our 20 ks observation allows us to identify a clear surface brightness drop around the outer edge of the radio galaxy, which is likely to correspond to a spheroidal shock propagating into the intracluster medium. We measure a temperature jump across this drop of a factor ∼1.7, which corresponds to a Mach number of ∼1.7. This is likely to be an underestimate due to the need to average over fairly large regions. We also detect clear cavities corresponding to the positions of the radio lobes, which is only the second such detection associated with an FRII radio galaxy. We estimate that the total energy transferred to the environment is >8.2 x 10 60 erg, corresponding to a jet power >2.9 x 10 45 erg s -1 . Our results suggest that energy input from FRII radio galaxies is likely to exceed substantially estimates based on cluster cavity scaling relations.

  6. Multiwavelength study of Cygnus A. V. The hotspots in the lobe (United States)

    Pyrzas, S.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Blundell, K. M.


    Context. The jets in Faranoff-Riley type II AGN are supposed come to an abrupt halt in hotspots on opposite sides of the nucleus. Quite commonly, two hotspots are observed in each lobe. The origin of the second hotspot is currently poorly understood. Aims: Our aims are to determine the origin of the secondary hotspot in the western lobe of Cygnus A from high resolution multifrequency radio images; to determine the minimum Lorentz factor of the electrons in the hotspots, often referred to as the low-energy turnover; and to study the magnetic field configuration of the hotspots. Methods: We used 151 MHz Merlin and 327 MHz, 1.4, 5, 8, 15, and 43 GHz VLA images to determine the centroid of the peak luminosity, the spectral shape, and polarization fraction of both hotspots in the western lobe of Cygnus A. Results: We find a spatial shift in peak luminosity between the lower and higher frequency images for both hotspots. We determine the minimum Lorentz factor of the electrons to be ~1000, and show that most of the emission from the primary hotspot is linearly polarized. The minimum energy magnetic field strength is found to range between ~0.14 and ~0.5 mG in both the primary and secondary hotspots. Conclusions: From the low polarization and the determined outflow velocity, we conclude that the secondary hotspot is no longer a strong shock, and is an expanding, and hence a fading hotspot. This hotspot has an age that is of the same order of magnitude as the jet precession period.

  7. Broadband Radio Polarimetry of Fornax A. I. Depolarized Patches Generated by Advected Thermal Material from NGC 1316 (United States)

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Heald, G. H.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Kaczmarek, J. F.; Feain, I. J.


    We present observations and analysis of the polarized radio emission from the nearby radio galaxy Fornax A over 1.28–3.1 GHz, using data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. In this, the first of two associated papers, we use modern broadband polarimetric techniques to examine the nature and origin of conspicuous low-polarization (low-p) patches in the lobes. We resolve the (low-p) patches and find that their low fractional polarization is associated with complicated frequency-dependent interference in the polarized signal generated by Faraday effects along the line of sight (LOS). The low-p patches are spatially correlated with interfaces in the magnetic structure of the lobe, across which the LOS-projected magnetic field changes direction. Spatial correlations with the sky-projected magnetic field orientation and structure in total intensity are also identified and discussed. We argue that the (low-p) patches, along with associated reversals in the LOS magnetic field and other related phenomena, are best explained by the presence of { \\mathcal O }({10}9) {M}ȯ of magnetized thermal plasma in the lobes, structured in shells or filaments, and likely advected from the interstellar medium of NCG 1316 or its surrounding intracluster medium. Our study underscores the power and utility of spatially resolved, broadband, full-polarization radio observations to reveal new facets of flow behaviors and magneto-ionic structure in radio lobes and their interplay with the surrounding environment.

  8. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne


    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported...

  9. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  10. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Hoot, John E.


    The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  11. The parietal lobe and the vestibular system. (United States)

    Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas


    The vestibular cortex differs in various ways from other sensory cortices. It consists of a network of several distinct and separate temporoparietal areas. Its core region, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), is located in the posterior insula and retroinsular region and includes the parietal operculum. The entire network is multisensory (in particular, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory). The peripheral and central vestibular systems are bilaterally organized; there are various pontomesencephalic brainstem crossings and at least two transcallosal connections of both hemispheres, between the PIVC and the motion-sensitive visual cortex areas, which also mediate vestibular input. Structural and functional vestibular dominance characterizes the right hemisphere in right-handers and the left hemisphere in left-handers. This explains why right-hemispheric lesions in right-handers more often generally cause hemispatial neglect and the pusher syndrome, both of which involve vestibular function. Vestibular input also contributes to cognition and may determine individual lateralization of brain functions such as handedness. Bilateral organization is a major key to understanding cortical functions and disorders, for example, the visual-vestibular interaction that occurs in spatial orientation. Although the vestibular cortex is represented in both hemispheres, there is only one global percept of body position and motion. The chiefly vestibular aspects of the multiple functions and disorders of the parietal lobe dealt with in this chapter cannot be strictly separated from various multisensory vestibular functions within the entire brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extrahippocampal Desynchronization in Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pastor


    Full Text Available Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is traditionally associated with both hypersynchronous activity in the form of interictal epileptic discharges and hippocampal sclerosis, recent findings suggest that desynchronization also plays a central role in the dynamics of this pathology. The objective of this work is to show the imbalance existing between mesial activities in patients suffering from mesial TLE, with normal mesial structures. Foramen ovale recordings from six patients with mesial TLE and one with lateral TLE were analyzed through a cluster analysis and synchronization matrices. None of the patients present findings in the MRI presurgical evaluation. Numerical analysis was carried out in three different situations: awake and sleep interictal and also during the preictal stage. High levels of desynchronization ipsilateral to the epileptic side were present in mesial TLE patients. Low levels of desynchronization were present in the lateral TLE patient during the interictal stage and almost zero in the preictal stage. Implications of these findings in relation with seizure spreading are discussed.

  13. Studying the late evolution of a radio-loud AGN in a galaxy group with LOFAR (United States)

    Savini, F.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; Wilber, A.; Harwood, J. J.; Murgia, M.; Shimwell, T.; Rafferty, D.; Shulevski, A.; Brienza, M.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H.; Clarke, A. O.; de Gasperin, F.; van Weeren, R.; Best, P. N.; Botteon, A.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.


    Feedback by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in galaxy groups is not fully understood. Open questions include the duty cycle of the AGN, the spatial extent of the radio lobes, the effect they have on the intragroup medium and the fate of the cosmic rays. We present the discovery of a 650 kpc-radio galaxy embedded in steep diffuse emission at z = (0.18793 ± 5) × 10-5 located at the centre of the galaxy group MaxBCG J199.31832+51.72503 using an observation from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) at the central frequency of 144 MHz. Subsequently, we performed a Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope observation at the central frequency of 607 MHz to study the spectral properties of the source. The observations reveal a radio galaxy with a total radio power Ptot, 1.4 ˜ 2.1 × 1024 W Hz-1, exhibiting two asymmetrical jets and lobes. The derived spectral index map shows a steepening towards the inner regions and a steep-spectrum core region. We model the integrated radio spectrum, providing two possible interpretations: the radio source is evolved but still active or it is just at the end of its active phase. Finally, in the same field of view we have discovered Mpc-sized emission surrounding a close pair of AGN located at a redshift z = (0.0587 ± 2) × 10-4 (SDSS J131544.56+521213.2 and SDSS J131543.99+521055.7) which could be a radio remnant source.

  14. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  15. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  16. Development of pixelated scintillator-based compact radio-TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sang June; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jong Guk


    The radio-TLC system generally shows as a graph of counting gamma radioactivity, emitting by radiopharmaceutical including a specific radioisotope. it makes guarantee quantitative accuracy and reproducibility for chemically stability and change of a targeting radiopharmaceutical. In present the radio-TLC produced by a few companies use a gas-filled proportional counter with high cost, and it has limitations of both gas diffusion and ion density. Recently, Ce:GAGG has been developed and presented as promising scintillators for PET and SPECT due to high density, high light yield (- 46,000-51,000 photon/MeV), and fast decay time. We have adapted GAGG scintillation crystal array to radio-TLC detector. We developed the GAGG crystal array based radio-TLC RT-102. The RT-102 has several advantages such as the compact size, the no-gas usage, and the lower cost in comparison with commercial radio-TLC scanner. In order to verify the performance of RT-102, we compared RT-102 with AR-2000. We scanned and compared Tc-99m and F-18 solution spotted samples in the same conditions. The ROI counts ratio and position detecting performances of RT-102 are approximately same with AR-2000. The results indicate the RT-102 has enough resolution and sensitivity to be used in the measurement of radiochemical purity test in radio-TLC devices

  17. Development of pixelated scintillator-based compact radio-TLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang June; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The radio-TLC system generally shows as a graph of counting gamma radioactivity, emitting by radiopharmaceutical including a specific radioisotope. it makes guarantee quantitative accuracy and reproducibility for chemically stability and change of a targeting radiopharmaceutical. In present the radio-TLC produced by a few companies use a gas-filled proportional counter with high cost, and it has limitations of both gas diffusion and ion density. Recently, Ce:GAGG has been developed and presented as promising scintillators for PET and SPECT due to high density, high light yield (- 46,000-51,000 photon/MeV), and fast decay time. We have adapted GAGG scintillation crystal array to radio-TLC detector. We developed the GAGG crystal array based radio-TLC RT-102. The RT-102 has several advantages such as the compact size, the no-gas usage, and the lower cost in comparison with commercial radio-TLC scanner. In order to verify the performance of RT-102, we compared RT-102 with AR-2000. We scanned and compared Tc-99m and F-18 solution spotted samples in the same conditions. The ROI counts ratio and position detecting performances of RT-102 are approximately same with AR-2000. The results indicate the RT-102 has enough resolution and sensitivity to be used in the measurement of radiochemical purity test in radio-TLC devices.

  18. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads


    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  19. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu


    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  20. Eratosthenes via Ham Radio (United States)

    Koser, John F.


    A secondary geology class used Eratosthenes' method for measuring the circumference of the earth by comparing their measurements of the shadow of a vertical rod to the measurements made by another person contacted by ham radio. (MLH)

  1. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis


    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  2. ¿Radios ciudadanas?


    López Vigil, José Ignacio


    Educativas, sindicales, populares, comunitarias, libres, rebeldes, participativas, alternativas, alterativas, han sido las denominaciones de la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas y nobles -dice elautor-pero devaluadas, a las que ahora se agrega la radio ciudadana, para relievarla como ejercicio depoder y espacio de verdadera participación de la genteenla vida de su nación.

  3. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells. (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A; Pack, Jessica; Szymanski, Daniel B; Umulis, David M


    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner


    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  5. Astrometry of southern radio sources (United States)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.


    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  6. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli


    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  7. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dirlikov


    Conclusions: These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  8. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  9. Patterns of verbal learning and memory in children with intractable temporal lobe or frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Fuentes, Amanda; Smith, Mary Lou


    The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the verbal learning and memory (VLM) patterns that might differentiate children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) from children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to examine the impact of variables thought to influence outcomes (seizure laterality, age at seizure onset, age at assessment, epilepsy duration, number of antiepileptic drugs). Retrospective analyses were carried out for children with intractable unilateral TLE (n=100) and FLE (n=27) who completed standardized measures of VLM entailing lists of single words or lists of word pairs. Mean intelligent quotients and VLM scores on single words fell within the average range for both groups, whereas scores fell within the low average to borderline range on word pairs. No significant overall differences in VLM were found between the group with TLE and the group with FLE. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset were generally associated with better VLM in both groups but were related to better performance in a number of indices in the group with TLE and only fewer intrusions in the group with FLE. The VLM profiles of children with TLE and FLE are generally similar. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset have a favorable impact on both groups but are related to better encoding, retrieval, and monitoring processes for the group with TLE and improved memory monitoring (i.e., as indicated by fewer intrusions) in the group with FLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Morphological abnormalities of limbic lobe structures in partial temporal lobe epilepsy]. (United States)

    Krémer, S; Braun, M; Kahane, P; Teil, E; Pasquier, B; Benabid, A L; Le Bas, J


    To evaluate lesions of the different structures of the Papez circuit in association with hippocampal sclerosis. and methods. 13 patients (32.1+/-8.2 y.o.) suffering from partial, temporal lobe, drug-resistant epilepsy and 20 normal volunteers (31.8+/-7.7 y.o.) were evaluated by MRI on a 1.5 T scanner (Philips): axial T1w 3D Gradient Echo acquisitions, thickness: 1.5mm. Hippocampus and cingulate gyrus volume were calculated after semi-automated segmentation of intrasulcal gray matter using the "Surgiscope Scopeplan" Elekta((R)). The thickness of the posterior column of the fornix and the thickness of the mamillary bodies were also measured. We found 10 cases of ipsolateral hippocampal sclerosis, 6 cases of ipsolateral atrophy of the mamillary body and 4 cases of ipsolateral atrophy of the fornix. We did not find any atrophy of the cingulate gyrus. Hippocampal sclerosis can be associated with lesions of limbic lobe structures (fornix and mamillary body), excluding the cingulate gyrus.

  11. 3D spectroscopy in distant radio galaxies (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    Star formation rates in distant radio galaxies are crucial for understanding the evolution of galaxies. Most processes at works in these targets observed at the most remote epochs are directly or not related to primeval sources of star formation: interplays of starbursts and AGNs, interactions of radio jets with environmental clouds, cooling flows, metal enrichment and dust distributions. Signatures of typical star formation (emission line ratios, equivalent widths, stellar continua) are observed in distant galaxies. However in most cases, they are superimposed to signatures of other processes (shocks, AGN light scattering), in particular at high z with the decrease of angular resolution and surface brightness. A larger variety of environmental components (lobes, jets, clouds and nucleus) simultaneously contribute to the global emission. So that to separate the various emission processes becomes rapidly essential with higher distances. The 3D spectroscopy is unique to disentangle the various physical processes triggering star formation at high redshifts. Shocks and regions photoionized by the central AGN are identified from their typical features and may be localized in the various zones of the radio galaxy extended to its environment. We present results of a long term observational program with the successive Integral Field Units (IFU) TIGER and OASIS at CFHT. The present sample consists of three galaxies of increasing z: 3C 171 (z = 0.238), 3C 435A (z = 0.470) and 4C 41.17 (z = 3.8). Line ratios, continua and velocity fields are locally measured. Interpretations of emission line ratios, velocity fields, equivalent widths, are possible with a coupled code based on CLOUDY and MAPPINGSIII results, as proposed by Moy et al. (2000, 2001). Stellar and nebular continua are interpreted with the help of our evolutionary synthesis model PÉGASE2. All models take into account metallicity effects.

  12. Surgical techniques for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Baeesa, Saleh S; Parrent, Andrew G; Girvin, John P; Steven, David


    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of medically intractable epilepsy. Advances in electrophysiology and neuroimaging have led to a more precise localization of the epileptogenic zone within the temporal lobe. Resective surgery is the most effective treatment for TLE. Despite the variability in surgical techniques and in the extent of resection, the overall outcomes of different TLE surgeries are similar. Here, we review different surgical interventions for the management of TLE.

  13. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki


    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster. (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R


    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  15. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.


    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  16. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mahatma, V.H.; Williams, W.L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J.H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J.J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H.J. A.; Shimwell, T.W.; Tasse, C.

    Only a small fraction of observed Active Galactic Nuclei display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of LOFAR and the VLA, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indice...

  17. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y B; Sang, X H; Shen, H; Jia, K; Meng, Q W


    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  18. Famous People Knowledge and the Right and Left Temporal Lobes (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S.; Thompson, Jennifer C.; Neary, David


    It is generally accepted that the anterior temporal lobes support knowledge of famous people. The specific roles of the right and left temporal lobe remain a subject of debate, with some studies suggesting differential roles based on modality (visual versus verbal information) and others category (person knowledge versus general semantics). The present study re-examined performance of semantic dementia patients with predominantly right and predominantly left temporal lobe atrophy on famous face, famous name and general semantic tasks, with the specific aim of testing the hypothesis that the right temporal lobe has a privileged role for person knowledge and the left temporal lobe for general semantic knowledge. Comparisons of performance rankings across tasks showed no evidence to support this hypothesis. By contrast, there was robust evidence from naming, identification and familiarity measures for modality effects: right-sided atrophy being associated with relatively greater impairment for faces and visual tasks and left-sided atrophy for names and verbal tasks. A double dissociation in test scores in two patients reinforced these findings. The data present a challenge for the influential ‘semantic hub’ model, which views the anterior temporal lobes as an area of convergence in which semantic information is represented in amodal form. PMID:22207421

  19. Bicavitary effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z


    Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion

  20. Medical image of the week: right middle lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan EA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 73 year-old woman, a lifetime non-smoker, presented to the pulmonary clinic with chronic dyspnea on exertion and cough. Physical exam was unremarkable and pulmonary function testing showed normal spirometry. A chest radiograph revealed calcified mediastinal adenopathy and increased density in the right middle lobe region (Figure 1. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed significant narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus with partial atelectasis and prominent calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Figure 2. Bronchoscopy showed no endobronchial lesions but there was evidence of extrinsic compression surrounding the right middle lobe orifice. An endobronchial biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. Bronchoscopy cultures and cytology were negative and this was presumed to be from a previous infection with histoplasmosis given the patient’s long-term residence in an endemic area. Given chronic narrowing of right middle lobe bronchus with persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe, the patient was diagnosed with right middle lobe syndrome. ...

  1. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.


    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  2. Weld nugget formation in resistance spot welding of new lightweight sandwich material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagüés Tanco, J.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine


    –metal contact. This is facilitated by the use of a shunt tool and is followed by a second pulse for the actual spot welding and nugget formation. A weldability lobe in the time-current space of the second pulse reveals a process window of acceptable size for automotive assembly lines. Weld growth curves...... are presented together with results of numerical simulations made in the finite element computer program SORPAS® 3D, which is based on an electro-thermo-mechanical formulation. The numerical models are presented together with the specific modeling conditions leading to numerical simulations in good agreement...

  3. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.


    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Sweet Spots and Door Stops (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan


    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  5. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods. (United States)

    Friend, J


    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  6. Justifications shape ethical blind spots. (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul


    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne


    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  8. A Multifrequency Study of Five Large Radio Galaxies A. Pirya1,∗ , S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the results of GMRT and VLA observations of five large radio sources over a wide frequency range to investigate their structural and spectral asymmetries. The hot-spot brightness ratios sug- gest intrinsic source asymmetries, while the spectral indices show evi- dence of re-acceleration of particles.

  9. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, Junichiro; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tanaka, Y.T.; /Hiroshima U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; O' Sullivan, S.P.; /Australia, CSIRO, Epping; Cheung, C.C.; /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Yuasa, T.; Odaka, H.; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Svoboda, J.; /European Space Agency


    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the {gamma} rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed {gamma}-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed {gamma}-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  10. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  11. Infrared and radio emission from S0 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, J.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.


    Far-IR data are presented on 74 early-type S0 galaxies that were selected on the basis of the availability of radio-continuum measurements. Most of the galaxies are detected at IR wavelengths with IRAS, indicating the presence of a cold interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies. The mass of gas in these systems is estimated to lie in the range of 10 to the 7th to 10 to the 10th solar. The most massive ISM in some S0s approaches that found in some spirals. The brighter IR-emitting galaxies all lie close to a relationship established for gas-rich spiral galaxies. None of these galaxies have large ratio fluxes, suggesting that strong nuclear radio sources or extended radio lobes and jets are absent or suppressed. Strong radio emission is found among those galaxies that are either faint or not detected at IR wavelengths. The absence of an ISM suggests that these galaxies are of an earlier type that those that have large IR fluxes. 38 references

  12. Jet and torus orientations in high redshift radio galaxies (United States)

    Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Laing, R. A.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Haas, M.; Pier, E. A.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.


    We examine the relative orientation of radio jets and dusty tori surrounding the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in powerful radio galaxies at z > 1. The radio core dominance R = Pcore^20 GHz/P_extended^500 MHz serves as an orientation indicator, measuring the ratio between the anisotropic Doppler-beamed core emission and the isotropic lobe emission. Assuming a fixed cylindrical geometry for the hot, dusty torus, we derive its inclination i by fitting optically-thick radiative transfer models to spectral energy distributions obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find a highly significant anti-correlation (p < 0.0001) between R and i in our sample of 35 type 2 AGN combined with a sample of 18 z ~ 1 3CR sources containing both type 1 and 2 AGN. This analysis provides observational evidence both for the Unified scheme of AGN and for the common assumption that radio jets are in general perpendicular to the plane of the torus. The use of inclinations derived from mid-infrared photometry breaks several degeneracies which have been problematic in earlier analyses. We illustrate this by deriving the core Lorentz factor Γ from the R-i anti-correlation, finding Γ ≳ 1.3. Figures 11, 12, and Tables 1, 2, 6 are available in electronic form at

  13. Radio coverage statistics. (United States)

    Lynn, W


    The Clearinghouse on Development Communication surveyed 135 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, for U.S.A.I.D., to determine the number of radio and television broadcast stations and receivers. Some of the data were obtained from the World Factbook, the World Radio and TV Handbook, and the World Radio and T.V. Facts and Figures, from 1979 to 1981. In those countries where stations are privately owned, audience surveys are often available. In 2 out of 3 developing countries, however, stations are government owned, and no such information is available. Numbers of receivers can sometimes be ascertained from receiver license applications. There is a need for more complete information on broadcast demographics, listening and viewing patterns by the community of world development program personnel.

  14. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki


    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  15. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.


    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  16. Allow for Uncertainty - Indeterminacy & RadioRadio Research 2013


    Watson, Rob


    Radio is faced with the challenge of rapidly changing technology and social practices. How can the study of radio be adapted to account for these changes, and what issues will need to be prioritised in the future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Karmakar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in India, tuberculosis of right middle lobe is infrequent. Tuberculosis of the right middle lobe leading to chronic collapse is a cause of Right Middle Lobe syndrome. METHODS The patients attended Pulmonary Medicine Outdoor at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow from April 2015 to March 2016. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicoradiological features of patients of middle lobe syndrome due to tuberculosis. All patients presented with cough with or without expectoration, fever, chest pain, haemoptysis and constitutional symptoms like loss of appetite and weight. Chest X-ray PA view revealed ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border. HRCT thorax was done in each case. The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology was based on (1 History of chronic cough and fever, not responding to antibiotic therapy and constitutional symptoms, (2 A positive tuberculin test using 2 TU of PPD RT 23 and (3 Detection of acid fast bacilli by direct smear or Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS Out of 10 patients, 4 (40% were males and 6 (60% were females. The mean ages of the males were 55.8 years and females were 60.8 years and overall mean age was 59 years. Most of the patients were females and belonged to the middle age and old age group. ATT was started in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS Right middle lobe syndrome predominantly affects the older population and the female gender. Although tuberculosis is a common disease in India, Middle Lobe Syndrome is a very rare presentation of the disease. Due to non-specific symptoms and usually normal chest X-ray PA view in Right Middle Lobe Syndrome, we should keep a high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition.

  18. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.


    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  19. Excitation of transient lobe cell convection and auroral arc at the cusp poleward boundary during a transition of the interplanetary magnetic field from south to north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt


    Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection

  20. On the population of remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies and implications for radio source dynamics (United States)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Morganti, R.; Brienza, M.


    The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to quantify the occurrence of ultrasteep spectrum remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies in a 74 MHz flux-limited sample, and (2) perform Monte Carlo simulations of the population of active and remnant FRII radio galaxies to confront models of remnant lobe evolution, and to provide guidance for further investigation of remnant radio galaxies. We find that fewer than 2 per cent of FRII radio galaxies with S74 MHz > 1.5 Jy are candidate ultrasteep spectrum remnants, where we define ultrasteep spectrum as α _74 MHz^1400 MHz > 1.2. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that models involving Sedov-like expansion in the remnant phase, resulting in rapid adiabatic energy losses, are consistent with this upper limit, and predict the existence of nearly twice as many remnants with normal (not ultrasteep) spectra in the observed frequency range as there are ultrasteep spectrum remnants. This model also predicts an ultrasteep remnant fraction approaching 10 per cent at redshifts z age distribution of remnants is a steeply decreasing function of age. In other words, young remnants are expected to be much more common than old remnants in flux-limited samples. For this reason, incorporating higher frequency data ≳5 GHz will be of great benefit to future studies of the remnant population.

  1. A reconfigurable radio architecture for Cognitive Radio in emergency networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio is able to sense the spectrum to find the free spectrum, which can be optimally used by Cognitive Radio without causing interference to the licensed user. In the scope of the

  2. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, J.C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg


    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio

  3. Radio Fatwa : Islamic Tanya-Jawab Programmes on Radio Dakwah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The present article is a study of radio fatwa in Indonesia with special reference to the Tanya-Jawab genres in radio dakwah.The concept of fatwa has changed over time. Such Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes broadcast on radio dakwah are important to understand how fatwa is disseminated by means of

  4. Radio spectra of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, WH; Barthel, PD; ODea, CP

    A well defined sample of 72 Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources is compiled, having turnover frequencies in the range of 0.5 - 10 GHz. Using this sample, the canonical GPS radio spectrum is constructed, which is found to have a constant shape, independent of AGN type, redshift or radio

  5. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios (United States)


    ..., such as keys, passwords or biometric data. 11. Finally, as software defined radio and security... concerning the use of open source software to implement security features in software defined radios (SDRs... radios; and (2) its policy on the confidentiality of software that controls security measures in software...

  6. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio


    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  7. Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqing Zhao


    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders.

  8. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  9. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl


    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; psemiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi


    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I. Herein we report a case of 46 years-old man, who has developed behavioral disturbances following head trauma, about 10 years ago. Main clinical figures in this case are apathy, avolition and, undifferentiating. Clinical pictures are constant during these 10 years. The diagnostic approach has been based on patient’s problems history which, has taken from his family, mental status examination, Neurological examination, Brain imaging and Neuropsychological assessments which related to frontal lobes function. Because of rarity & neglection due to mysterious function of frontal lobes, and also considering that personality change from previous level is prominent figure of this syndrome and also brain imaging findings, which compatible with clinical findings, with this aim, we have reported this case.

  11. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira


    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  12. Watermarking spot colors in packaging (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang


    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  13. Radio Broadcast Technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Radio Broadcast Technology. Harsh Vardhan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 53-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Hertzian ...

  14. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more 'intelligent' with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways.

  15. A Radio Production Course. (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.


    Provides a framework for an upper-level basic radio production course. Covers course structure, production assignments, equipment, studio/lab time, grading procedures, textbook and audiovisual materials. Emphasizes theory and practice to provide students with critical and production skills. (PD)

  16. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North

  17. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian


    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi...

  18. Ham Radio is Mir Magic. (United States)

    Evans, Gary


    Presents a classroom activity in which students communicated with U.S. and Russian astronauts via ham radio while they were in orbit on the space station Mir. Gives suggestions for other ham radio classroom activities as well as names of organizations, publications, and grant programs that teachers can access to help in bring ham radio into their…

  19. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)


    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  20. Unusual ictal foreign language automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun


    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient's native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman.

  1. Usefulness of PET in non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuluchi, M.; Arganaraz, R.; Buznick, J.; Pomata, H.


    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of PET in patients with refractory non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Material and methods. We present three patients with features of temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medication, where high definition MRI was normal. Results. These patients had PET hypometabolism in the temporal areas related to clinical and neurophysiological findings. Two of these patients were implanted with subdural grids to confirm the diagnosis and the third was operated directly based on the findings of PET. Encourage the presentation of the importance in recent years is acquiring the PET. Conclusion. In those patients in clinical neurophysiology and epilepsy with suspected temporal lobe, but in the MRI images show no structural lesions, PET can play an important role defining the diagnosis. (authors)

  2. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin


    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  3. Long-term radio and X-ray evolution of the tidal disruption event ASASSN-14li (United States)

    Bright, J. S.; Fender, R. P.; Motta, S. E.; Mooley, K.; Perrott, Y. C.; van Velzen, S.; Carey, S.; Hickish, J.; Razavi-Ghods, N.; Titterington, D.; Scott, P.; Grainge, K.; Scaife, A.; Cantwell, T.; Rumsey, C.


    We report on late time radio and X-ray observations of the tidal disruption event candidate ASASSN-14li, covering the first 1000 d of the decay phase. For the first ˜200 d the radio and X-ray emission fade in concert. This phase is better fitted by an exponential decay at X-ray wavelengths, while the radio emission is well described by either an exponential or the canonical t-5/3 decay assumed for tidal disruption events. The correlation between radio and X-ray emission during this period can be fitted as L_R∝ L_X^{1.9± 0.2}. After 400 d the radio emission at 15.5 GHz has reached a plateau level of 244 ± 8 μJy which it maintains for at least the next 600 d, while the X-ray emission continues to fade exponentially. This steady level of radio emission is likely due to relic radio lobes from the weak AGN-like activity implied by historical radio observations. We note that while most existing models are based upon the evolution of ejecta which are decoupled from the central black hole, the radio-X-ray correlation during the declining phase is also consistent with core-jet emission coupled to a radiatively efficient accretion flow.

  4. Semantic dementia and the left and right temporal lobes. (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S; Harris, Jennifer M; Thompson, Jennifer C; Kobylecki, Christopher; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M; Neary, David


    Semantic dementia, a circumscribed disorder of semantic knowledge, provides a unique model for understanding the neural basis for semantic representation. The study addressed areas of contention: the relative roles of the left and right temporal lobe, the contribution of anterior versus posterior temporal cortex and the status of the anterior temporal lobes as amodal hub. Naming and word comprehension was examined in 41 semantic dementia patients, 31 with left-predominant and 10 right-predominant atrophy. In keeping with expectation, naming and comprehension were significantly poorer in left-predominant patients. Structural magnetic resonance image analysis, using a visual rating scale, showed strong inverse correlations between naming scores and severity of both left anterior and posterior temporal lobe atrophy. By contrast, comprehension performance was more strongly correlated with left posterior temporal atrophy. Analysis of naming errors revealed a correlation between anterior temporal atrophy and associative/functional descriptive responses, implying availability of semantic information. By contrast, 'don't know' responses, indicative of loss of semantic knowledge, were linked to left posterior temporal lobe atrophy. Semantic errors, the hallmark of semantic dementia, were linked to right hemisphere atrophy, especially the right posterior temporal lobe. Matched visual-verbal tasks (famous face and name identification, Pyramids and Palm trees pictures and words, animal knowledge from 3-D models and animal names) administered to nine patients elicited variable correspondence between performance on nonverbal and verbal versions of the task. Marked performance dissociations were demonstrated in some patients: poorer understanding of names/words in left-predominant patients and of faces/pictures/models in right-predominant cases. The findings are compatible with the notion of the anterior temporal lobes as areas of convergence, but are less easily accommodated

  5. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian


    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.


    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  7. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  8. Non Linear Analysis on Multi Lobe Journal Bearings (United States)

    Udaya Bhaskar, S.; Manzoor Hussian, M.; Yousuf Ali, Md.


    Multi lobe journal bearings are used in machines which operate at high speeds and high loads. In this paper the multi lobe bearing are analyzed to determine the effect of surface roughness during non linear loading. A non-linear time transient analysis is performed using the fourth order Runge Kutta method. The finite difference method is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The effect of eccentric ratio is studied and the variation of attitude angle is discussed. The journal center trajectories were calculated and plotted.

  9. Transient response of two lobe aerodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Yadav


    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a rotor-dynamic system is greatly affected by the performance of aerodynamic bearing and the performance of bearing is characterized by the stiffness and damping coefficients. In the present work, stiffness and damping coefficients of bearing are computed and the performance of the bearing is greatly changed with the change in bearing air film profile. The effect of lobe offset factors on the transient performance of aerodynamic bearing is presented. Bifurcation and Poincare diagrams of two lobe journal bearing have been presented for different offset factors. A bearing designer can judge the bearing performance based on bifurcation diagrams.

  10. Visual field defects after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Alvilda T; Olsen, Ane Sophie; Litman, Minna


    PURPOSE: To determine visual field defects (VFDs) using methods of varying complexity and compare results with subjective symptoms in a population of newly operated temporal lobe epilepsy patients. METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study. Two patients failed to perform VFD testing...... symptoms were only reported by 28% of the patients with a VFD and in two of eight (sensitivity=25%) with a severe VFD. Most patients (86%) considered VFD information mandatory. CONCLUSION: VFD continue to be a frequent adverse event after epilepsy surgery in the medial temporal lobe and may affect...

  11. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.


    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.


    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam −1 , and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized wind

  13. Visual search tasks: measurement of dynamic visual lobe and relationship with display movement velocity. (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Dong; Yu, Rui-Feng; Lin, Xue-Lian; Xie, Ya-Qing; Ma, Liang


    Visual lobe is a useful tool for predicting visual search performance. Up till now, no study has focused on dynamic visual lobe. This study developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) that could effectively map dynamic visual lobe and calculate visual lobe shape indices. The effects of display movement velocity on lobe shape indices were examined under four velocity conditions: 0, 4, 8 and 16 deg/s. In general, with the increase of display movement velocity, visual lobe area and perimeter became smaller, whereas lobe shape roundness, boundary smoothness, symmetry and regularity deteriorated. The elongation index was not affected by velocity. Regression analyses indicated that display movement velocity was important in determining dynamic visual lobe shape indices. Dynamic visual lobe provides another option for better understanding dynamic vision, in addition to dynamic visual acuity. Findings of this study can provide guidelines for analysing and designing dynamic visual tasks. Practitioner Summary: Dynamic visual lobe is important in reflecting the visual ability of searching for a moving target. We developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) and examined display movement velocity's effects on lobe shape. Findings revealed that velocity was a key factor affecting dynamic visual lobe shape indices.

  14. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.


    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  15. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe, Michael


    , educational and didactic effort which would enlighten all of society. For a while it seemed that radio music was considered a genre of its own. To fulfil its function, radio music had to consider technical limitations as well as the educational level and listening modes of the new mass audience. Public radio......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  16. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne


    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  17. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers


    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  18. Stations de radio confessionnelles


    Chandès, Gérard


    L’auteur cherche à définir les propriétés sonores propres aux radios chrétiennes, principalement catholiques. La première partie de l’article se fonde sur l’étude historique des encycliques et des lettres pastorales du Vatican depuis l’inauguration de Radio Vatican et la seconde partie relève de la sémiologie du son. L’auteur cible les deux caractéristiques principales qui rendent compte de la relation à la transcendance divine : la prédilection pour les longues durées et des effets sonores t...



    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.


    The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, th...

  20. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.


    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  1. Hot spots of mutualistic networks. (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi


    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  3. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  4. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber


    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  5. Apolipoprotein E gene and sporadic frontal lobe dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stevens (Martijn); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. de Knijff (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); J.C. van Swieten (John); P. Heutink (Peter); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine)


    textabstractThe apolipoprotein E gene has been associated with various types of dementia. We studied the connection between the APOE gene and the risk and onset of disease in 34 patients with clinically diagnosed frontal lobe dementia (FLD) derived from a population-based study in the Netherlands. A

  6. Case Report: Frontal lobe tuberculoma: A clinical and imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal ...

  7. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A


    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach (United States)

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro


    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  9. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy (United States)

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.


    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  10. Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad

    Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for liver transplantation. Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad *, Osama L. El-Abd. National Liver Institute, El-Menoufiya University, Shebein El-Koom, Alexandria, Egypt. Received 4 June 2011; accepted 18 June 2011. KEYWORDS. Liver transplantation;. Multidetector ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33:35-37. 10. Harjeet A, Shani D, Jit I, Aggarwal AK. Shape, measurements and weight of the thyroid gland in northwest Indians. Surg Radiol Anat 2004;26:91-95. TABLE III. INVOLVEMENT OF THE PYRAMIDAL LOBE IN VARIOUS THYROID ...

  12. Torsion of right middle lobe after a right upper lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tung-Ying


    Full Text Available Abstract Lobar torsion after lung resection is a quite rare complication. A 50-year-old woman presented typical features on chest radiographs and CT(computed tomography scan of lobar torsion after a right upper lobectomy. After emergency lobectomy of right middle lobe, the patient recovered well and discharged 10 days after the second operation.

  13. Bi‑lobed Perirectal Epidermoid Cyst: An Unusual Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor markers were unremarkable. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a. 7.5 cm × 5 cm × 6 cm homogenous bi‑lobed cystic mass in the pelvis adherent to the left lateral wall of the rectum and posteriorly to the sacrum with a displacement of the rectum anteriorly and to the right. There was no pelvic sidewall ...

  14. Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach. (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Reintjes, Stephen; Garcia, Hermes G


    The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

  15. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia


    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  16. Memory Functions following Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children (United States)

    Jambaque, Isabelle; Dellatolas, Georges; Fohlen, Martine; Bulteau, Christine; Watier, Laurence; Dorfmuller, Georg; Chiron, Catherine; Delalande, Olivier


    Surgical treatment appears to improve the cognitive prognosis in children undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The beneficial effects of surgery on memory functions, particularly on material-specific memory, are more difficult to assess because of potentially interacting factors such as age range, intellectual level,…

  17. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine


    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  18. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (United States)

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana


    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  19. Turblence-related morphology in extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Ferrari, A.; Trussoni, E.


    As particle beams propagate through the intergalactic medium, unavoidable instabilities from shear flows produce turbulent magnetic waves. Rather than disrupting beams, this wave energy may enhance luminosity and alter morphology. For reasonable parameters the dominant nonlinear process is an energy cascade from long wavelengths ( 21 cm) to short wavelengths ( 14 cm), where particles are reaccelerated in quasi-linear fachion. We construct a phenomenological turbulence theory to describe this. In an ambient magnetic field, wave-particle scatterings which cause reacceleration can also lead to spatial cross-field diffusion, broadening the beam. Thus beams can flare rapidly as they propagate. This relates luminosity to morphology in a new way. The broadening is wholly intrinsic, unrelated to the beam environment. A variety of radio source types may be related to his effect. Protons do not scatter strongly, remaining collimated and depositing most of the beam energy in hot spots, which are generally weak in the radio but strong in the X-ray

  20. Optical beam induced current microscopy at DC and radio frequency (United States)

    Kao, Fu-Jen


    In this paper we introduce the concept and technique of optical beam induced current (OBIC) generation at radio frequencies. The method is combined with lateral raster scanning of a tightly focused spot so as to generate a mapping of high spatial resolution. We demonstrate experimentally that if a mode-locked laser is used to excite the sample then the frequency transfer function of the optically active device is readily obtained with at least 1 µm spatial resolution, in real time. In addition, with the help of an appropriate electronic arrangement, we demonstrate how to obtain pseudocolored OBIC images of the sample.

  1. Non-urban mobile radio market demand forecast (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Cooper, J.


    A national nonmetropolitan land mobile traffic model for 1990-2000 addresses user classes, density classes, traffic mix statistics, distance distribution, geographic distribution, price elasticity, and service quality elasticity. Traffic demands for business, special industrial, and police were determined on the basis of surveys in 73 randomly selected nonurban counties. The selected services represent 69% of total demand. The results were extrapolated to all services in the non-SMSA areas of the contiguous United States. Radiotelephone services were considered separately. Total non-SMSA mobile radio demand (one way) estimates are given. General functional requirements include: hand portability, privacy, reduction of blind spots, two way data transmission, position location, slow scan imagery.

  2. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome. (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara


    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  3. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven


    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  4. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  5. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle


    extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  6. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  7. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  8. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  9. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  10. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun


    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  11. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona (United States)

    Willey, David W.; van Riper, Charles


    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  12. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.


    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  13. Computed tomography in agenesis of the right lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirci, A.; Diren, H.B.; Selcuk, M.B.


    Congenital agenesis of the right lobe of the liver is a rare anomaly. In a case report the diagnosis was made by computed tomography. A retro- or suprahepatic location of the gallbladder and compensatory hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and/or caudata lobe may give support to the diagnosis. Before diagnosing congenital agenesis of the lobe, lobar atrophy due to cirrhosis, cholangiocarcinoma or any other predisposing conditions should be eliminated. (orig.)

  14. Military Mail Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bîlbîie Răduţ


    Full Text Available Cultural and scientific personalities from the army, military experts and creators of the doctrine have collaborated with the radio from the beginnings of radiophony, the educational role of this new, persuasive communication channel being evident not only for Romania or the Romanian army but also for all the countries that had radiophony services. This happens in the context of the end of the crisis and the start of economic and social development, promoting culture, creating a solid class of peasants with a certain social status, in villages, together with the priest, teacher and gendarme, increasing of the number of subscriptions and development of the Romanian radiophony.

  15. Radio frequency pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.


    High gradients require peak powers. One possible way to generate high peak powers is to generate a relatively long pulse at a relatively low power and compress it into a shorter pulse with higher peak power. It is possible to compress before dc to rf conversion as is done for the relativistic klystron or after dc to rf conversion as is done with SLED. In this note only radio frequency pulse compression (RFPC) is considered. Three methods of RFPC will be discussed: SLED, BEC, and REC. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. La radio digital.


    Cortés, Carlos


    La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Desde la década de1990, nuevos dispositivos electrónicos de recepción y reproducción digital, incluyendo ciertos teléfonos celulares, se comunican entre sí, en los entornos de redes, mediante sencillas interfaces. Por esta razón, ofrecen ventajas antes inexistentes en los medios analógicos. A partir de sistemas de adquisición y producción digital, que comenzaron como simples cintas de audio digital (DAT), la evolución tec...

  17. Central radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, E.S.


    The compact radio sources in the nuclei of most active galaxies lie closer to their centers of activity than any other region accessible to observation, excepting only the broad emission line region. They provide uniquely strong evidence for bulk motion of matter at relativistic velocities, encouraging the belief that the activity originates in a gravitational potential well whose escape velocity is of the order of the speed of light. The observational facts are reviewed as well as several theoretical pictures of them. Those places where systematic observations could help to distinguish the true theoretical picture from the many competing forgeries are emphasized. 76 references

  18. Pluralismo, radio e Internet


    Bruce Girard


    En muchas ocasiones de ha oído hablar que internet y las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación llevarán a la humanidad a un mundo homogeneizado en donde todos compartirán la misa cultura del “ciberespacio” y hablarán el mismo lenguaje. Nuevas iniciativas en América Latina combinan la tecnología de punta y la radio para poner fin a este mito y contribuir a una comunicación más democrática.

  19. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu


    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  20. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection (United States)

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.


    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…



    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  11. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.


    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  12. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of light into its constituent colours (or wavelengths, since light of different colours corresponds to light of different wavelengths) is called a ... together to form neutral atoms). The diffuse gas that is found between stars is also a strong emitter of radio-waves. In general, optical telescopes show us where stars are, while radio.

  13. Radio Jove: Citizen Science for Jupiter Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J.; Reyes, F. J.; Typinski, D.; Flagg, R. F.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Ashcraft, T.; Sky, J.; Cecconi, B.; Garcia, L. N.


    The Radio Jove Project ( has been operating as an educational activity for 18 years to introduce radio astronomy activities to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Recently some of our dedicated citizen science observers have upgraded their systems to better study radio emission from Jupiter and the Sun by adding dual-polarization spectrographs and wide-band antennas in the frequency range of 15-30 MHz. Some of these observations are being used in conjunction with professional telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), the Nancay Decametric Array, and the Ukrainian URAN2 Radio Telescope. In particular, there is an effort to support the Juno Mission radio waves instrument at Jupiter by using citizen science ground-based data for comparison and polarization verification. These data will be archived through a Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) archive ( for use by the amateur and professional radio science community. We overview the program and display recent observations that will be of interest to the science community.

  14. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    background, listening intently to this extra-terrestrial signal. For many people of that generation, this is likely to have been their first, and most likely only, exposure to radio astronomy. In some ways, however, what is more surprising is that the general public has some exposure to radio astronomy at all, let alone through a.

  15. Dramatugi Penyiar Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastika Yanti Nora


    Full Text Available Dramaturgy is the work of Erving Goffman. He wrote "Presentation of Self in Everyday Life" in '1959. Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage and back stage. The front stage is that part of the performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define the situation for those who observed the performance. The back stage is situation where facts suppressed in the front or various kinds of informal actions may appear. A back stage is usually adjacent to the front stage, but it also cut off from it. Everyone in this world have to run his role in their everyday life. It also a radio announcer. As an actor, they have to be a nice and friendy person when they perform to make air personality, that is  a good  impression, from their audience. But before their perform in the front stage, there so much to do to prepare in the backstage. The front and back stage is radio announcer dramaturgy.

  16. Pulmonary sequestrations of the upper lobe in children: Three presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Bernard, C.; Didier, F.; Bretagne, M.C.; Gautry, P.; Olive, D.; Prevot, J.; Pernot, C.; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy


    Pulmonary sequestrations are congenital abnormalities where nonfunctioning lung tissue receives its vascular supply from the systemic circulation (thoracic or abdominal aorta). It is necessary to establish the diagnosis in childhood when the lesions are uncomplicated. The authors present three cases of sequestration of the apex (2 extralobar and 1 atypical) with the main clinical and radiological features. Sequestrations in the upper lobe are rare, and the usual site is the left lower lobe. Plain X-rays show a dense opacity, sometimes with an air-fluid level: angiography is currently the best mean for definitive diagnosis; however, computed tomography will probably be very useful in the future. Differential diagnosis includes tumours of the superior mediastinum (neurogenic tumours, digestive duplication, bronchogenic cysts, pheochromocytoma and hydatid cysts). (orig.) [de

  17. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad


    The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic...... intralobar parietal tracts in twenty-one datasets acquired in vivo from healthy human subjects and eleven ex vivo datasets from five vervet and six macaque monkeys. Three regions of interest (postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule) were used to identify the tracts. Surface...... is a vertical pathway between the superior and inferior parietal lobules. This tract can be divided into an anterior (supramarginal gyrus) and a posterior (angular gyrus) component in both humans and monkey brains. The second prominent intraparietal tract connects the postcentral gyrus to both supramarginal...

  18. Amusia After Right Temporoparietal Lobe Infarction: A Case Report. (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun-Joon; Moon, Hyun Im; Pyun, Sung-Bom


    Which brain regions participate in musical processing remains controversial. During singing and listening a familiar song, it is necessary to retrieve information from the long-term memory. However, the precise mechanism involved in musical processing is unclear. Amusia is impaired perception, understanding, or production of music not attributable to disease of the peripheral auditory pathways or motor system. We report a case of a 36-year-old right-handed man who lost the ability to discriminate or reproduce rhythms after a right temporoparietal lobe infarction. We diagnosed him as an amusic patient using the online version of Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This case report suggests that amusia could appear after right temporoparietal lobe infarction. Further research is needed to elucidate the dynamic musical processing mechanism and its associated neural structures.

  19. Ictal asystole mimicking seizure deterioration in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Guldiken, Baburhan; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Noachtar, Soheyl


    We report on a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy, secondary to a left lateral temporal cavernoma, in whom the change in seizure semiology suggested recurrence of secondary generalized seizures. Anticonvulsive medication previously controlled secondary generalized seizures over a period of years but focal seizures continued at a lower rate. Continuous video-EEG monitoring revealed ictal asystole associated with myoclonic syncope and falls during focal seizures arising from the left temporal lobe. After implantation of a cardiac pacemaker, no more falls occurred during the focal seizures. In conclusion, recurrence of seizure-associated falls is typically attributed to recurrence of secondary generalized seizures, however, ictal asystole should be considered in selected epilepsy patients as a differential diagnosis of falls. [Published with video sequence].

  20. Interferometry to Image Surface Spots (United States)

    Perrin, Guy


    I present in this lecture the technique of interferometric imaging at optical/infrared wavelengths. The technique has matured since the pioneering work of Michelson at the end of the XIXth—beginning of the XXth when he first resolved the surface of a star, Betelgeuse, with his colleague Pease. Images were obtained for the first time 20 years ago with the COAST instrument and interferometers have made constant progress to reach the minimum level where blind image reconstruction can be achieved. I briefly introduce the topic to recall why studying the surface and close environment of stars is important in some fields of stellar physics. I introduce the theory of imaging with telescopes and interferometers. I discuss the nature of interferometric data in this wavelength domain and give a few insights on the importance of getting access to visibility phases to obtain information on asymmetries of stellar surfaces. I then present the issue of aperture synthesis with a small number of telescopes, a signature of optical/infrared interferometers compared to the radio domain. Despite the impossibility to measure the phase of visibilities because of turbulence I show that useful information can be recovered from the closure phase. I eventually introduce the principles of image reconstruction and I discuss some recent results on several types of stars.

  1. Pink Spot - Literature Review and Case Report. (United States)

    Petel, Roy; Fuks, Anna

    Pink spots in teeth were first described by Mummery in 1920, and were related to resorption. Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. Resorption can be generally classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes a pink spot that was diagnosed as a progressing resorption process. Early diagnosis enabled a successful management of the lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment of an internal resorption, clinically seen as a pink spot, in a primary central incisor may prevent its fast progress and subsequent loss.

  2. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?


    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni


    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  3. Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy


    Brown, Franklin C.; Westerveld, Michael; Langfitt, John T.; Hamberger, Marla; Hamid, Hamada; Shinnar, Shlomo; Sperling, Michael R.; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William; Tracy, Joseph; Masur, David; Bazil, Carl W.; Spencer, Susan S.


    This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 temporal lobe epilepsy patients from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was lower for those with high versus low level of anxiety, but was not found to be related to side of TLE. Verbal memory on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for left than right TLE patients with low anxiety, ...

  4. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome


    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani


    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  5. Somnambulism Due to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S


    Full Text Available Somnambulism (sleep walking is a disorder of arousal that falls under the parasomnia group. It is more common in children than in adults. (1. The onset of sleep walking in adult life is most unusual and suggests the presence of secondary causes rather than a primary sleep disorder (1. We report a 30-year-old male who presented with repeated episodes of sleep waling possibly due to nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy.

  6. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge


    Alemayehu, Tinsae; Ergete, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba


    Background Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chr...

  7. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆ (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa


    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  8. The secondary lobe as anatomic landmark for different pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Spina, Juan C. h; Rolnik, Maria C.; Lema, Carlos; Venditi, Julio; Magarinos, Gabriel


    The objective of this paper is to present the spectrum of pathological findings in the pulmonary parenchyma, based on the knowledge of the secondary lobe and its components. The evaluation was made using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and compared with the histopathological findings. By definition, the secondary lobe is the small portion of pulmonary tissue separated by septa of connective tissue and supplied by 2-5 or more terminal bronchioles according to their central or peripheral location. Different disorders may become evident as a consequence of : 1) Bronchiolar obstruction (transient or definitive); 2) Intra-alveolar or wall involvement; 3) Involvement of the support tissue; 4) Involvement of the vascular or lymphatic structures. The etiology may be idiopathic, infectious, due to inhalation, neoplastic, allergic, due to collagen diseases, secondary to drug administration and/or post-transplantation. The evaluation of the secondary lobe components, with fine section HRCT, is the dynamic method of choice for the characterisation of pulmonary diseases, and allows to perform earlier and more precise differential diagnoses, when correlated with the clinical findings. The addition of sections during expiration to the routine study is paramount to underscore perfusion disturbances, which may remain undiagnosed during deep inspiration. The goal of this study is to review some of these disorders in which HRCT may be very useful and to correlate our observations with the histopathological findings. (author)

  9. Explicit memory and implicit memory in occipital lobe stroke patients. (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Wang, JiHua; Feng, Lei; Wang, MeiHong; Li, Xiu; Hu, JiaYun; Wang, Kai


    Occipital stroke patients mainly showed cortical blindness and unilateral vision loss; memory is generally reserved. Recent reports from neuroimaging show the occipital lobe may be involved in the processing of implicit memory (IM), especially the perception type of IM processing. In this study, we explored the explicit memory (EM) and IM damage in occipital lobe stroke patients. A total of 25 occipital strokes and 29 years of age, educational level equivalent healthy controls (HCs), evaluated by using immediate recall, delayed recall, recognition for EM tasks, picture identification, and category exemplar generation for IM tasks. There was no significant difference between occipital stroke patients and HCs in EM tasks and category exemplar generation task. In the picture identification task, occipital lobe stroke group score was poorer than HC group, the results were statistically significant, but in the pictures identify rate, occipital stroke patients and normal control group had no significant difference. The occipital stroke patients may have IM damage, primarily damage the perception type of IM priming effects, which was unrelated with their cortical blindness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radio design in nanometer technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Mohammed


    This is the first volume that looks at the integrated radio design problem as a "piece of a big puzzle" Most books discuss more on communications or more on hardware but not both, this book strikes the right balance between the two and provides the reader with a holistic view of the subject of radio design: current and future trends.

  11. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.


    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  12. Cognitive Radio for Emergency Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    In the scope of the Adaptive Ad-hoc Freeband (AAF) project, an emergency network built on top of Cognitive Radio is proposed to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem which is the major limitation for emergency networks. Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve

  13. Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.


    constructions. These materials are used in favor of achieving a proper level of thermal isolation, but it has been noticed that they can impact heavily on radio signal propagation. This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of the outdoor-to-indoor attenuation experienced in several modern constructions...... presented along the paper are useful for future radio network planning considerations....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    groups for a regression of body weight on age at first egg, indicating that accelerated growth did not contribute to the advance in ... clocks that operated the radios and the lights. The other two chambers ... Mean body weight at first egg for the birds given the radio noise was not significantly different from the controls (Table).

  15. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  16. Rethinking cognition and behavior in the new classification for childhood epilepsy: Examples from frontal lobe and temporal lobe epilepsies. (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou


    The new approach to classification of the epilepsies emphasizes the role of dysfunction in networks in defining types of epilepsies. This paper reviews the structural and neuropsychological deficits in two types of childhood epilepsy: frontal lobe and temporal lobe epilepsy. The evidence for and against a pattern of specificity of deficits in executive function and memory associated with these two types of epilepsies is presented. The evidence varies with the methodologies used in the studies, but direct comparison of the two types of epilepsies does not suggest a clear-cut mapping of function onto structure. These findings are discussed in light of the concept of network dysfunction. The evidence supports the conceptualization of epilepsy as a network disease. Implications for future work in the neuropsychology of pediatric epilepsy are suggested. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The new approach to classification: Rethinking cognition and behavior in epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle


    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan


    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  18. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay


    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  19. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have? (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.


    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  20. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.


    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  1. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  2. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  3. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana


    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  4. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (United States)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.


    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  5. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pury, T.; Tsen, M.L.S.; Gray, F.L.; Stehr, R.E.; Konle, R.L.


    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  6. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene


    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.


    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  8. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.


    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  9. Radio opaque gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, A.V.; Whittaker, R.E. Jr.; Goldstrom, R.A.; Shipko, F.J.


    Radiation shielding garments and accessories, such as radio-opaque gloves for surgeons, shielding against the harmful x-ray radiation in a fluoroscopic zone, are advantageously different from garments for shielding from other medical uses of x-rays. Such garments are provided with zones of differing opacity, whereby desired sensitivity and ''feel'' through the glove material is retained. One feature is the provision of an ''opacity gradient'' across the glove cross section with opacity being relatively low at the fingertip area (lesser shield-thickness), but relatively high at the less nonprehensile hand zones, such as the palm. Glove fabrication techniques for achieving such an opacity gradient are described. (U.S.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salinas


    Full Text Available Se ofrece un amplio análisis sobre la industria electoral, recordando que un candidato a presidente es "un producto para la venta". Se Desmenuzan las estrategias utilizadas en el plebiscito chileno,las elecciones norteamericanas con el NO a BUSH. El Mercadeo Social es una nueva metodología utilizada en proyectos de desarrollo a nivel de campo por ello se hace un esclarecimiento y clarifica el vínculo con la comunicación. Se agrega temas como: Los modelos de recepción de mensajes cuyos marcos conceptuales y metodologías aún no se han adaptado al potencial de esta línea de trabajo.Se analiza la agonía de las radios mineras en Bolivia en la que 42 años de historia y heroísmo se desmoronan.

  11. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model. (United States)

    Christensen, P R


    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  12. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.


    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program ( and The Radio JOVE project ( each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  13. Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization for Radio Frequency Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Yao, Ke-Han; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey; Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Wu, Zong-Syun


    This paper investigates how to efficiently charge sensor nodes in a wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN) with radio frequency (RF) chargers to make the network sustainable. An RF charger is assumed to be equipped with a uniform circular array (UCA) of 12 antennas with the radius λ , where λ is the RF wavelength. The UCA can steer most RF energy in a target direction to charge a specific WRSN node by the beamforming technology. Two evolutionary algorithms (EAs) using the evolution strategy (ES), namely the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization (EBO) algorithm and the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization Reseeding (EBO-R) algorithm, are proposed to nearly optimize the power ratio of the UCA beamforming peak side lobe (PSL) and the main lobe (ML) aimed at the given target direction. The proposed algorithms are simulated for performance evaluation and are compared with a related algorithm, called Particle Swarm Optimization Gravitational Search Algorithm-Explore (PSOGSA-Explore), to show their superiority.

  14. Thermal Wave Imaging: Flying SPOT Camera. (United States)

    Wang, Yiqian


    A novel "Flying Spot" infrared camera for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive characterization is presented. The camera scans the focal point of an unmodulated heating laser beam across the sample in a raster. The detector of the camera tracks the heating spot in the same raster, but with a time delay. The detector is thus looking at the "thermal wake" of the heating spot. The time delay between heating and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this time delay can be made arbitrarily small, the camera is capable of making thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. In addition, because the heat source is a very small spot, the heat flow is fully three-dimensional. This makes the camera system sensitive to features, like tightly closed vertical cracks, which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field heating. A detailed theory which relates the temperature profile around the heating spot to the sample thermal properties is also described. The camera represents a potentially useful tool for measuring thermal diffusivities of materials by means of fitting the recorded temperature profiles to the theoretical curves with the diffusivity as a fitting parameter.

  15. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.


    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  16. Memory reorganization following anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional MRI study. (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Thompson, Pamela J; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Powell, Robert H W; Samson, Rebecca S; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S


    Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-60% of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy but may impair memory function, typically verbal memory following left, and visual memory following right anterior temporal lobe resection. Functional reorganization can occur within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. We investigated the reorganization of memory function in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy before and after left or right anterior temporal lobe resection and the efficiency of postoperative memory networks. We studied 46 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (25/26 left hippocampal sclerosis, 16/20 right hippocampal sclerosis) before and after anterior temporal lobe resection on a 3 T General Electric magnetic resonance imaging scanner. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for words, pictures and faces, testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session, preoperatively and again 4 months after surgery. Event-related analysis revealed that patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy had greater activation in the left posterior medial temporal lobe when successfully encoding words postoperatively than preoperatively. Greater pre- than postoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe for encoding words correlated with better verbal memory outcome after left anterior temporal lobe resection. In contrast, greater postoperative than preoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe correlated with worse postoperative verbal memory performance. These postoperative effects were not observed for visual memory function after right anterior temporal lobe resection. Our findings provide evidence for effective preoperative reorganization of verbal memory function to the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe due to the underlying disease, suggesting that it is the capacity

  17. Advancement of researches on the malignant tumor radio-genetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yue; Su Chenghai


    Radiotherapy is one of the routine methods of malignant tumor treatment and used in clinical many years, while gene therapy is one of the new therapy. But the formation of tumor is the complicated process effected by many factors and many genes. The effect of polygene therapy is not ideal. Therefore, radio-genetic therapy is the hot spot of the present study and will become one of the important direction of cancer therapy. (authors)

  18. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise. (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.


    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  19. Effect of number of lobes and length-diameter ratio on stability of tilted-lobe hydrodynamic journal bearings at zero load (United States)

    Schuller, F. T.


    Hydrodynamic journal stability tests were conducted with tilted-lobe bearings. The bearings had three, five, and seven lobes and length to diameter (L/D) ratios from 0.2 to 1.0. They were tested in water and MIL-L-7808G oil at 294 K (70 F) at speeds to 5400 rpm with zero load. Stability was not appreciably affected by the number of lobes and decreased with a decrease in L/D ratio. However, a three-tilted-lobe bearing with an offset factor of 0.76 and an L/D of 0.5 was more stable than a three centrally lobed bearing with an offset factor of 0.50 and an L/D of 1.0.

  20. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test. (United States)

    Fahrig, R


    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  1. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  2. Technology, Empowerment and Community Radio


    Salvatore Scifo


    This article will provide an overview of the conceptual contours of community media and community radio, highlighting some of the key questions shaping the debate and, with the help of a case study, show how digital media in the context of community radio can help local groups to get a voice in their local media systems, and how a university-based radio station, and its students and volunteers, play an important role for a more diverse and vibrant media content available in their area.

  3. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzak, R.


    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  4. Magnetogasdynamics of double radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepveu, M.


    The magnetogasdynamical behaviour of plasmoids moving through an ambient gas is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional code, based on the SHASTA scheme. The astrophysical importance of this study lies in the observed extended extragalactic radio sources. It is assumed that plasma clouds with cylinder symmetry are ejected from the nucleus of a galaxy. Their large-scale evolution in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is followed. The gas dynamics of an ejected cloud, the magnetogasdynamics of ejected clouds, the Christiansen-Pacholczyk-Scott picture for radio galaxies and the shear layers in double radio sources are studied. (Auth.)

  5. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract) (United States)

    Hoot, J. E.


    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  6. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R


    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  7. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  8. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H


    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  9. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin


    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization. (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick


    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  11. Comparing Clinical Outcomes in Upper versus Lower Lobe Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Severe Emphysema. (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J F; Radhakrishnan, Sri; Gompelmann, Daniela


    Lung volume reduction surgery has been recommended for patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema and was associated with less favorable outcomes in patients with non-upper lobe predominant emphysema. The value of endobronchial valve (EBV) treatment in lower lobe predominant emphysema has not been studied. To confirm the equivalence of upper and lower lobe valve treatments in patients with heterogeneous emphysema. A retrospective analysis from the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT), where patients with heterogeneous emphysema received Zephyr® EBV (Pulmonx Corp., Redwood City, Calif., USA) or medical treatment, was performed. Patients with low interlobar collateral ventilation and accurate placement of valves in the target lobes were identified. Safety and efficacy were compared between patients who underwent upper versus lower lobe treatment. Of the 331 patients, 60 had low interlobar collateral ventilation and successful lobar exclusion (45 patients with upper lobe treatment and 15 patients with lower lobe treatment). There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the groups except for a higher destruction score (70.3 vs. 60.7%; p = 0.0010) and a higher heterogeneity index (24 vs. 13%; p = 0.0005) for the upper lobe cohort. At 180 days, both groups had improved clinically. There were no significant differences in mean changes or responder rates of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (+23.8 vs. +22.9%), the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.50 vs. -7.53 points), the 6-min walk test (+24.1 vs. +44.0 m), target lobe volume reduction (-1,199 vs. -1,042 ml), or in the adverse event rate between both cohorts. Patients with lower and upper lobe predominant emphysema benefit equally from EBV therapy when interlobar collateral ventilation is low and lobar exclusion is achieved. Patients with lower lobe disease did not have increased adverse events compared to patients with upper lobe emphysema. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Murai


    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  13. Upper lobe pulmonary edema and dry gangrene in scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Viswanathan


    Full Text Available A 17 year old student admitted to our hospital following a red scorpion sting had pulmonary edema and hypotension. Chest radiography revealed asymmetrical upper lobe pulmonary edema with air bronchogram. Due to high counts, antibiotics were initiated. Chest radiograph indicated that the chest radiography abnormalities were improved within 36 hours. Thirty hours after admission he developed discoloration of left foot which was managed conservatively with heparin and warfarin. His inotropes were gradually tapered and stopped 78 hours after admission. Echocardiography repeated on the sixth day of his admission was normal. He was discharged on pentoxyphylline, warfarin and tramadol since there was no surgical intervention possible due to poor demarcation.

  14. Wideband Low Side Lobe Aperture Coupled Patch Phased Array Antennas (United States)

    Poduval, Dhruva

    Low profile printed antenna arrays with wide bandwidth, high gain, and low Side Lobe Level (SLL) are in great demand for current and future commercial and military communication systems and radar. Aperture coupled patch antennas have been proposed to obtain wide impedance bandwidths in the past. Aperture coupling is preferred particularly for phased arrays because of their advantage of integration to other active devices and circuits, e.g. phase shifters, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, mixers etc. However, when designing such arrays, the interplay between array performance characteristics, such as gain, side lobe level, back lobe level, mutual coupling etc. must be understood and optimized under multiple design constraints, e.g. substrate material properties and thicknesses, element to element spacing, and feed lines and their orientation and arrangements with respect to the antenna elements. The focus of this thesis is to investigate, design, and develop an aperture coupled patch array with wide operating bandwidth (30%), high gain (17.5 dBi), low side lobe level (20 dB), and high Forward to Backward (F/B) ratio (21.8 dB). The target frequency range is 2.4 to 3 GHz given its wide application in WLAN, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and other communication systems. Notwithstanding that the design concept can very well be adapted at other frequencies. Specifically, a 16 element, 4 by 4 planar microstrip patch array is designed using HFSS and experimentally developed and tested. Starting from mutual coupling minimization a corporate feeding scheme is designed to achieve the needed performance. To reduce the SLL the corporate feeding network is redesigned to obtain a specific amplitude taper. Studies are conducted to determine the optimum location for a metallic reflector under the feed line to improve the F/B. An experimental prototype of the antenna was built and tested validating and demonstrating the performance levels expected from simulation predictions

  15. Language Mapping in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children: Special Considerations (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Wang, An; Hayman-Abello, Susan


    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in children is a slightly different entity than TLE in adults not only because of its semiology and pathology but also because of the different approach to surgical treatment. Presurgical investigations for eloquent cortex, especially language, must take these differences into account. Most diagnostic tests were created for adults, and many of the assessment tools need to be adapted for children because they are not just small adults. This paper will highlight the specific challenges and solutions in mapping language in a pediatric population with TLE. PMID:22957246

  16. Lithium therapy in comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and cycloid psychosis. (United States)

    Brown, Paul; Kashiviswanath, Sridhar; Huynh, Alison; Allha, Naveen; Piaggio, Ken; Sahoo, Saddichha; Gupta, Ankur


    The treatment of post-ictal psychosis has foundered on uncertainty in diagnosis of psychotic phenotypes, and equivocal efficacy of first and second generation antipsychotics. This article presents a case history of comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis, suggests the applicability of the continental, cycloid psychosis diagnostic conceptualization to post-ictal psychoses, and demonstrates the efficacy of lithium in their treatment. Clinical studies of comorbidity of epilepsy and psychosis offer great potential as a basis for modelling brain-mind relationships, and neuropsychiatric nosology, pathophysiology and treatment.

  17. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.


    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  18. Beamsteerable GNSS Radio Occultation ASIC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an integrated RF ASIC to enable high quality radio occultation (RO) weather observations using the Global Navigations System Satellite (GNSS)...

  19. Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bennett Aerospace and Team Partners propose to develop a small, lightweight, and very power-efficient mobile radio for use on the Lunar surface. Our Team will...

  20. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro proposes to develop a low-power, low-volume and lightweight, state-of-the-art digital radio capable of operating in a wide variety of bands, from VHF...

  1. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  2. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.


    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  3. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot


    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  4. Radio astronomy on the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Asbell, J.


    The advantages and opportunities for radio astronomy on the moon during the early to mid 21st century are reviewed. In particular, it is argued that the lack of atmosphere, the extremely low seismic activity, the low RF background, and the natural cryogenic environment make the moon (particularly the far side and the poles) a nearly ideal locale for submillimeter/FIR to VLF (below 10 MHz) radio astronomy. 22 references

  5. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.


    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ≈ 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  6. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory (United States)

    Hales, J. B.


    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance. PMID:21248058

  7. Thermal radio emission : The brightness temperature and the spectral index of radio emission


    Prigara, F. V.


    The condition of radio emission is proposed, on the base of which the theory of themal radio emission for gaseous disk is developed. This theory explains the radio emission spectra of known types of extended radio sources, located beyond the Solar planetary system. Besides, the thermal radio emission spectra of Venus and Jupiter are explained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.


    Full Text Available The singularity of this article is that it is entirely based on a critical analysis of only one live musical radio program on the Mayak radio station and dedicated to the life and work of the famous British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. In principle, the article can be considered a scientific review of the media product. Based on his analysis, the author comes to the paradoxical conclusion that the presence of a listener becomes unnecessary for modern broadcasting. This is stated by many principles of the conduct of the air, presented in the radio program, where all the information load is placed on the guest in the studio, where there is no preparatory work of the DJs, where their inability to navigate the genres of journalism violates communication norms and colloquial ethics, where an obvious deconstructive approach to the material offered for the listener. In addition, the phenomenon of being the DJs in the radio studio exclusively "for themselves" is emphasized by the sound design of the radio program, which runs counter to the logic of auditory perception (for example, the sequence of jingles, as well as the incompetent selection of musical material, which undoubtedly repels professional radio listeners-musicians.

  9. Creative innovation with temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy. (United States)

    Ghacibeh, Georges A; Heilman, Kenneth M


    Some patients with left temporal degeneration develop visual artistic abilities. These new artistic abilities may be due to disinhibition of the visuo-spatially dominant right hemisphere. Many famous artists have had epilepsy and it is possible that some may have had left temporal seizures (LTS) and this left temporal dysfunction disinhibited their right hemisphere. Alternatively, unilateral epilepsy may alter intrahemispheric connectivity and right anterior temporal lobe seizures (RTS) may have increased these artists' right hemisphere mediated visual artistic creativity. To test the disinhibition versus enhanced connectivity hypotheses we studied 9 participants with RTS and 9 with left anterior temporal seizures (LTS) who underwent unilateral lobectomy for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Creativity was tested using the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). There were no between group differences in either the verbal or figural scores of the TTCT, suggesting that unilateral anterior temporal ablation did not enhance visual artistic ability; however, for the RTS participants' figural creativity scores were significantly higher than verbal scores. Whereas these results fail to support the left temporal lobe disinhibition postulate of enhanced figural creativity, the finding that the patients with RTS had better figural than verbal creativity suggests that their recurrent right hemispheric seizures lead to changes in their right hemispheric networks that facilitated visual creativity. To obtain converging evidence, studies on RTS participants who have not undergone lobectomy will need to be performed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Múnera


    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.

  11. Decision making in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Frigge, Kristina; Horstmann, Simone; Aengenendt, Joerg; Woermann, Friedrich G; Ebner, Alois; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias


    The mesiotemporal lobe is involved in decision making processes because bilateral amygdala damage can cause impairments in decision making that is mainly based on the processing of emotional feedback. In addition to executive functions, previous studies have suggested the involvement of feedback processing in decision making under risk when explicit information about consequences and their probabilities is provided. In the current study, we investigated whether unilateral mesiotemporal damage, comprising of the hippocampus and/or the amygdala, results in alterations of both kinds of decision making. For this purpose, we preoperatively examined 20 patients with refractory unilateral mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and a comparison group (CG) of 20 healthy volunteers with the Iowa Gambling Task to assess decision making based on feedback processing, the Game of Dice Task to assess decision making under risk, and with a neuropsychological test battery. Results indicate that TLE patients performed normally in decision making under risk, but can exhibit disturbances in decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. A subgroup analysis revealed that those patients with a preference for the disadvantageous alternatives performed worse on executive subcomponents and had seizure onset at an earlier age in comparison to the patient subgroup without disadvantageous decision making. Furthermore, disadvantageous decision making can emerge in patients with selective hippocampal sclerosis not extended to the amygdala. Thus, our results demonstrate for the first time that presurgical patients with TLE can have selective reductions in decision making and that these deficits can result from hippocampal lesions without structural amygdala abnormalities.

  12. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.T.; Mishkin, F.; Goldberg, M.


    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  13. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis


    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  14. The contribution of the parietal lobes to speaking and writing. (United States)

    Brownsett, Sonia L E; Wise, Richard J S


    The left parietal lobe has been proposed as a major language area. However, parietal cortical function is more usually considered in terms of the control of actions, contributing both to attention and cross-modal integration of external and reafferent sensory cues. We used positron emission tomography to study normal subjects while they overtly generated narratives, both spoken and written. The purpose was to identify the parietal contribution to the modality-specific sensorimotor control of communication, separate from amodal linguistic and memory processes involved in generating a narrative. The majority of left and right parietal activity was associated with the execution of writing under visual and somatosensory control irrespective of whether the output was a narrative or repetitive reproduction of a single grapheme. In contrast, action-related parietal activity during speech production was confined to primary somatosensory cortex. The only parietal area with a pattern of activity compatible with an amodal central role in communication was the ventral part of the left angular gyrus (AG). The results of this study indicate that the cognitive processing of language within the parietal lobe is confined to the AG and that the major contribution of parietal cortex to communication is in the sensorimotor control of writing.

  15. Adult absence semiology misinterpreted as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Hurst, Rebecca; Chiota-McCollum, Nicole; Tatum, William


    Correct diagnosis of seizure type and epilepsy syndrome is the foundation for appropriate antiepileptic drug selection. Inappropriate medication choices occur in the treatment of generalized epilepsy and may aggravate some seizure types, including absence seizures, potentially leading to pseudo-drug resistance. Fortunately, a correct diagnosis of absence seizures is usually not difficult, though rarely demonstrates electroclinical overlap with focal seizures. EEG can be especially misleading when secondary bilateral synchronous discharges occur in patients with focal seizures. However, the semiology of focal seizures associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has a characteristic and consistent semiology that is the mark of this common epilepsy syndrome in adulthood. We recently encountered a 53-year-old female with refractory seizures and a semiology strongly suggesting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Instead of focal seizures, prolonged absence seizures were validated by video-EEG monitoring and she became seizure-free after a change to broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs. This case further expands our understanding of the complexity of semiology in electroclinical classification and the spectrum that may occur in adult absence seizures. It serves to underscore the need for ictal EEG recordings and the importance of concordance with the clinical course during the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with lesions and drug-resistant epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  16. Preoperative amygdala fMRI in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Thompson, Pamela J; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S


    Anterior temporal lobe resections (ATLR) benefit 70% of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but may be complicated by emotional disturbances. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of the amygdala in processing emotions in TLE and whether this may be a potential preoperative predictive marker for emotional disturbances following surgery. We studied 54 patients with refractory mesial TLE due to hippocampal sclerosis (28 right, 26 left) and 21 healthy controls using a memory encoding fMRI paradigm, which included viewing fearful and neutral faces. Twenty-one TLE patients (10 left, 11 right) subsequently underwent ATLR. Anxiety and depression were assessed preoperatively and 4 months postoperatively using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. On viewing fearful faces, healthy controls demonstrated left lateralized, while right TLE patients showed bilateral amygdala activation. Left TLE patients had significantly reduced activation in left and right amygdalae compared to controls and right TLE patients. In right TLE patients, left and right amygdala activation was significantly related to preoperative anxiety and depression levels, and preoperative right amygdala activation correlated significantly with postoperative change of anxiety and depression scores, characterized by greater increases in anxiety and depression in patients with greater preoperative activation. No such correlations were seen for left TLE patients. The fearful face fMRI paradigm is a reliable method for visualizing amygdala activation in controls and patients with mesial TLE. Activation of the right amygdala preoperatively was predictive of emotional disturbances following right ATLR.

  17. Connectome Reorganization Associated With Surgical Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (United States)

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhengge; Yang, Fang; Sun, Kangjian; Jiao, Qing; Liao, Wei; Lu, Guangming


    To identify the distinct pattern of anatomical network reorganization in surgically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients using a longitudinal design. We collected longitudinal diffusion-weighted images of 19 MTLE patients before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Patients were classified as seizure-free (SF) or nonseizure-free (NSF) at least 1 year after surgery. We constructed whole-brain anatomical networks derived from white matter tractography and evaluated network connectivity measures by graph theoretical analysis. The reorganization trajectories of network measures in SF and NSF patients were investigated by two-way mixed analysis of variance, with factors "group" (SF vs NSF) and "treatment" (presurgery vs postsurgery). Widespread brain structures showed opposite reorganization trajectories in FS and NSF groups (interaction effect). Most of them showed group difference before surgery and then converge after surgery, suggesting that surgery remodeled these structures into a similar status. Conversly, contralateral amygdala-planum-temporale and thalamic-parietal tracts showed higher connectivity strength in NSF than in SF patients after surgery, indicating maladaptive neuroplastic responses to surgery in NSF patients. Our findings suggest that surgical outcomes are associated not only with the preoperative pattern of anatomical connectivity, but also with connectome reconfiguration following surgery. The reorganization of contralateral temporal lobe and corticothalamic tracts may be particularly important for seizure control in MTLE.

  18. Spotting Stellar Activity Cycles in Gaia Astrometry (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.


    Astrometry from Gaia will measure the positions of stellar photometric centroids to unprecedented precision. We show that the precision of Gaia astrometry is sufficient to detect starspot-induced centroid jitter for nearby stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) sample with magnetic activity similar to the young G-star KIC 7174505 or the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, but is insufficient to measure centroid jitter for stars with Sun-like spot distributions. We simulate Gaia observations of stars with 10 year activity cycles to search for evidence of activity cycles, and find that Gaia astrometry alone likely can not detect activity cycles for stars in the TGAS sample, even if they have spot distributions like KIC 7174505. We review the activity of the nearby low-mass stars in the TGAS sample for which we anticipate significant detections of spot-induced jitter.

  19. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  20. The inner radio structure of Centaurus A - Clues to the origin of the jet X-ray emission (United States)

    Burns, J. O.; Feigelson, E. D.; Schreier, E. J.


    VLA observations at 1.4 and 4.9 GHz of the jet and inner lobes of the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A have been used to construct maps of total intensity and polarization at resolutions of 31 x 10 and 3.6 x 1.1 arcsec. Surface brightness and pressure distributions in the jet, combined with the apparent X-ray emission from the ISM of NGC 5128, indicate that it is thermally confined. A comparison of the radio structure and the optical galaxy shows that the jet in Cen A emerges nearly along the major axis of the elliptical stellar component that is parallel to the angular momentum vector of the dust lane. The outer radio structure bends toward the galaxy minor axis. Evidence is found for a common synchrotron radiation origin of the full spectrum jet emission.

  1. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J.; Aulich, A.; Reifenberger, G.; Kiwit, J.C.W.; Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D.


    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[ 123 I]iodo-α-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  2. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  3. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids. (United States)

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J


    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Middle fossa arachnoid cyst with temporal lobe agenesis accompanying isodense subdural hematoma -a case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hyung Sik; Kim, Myung Joon; Yang, Seoung Oh; Kim, Chang Jin


    Cysts overlying the temporal lobes have been well described in literature. These are often associated with agenesis of the temporal lobes, and of major neurosurgical interest due to their frequent association with subdural hematoma, a combination that is rarely seen with cysts in other regions. Full features of plain, angiographic, and CT findings of arachnoid cyst with temporal lobe agenesis accompanying isodense subdural hematoma are presented, being very rare in radiologic literature

  5. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro


    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  6. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  7. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza


    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  8. Obsessions appear after the removal a brain tumor in the right frontal lobe. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Jihua


    A series of case reports and neuroimaging research points to the underlying neuropathological substrate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the underlying associations between OCD and areas of the frontal lobe. We report a patient wherein the onset of OCD occurred after resection of meningioma of the right frontal lobe and who was treated successfully with paroxetine hydrochloride. We suggest that the onset of secondary (organic) OCD is associated with the frontal lobe, and we propose that the origin of obsessions is located in the right frontal lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches......The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...

  10. The Frontal Lobe Score: part II: evaluation of its clinical validity. (United States)

    Wildgruber, D; Kischka, U; Fassbender, K; Ettlin, T M


    To evaluate the ability of the Frontal Lobe Score (FLS) to differentiate patients with frontal lobe lesions from those with nonfrontal lesions and normal controls. In a prospective, blind setup, the sensitivity and specificity of the Frontal Lobe Score was compared with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stroop Test. A sample of 108 subjects (26 patients with cerebral lesions confined to the frontal lobes, 28 patients with cerebral lesions without involvement of the frontal lobes, 31 patients with mixed frontal/nonfrontal lesions, 23 controls without cerebral lesions) was examined. Frontal Lobe Score, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Test. The Frontal Lobe Score detected pure frontal lesions with a sensitivity of 92.3%. It discriminated patients with frontal lesions from normal controls with a specificity of 100%; differentiation from patients with nonfrontal lesions was obtained with a specificity of 75.0%. For the WCST, sensitivity for detection of pure frontal lesions was 65.4%, while specificity was 60.9% compared with normal controls and 53.6% compared with nonfrontal lesions. The Stroop Test showed a sensitivity of 30.8%, a specificity compared with normal controls of 95.7% and compared with nonfrontal lesions of 92.9%. The Frontal Lobe Score has clinical usefulness for screening of effects of frontal lobe damage superior to that of the WCST and the Stroop Test.

  11. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes (United States)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.


    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  12. Close entrainment of massive molecular gas flows by radio bubbles in the central galaxy of Abell 1795 (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Combes, F.; Edge, A. C.; Hogan, M. T.; McDonald, M.; Salomé, P.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.


    We present new ALMA observations tracing the morphology and velocity structure of the molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster Abell 1795. The molecular gas lies in two filaments that extend 5-7 kpc to the N and S from the nucleus and project exclusively around the outer edges of two inner radio bubbles. Radio jets launched by the central active galactic nucleus have inflated bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot atmosphere surrounding the central galaxy. The N filament has a smoothly increasing velocity gradient along its length from the central galaxy's systemic velocity at the nucleus to -370 km s^{-1}, the average velocity of the surrounding galaxies, at the furthest extent. The S filament has a similarly smooth but shallower velocity gradient and appears to have partially collapsed in a burst of star formation. The close spatial association with the radio lobes, together with the ordered velocity gradients and narrow velocity dispersions, shows that the molecular filaments are gas flows entrained by the expanding radio bubbles. Assuming a Galactic XCO factor, the total molecular gas mass is 3.2 ± 0.2 × 109 M⊙. More than half lies above the N radio bubble. Lifting the molecular clouds appears to require an infeasibly efficient coupling between the molecular gas and the radio bubble. The energy required also exceeds the mechanical power of the N radio bubble by a factor of 2. Stimulated feedback, where the radio bubbles lift low-entropy X-ray gas that becomes thermally unstable and rapidly cools in situ, provides a plausible model. Multiple generations of radio bubbles are required to lift this substantial gas mass. The close morphological association then indicates that the cold gas either moulds the newly expanding bubbles or is itself pushed aside and shaped as they inflate.

  13. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution (United States)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym


    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ˜ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ˜ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  14. Reactivation of medial temporal lobe and occipital lobe during the retrieval of color information: A positron emission tomography study. (United States)

    Ueno, Aya; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujii, Toshikatsu


    It is widely accepted that memory traces of an event include various types of information about the content of the event and about the circumstances in which the individual experienced it. However, how these various types of information are stored and later retrieved is poorly understood. One hypothesis postulates that the retrieval of specific event information reactivates regions that were active during the encoding of this information, with the aid of binding functions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. We used positron emission tomography to identify the brain regions related to the encoding and retrieval of color information. Specifically, we assessed whether overlapping activity was found in both the MTL structures and color-related cortical regions during the encoding and retrieval of color information attached with meaningless shapes. During the study, subjects were asked to encode colored (red or green) and achromatic random shapes. At subsequent testing, subjects were presented with only achromatic shapes, which had been presented with or without colors during encoding, and were engaged in retrieval tasks of shapes and colors. Overlapping activity was found in the MTL and occipital lobe (the lingual and inferior occipital gyri) in the right hemisphere during the encoding and retrieval of meaningless shapes with color information compared with those without color information. Although there are some limitations to be considered, the present findings seem to support the view that the retrieval of specific event information is associated with reactivation of both the MTL structures and the regions involved during encoding of the information.

  15. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  16. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  17. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  18. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J


    Full Text Available Jiyeon Kim,1 Seong Hoon Kim,2 Sung Chul Lim,2 Woojun Kim,2 Young-Min Shon3 1Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Neurology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, 3Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG and a poor response group (PRG were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively.Results: There were 46 (54.8% patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2% patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05. The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05. The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05.Conclusion: In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective

  19. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie


    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  20. Hot-spot tectonics on Io (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.


    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  1. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.


    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  2. Industrial interference and radio astronomy (United States)

    Jessner, A.


    The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

  3. Radio science investigations with Voyager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Tyler, G.L.; Croft, T.A.


    The planned radio science investigations during the Voyager missions to the outer planets involve: (1) the use of the radio links to and from the spacecraft for occultation measurements of planetary and satellite atmospheres and ionospheres, the rings of Saturn, the solar corona, and the general-relativistic time delay for radiowave propagation through the Sun's gravity field; (2) radio link measurements of true or apparent spacecraft motion caused by the gravity fields of the planets, the masses of their larger satellites, and characteristics of the interplanetary medium; and (3) related measurements which could provide results in other areas, including the possible detection of long-wavelength gravitational radiation propagating through the Solar System. The measurements will be used to study: atmospheric and ionospheric structure, constituents, and dynamics; the sizes, radial distribution, total mass, and other characteristics of the particles in the rings of Saturn; interior models for the major planets and the mean density and bulk composition of a number of their satellites; the plasma density and dynamics of the solar corona and interplanetary medium; and certain fundamental questions involving gravitation and relativity. The instrumentation for these experiments is the same ground-based and spacecraft radio systems as will be used for tracking and communicating with the Voyager spacecraft, although several important features of these systems have been provided primarily for the radio science investigations. (Auth.)

  4. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats. (United States)

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki


    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complex Partial Epilepsy Associated with Temporal Lobe Developmental Venous Anomaly. (United States)

    Sohail, Amna; Xiong, Zhengming; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Qureshi, Adnan I


    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are found incidentally but sometimes patients with these anomalies present with varying degrees of neurologic manifestations. We report a patient with early onset complex partial epilepsy and associated DVA and discuss the natural history, neuroimaging and clinical characteristics, and management. A 21-year-old man presented with a history of complex partial epilepsy with secondary generalization which started at the age of 4 years. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed which demonstrated spike and wave discharges predominantly in the left frontotemporal region. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed which demonstrated a linear flow void suggestive of a DVA. The angiogram demonstrated DVA that connected with the left transverse venous sinus and an anastomotic vein between the straight sinus and the transverse venous sinus traversing the brain parenchyma. He was started on carbamezipine for the treatment of complex partial seizures. Temporal lobe DVA may be associated with complex partial seizures and can be diagnosed by MRI and angiographic findings.

  6. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães


    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  7. Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe. (United States)

    Naya, Yuji; Suzuki, Wendy A


    Episodic memory or memory for the detailed events in our lives is critically dependent on structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). A fundamental component of episodic memory is memory for the temporal order of items within an episode. To understand the contribution of individual MTL structures to temporal-order memory, we recorded single-unit activity and local field potential from three MTL areas (hippocampus and entorhinal and perirhinal cortex) and visual area TE as monkeys performed a temporal-order memory task. Hippocampus provided incremental timing signals from one item presentation to the next, whereas perirhinal cortex signaled the conjunction of items and their relative temporal order. Thus, perirhinal cortex appeared to integrate timing information from hippocampus with item information from visual sensory area TE.

  8. Impaired executive functions in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Ochai Ramos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The present study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -like behavior in male Wistar rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method Male Wistar rats at 25 day of age were submitted to animal model of TLE by pilocarpine injection (350 mg/kg, ip and a control group received saline 0.9%. The animals were continuously video monitored up to the end of experiments. The behavioural tests (open field, elevated plus maze and operant conditioning box started from 60 days postnatal. Results Animals with TLE exhibited elevated locomotor activity, reduced level of anxiety-related behavior, impulsivity and impaired visuospatial working memory. Conclusion Taken as a whole, we concluded that animals with TLE exhibited some cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with ADHD-like behavior.

  9. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Y Cheng


    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.

  10. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat (United States)

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.


    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Space to ground sequential lobe tracking of aircraft (United States)

    Shannon, P. D.; Kwon, D. W.; Polites, M.

    Growing demand for satellite communications capability coupled with shrinking government budgets, has spurred acquisition and repurposing of commercial satellite systems for government missions. One subset of these satellites provides high bandwidth communication with aerial vehicles from geosynchronous orbit. Automated tracking by these satellites of aerial vehicles improves link margin, but is not a typical function of commercial product lines. Additional tracking hardware and flight software development are required to give these commercial products tracking capability. This leads to an inefficient design from a cost and mass standpoint for a large number of slow flying aerial vehicles. Therefore, a need was identified to design a low cost tracking system that minimizes tracking specific spacecraft hardware and flight software development. This paper outlines a sequential lobe tracking system to auto track aerial vehicles and analyzes the algorithm's accuracy and sensitivity in tracking aerial vehicles using their pre-existing uplink signal. The tracking scheme consists of a satellite based RF power meter, automated ground based control of antenna pointing, and ground based processing of the tracking telemetry. The aerial vehicle was modeled as a high altitude, relatively slow moving Ka-band aircraft. To identify and evaluate a feasible design, a MATLAB model was developed to simulate an aerial vehicle, the vehicle's primary uplink signal and its variance, communication and processing latency in the design, and tracking telemetry processing. In addition, the effect on the spacecraft antenna actuators was modeled. The primary output of the model is tracking accuracy and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine 1, 2, and 3 sigma results. Overall, this paper demonstrates the viability of a sequential lobe scheme with ground based processing as a low cost alternative for Space-to-Ground tracking of slow flying aerial vehicles.

  12. Altered synchrony and loss of consciousness during frontal lobe seizures. (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Lambert, Isabelle; Wendling, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice


    Loss of consciousness (LOC) in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has been rarely specifically studied until now. In this study we evaluated the LOC in a population of patients with FLE and studied the relationship between changes in synchrony and degree of LOC. 24 patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during pre-surgical evaluation of FLE were studied. The LOC intensity was scored using the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS). For each studied seizure (n=52), interdependencies between signals recorded from 5 brain regions were estimated as a function of time by using non-linear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient). Seizures were divided into 3 groups according to the CSS scale: group A (no LOC) with a score ⩽2, group B (intermediate or partial LOC) with a score ranging from 3 to 5, and group C (maximal LOC) with a score ⩾6. The majority of seizures in FLE patients disclosed significant LOC, particularly for patients with prefrontal lobe seizures. Mean correlation values were significantly different between groups A and C (p<0.001), the maximal values of synchrony being observed in group C. Differences were significant for interaction affecting the external prefrontal cortex (p=0.004) (p=0.01) and the parietal cortex. In addition, a significant correlation was found between CSS scores and correlations values (h(2)) of the prefrontal and the parietal region but not with the premotor cortex. This study indicates that in FLE, prefrontal seizures frequently alter consciousness. As in other focal seizures, LOC appears to be related to changes in synchrony in prefrontal and parietal associative cortices. LOC in FLE is frequent and as in other focal epilepsies is related to an alteration of prefrontal-parietal network. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy diminishes functional connectivity during emotion perception. (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Muller, Angela M; Spirig, Esther; Toller, Gianina; Jokeit, Hennric


    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions. Regions of interest were identified in an activation analysis by presenting a block-design with dynamic fearful faces and dynamic landscapes to 15 healthy individuals. This led to 10 predominately right-hemispheric regions. Functional connectivity between these regions during the perception of fearful faces was examined in drug-refractory patients with left- (n=16) or right-sided (n=17) MTLE, epilepsy patients with extratemporal seizure onset (n=15) and a second group of 15 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a widespread functional network modulated by the perception of fearful faces that encompassed bilateral amygdalae, limbic, cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. In patients with left MTLE, a downsized network of frontal and temporal regions centered on the right amygdala was present. Patients with right MTLE showed almost no significant functional connectivity. A maintained network in the epilepsy control group indicates that findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy could not be explained by clinical factors such as seizures and antiepileptic medication. Functional networks underlying facial emotion perception are considerably changed in left and right MTLE. Alterations are present for both hemispheres in either MTLE group, but are more pronounced in right MTLE. Disruption of the functional network architecture possibly contributes to deficits in facial emotion recognition frequently

  14. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella


    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  15. Unseen cosmos the universe in radio

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis


    Radio telescopes have transformed our understanding of the Universe. Pulsars, quasars, Big Bang cosmology: all are discoveries of the new science of radio astronomy. Here, Francis Graham-Smith describes the birth, development, and maturity of radio astronomy, from the first discovery of cosmic radio waves to its present role as a major part of modern astronomy. Radio is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, and Graham-Smith explains why it is that radio waves give us a unique view of the Universe. Tracing the development o

  16. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Reggiani


    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  17. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions (United States)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.


    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  18. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar


    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  19. Investigating the thermal and nonthermal properties of galaxy clusters with radio observations (United States)

    Farnsworth, Damon Patrick

    This thesis presents my recent investigations of the tenuous intracluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters using radio observations. The ICM is composed primarily of thermal and nonthermal plasma populations, permeated by magnetic fields which influence their evolution. Radio observations provide unique probes of the properties of the ICM, allowing for estimation of particle densities, magnetic field strengths, and even yielding clues to the physical mechanisms of particle acceleration. A major theme of this dissertation is that faint diffuse radio emission may contribute a significant amount of the synchrotron luminosity in galaxy clusters, yet goes unobserved due to an underappreciated deficiency of interferometric radio telescopes. Some of the current physical models do not account for this low surface brightness synchrotron emission, which may hold the key to distinguishing between competing models of relativistic particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in these low density environments. I first discuss the use of polarization observations to probe magnetized plasmas, exploring various methods of Faraday rotation measure determination. I demonstrate that methods such as traditional fitting of models to polarization angle only (without consideration of the fractional polarization) or the novel Rotation Measure Synthesis may yield erroneous results in the presence of complex Faraday structure. The best way to more accurately recover the true Faraday structure is by fitting models directly to the observables Q and U, using radio polarization observations of the southern lobe of the radio galaxy 3C33 as an example. Next I exhibit results from a 1.4~GHz GBT study of twelve merging galaxy clusters. After subtraction of confusion from Galactic foreground and extragalactic background radio sources, eleven of the twelve clusters exhibited a significant excess of diffuse emission over that found by previous interferometric studies. Faint large-scale radio

  20. Jets and beams in powerful extragalatic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Roland, J.; Asseo, E.


    The simplest, but the most constraining assumption for jet modeling powerfull extragalatic radio sources is to consider a single relativistic plasma with relativistic motion from short distances (few pc) to large distances (few 100 kpc) from the nucleus. We argue that it is worth introducing more ingredients in the model. Besides the interest in developing plasma physics motivated by these objects, there are two reasons for enriching the physics. First, the interpretation of hot spots as resulting from shocks with diffusive acceleration in a thermal classical plasma with a tenuous relativistic component is consistent with data and constrain the parameters. Second, the interpretation of relativistic motions on parsec scales as resulting from a core beam relaxing in a collimated wind is consistent with data and avoid several difficulties. (author). 14 refs

  1. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey


    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph L.; Lister, Matthew L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    We have discovered kiloparsec-scale extended radio emission in three narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in sub-arcsecond resolution 9 GHz images from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We find all sources show two-sided, mildly core-dominated jet structures with diffuse lobes dominated by termination hotspots. These span 20–70 kpc with morphologies reminiscent of FR II radio galaxies, while the extended radio luminosities are intermediate between FR I and FR II sources. In two cases the structure is linear, while a 45° bend is apparent in the third. Very Long Baseline Array images at 7.6 GHz reveal parsec-scale jet structures, in two cases with extended structure aligned with the inner regions of the kiloparsec-scale jets. Based on this alignment, the ratio of the radio core–luminosity to the optical luminosity, the jet/counter-jet intensity and extension length ratios, and moderate core brightness temperatures (≲10{sup 10} K), we conclude these jets are mildly relativistic (β≲0.3, δ∼1−1.5) and aligned at moderately small angles to the line of sight (10–15°). The derived kinematic ages of ∼10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} yr are much younger than radio galaxies but comparable to other NLS1s. Our results increase the number of radio-loud NLS1s with known kiloparsec-scale extensions from 7 to 10 and suggest that such extended emission may be common, at least among the brightest of these sources.

  3. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products (United States)


    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  4. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells. (United States)

    Armour, William J; Barton, Deborah A; Law, Andrew M K; Overall, Robyn L


    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in neuropsychological functioning following temporal lobectomy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, M.S.; Lee, S.; Seol, S.H.; Lim, Y.J.; Park, E.H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Chung, C.


    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in neuropsychological functioning in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) after temporal lobe resection. Methods: Fifty-four TLE patients were evaluated before and after surgery using comprehensive neuropsychological tests to assess

  6. On the vorticity characteristics of lobe-forced mixer at different configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mao, R.; Yu, S.C.M.; Zhou, T.; Chua, L.P.


    Lobe-forced mixer is one typical example of the passive flow controllers owing to its corrugated trailing edge. Besides the spanwise Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex shedding, streamwise vortices are also generated within its mixing layer. The geometrical configuration of the lobe significantly affects these

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma in the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland misdiagnosed as chalazion. (United States)

    Ramlee, Nor'Aini; Ramli, Noramazlan; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini Ahmad


    We reported a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland involving the palpebral lobe in young teenage girl of Asian origin. The presentation at young age group is rare, which initially misdiagnosed as a large chalazion. The benign tumor with its intact pseudocapsule was removed through lateral orbitotomy together with the suspicious looking orbital lobe.

  8. First reported case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland. (United States)

    Chen, Louis C; Green, Jennifer B


    Unilateral Graves' disease is a rare disease variant that can occur in a bilobar thyroid gland. We report the first documented case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland and review the pertinent literature. A 48-year-old man presented in June 2010 with thyrotoxicosis. I-131 radioisotope uptake was elevated at 33.4%, and scintigraphy revealed that uptake of the radioisotope was uniformly increased in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed a non-nodular, enlarged, and heterogeneous left lobe; Doppler investigation of the lobe showed hypervascularity classically seen in Graves' disease. The right lobe of the thyroid, on the other hand, appeared homogeneous and hypovascular on ultrasonography. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin was significantly elevated at 191% (reference range disease was the most likely diagnosis. As has occasionally been described in the literature, unilateral involvement of the thyroid gland is a rare presentation of Graves' disease. Pre-existing functional or structural differences (either congenital or acquired) between the two lobes may contribute to this rare presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral Graves' disease presenting in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland. Although the pathophysiology of unilateral Graves's disease has not been clearly elucidated, clinicians should be aware that Graves' disease can present unilaterally in either lobe of the thyroid gland.

  9. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.


    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail:; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))


    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  11. Mother and daughter with adolescent-onset severe frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy (United States)

    dos Passos, Giordani Rodrigues; Fernández, Alonso Cuadrado; Vasques, Adriana Machado; Martins, William Alves; Palmini, André


    ABSTRACT Familial cases of early-onset prominent frontal lobe dysfunction associated with epilepsy have not been reported to date. We report a mother and her only daughter with incapacitating behavioral manifestations of frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy of variable severity. The possibility of a hitherto undescribed genetic condition is discussed. PMID:29213461

  12. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.


    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  13. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co-existing in frontal lobe of human brains. (United States)

    Wang, Jue


    Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co-existed inside one frontal lobe. This neuron system is particularly for human beings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship of medial temporal lobe epilepsy with the declarative memory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Péter


    Full Text Available Introduction. Medial temporal lobe of epilepsy (MTLE is considered as local/regional epilepsy. However, as was discussed in Part I of this review (Halász, 2016a there is more evidence regarding the involvement of both temporal lobes so as to consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies.

  15. Floating of the lobes of mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva for respiration. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Joon


    Mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva has to float its siphon on the water surface to breathe air. To elucidate the floating mechanism of the siphon, morphological structures, especially the flap-like lobes and spiracle of the siphon, were observed. Wettability and dynamic behavior of the lobes on the water surface were also experimentally examined. The lobes formed a hollow cone shape under water and expanded on the water surface. The spiracle was located at the base of the cone. The lobes exhibited hydrophobic wettability. During floating process, the lobes were spread into a triangular shape in apical view, and the spiracle was exposed to air. When they were submerged in water, the lobes were folded into a cone shape to seal the spiracle and protect it from water penetration. These dynamic processes occurred at the water surface. In this study, the floating mechanism of the lobes for respiration was described based on the cross-sectional morphology of the lobes with the pressure induced by surface tension and the hydrostatic pressure proportional to depth. This study would be helpful in elucidating the behavior of mosquito larvae near the water surface and may facilitate the formulation of methods to control mosquito larvae.

  16. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar


    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  17. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan


    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  18. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap


    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  19. radio frequency emf radio frequency emf exposure due to gsm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    which is 9mW/m2 for the public and 22.5mW/m2 for those professionals invo for those professionals involved in telecommunication industry. lved in telecommunication industry. lved in telecommunication industry. Keywords: Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation, Base Station Antenna, Power density, international.

  20. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola


    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  1. Impact of African Farm Radio Research Initiative Participatory Radio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The AFRRI participatory action research and radio communication/extension based project involved, per design, three Active Listening (ALC) communities of Labvu, Makombe and Lovimbi while Magodi and Chambakata acted as Passive Listening Communities (PLC) and. Control Communities (CC). ALC participants were ...

  2. Automatic demand response referred to electricity spot price. Demo description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Livik, Klaus; Hals, Arne


    This report presents background, technical solution and results from a test project (Demo I) developed in the DRR Norway) project. Software and technology from two different vendors, APAS and Powel ASA, are used to demonstrate a scheme for Automatic Demand Response (ADR) referred to spot price level and a system for documentation of demand response and cost savings. Periods with shortage of energy supply and hardly any investments in new production capacity have turned focus towards the need for increased price elasticity on the demand side in the Nordic power market. The new technology for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) and Remote Load Control (RLC) provides an opportunity to improve the direct market participation from the demand side by introducing automatic schemes that reduce the need for customer attention to hourly market prices. The low prioritized appliances, and not the total load, are in this report defined as the Demand Response Objects, based on the assumption that there is a limit for what the customers are willing to pay for different uses of electricity. Only disconnection of residential water heaters is included in the demo, due to practical limitations. The test was performed for a group of single family houses over a period of 2 months. All the houses were equipped with a radio controlled 'Ebox' unit attached to the water heater socket. The settlement and invoicing were based on hourly metered values (kWh/h), which means that the customer benefit is equivalent to the accumulated changes in the electricity cost per hour. The actual load reduction is documented by comparison between the real meter values for the period and a reference curve. The curves show significant response to the activated control in the morning hours. In the afternoon it is more difficult to register the response, probably due to 'disturbing' activities like cooking etc. Demo I shows that load reduction referred to spot price level can be done in a smooth way. The experiences

  3. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.


    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  4. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)


    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  5. Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. (United States)

    Matsushita, Katsunori; Gotoh, Kunihito; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Iwagami, Yoshihumi; Yamada, Daisaku; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Noda, Takehiro; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Koichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki


    Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe is a rare anomaly. It is defined as the absence of liver tissue to the left of the gallbladder fossa. Additionally, agenesis of the left hepatic lobe accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma is quite rare. We experienced the case of a patient with agenesis of the left hepatic lobe, undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy for HCC. A 79-year-old man was referred to our department with epigastralgia. Abdominal computed tomography revealed agenesis of the left hepatic lobe, accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma in segments 7 and 8. He underwent laparoscopic partial hepatectomy of segments 7 and 8. The operative findings revealed complete agenesis of the liver to the left of the falciform ligament. The patient had a favorable clinical course without liver dysfunction or any complications. We experienced a case with agenesis of the left hepatic lobe undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy for HCC. Awareness of such anomaly is important for surgeons to avoid postoperative complications.

  6. Image processing analysis of vortex dynamics of lobed jets from three-dimensional diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastase, Ilinca; Meslem, Amina; El Hassan, Mouhammad


    The passive control of jet flows with the aim to enhance mixing and entrainment is of wide practical interest. Our purpose here is to develop new air diffusers for heating ventilating air conditioning systems by using lobed geometry nozzles, in order to ameliorate the users' thermal comfort. Two turbulent six-lobed air jets, issued from a lobed tubular nozzle and an innovative hemispherical lobed nozzle, were studied experimentally. It was shown that the proposed innovative concept of a lobed jet, which can be easily integrated in air diffusion devices, is very efficient regarding induction capability. A vortical dynamics analysis for the two jets is performed using a new method of image processing, namely dynamic mode decomposition. A validation of this method is also proposed suggesting that the dynamical mode decomposition (DMD) image processing method succeeds in capturing the most dominant frequencies of the flow dynamics, which in our case are related to the quite special dynamics of the Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices.

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings in three dogs with lung lobe torsion. (United States)

    Caivano, Domenico; Birettoni, Francesco; Bufalari, Antonello; De Monte, Valentina; Angeli, Giovanni; Giorgi, Maria Elena; Patata, Valentina; Porciello, Francesco


    Lung lobe torsion is rare but life-threatening condition in the dog. Thoracic radiographs and conventional ultrasonography cannot be conclusive for the diagnosis, and computed tomography is useful but is limited by cost and availability. This report describes the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 3 dogs with lung lobe torsion. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed the absence or reduction of pulmonary vascularization secondary to twisting of the lung lobe around its bronchovascular pedicle in all three dogs. Moreover, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography distinguished partial pulmonary atelectasis from a lung lobe torsion. These preliminary results suggest that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can improve the accuracy of conventional ultrasonography for detection of pulmonary blood flow compromise in dogs with lung lobe torsion.

  8. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.


    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  9. Spotted-Leaf Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-na HUANG


    Full Text Available Many rice spotted-leaf (spl mutants are ideal sources for understanding the mechanisms involved in blast resistance, bacterial blight resistance and programmed cell death in plants. The genetic controls of 50 spotted-leaf mutants in rice have been characterized and a few spotted-leaf genes have been isolated as well. This article reviews the origin, genetic modes, isolation and characterization of spotted-leaf genes responsible for their phenotypes, and their resistance responses to main rice diseases.

  10. Natal and breeding dispersal of northern spotted owls (United States)

    Forsman, E.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Loschl, P.J.; Sovern, S.G.; Taylor, M.; Biswell, B.L.; Ellingson, A.; Meslow, E.C.; Miller, G.S.; Swindle, K.A.; Thrailkill, J.A.; Wagner, F.F.; Seaman, D.E.


    We studied the dispersal behavior of 1,475 northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) during banding and radio-telemetry studies in Oregon and Washington in 1985-1996. The sample included 324 radio-marked juveniles and 1,151 banded individuals (711 juveniles, 440 non-juveniles) that were recaptured or resighted after dispersing from the initial banding location. Juveniles typically left the nest during the last week in May and the first two weeks in June (x?? ?? SE = 8 June ?? 0.53 days, n = 320, range = 15 May-1 July), and spent an average of 103.7 days in the natal territory after leaving the nest (SE = 0.986 days, n = 137, range = 76-147 days). The estimated mean date that juveniles began to disperse was 19 September in Oregon (95% CI = 17-21 September) and 30 September in Washington (95% CI = 25 September-4 October). Mean dispersal dates did not differ between males and females or among years. Siblings dispersed independently. Dispersal was typically initiated with a series of rapid movements away from the natal site during the first few days or weeks of dispersal. Thereafter, most juveniles settled into temporary home ranges in late October or November and remained there for several months. In February-April there was a second pulse of dispersal activity, with many owls moving considerable distances before settling again in their second summer. Subsequent dispersal patterns were highly variable, with some individuals settling permanently in their second summer and others occupying a series of temporary home ranges before eventually settling on territories when they were 2-5 years old. Final dispersal distances ranged from 0.6-111.2 km for banded juveniles and 1.8-103.5 km for radio-marked juveniles. The distribution of dispersal distances was strongly skewed towards shorter distances, with only 8.7% of individuals dispersing more than 50 km. Median natal dispersal distances were 14.6 km for banded males, 13.5 km for radio-marked males, 24.5 km for

  11. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are hereby... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93...

  12. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells


    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  13. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  14. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  16. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 6, 2013 ... White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. ... has been increasingly hampered by white spot syndrome disease caused by White Spot ..... metabolic proteins have additional roles in immunity and transcriptional ...

  17. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly (United States)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.


    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  18. Compressed Sensing for Wideband Cognitive Radios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Zhi; Giannakis, Georgios B


    In the emerging paradigm of open spectrum access, cognitive radios dynamically sense the radio-spectrum environment and must rapidly tune their transmitter parameters to efficiently utilize the available spectrum...

  19. Perkembangan dan Problematika Radio Komunitas di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki .


    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is about the development of community radio in Indonesia, it is problems and solutions. Community radio in Indonesia developed as an alternative to both public radio and commercial radio after the fall of Soeharto in 1998. Two important features of community radio are that it provides all community members with equal access to information, enhancing their rights and obligations, access to justice, public accountability and also enables them to participate actively in radio management and production. Both features enhance people’s selfawareness and sense of belonging to a community. The expansion of the progressive, participatory, community ownership, and non-profit model of community radio, has become a third sector of communication beside the commercial or state media. The dynamic development of community radio in Indonesia faced several problems starting from it is definition, implementation of regulation until standards of programmes operation based on the concept of community approach and participation

  20. A Digital Radio Receiver for Ionospheric Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, H. G


    .... One of the radio instruments is a four-channel digital Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). RRI will be fed by four 3-metre monopoles, arranged in a crossed configuration, each connected to a high-input impedance...

  1. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.


    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  2. Dynamically variable spot size laser system (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)


    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  3. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.


    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  4. SPS remanent radiation the warm spots

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R


    The remanent radiation in the SPS ring is measured after each operational period. We all know very well the "hot spots" in the dedicated regions for particle injection and extraction. So far, not a lot of attention has been paid to those regions where there are clear traces of radiation, without an obvious reason. From an operational point of view, these regions might be quite important, since they could reveal a specific problem. This paper will look into those "warm spots", their location in the SPS ring and the transverse plane in which the radiation originates. Some classification of typical problem classes is made, as well as hints to the possible origins of the radiation problems.

  5. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh


    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  6. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  7. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA


    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  8. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    similar to controls maintained on 12-h photoperiods (Lewis & Perry, 1990). In this latter trial it was suggested that the radio noise had anchored the photoinducible phase (PIP, a 4-h period that induces a photosexual response when illuminated) to the position it had occupied in the original 12-h photoperiod, thus enabling it ...

  10. Bolidozor radio meteor detection network


    Jakub Kákona; Martin Kákona


    Radio meteor detection networks could improve knowledge about meteors under daylight or inconvenient weather conditions. We present novel approach to the meteor detection system. Hardware described in this poster has unique features for time synchronization of multiple nodes, therefore meteor trajectory calculation is possible in case of appropriate network deployment.

  11. Newnes radio and electronics engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Moorshead, H W; Perry, J


    Newnes Radio and Electronics Engineer's Pocket Book, Fifteenth Edition provides reference of the information relevant in radio and electronics engineering. The book presents tables, illustrations, and diagrams of various data used in radio and electronics engineering. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations and symbols, electrical equations, and code conversions. The text will be useful to engineers, technicians, and other professionals who require a reference about the different aspects of radio and electronics.

  12. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...... all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis....

  13. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail:; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.


    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  14. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.


    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  15. Heap hot spots visualization in Java


    Mahdavi, Babak; Driesen, Karel


    Data memory (heap) management is a particularly important feature of the Java programming environment. The visualization of memory location in form of hot spots can help to see how the data cache is used during the execution of a program. The behavior of such executed program can be thus speculated. Through a series of experiments using Load and Store trace files, some pertinent aspect of data memory accessing, can be visualized, including the frequency of how often the Java virtual machine r...

  16. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień


    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  17. 47 CFR 90.185 - Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service. (United States)


    ... equipment in the mobile radio service. 90.185 Section 90.185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Policies... mobile radio service. Two or more persons eligible for licensing under this rule part may be licensed for...

  18. Cognitive radios for dynamic spectrum access - Polyphase Multipath Radio Circuits for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Shrestha, R.; Mensink, E.; Arkesteijn, V.J.; Nauta, Bram


    ABSTRACT Dynamic access of unused spectrum via a cognitive radio asks for flexible radio circuits that can work at an arbitrary radio frequency. This article reviews techniques to realize radios without resorting to frequency selective dedicated filters. In particular, a recently proposed polyphase

  19. What Are “X-shaped” Radio Sources Telling Us? II. Properties of a Sample of 87 (United States)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Roberts, David H.


    In an earlier paper, we presented Jansky Very Large Array multi-frequency, multi-array continuum imaging of a unique sample of low-axial ratio radio galaxies. In this paper, the second in the series, we examine the images to learn the phenomenology of how the off-axis emission relates to the main radio source. Inversion-symmetric offset emission appears to be bimodal and to originate from one of two strategic locations: outer ends of radio lobes (outer-deviation) or from inner ends (inner-deviation). The latter sources are almost always associated with edge-brightened sources. With S- and Z-shaped sources being a subset of outer-deviation sources, this class lends itself naturally to explanations involving black hole axis precession. Our data allow us to present a plausible model for the more enigmatic inner-deviation sources with impressive wings; as for outer-deviation sources these too require black hole axis shifts, although they also require plasma backflows into relic channels. Evolution in morphology over time relates the variety in structures in inner-deviation sources including XRGs. With features such as non-collinearities, central inner-S “spine,” corresponding lobe emission peaks, double and protruding hotspots not uncommon, black hole axis precession, drifts, or flips could be active in a significant fraction of radio sources with prominent off-axis emission. At least 4% of radio galaxies appear to undergo black hole axis rotation. Quasars offer a key signature for recognizing rotating axes. With a rich haul of sources that have likely undergone axis rotation, our work shows the usefulness of low-axial ratio sources in pursuing searches for binary supermassive black holes.

  20. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenstein Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element.

  1. Making Waves: Pirate Radio and Popular Music. (United States)

    Jones, Steve

    The history of pirate radio--radio broadcasts offered by unlicensed broadcasters as alternatives to licensed, commercial radio programming--is difficult to trace, both in America and the United Kingdom (UK) since mention of pirate broadcasts of a less-then-thrilling nature are rarely found. Also, until 1927, the U.S. government did not formally…

  2. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems. (United States)


    ..., amplification, propagation, reception, modulation, and demodulation of radio waves in free space over which... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  3. Division B Commission 40: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Jessica M.; Giovaninni, Gabriele; Taylor, Russell; Carilli, Christopher; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin L.; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Nan, Rendong; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prjaval; Kellermann, Ken; Ekers, Ronald; Ohishi, Masatoshi


    IAU Commission 40 for Radio Astronomy (hereafter C40) brought together scientists and engineers who carry out observational and theoretical research in radio astronomy and who develop and operate the ground and space-based radio astronomy facilities and instrumentation. As of June 2015, the

  4. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio ...

  5. Exploring Community Radio Programming Practices to Inform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collective case study (multi-site) design was used to probe educational programming practices used in community radio. The paper explores how community radio station programming engages listeners in community generated education programmes that are produced through collaborative work with radio listener clubs.

  6. 46 CFR 169.715 - Radio. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio. 169.715 Section 169.715 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.715 Radio. (a) Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone installations are... Regulations, part 83. (b) A valid certificate issued by the FCC is evidence that the radio installation is in...

  7. Radio, Convergence and Development in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Radio remains the dominant mass medium in Africa, and indeed across much of the developing world. Moreover, radio is increasing its reach and interactivity as a result of changes in the regulatory environment, the growth of citizen journalism and convergence between radio and other information and communication ...

  8. Search for low-frequency diffuse radio emission around a shock in the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0744.9+3927 (United States)

    Wilber, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Rafferty, D.; Savini, F.; Shimwell, T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Botteon, A.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; De Gasperin, F.; Wittor, D.; Hoeft, M.; Birzan, L.


    Merging galaxy clusters produce low Mach number shocks in the intracluster medium. These shocks can accelerate electrons to relativistic energies that are detectable at radio frequencies. MACS J0744.9+3927 is a massive (M500 = (11.8 ± 2.8) × 1014M⊙), high-redshift (z = 0.6976) cluster where a Bullet-type merger is presumed to have taken place. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich maps from MUSTANG indicate that a shock, with Mach number M = 1.0-2.9 and an extension of ˜200 kpc, sits near the centre of the cluster. The shock is also detected as a brightness and temperature discontinuity in X-ray observations. To search for diffuse radio emission associated with the merger, we have imaged the cluster with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 120-165 MHz. Our LOFAR radio images reveal previously undetected AGN emission, but do not show clear cluster-scale diffuse emission in the form of a radio relic nor a radio halo. The region of the shock is on the western edge of AGN lobe emission from the brightest cluster galaxy. Correlating the flux of known shock-induced radio relics versus their size, we find that the radio emission overlapping the shocked region in MACS J0744.9+3927 is likely of AGN origin. We argue against the presence of a relic caused by diffusive shock acceleration and suggest that the shock is too weak to accelerate electrons from the intracluster medium.

  9. Search for low-frequency diffuse radio emission around a shock in the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0744.9+3927 (United States)

    Wilber, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Rafferty, D.; Savini, F.; Shimwell, T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Botteon, A.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; De Gasperin, F.; Wittor, D.; Hoeft, M.; Birzan, L.


    Merging galaxy clusters produce low-Mach-number shocks in the intracluster medium. These shocks can accelerate electrons to relativistic energies that are detectable at radio frequencies. MACS J0744.9+3927 is a massive [M500 = (11.8 ± 2.8) × 1014 M⊙], high-redshift (z = 0.6976) cluster where a Bullet-type merger is presumed to have taken place. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich maps from MUSTANG indicate that a shock, with Mach number M = 1.0-2.9 and an extension of ˜200 kpc, sits near the centre of the cluster. The shock is also detected as a brightness and temperature discontinuity in X-ray observations. To search for diffuse radio emission associated with the merger, we have imaged the cluster with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 120-165 MHz. Our LOFAR radio images reveal previously undetected AGN emission, but do not show clear cluster-scale diffuse emission in the form of a radio relic nor a radio halo. The region of the shock is on the western edge of AGN lobe emission from the brightest cluster galaxy. Correlating the flux of known shock-induced radio relics versus their size, we find that the radio emission overlapping the shocked region in MACS J0744.9+3927 is likely of AGN origin. We argue against the presence of a relic caused by diffusive shock acceleration and suggest that the shock is too weak to accelerate electrons from the intracluster medium.

  10. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carmen; Godberg, Michael


    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  11. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.


    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events-they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below c, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above c. Superluminal spot pair events might be found angularly, photometrically, or polarimetrically, and might carry useful geometry or distance information. Two example scenarios are briefly considered. The first is a beam swept across a scattering spherical object, exemplified by spots of light moving across Earth's Moon and pulsar companions. The second is a beam swept across a scattering planar wall or linear filament, exemplified by spots of light moving across variable nebulae including Hubble's Variable Nebula. In local cases where the sweeping beam can be controlled and repeated, a three-dimensional map of a target object can be constructed. Used tomographically, this imaging technique is fundamentally different from lens photography, radar, and conventional lidar.

  12. Radio responding media. Prosumers, media innovation in web-based radio


    Brundu, Gabriella


    After a century of traditional broadcasting, this is the history of how the radio as a medium entered the web world, becoming web-based radios. Our case is based on an Italian web-radio, Radio Casa Bertallot, which started to make radio programmes using the possibilities of new media technology and the internet to create a platform for interacting with the users. The founder Alessio Bertallot, expressed his view on the radio production by describing the radio as, a place, as a home, a room, ...

  13. Intrinsic, Narrow N V Absorption Reveals a Clumpy Outflow in z < 0.4 Radio-Loud Quasars (United States)

    DeMarcy, Bryan; Serra, Viktoriah; Culliton, Chris; Ganguly, Rajib; Runnoe, Jessie; Charlton, Jane; Eracleous, Michael; Misawa, Toru; Narayanan, Anand


    Quasar outflows are often invoked in models for galaxy evolution to inject energy and momentum into the gas in the host galaxy and influence its star formation history. Thus, the study of quasar outflows is essential for understanding galaxy evolution. N V absorption systems within the associated region (|Δv| ≤ 5000 km s-1) of the quasar are thought to be intrinsic since many show evidence for partial covering of the quasar. A recent archival study of quasar spectra taken with COS/G130M or G160M found 39/181 radio-quiet quasars show intrinsic N V absorption, while none of the 31 radio-loud quasars have N V absorption detected (Culliton et al. 2017). Further investigation of these radio-loud quasars showed a clear bias towards compact morphologies as revealed by FIRST 1.4 GHz imaging and comparatively flat radio spectra. This suggests we are viewing more face-on orientations which prevent us from seeing absorption outflows. The cause for such bias within the HST archive is still unknown; however, it could explain the lack of radio-loud intrinsic N V absorption seen by Culliton et al. (2017). Alternatively, the quasar wind structure may be fundamentally different between radio-loud and radio-quiet objects. We used COS/G130M or G160M to obtain rest-frame UV spectra (1195 Å - 1250 Å) of 14 low-redshift SDSS radio-loud quasars which show lobe-dominated FIRST morphologies to distinguish between these possibilities. Intrinsic N V absorption was detected in 6 of our 14 quasars. This suggests the lack of detections in the archival study was a result of an orientation effect/sampling bias rather than to differences in wind structure between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. Interestingly, we find significant overlap in radio core fractions between quasars with and without N V detection. Quasars in our sample with N V detection span a range of core fractions from < 0.01 up to 0.89 while those without detected N V range from 0.04 up to 0.93. A laminar outflow with a


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, L.; Potter, T. M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.


    We present new imaging observations of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A at 44 GHz, performed in 2011 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The 0.''35 × 0.''23 resolution of the diffraction-limited image is the highest achieved to date in high-dynamic range. We also present a new ATCA image at 18 GHz derived from 2011 observations, which is super-resolved to 0.''25. The flux density is 40 ± 2 mJy at 44 GHz and 81 ± 6 mJy at 18 GHz. At both frequencies, the remnant exhibits a ring-like emission with two prominent lobes, and an east-west brightness asymmetry that peaks on the eastern lobe. A central feature of fainter emission appears at 44 GHz. A comparison with previous ATCA observations at 18 and 36 GHz highlights higher expansion velocities of the remnant's eastern side. The 18-44 GHz spectral index is α = –0.80 (S ν ∝ν α ). The spectral index map suggests slightly steeper values at the brightest sites on the eastern lobe, whereas flatter values are associated with the inner regions. The remnant morphology at 44 GHz generally matches the structure seen with contemporaneous X-ray and Hα observations. Unlike the Hα emission, both the radio and X-ray emission peaks on the eastern lobe. The regions of flatter spectral index align and partially overlap with the optically visible ejecta. Simple free-free absorption models suggest that emission from a pulsar wind nebula or a compact source inside the remnant may now be detectable at high frequencies or at low frequencies if there are holes in the ionized component of the ejecta.

  15. Superluminal Sweeping Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.


    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots that move superluminally across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Astronomical settings where superluminal spot pairs might be found include Earth's Moon, passing asteroids, pulsars, and variable nebula. Potentially recoverable information includes three dimensional imaging, relative geometric size factors, and distances.

  16. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  17. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John


    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  18. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.


    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  19. Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Pearson, Thomas W. J.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Moore, Richard J. D.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; van Swinderen, Bruno


    Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490

  20. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M


    Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in "hub" areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency.